Style id Gu

June 2002
The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program

AusAID Style Guide

Produced by the Publications Unit, Public Affairs Group, AusAID Edited by Judy Fenelon, ByWord Services Designed by Griffiths and Young Design Set in Rotis Printed in Australia by Goanna Print

Preface A quick guide to publishing terms Some typical AusAID publications 1 Publishing for different audiences
Why publish? To target our key external audiences To promote Australia’s identity To target internal audiences Before you start Should you publish? What format should you use? Who can help in your decision-making? A simple publishing strategy How long does the publishing process take? Checklist and timeline Advice

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1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 6 6 8

2 Writing and editing
Writing for your reader Adopt a writing approach Consider contracting a writer Use plain English Avoid jargon Use non-discriminatory (inclusive) language Consider tables and charts

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square brackets and angle brackets Colons and semicolons Points of ellipsis Slashes Emphasis Dot points (bulleted lists) Punctuating dot points Short lists Long lists 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 ii AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .Editing your work Avoid bad habits with and Watch some words Avoid listing too much Simplify tables and statistics Sharpen textual references to tables Writing for the Internet Writing Minutes Writing for Minister(s) and the Parliamentary Secretary Writing emails Writing for Focus 12 12 14 14 14 16 16 17 18 19 19 3 House style in written material Shortened forms Abbreviations. contractions and acronyms Plurals of shortened forms Months and days States and Territories of Australia Initials in names Capitals Government audience Broad external audience Publication titles Punctuation Full stops Commas Quotation marks Apostrophes Hyphens En rules En rules instead of dashes Round brackets.

Dates Numbers and currency Figures or words? Thousands Linking numbers Telephone numbers Electronic addresses Footnotes and references Spelling 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 4 Parts of a publication and layout Cover (front and back) Preliminary pages (prelims) Title page Reverse of title page Copyright Disclaimer. maps and diagrams End matter Appendixes Glossary Bibliography Index Headers and footers Internal communications External publications Page numbers 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 36 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE iii . illustrations. acknowledgment and contact information ISBN and ISSN Foreword Contents list Preface Text Headings Text styles Page breaks Tables and charts Photographs.

5 Publication and Ministerial clearances Forward Publications Plan Publication Advice Form When does the Minister and/or the Parliamentary Secretary wish to clear publications? Minister Parliamentary Secretary Other clearances 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 6 Corporate design Rationale Corporate colours Primary suite Secondary suite Covers Spine colours Images and illustrations Captions Logos AusAID logo Colours for the AusAID logo Use of the logo in computer templates Acknowledgment and signage during projects Australian identity (kangaroo logo) Information for Posts Typography Publication sizes Contracting a designer Design brief Design output Example design schedule 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 55 55 7 Print production Production specifications Printer proofs Paper Recycled paper Archival paper Choosing paper Print run 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 iv AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .

Distribution Library Deposit and Free Issue Schemes Canberra Mailing Centre Fact sheets and leaflets 60 60 61 62 8 Electronic production Internet PDF files Submit the required information and material Procedures for publishing on the Internet Obtain approval Prepare your material appropriately Allow enough time CD-ROM 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 66 66 Appendixes A Australian identity B Example Scope of Services C The Fog Index D Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website E Writing for Focus F Difficult and preferred spellings G Sample designs H Sample fonts I Photography for print and Internet publishing 67 67 70 73 74 77 81 85 91 93 Bibliography Publication Advice Form 95 96 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE v .


Publications. revised edition of AusAID’s corporate style guide. credibility and impact’ — were endorsed by the Minister and the Parliamentary Secretary in 1999. This guide does seek to encourage a rigorous. These activities are across five PAG units: Media. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Preface vii . as is good practice. and time and money are not wasted. The Communications Strategy for 2000–03 is based on substantial market research and AusAID’s experience of implementing public affairs activities. and for all publications and the AusAID Internet site to conform to this guide. Why does AusAID need a style guide? In October 1998 AusAID commissioned a report to form the basis for a communications strategy to enable the Agency to communicate its activities more effectively. Our public face The Public Affairs Group (PAG) plays a key role in demonstrating the Government’s commitment to transparency and accountability across the aid program. our design and output. It is not intended to be absolute in its coverage nor to set up laws carved in stone because the communication process is continually evolving. The style guide and its purpose — to ensure that all AusAID published materials achieve ‘recognition. so that all AusAID written material in all formats work together to achieve our core business objectives. Our approach to building public support for the aid program has been refined over several years. Internet and Global Education. Outreach. both internal and external. strategic perspective on communication.Preface Welcome to the second. The report called for the development of a corporate style guide for all AusAID publishing. clarity. The AusAID Style Guide builds on the Communications Strategy in terms of our use of language in corporate communications. authority.

Although the use of a variety of styles and forms may not impede the functioning of our organisation. The compilers of this guide are happy to receive advice or suggestions on matters of usage. Consistency is important in our corporate communications. with Guidelines on Plain English.The words we use The purpose of this guide is to provide stylistic. We need to choose one form when more than one is acceptable. Grammatical usage. While change is a healthy sign for a language. and use it consistently. The AusAID Style Guide sets out AusAID’s preferred style where the Style Manual for Authors. The dynamics of any living language mean that it is continually changing. While this style guide was being prepared. by George Stern (1996). We have also drawn on Spot on! Correspondence and Report Writing. Feedback While this guide should assist us to produce a unified face and excellent communications. it can cause frustration and confusion within organisations when the language changes and more than one expression is available in a given situation. punctuation and the spelling of words are in flux as well. Editors and Printers (5th edition) and the Macquarie Dictionary (3rd edition). viii AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . it looks unprofessional and reflects badly on us all if our external communications are inconsistent and lack a corporate look. PAG holds a reference copy of this edition. style or design. They will be welcome. Editors and Printers was published by John Wiley & Sons Australia. By adopting standard formats for our communications and publications we are able to project a professional and unified image of the organisation. If matters of style or spelling are not covered in the AusAID Style Guide the most recent editions of the Style Manual and the Macquarie Dictionary should be your guide. Editors and Printers provides alternatives. with new words being introduced and older ones lost or ascribed new meanings. linguistic and visual format guidance that will encourage consistency in our public face. We have generally opted for the newer and simpler usage in punctuation and language or for the style already established within AusAID. The main sources for this guide are the Style Manual for Authors. Email your comments to the Publications Unit. the 6th edition of the Style Manual for Authors. and other federal government agency style guides. it is in the nature of language to change.

fonts. blueprint See dyeline. bleed The part of an illustration or other design element that runs out to the edge of the page (does not leave any margin showing). line spacing. format The size. a reference list or bibliography. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE A quick guide to publishing terms ix . illustrations. Used for checking that pagination is correct. design The designer’s input to publishing that covers. footers The words and/or numerals appearing at the bottom of pages to assist readers to locate material. dyeline A single-colour proof made from the printer’s imposed film. margins etc for a publication. but who are not strong supporters nor well-informed. flush left See ragged right. gsm Grams per square metre – a method of describing the mass of paper that gives a constant figure regardless of the size of the sheet. author corrections Changes made by the author(s). See also imposition. headers. eg roman. end matter Often includes appendixes. hard copy Paper output. bold. footers and colours. cropping Trimming or masking off unwanted portions of an image.A quick guide to publishing terms audience AusAID has primary and secondary audiences identified in the Communications Strategy. italic. formatting Laying out or typesetting copy using computer software. and an index. front matter See preliminary pages. outside back cover or in publicity material. a glossary. Secondary audiences are informed supporters of the aid program who require regular information and acknowledgment to confirm their support for the program. page and screen layout. flush right See ragged left. styles. all of which influence the readability and comprehension of the information presented and reflect the client’s visual identity. for example. The primary audience is people who are predisposed to supporting overseas aid as a matter of principle. heading specifications. blurb A brief description of the book that appears on the jacket. font The complete assortment of type of one size and typeface.

Such files are often provided by designers for proofing purposes and published on the Internet. PDF file A portable document format file of any type of artwork or page layout that can be opened and printed using a broad range of hardware and software. imprint The name and address of the publisher or printer. ISBN (International Standard Book Number) A 10-digit product number (eg ISBN 0 642 76305 4). developed to suit the material published – by AusAID in the case of this style guide. capitals. magazine. paper sizes For AusAID publications. listing and stock control purposes. etc to show how the elements will be combined. leading The spacing between lines of type. layout The plan of any publication. bullets. mock-up A model of pages of a book. the first line of a paragraph or a heading at the bottom of a page. printed in a publication usually on the reverse of the title page. logo Any design for the purpose of identification. ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) A unique code (eg ISSN 0813-4332) for identifying serial publications. justified Words and letters spaced to a given measure. generally A4 (297 x 210 mm). See also portrait. specifying the size. margins The space surrounding the type area at the top. booksellers and libraries for ordering. the treatment of headings and the position of illustrations. x AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . as distinct from capitals. used by publishers. face and area of type. HTML Hypertext markup language – a presentation language commonly used for publishing on the Internet. orphan A divided word. landscape A page or illustration that is wider than it is deep. B5 (250 x 176 mm).headers The words and/or numerals appearing at the top of pages to assist readers to locate material. or both. See also widow. See also unjustified. bottom and sides of a page. en rules. It enables them to identify a particular publisher and a specific edition of a specific title in a specific format. house style Style guidelines that cover such matters as shortened forms. producing vertical alignment at both right and left margins. quotations and italics. brochure. The ISSN is the serial equivalent of the ISBN. A5 (210 x 148 mm) and DL slip (one-third A4). folded and trimmed. so called because originally typesetters used strips of lead to achieve this space. Typographically undesirable. imposition The arrangement of pages so that they will be in the correct sequence when printed. lower case Small letters. punctuation. hyphens. pagination The sequential numbering of pages.

print run The number of copies printed. AusAID is the publisher of AusAID publications. organisation or company that undertakes diverse operations that can extend from commissioning some writing and identifying the market. to printing. visible when the book is stored on a shelf. printer The company that prints. widow The part of a divided word that stands alone on the last line of a paragraph. a preface. magenta. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE A quick guide to publishing terms xi . proof A reproduction of type or illustration produced for the purpose of checking and correction if necessary. process colours The standard colours used for four-colour (full-colour) printing – cyan. spine The binding edge of a book’s cover or jacket. See also orphan. usually aligned on the left. upper case Capital letters. Page proofs are provided after the work has been made up into pages. binds. marketing and distributing the product. packs and delivers hard copies. unjustified Type set with even word spacing so that successive lines are of irregular length. These can be black and white or colour. all of which helps the reader to understand the publication’s purpose. Typographically undesirable. ragged right Type aligned on the left. rough A sketch or layout to be used as a guide for the designer. A chemical proof has toner pigments to simulate the printer’s process colours. This is usually done by designers using sophisticated software on desktop computers. yellow and black. See also landscape. saddle stitching (stapling) A bookbinding process in which pages are secured by means of a thread or wire staple drawn or punched through the spine fold. preliminary pages (prelims) The title page and its reverse. Also the final line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column. URLs Uniform resource locators – the Internet addresses of material on the World Wide Web. the contents list and other matter such as a foreword.perfect binding A bookbinding process in which the binding edge of the folded sections of a book are trimmed (to separate the leaves) before being glued to the cover. publisher The person. stock Paper or other material (eg plastic) used for printing or binding. abbreviated as CMYK. ragged left Type aligned on the right. a list of abbreviations and an introduction. typesetting The conversion of copy (in whatever form) into the typeface and size that are to be used for the published work. portrait A page or illustration deeper than it is wide. as in this style guide.


mainly text. four-colour. flat or folded sheet. fact sheet A two-sided. leaflet A two-sided. directed at expert internal and external audiences. etc presented in B5 brochure format with two-colour cover and one-colour text. 8–120 pages. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Some typical AusAID publications xiii . Audience: secondary. DL with up to 12 panels. reports. designed for the general public at outreach events. used for outreach purposes. cover and illustrations printed in four colours. two colours (black plus one other) or three colours (black plus one other. four colour. serials Evaluations. Audience: primary. general A publication with text. perfect bound. research findings. flyer A DL (one-third A4) slip advertising or giving brief information and/or pointing to further sources of information. often with some four-colour illustrations. plus AusAID gold on cover). Audience: primary. Audience: primary and secondary. Audience: primary and secondary.Some typical AusAID publications brochure The most common AusAID publication produced by country program areas – four. Styles of publications austere A publication with minimal use of colour – either one colour (black). A4 leaflet presenting basic information in simple language about particular aspects of the aid program. providing similar information to fact sheets but with more detail. Audience: secondary. Audience: secondary.or two-colour cover.


poster). non-government organisations and business contractors. often development professionals. for example. ➔ The primary audience is our ‘soft supporters’ – people who are predisposed to supporting overseas aid as a matter of principle. we are also in the business of giving information about our activities to a range of organisations and individuals in Australia and partner countries and to other aid or aid-related bodies. We communicate important information to tenderers. non-government organisations and partner countries. To perform this crucial role it has used Australian research on community attitudes. We assist the Minister and Parliamentary Secretary to inform the Parliament on what we are doing. who require regular information and acknowledgment to confirm their support for the program. writing. We report on and evaluate the results of our aid programs. but who are not strong supporters nor well-informed. We tell the Australian public what we are doing and why. rural people and young people. presenting. And we inform the Agency itself on. editing. intranet. brochure.1 Publishing for different audiences Why publish? Publishing is a lot more than having a document printed. Determining the market and then successfully targeting it is not a simple exercise because methods to reach various segments of the market can differ markedly. They are existing stakeholders. video. strategies and procedures for developing and implementing its aid program. In AusAID it can encompass identifying the market (audience) and the best way to reach it (eg report. printing and distribution. To target our key external audiences PAG has been tasked with building domestic support for the aid program. The following audiences have been identified as the key external audiences for information about the Australian Government’s aid program. typesetting. seminar. As an organisation involved in administering the delivery of overseas aid. Internet. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publishing for different audiences 1 . There are many reasons why AusAID publishes. policies. designing. Communications theory suggests it is advisable to focus primarily on people who are favourably predisposed to the information being distributed and seek to persuade them to more strongly support the aid program. ➔ Secondary audiences are supporters of the aid program. as well as academics and professionals. They are most likely to be non-professional women.

it is essential that they reach beyond aid program stakeholders to the primary target audiences. AusAID does this with a range of printed materials including leaflets. This group represents a middle ground of Australians who can be persuaded to be more supportive if approached appropriately. supporting and promoting Australia’s aid program. To target internal audiences As well as publishing for key external audiences. faxes. otherwise we risk preaching to the converted. but also give our website address where people can access more detailed information. Secondary target audiences are the confirmed supporters of aid. In addition. They are usually interested in global issues and are frequently more open-minded than their seniors. While it is important that key messages reach this group. AusAID’s intention is to acknowledge and reinforce their commitment to overseas aid by providing information about the long-term benefits of aid. The intention is to attract and engage our key target audiences in order to increase their appreciation of how aid works and build their support for the aid program. AusAID publishes for internal audiences. brochures. but doubt the effectiveness of aid. making them more likely to support aid. The business community and the non-government sector are key stakeholders and important secondary target audiences. 2 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . regional and rural Australia in an accessible manner. PAG initiates events in the broader community. Building support for aid among this group is critical to long-term public support of the aid program. To achieve its overarching objective of increasing awareness of and building support for the aid program. Young people also have been designated as a primary target audience. These materials briefly provide facts about the aid program. AusAID staff are required to produce letters. This outreach approach serves to communicate information about the aid program to metropolitan. bookmarks and other informational and promotional products containing information sourced from country program areas. The Outreach Unit identifies outreach opportunities and participates in community events and aid-related activities around the country. For example. Our objective is to deepen this group’s understanding of and support for aid by making available information about the impact of the Government aid program. The members of this group are broadly described as educated professionals and are most likely to live in metropolitan areas.The research indicates that women and rural and regional people generally support the concept of overseas aid. it produces reports (such as country strategies) and guidelines (such as this style guide) to provide advice and guidance in developing. particularly Government aid. ‘Australian identity’. emails. To promote Australia’s identity For important information on promoting Australia’s identity see appendix A. Minutes and a range of documents for the Minister(s) and the Parliamentary Secretary.

a personal letter from the Director General to major business partner CEOs. similar publication did not reach its audience. You should write so that your words will be understood by a person with average or less than average knowledge within the targeted audience. Borrow freely from others’ experience and imitate successful publications. a poster. you need to understand why before committing to another publication. ➔ Who is your audience? Internal? Expert external? Speakers of a language other than English? The Australian general public? If you cannot answer this you should not go any further. Ideally you should not be writing for more than one audience. a brochure. a leaflet. Sometimes well-written and wellillustrated material on the web can more effectively communicate the information than a hard-copy (paper) version (see chapter 8. or articles in Focus. What format should you use? ➔ What is the best way to reach your audience? Has any testing been done that might help you decide? Would your audience’s needs be best served by a detailed technical report.) What role can the Internet play in disseminating your publication? Have you thought about how your printed publication will adapt to an electronic format? Producing a brochure is often the first thought on how to communicate a new policy or provide new information. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publishing for different audiences 3 . you should write for the lowest common denominator within the targeted audiences. AusAID’s Internet site has become critical in the overall Communications Strategy for the Agency. And often it is the best method to do that. a booklet. a series of seminars for AusAID officers or senior managers of non-government organisations. It all depends on the message and the audience.) Are other desks producing similar publications? (Don’t reinvent the wheel. it should look as if it belongs within the series. 1 Should you publish? ➔ Is a publication the answer? Does the proposed publication fit in with AusAID’s Communications Strategy and Forward Publications Plan? Does it fit with your area’s publishing strategy? Will it result in value for money? Does it form part of a series? (If so.Before you start At the start of any process to produce material for publication. But sometimes new information might be conveyed better by. If you have more than one audience. an information kit and/or an electronic publication? Printed output may not the answer. ‘Electronic production’). The question of who your audience is should be foremost in your mind when you write anything at all – from notes to Ministerial submissions to program strategies and profiles. there are some important questions to answer and points to consider. say. ➔ Is this audience already being served by other AusAID publications or products? What has been published before? Was that output successful? Did it reach its audience? How many publications were printed and are large numbers left over? If a previous.

youth and rural and regional communities. editors. ‘Example Scope of Services’. Publications Unit staff can then assist you in formulating a design brief. A simple publishing strategy The vast majority of AusAID publications are intended for one or more of three audiences: internal. contact PAG to discuss your publishing proposal. designers. You will need to complete a Publication Advice Form (a copy of which is located at the end of this guide) and submit it to the Publications Unit once you are ready to start the publishing process. You may find that there is a better alternative to the printed leaflet you had in mind. The Publications Unit can also provide advice on which medium to choose. engaging writers. Each year PAG prepares a Forward Publications Plan to ensure that AusAID reaches its target audiences and helps each branch to develop a publishing strategy as part of its annual work planning and budgeting process. printers and HTML contractors. Among other things it allows PAG to see how your publication meets AusAID’s Communications Strategy requirements (see chapter 5. See also appendix B. editors and designers are now on period contract with AusAID. Full details of these contractors are available on the intranet. Remember that AusAID’s key target external audiences are women. 4 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . and arranging distribution. This step in the publishing process is especially important if you are planning a publication aimed at non-AusAID readers. The Publications Unit can provide advice on how to reach these target audiences. A number of writers. external expert or external general. As a general rule. This plan is also a critical mechanism in clearance processes (see chapter 5. ‘Publication and Ministerial clearances’).Who can help in your decision-making? When thinking about publishing. The AusAID internal audience is characterised by: ➔ expert knowledge of the subject ➔ access to restricted information ➔ expert knowledge of acronyms and specialist/technical language ➔ high motivation to read material. The Contract Services Group can help you with drafting a services order/EOL. You will need to budget for these costs. The external expert audience (secondary audience) is characterised by: ➔ expert knowledge of the subject ➔ no access to restricted information ➔ some knowledge of acronyms and specialist/technical language ➔ possible English language difficulty ➔ motivation to read material. ‘Publication and Ministerial clearances’). talk to PAG about what you hope to achieve.

A simple publishing strategy that encompasses all these levels of audience could be. two intranet documents and two Internet documents. This too could appear on the intranet (AA).The external general audience (primary audience) is characterised by: ➔ little or no knowledge of aid programs generally ➔ no access to restricted information ➔ little or no knowledge of acronyms and specialist/technical language ➔ a need for plain English to suit non-expert readers ➔ little motivation to read material. You could extract the key information. a series of publications arising out of an original. youth or rural and regional people. Such a strategy could produce three related hard-copy publications. graphs and photos. linked to the Detailed Technical Aid Info. It will also appear on the intranet (AA). AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publishing for different audiences 5 . The leaflet could be specifically geared toward one of the groups identified by the Communications Strategy as target audiences – non-professional women. etc. which might include non-government organisations. you may extract key material from it to produce Info for Partners (B). for example. public meetings. simplified for general accessibility. The document Detailed Technical Aid Info (A) is directed at an expert audience and is for AusAID’s internal use only. internal document (figure 1). You might decide you need to publish The Success Stories (C) – a more straightforward leaflet to hand out to the public at outreach events. it would also be provided on the Internet (BB). partner country governments and organisations. Figure 1: A publication strategy to meet the needs of internal and external audiences 1 (A) Detailed Technical Aid Info (AA) (B) Info for Partners (BB) (C) The Success Stories D t t t Intranet Internet 2 Internet 1 After producing the publication Detailed Technical Aid Info. ‘Electronic production’). contractors and other interested and/or expert groups. so it also needs to be produced in a form that people in AusAID can download easily. from the already condensed Info for Partners. It would normally be produced with input from an editor and designer. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’). In its hard-copy form it is likely to be produced in-house. conferences. usually without input from an editor or designer (see chapter 4. But more importantly. This publication would be for an expert external audience. other government agencies. PDF format is ideal for this purpose (see ‘PDF files’ in chapter 8.

Checklist and timeline The following checklist and timeline gives an overview of all the steps that may be involved. takes two to three months.The information in the leaflet might then be used as an introductory. See ‘Example design schedule’ in chapter 6. after determining what internal and Ministerial clearances you will need. entry level page. The more complex and detailed Info for Partners (BB) would be accessible by link from the simple. design. The Basis of Payment should reflect production milestones. Please note how long each step takes (bearing in mind that many steps can be undertaken simultaneously) and plan accordingly. At the start of planning. ‘Example Scope of Services’. editing. on average. clearance procedures. production stages and distribution requirements. You will find the information you need to complete all the steps in the following chapters. house style. design and print production. Develop a schedule for the publication’s editorial. Complete a Publication Advice Form (see a copy at the end of this guide) and submit it to the Publications Unit. This is from the initial planning stage through to having the finished product mailed out to the people on your mailing list and/or launched on the AusAID Internet site. check with MPSU on the availability of the Minister and/or the Parliamentary Secretary for clearances. Publications checklist and timeline Step 1 Process When planning your publication. Seek quotes from: • writer/editor (if applicable) • designer • printer using the Public Affairs period contracts and including your scope of services and production schedule in the request. design and print production stages. Prepare the required services orders (including Scope of Services and Basis of Payment) for the publication’s editorial. parts of a publication. Working days 1 2 1 / 4 3 4 4 2 5 7 6 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . See also appendix B. ‘Corporate design’. entry-level page on the Internet (D). and PDF/HTML conversion. How long does the publishing process take? The publishing process. See the Contract Services Group for advice and their clearance the services orders. use the AusAID Style Guide to familiarise yourself with the publishing process – writing.

Working days 1 7 20 8 15 9 10 10 2 11 10 12 5 13 4 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publishing for different audiences 7 . Ensure scanned material is at correct resolution for high-quality print production. Identify and collect illustrative material (photos. a similar AusAID publication to show planned design (or a colour mock-up of the publication including cover and four pages of internal design as a sample). text. Give your designer the cleared final document for design and layout. Manage text and illustrative material during the writing and/or editing processes. graphics. Check the AusAID photographic library on the intranet as a source. Obtain the required Ministerial or Parliamentary Secretary clearances. etc) to be saved to a CD or zip disk (available from Stores) for use by the designers. Obtain an ISBN (from the Publications Unit) or an ISSN (if necessary). engage writer/editor (if necessary). acknowledgments. if they do. copyright details. designer. ISBN. manage the checking and correction and any further clearance processes. Ensure that all mandatory material is present (eg logo. captions. AusAID contact details. Upon return. revise and resubmit if necessary. printer and HTML contractor. Commonwealth Arms. through the Publications Unit and MPSU for Ministerial or Parliamentary Secretary clearance. ‘Corporate design’). website address – see chapter 4. if necessary. ensuring each can meet your schedule and technical/quality requirements. The designer is likely to strip out all formatting. Ask for a final. Draft a foreword if required. Return marked proofs to your designer for corrections/changes to be typeset and. internal illustrative material and end matter).1 Step 6 Process Using the Public Affairs period contracts. Set dates for the delivery of all editorial material to the designer and all artwork to the printer. preliminary pages. Once the designer has submitted a first (black and white laserprint) proof and PDF file of the design and layout. Clearly mark corrections on proof and mark any changes you wish to be made. re-brief the designer. drawings. with a Ministerial submission if applicable. captions. supply originals clearly labelled. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. etc). Submit your entire final (internally cleared) document. address any concerns. Deliver disk/originals of illustrative material to the designers. ‘Publication and Ministerial clearances’. colour proof (ask for accurate colour reproduction if possible) and/or PDF file showing cover and internal pages. so keep it to a minimum. See chapter 5. Either email it or supply it on a disk in both Microsoft Word and Rich Text Format. Organise for cleared illustrative material (photos. Ask your designers whether they prefer to scan from original photos/slides and. and chapter 6. Obtain the required internal clearances for your entire draft document (including cover.

etc are correctly filed. designers and printers in general. optimal media coverage. as well as on Public Affairs service order contracts. Ensure all correspondence. Finalise the publication’s distribution list (seek help from the Publications Unit). Supply your designer with two blank CD-ROMs on which to save the web-ready files and all print-ready and illustrative material for archiving. for standards to meet. retrieve and file or return them to owners. Ensure PDF and (if the publication is large) HTML files are being prepared for Internet publication. If so. promotion and distribution. Check page numbering and order of material. Check whether the designer is finished with photos. ‘Print production’. contract information. If everything is correct. Check printer’s chemical/colour proofs/dyelines. Consult the designer about colour fidelity. briefings. and if hard copy publication is planned. When all is correct. give the printer approval to print. See ‘Distribution’ in chapter 7. give the designer approval to submit the artwork to the printer. clearance processes. Advise the printer where the publications are to be delivered. The bulk of publications should go to Canberra Mailing for storage and distribution. Advise Canberra Mailing how many publications will be delivered to them and when. Deliver the final PDF and/or HTML file to Internet Unit manager for publishing on AusAID’s Internet site. ‘Electronic production’. See chapter 8. agreements. 8 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . Working days 1 / 2 15 1 16 1 / 4 17 1 / 4 18 1 / 4 19 1 / 4 Advice The Publications Unit can help with advice on engaging the services of writers. editors. Ensure copies of the finished publication are sent to all necessary recipients. Ensure that the designer has supplied all files of both web-ready and print-ready material on CD-ROM. for technical requirements. for details of who should receive copies. ‘Electronic production’. No editorial changes should be made at this stage. and publication on the Internet. See chapter 8.Step 14 Process Check the final proof provided by your designer. ensuring all of your earlier corrections/changes are done and no new errors are present. quotes.

by Peter McCawley. See also appendix B.Writing and editing In the process of writing. whether to include statistical information. ‘Example Scope of Services’. non-technical language what the material is about. Much of the material here is adapted from the internal AusAID publication. A professional writer or journalist can interview the person responsible for the content of the communication. say. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 9 . how much detail is included. and so on. it is useful to ask yourself: ➔ Who am I writing for? ➔ How much do they need to know? ➔ What information needs to be communicated? ➔ What medium will best meet the audience’s needs? Adopt a writing approach Sometimes it helps to write with a specific person in mind. a Minute or brochure will be different from writing a detailed technical report. the tone of the document. the whole document becomes much easier to write (and read). The Contract Services Group can help you with drafting a services order/EOL. your approach to writing for the Internet will be different from writing for hard copy (see below ‘Writing for the Internet’). 2 Writing for your reader Before starting to write. A number of writers are now on period contract. you must continually make decisions about the particular words you choose. Often if you write with a specific person in mind. Full details of these contractors are available on the intranet. Consider contracting a writer Sometimes you may find it necessary to contract a skilled ‘outsider’ to write your text. English and Statistics. even if you are preparing a document to be read by several people or a large audience. Likewise. who will be encouraged to describe in simple. Your approach to writing. The writer can then write up this information in plain English for the non-expert reader.

George Stern recommends we use it because: ➔ plain English makes it easier for people to understand what we write ➔ it creates a friendlier relationship between organisations and their stakeholders ➔ these two in turn help improve an organisation’s corporate image. we. averaging fewer than two printed lines. the verb is passive. In his guide to plain English. Sentences that are too long are often unclear.Use plain English Writing in plain English works because you are able to communicate with your audience (see appendix C. or fall into the trap of using habitual phrases. misleading (because they may be incomplete) and hard to read. as can if please now about Verbs have two voices: active and passive. and ➔ it is the policy of the Australian Government. since. ➔ Use the same sort of language that you would in a personal letter. For example: Active Passive The aid worker assisted local villagers. Use two short sentences instead of one long one if possible. This construction conceals both who is making the recommendation and who should amend the report. Local villagers were assisted by the aid worker. For example: It is recommended that the report be amended. We speak mostly in the active voice. the verb is active. especially in letters. ‘The Fog Index’. ➔ Write in short sentences. to calculate whether your audience can understand your writing). ➔ Write in the active voice – put the agent of the action before the action (eg ‘we do it’. ➔ Get rid of unnecessary – and intimidating – capital letters. ➔ Use plenty of first and second person pronouns (I. not ‘it is done by us’). There are five techniques that will help you to communicate in plain English. A common use of the passive voice is the ‘it is’ construction. 10 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . but often write in the passive. If the action is done to the subject. Many of us have the bad habit of using too many words to express an idea. whereas using the active voice makes it clear who is doing what: The committee recommends that the authors amend the report. Here are some examples and some useful substitutes for them: due to the fact that have the capacity to in the event that we would be grateful if at the time of writing in relation to because. Statements in the passive voice are often wordy. If the subject does the action. you).

race or ethnic origin. focus attention. and an AGPS Press publication. Sometimes rewriting or recasting a sentence may be a better solution than substituting words to avoid discriminatory expressions. for example. understood by those on the inside but often unintelligible or meaningless to outsiders. Non-Discriminatory Language. by Anne Pauwels. covers it in detail. The Style Manual deals with inclusive language. physical or intellectual disability. unfamiliar phrases such as ‘capacity building’ or conventional words with special meanings such as ‘sectoral’. Make sure your text and graphics complement each other. Does it make the text clearer? Does it show what you intended it to show? Graphics should never be an afterthought to writing – plan ahead to incorporate them effectively. Duplicating information in text. on a form you should ask for a given name rather than a ‘Christian’ name. If you cannot avoid terms that are likely to be unfamiliar to your audience. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 11 . For example. Graphics should help the audience understand your meaning. Good graphics add immediacy. graphics and tables is a waste of time. AusAID has a particular requirement to be sensitive in the use of language where communications are aimed at people in partner countries. sexual preference or age. clearly explain them when they are first used or in a glossary. acronyms such as ‘SPA’.Avoid jargon Jargon is technical or specialist language that is peculiar to a profession or group. Be aware of cultural differences. 1 2 Use non-discriminatory (inclusive) language Language can be used to discriminate against individuals and groups on the basis of gender. or it summarises a body of information that is being commented on in the text. Consider tables and charts Tables are used to present numerical information that would be hard to understand when presented in words only. stimulate interest. Usually a chart serves one of two purposes: it gives a specific example of a general point being developed in the text. save words and help to communicate your ideas. It can have many forms.

Be sure to provide adequate time for this vital stage of publishing. These should address structural problems. inaccuracies and inconsistencies.) ➔ Have you included all the information the reader needs? Have you included everything you were asked for? ➔ Is it clear and concise? ➔ Is there anything you can say more simply and directly? ➔ Are your sentences too long? ➔ Have you used technical or wordy terms or acronyms that may not be understood? ➔ Have you used the right words and spelt them correctly? Edit your work carefully to achieve speedy clearances. or ➔ to join two different points that are best set out in separate sentences (see table 1). or ➔ in the rambling X and Y style. Often and is used: ➔ to mean so. ‘House style in written material’). It is not uncommon to find and used at least three times in one sentence. Avoid bad habits with and Authors in AusAID tend to overuse and. perhaps more. How many drafts should a document go through? If a document is needed urgently there may be time to check it quickly (and run it through the spelling checker) only once. 12 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . are clear. A thorough edit of a report can generally be done at a rate of 15–20 pages per day. It needs to be done before the text goes to the graphic design stage and/or on AusAID’s website. correct grammar and spelling. and ➔ the conclusions or recommendations. references and statistics. names. if any. Most text – whether for Minutes. letters. italics and lists (see chapter 3. put it through at least two or three thorough edits.Editing your work When you have finished writing. ➔ Are the facts right? (Check dates. abbreviations. and apply AusAID’s ‘house’ style for such matters as numbers. If a longer report is being prepared. dates. for example – need several rounds of editing. The objectives of editing include ensuring that: ➔ the main purpose of the document is clear ➔ the language and tone of the writing is appropriate for the identified audience ➔ the main message of the document stands out ➔ information (both text and any accompanying material such as tables or graphs) is presented in an effective way to reach the audience. reports or web pages. and if the deadline is not pressing. you will need to check (edit) your work.

and consultation with other donors. Program managers will be responsible for performance. The first was to encourage peace and order in the province through a program of infrastructure. Accrual budgeting will be introduced. assess and resolve problems requiring environmental protection and natural resource management. The second was to strengthen the capability of both provincial and national agencies to expand project development. this basic approach will be articulated in management documents that identify policies and associated planning approaches and assist efficient and effective planning. From now on. 1 2 2 3 4 An initial $10 million was paid into the UN system in early July and the remaining two allotments will be paid in two tranches in January and April next year. The remaining two allotments will be paid in two tranches in January and April next year. Better The project had two main aims. Australia’s own priorities and areas of expertise and consultation with other donors involved. This aim cannot be achieved without the close cooperation and determination of the recipient country to strengthen their own capacity to identify. this basic approach will be set out in management documents. development. Program managers will be responsible and accountable for performance and the focus will be on objectives and outcomes rather than processes.Table 1 Ways to avoid overusing and Example Original 1 The project aimed to achieve peace and order in the province through a program of infrastructure. These strategies are developed and discussed with partner governments and are based on research and discussion of their needs and priorities. agricultural and social development. or From now on. Local officials must be determined to strengthen their capacity to resolve problems of environmental protection and natural resource management. and implementation in specific cases. and to strengthen the capacity and capability of the provincial and national agencies to sustain and expand project development. 5 6 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 13 . They reflect priorities of recipient governments. These will identify policies and associated planning approaches that will help to efficiently plan. Australian priorities and expertise. this basic approach will be articulated in management documents. An initial $10 million was paid into the UN system in early July. These strategies are developed in cooperation with partner governments. From now on. These will identify policies that will help to efficiently plan and implement AusAID’s programs. This aim cannot be achieved without the close cooperation of the recipient country. agriculture and social development. Accrual budgeting will be introduced. The focus of reports will be objectives and outcomes rather than processes. develop and implement AusAID’s programs.

Sometimes it is sensible to say X and Y. ➔ Data are presented with too many decimal places. Other examples of the rambling X and Y include: first and foremost complex and difficult Watch some words ➔ Sometimes the can be omitted to good effect. so does presenting statistics.. Simplify tables and statistics Tables and statistics in text need to be edited in the same way that text needs to be edited.. ➔ Text is cluttered with too many numbers: Australia’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) in 1998–99 was expected to be $1480 million. Avoid listing too much Many sentences and paragraphs in AusAID documents consist essentially of lists. a box or an appendix or presenting the information as a bulleted list (see ‘Dot points (bulleted lists)’ in chapter 3.5 per cent. ➔ Pronouns such as this and it and that can be quite confusing when it is not clear which noun they refer to. It is usually better to be as direct as possible. ‘House style in written material’). (which is) part of Australian foreign policy. ➔ Often important is can be deleted. ➔ Usually ongoing is superfluous. There are some common faults in presenting statistics. but often it is not. ➔ Often which is can be omitted to good effect: Australia’s aid program. ➔ Often appropriate is superfluous. The number of figures and symbols on a page should be kept to a minimum. ➔ Tables are cluttered with too many symbols. It is best to avoid cramming long lists into a sentence. This is a $50 million increase over the 1997–98 budget figure of $1430 million. using nouns rather than pronouns unless the meaning is quite clear. Keep statistics and tables simple. especially tables. If you cannot write a balanced sentence or paragraph containing all the items you need to mention. The following numerals are crowded into these two sentences: 199899148050199798143005 14 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . . and a real increase of 0. consider putting the list into a table. and ➔ in the rambling X and Y formulation.Notice that in example 5 in table 1 and is used: ➔ to join two separate ideas that are clearer if set out in separate sentences. Just as clearly setting out your ideas in sentences in paragraphs takes some effort.

880 $334.67% 100. the editing process introduces an element of self-discipline. It is almost never useful analytically to order data alphabetically. It is often a good idea to round figures fairly ruthlessly.16% 7.600 $4242.Another common problem is that effort is not made to present data in a meaningful way. GDP ($US million) Aust Sweden Canada US Total $182.760 4. When editing statistics you are obliged to decide what points are to be emphasised. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 15 .00% Australia Sweden Canada United States Total GDP US$ billion % of total 182 92 334 3 635 4 242 4 2 8 86 100 2 Depending on the purpose of the table. and why you are including the data at all. Thus the table on the left can be edited to look like the table on the right. there are analytical advantages. As a general rule. it would probably be more helpful to rank the data like this: GDP US$ billion % of total United States Canada Australia Sweden Total 3 635 334 182 92 4 242 86 8 4 2 100 As well as the purely presentational advantages of editing a table. It is worthwhile looking at these publications to pick up ideas. The World Bank’s World Development Report is a good example of a publication that uses tables and diagrams in an imaginative way. Often.29% 2.170 $91. both in the text and in tables. two or three significant figures are enough. The Economist also does a good job. Since there is sometimes a tendency to include data for its own sake.110 $3634.87% 85. data (such as information in tables) are ordered alphabetically rather than by some useful analytical criteria.

Also. gross domestic product in the Philippines rose by around 5 per cent (table 5). This is not only crisper. The Office of Review and Evaluation can provide advice on preparing tables and statistics. but also encourages readers to focus on what is significant in the table rather than merely describing what the table contains. Before you start writing. before you start there are some questions you should answer. It is generally quite unnecessary to refer to tables in this way (and is even vaguely insulting to the intelligence of readers because they can presumably see what is in table 5). Sophisticated navigational aids. But your approach will differ as the structure of material on the Internet should be different because of the different ways people use the Internet to access information. hypertext links and intelligent searching enable users to quickly and accurately locate the information they require. What do the users or audience need? How can I design the information to suit their needs rather than mine? How can I plan the information and create the subject or topic headings? And has sufficient testing of the information been done to ensure a high access success rate? 16 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . ‘House style in written material’). Putting an appropriate cross-reference in brackets is often much better: During the year. easy to understand and jargon-free and should adhere to house style (see chapter 3. Writing for the Internet Writing for the Internet and writing for hard-copy publications are similar in that all writing should be clear. as you should before any writing. inflation and foreign exchange rates in the Philippines between 1986 and 1974. indexes. Or even more leisurely: Table 5 below shows data from the World Bank on growth rates. talk to the Internet Unit about your Internet publishing plans.Sharpen textual references to tables A common practice in AusAID when referring in the text to accompanying tables or diagrams is to begin the discussion in a rather leisurely fashion by noting what the tables or diagrams show: Table 5 shows that GDP in the Philippines rose by approximately 5 per cent during the year. This is likely to save a lot of time later and ensure that your web pages are read.

Minutes should not exceed one page unless absolutely necessary. and be free of unnecessary information. It has many purposes. and end with the background. This has been proven to be the most effective method of writing for the Internet. including feature stories and slide shows. start with concise description of the matter of the Minute in the subject header. ➔ Consider writing in the ‘inverted pyramid style’ – start with your conclusion. The full text can then be published as a PDF file suitable for readers to download and print rather than read from the screen. For information on Internet publishing. ‘Electronic production’. ➔ Break text into manageable chunks suitable to be read on screen. to explain reasons for activities. Keep your links to other sites toward the end. not all Minutes will need the detail suggested below. The Internet is essentially a text-based medium so use images only where necessary to provide interest or to illustrate the text. The keys to a well-written Minute are intelligible brevity and an understanding of the needs of the recipient. ➔ Use images (photos and graphics) sparingly as they slow down the speed at which users can view web pages. then give the most important supporting information. concise sentences and paragraphs. ➔ Consider using half the amount of text you would have used in a hard-copy publication. 2 Writing Minutes The Minute is one of the most important means of communication throughout AusAID. do not include background information if you know the recipient is completely familiar with the subject. For example. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 17 . Internet users tend not to read all text until they have determined that it is exactly what they are looking for.Here are some tips to keep in mind when writing for electronic media. ➔ Always include a title. A Minute should be correctly addressed. Use subheadings and bulleted lists. as you do not want your reader to leave your text too early. plainly worded reminder of the contents as it will be used as the title for any bookmark the reader makes to your page. meaningful. to discuss issues. Include the main idea in the first sentence of the paragraph. ➔ Use links cleverly. see ‘Internet’ in chapter 8. not just because it is possible. This should be a concise. Paragraphs should not exceed eight lines. Internal linking should be used as part of a logical structure. see appendix D. Use following sentences to expand the main idea – as in media releases. Because they have many purposes. and to request or recommend action. For important information on writing and preparing information for publishing on the Internet. including to inform or advise. ➔ Bear in mind that readers will be scanning text for the main points of the message. Use the template found in Microsoft Word on your computer. ➔ Any text that exceeds three A4 pages should include a short summary or abstract of three to five sentences that can be published as a web page. ➔ Keep your text simple – use short. ‘Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website’.

write a succinct. omit the final heading and write. While the format and style requirements for these documents differ. Consider whether a summary of the material would be sufficient.➔ Under the first heading. This forms paragraph 1 but is not usually numbered. Documents frequently prepared for the Minister(s) and the Parliamentary Secretary include: ➔ possible parliamentary questions (PPQs) ➔ responses to correspondence ➔ meeting briefs ➔ submissions. consecutively numbering each paragraph.or two-paragraph history of what has gone on before in relation to the subject. the content will be quite different from material written for an AusAID audience. ➔ Under the heading Action or Recommendation. cost implications. state clearly what you wish the recipient to do. describe the important factors that will help the recipient to see the whole picture or inform them of new developments. etc. ➔ Under the heading Background. Writing for Minister(s) and the Parliamentary Secretary The AusAID intranet has extensive information on format. there are general principles that apply to all material prepared for the Minister(s)/Parliamentary Secretary. and the time frame where relevant. ➔ If the Minute is for information only. and numbering the first paragraph ‘2’. 18 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . If you are drafting a document for the Minister(s) and/or the Parliamentary Secretary. section/branch and contact details if necessary. sign the Minute. write a succinct description of why you are sending the Minute. The volume of written material arriving on a Minister’s desk is immense. The purpose should link logically with the recommendations. ‘For your information’. the issues section should logically argue your case for the final part of the Minute. ➔ If you wish the recipient to take some action. It is important to be concise and efficient in presenting information. ➔ If you are using attachments. Yet many of us seem to find it almost impossible to exercise self-discipline in preparing documents for the Minister(s)/Parliamentary Secretary. ➔ Recommendation/Action and signature block should be on the same page. wording and other details specific to written material for the Ministers and the Parliamentary Secretary. be sure they are necessary. Purpose (set in bold). As appropriate. ie Action or Recommendation. including your position. one. ➔ Under the heading Issues.

All Ministerial material must be processed through MPSU. When making a formal reply to a request. remember the 20-second rule – the reader should be able to ascertain the main points in just 20 seconds. Strive for simplicity. See chapter 5. MPSU officers are available for help and advice. check the intranet for updated MPSU staff details and contact numbers. Consider also the writing style – level of formality (or otherwise) – appropriate to the reply. For important information on writing and preparing information for Focus. Remember. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Writing and editing 19 . Templates are available under File/New/Min-Parl}Corro for correspondence and File/New/MinParl}Other for all other templates. rather than using only your first name. Be ruthless: cut. On receiving correspondence by email. Moreover. Keep sentences short. Omit surplus words. Use simple words and sentences rather than complicated ones. Work out exactly what you want to say. But you should be aware that email is increasingly a major record of activity and should reflect that importance. cut and cut again. see appendix E. Templates for Ministerial submissions. If you wish to contact MPSU. for instance. 2 Writing emails Email is often treated as an informal means of communication. briefings. Use direct speech wherever possible. Writing for Focus Focus is the key news magazine of AusAID. correspondence. you should consider (as with other correspondence) whether you should reply yourself or if it would be more appropriate for another officer to reply by email or formal letter. that you cannot control where your email may go after you send it. too. And sometimes it is. ‘Publication and Ministerial clearances’. you should set up your signature block in the same way as you would in formal correspondence. speeches and possible parliamentary questions can be found in Microsoft Word on your computer. email is subject to the same Freedom of Information requirements as other documentation. ‘Writing for Focus’.In writing for the Minister(s)/Parliamentary Secretary.


hyphens. Shortened forms should not be used for the convenience of the writer. Exceptions to this are abbreviations of Latin terms where the trend in current usage is to discard the full stops: ie eg etc 10 am AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 21 . punctuation. contractions and acronyms Abbreviations that do not include the last letter of the word are given full stops: vol. if you are writing about electronic information for a technical audience and use the abbreviation ‘IT’ you probably do not need to explain it. The Style Manual covers shortened forms in detail. When writing for an external audience you should always explain any shortened forms in full at first use. shortened forms to use. contractions and acronyms may be unfamiliar to some readers. 3 Shortened forms We use shortened forms to make reading easier by eliminating needless repetition. Always remember that some abbreviations. co. ‘Corporate design’) AusAID has established some guiding principles for written material. So keep your audience in mind when considering which. you need to use AusAID’s ‘house’ style for such matters as shortened forms. if any. quotations and italics. This house style largely reflects the Style Manual for Authors. For example. capitals. but if you are writing for the general public you should explain the term. followed by the shortened form in parentheses: Activity Management System (AMS) Use shortened forms only if they are subsequently used at least twice or are standard metric abbreviations.House style in written material As well as establishing a recognisable corporate standard in design (see chapter 6. term or expression should be written in full at first mention. The name. bullets. Some shortened forms are not appropriate in formal writing. whether your audience is internal or external and whether your output will be hard copy or electronic. For instance. Abbreviations. Editors and Printers (5th edition). ‘wouldn’t’ and ‘they’re’ should be written out in full. en rules. ed. When preparing any formal written communication.

which is a contraction of numero. Plurals of shortened forms Plurals of most shortened forms are formed by adding ‘s’ without an apostrophe: EL2s NGOs vols nos When plurals are indicated by repeating a letter. but less wellknown ones should be expanded when first used. Minister for Foreign Affairs. Months and days In general usage. eg ‘pp. Scientific and Cultural Organisation) NGO (non-government organisation) Common acronyms. such as ‘Anzac’ and ‘radar’ do not require expansion. States and Territories of Australia The names of Australia’s States and Territories are abbreviated in general usage. eg the Hon Alexander Downer MP. AusAID style is to omit the full stop.Contractions that include the first and last letters of a word do not have a full stop: Dept Pty Ltd Cwlth Dr One exception to this rule is ‘no. including correspondence and reports: NSW Tas Vic NT Qld ACT WA SA Initials in names It is now common practice to omit full stops and spaces between initials in names: HJW Stokes VS Naipaul 22 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .’. Another is for the contraction of ‘honourable’. Abbreviations that consist of capital letters are written without full stops: ACT IMF WTO GPO An acronym is the word formed from the initial letters of a set of words. neither months nor days should be abbreviated.’ for ‘pages’. It is written without full stops: Anzac (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) UNESCO (United Nations Educational. a full stop is used after the final letter. It is given a full stop to distinguish it from the word ‘no’.

See the Style Manual for detailed advice. brand names and legislation. languages. conferences.Capitals The tendency in modern English is to avoid initial capitals where possible. events. Use initial capitals for personal names. titles. Publication titles There are two main systems for capitalising the titles of books and similar publications: maximal (the capitalisation of the first letter of all the main words in the title except for articles. but Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Director General Federal Government Minister Ministerial Minute Parliamentary Secretary Parliament Post Prime Minister State Territory 3 Broad external audience When writing for an external audience. Government audience AusAID’s preferred practice is to use initial capitals for the following words in material aimed at a Government audience: Cabinet Commonwealth department. organisations. but test your use of capitals in other contexts to see if they are really needed. prepositions and conjunctions). nationalities. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 23 . places. and minimal (the capitalisation of the first letter of the first word of the title and any other words that would normally bear an initial capital). some of the words listed above need not be capitalised: a federal government initiative several government departments the Australian and New Zealand governments Brochures were distributed throughout the state.

contractions and acronyms’). The practice of two spaces derives from the days of manual typewriters. The current trend is towards less punctuation rather than more. chapters and articles: Style Manual for Authors. The Style Manual gives a more comprehensive list. Quotation marks Single quotation marks should be used in all AusAID communications and publications. Editors and Printers. chapter 9. a W). Commas It is sometimes tempting to use a comma when it is not strictly necessary. The Style Manual describes the use of commas in detail. which used monospaced characters (ie all characters took up the same amount of space – eg Courier). 24 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . references and bibliographies’ Punctuation Punctuation helps to make the meaning of your text as clear as possible. You should use a comma only to indicate a definite pause or where it is needed to aid meaning by separating text. 5th edition. Commas should be used before and not after ‘eg’ and ‘ie’: Sometimes the situation may dictate otherwise. eg in PNG and Pacific programs. Double quotation marks should be reserved for quotations within quotations. This allows the eye to easily recognise a single space after a full stop as the end of a sentence. say. so that a full stop uses only a small space (compared with. Full stops Following are some examples of when full stops should not be used: ➔ at the end of a title of a book or chapter ➔ after headings and subheadings ➔ after captions that are not complete sentences ➔ after dates or signatures ➔ within or after abbreviations consisting of more than one capital letter ➔ after contractions (see above ‘Abbreviations. Electronic typesetting can use proportionally spaced fonts such as Times New Roman. The correct typographical style is to type only one space after full stops. ‘Notes.AusAID’s preferred style is to use maximal capitalisation for titles of publications and minimal capitalisation for subtitles. Too little or too much may mislead or distract your reader.

Its principal use is to indicate possession: the director’s desk (the desk of one director) the directors’ desks (the desks of several directors) The apostrophe is needed to indicate possession with nouns only. The pronouns his. You can set Microsoft Word to produce smart quotes automatically. slang and humorous words are enclosed in quotation marks when first used: Economists describe this as the ‘trickle-down effect’. nicknames. Use the Macquarie Dictionary to confirm the correct spelling. It’s is a contraction for ‘it is’. 3 Apostrophes Great uncertainty surrounds the use of the apostrophe. If you do not have smart quotes set as a default. colloquial words. Quotation marks are used when citing titles of chapters and articles. check the box Straight quotes with Smart quotes. technical terms. exhibitions and newspapers. Smart quotes will then appear automatically for apostrophes and quotation marks when you use the ‘ key. Hyphens AusAID follows the trend to minimal hyphenation. The Style Manual covers in detail when to use hyphens in complex and compound words. Italics rather than quotation marks or underlining should be used for titles of books. eg don’t for ‘do not’. its. see the Style Manual. or vice versa. For further advice on the use of quotation marks and their position in relation to punctuation marks. Following the civil unrest. journals. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 25 . and its is a possessive pronoun as in ‘the dog slipped its collar’. The other use for the apostrophe is to indicate a contraction.In all internal and external writing ‘smart’ or ‘curly’ quotes are preferred. Under Replace As You Type. see the Style Manual. Overuse of this practice should be avoided. under the Tools menu select AutoCorrect. A common error is to write it’s for its. In general writing. John’s project was a ‘hot potato’. theirs and yours are already possessive and do not need an apostrophe. hers. Another common error is to include apostrophes in numerical plurals and in plural abbreviations: 1990s not 1990’s NGOs not NGO’s For other examples of the use of apostrophes. and then click on the tab AutoFormat As You Type.

use words: from 1992–93 to 1998–99 between 1998–99 and 2000–01 Spaced en rules (an en rule with a space each side) should be used to link subjects of two or more words expressing a single entity: Commonwealth – New South Wales agreement Liberal Party – National Party coalition Viet Nam – Australia agreement 26 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . En rules should be used to indicate ranges in spans of figures and in expressions relating to time or distance. but not used when the term is used adverbially: long-term projects require … (adjectival use) in the long term some projects will … (adverbial use) General rules on hyphenation and word division can be found in the Style Manual and the Collins Gem Dictionary of Spelling & Word Division. En rules An en rule (–) is the width of the letter ‘N’ in the font being used (slightly longer than a hyphen). use an en rule or words: the period 2000–03 from 1992 to 1998 between 1998 and 2001 For spans of more than one financial year.Hyphens should be used in compound constructions. If Microsoft Word is set up to do so. Collins.(press Ctrl and the minus key on the number pad section of your keyboard at the same time). a hyphen is used when the term is used as an adjective. you can also obtain the en rule by pressing the hyphen key twice. London. The shortcut key to insert an en rule is Ctrl+Num. 1988. such as: a 30-year-old man a three-year project a government-owned facility disease-free status For some compound words. and to join subjects of equal weight: pages 306–7 in the period April–June 2000–01 financial year (not 2000/01) federal–state agreement (for external audiences) For spans of more than one calendar year. followed by a space.

Upper-case text (especially bold upper case) and larger point size can make text difficult to read. Often colons and semicolons are used to break up long sentences. Round brackets. a fraction in mathematical expressions and the words per. usually by someone other than the author. square brackets and angle brackets (Round brackets) or parentheses should be used to enclose information that could be left out of the text without affecting the clarity. although they have their uses.En rules instead of dashes An em rule (—) is a dash the width of the letter ‘M’ that is traditionally used in sentences to signify an abrupt change. eg explanations of terms or corrections. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 27 . A number of typographic devices can be used to emphasise>. See below ‘Dot points (bulleted lists)’ for advice on using colons in lists. 3 Colons and semicolons Colons and semicolons are in decline. but when included provides further explanation. contact Radio National <abc. Slashes A slash (/) is used to indicate to introduce an amplification or explanation and to set apart parenthetical elements. see the Style Manual. Only three points are used and no punctuation mark precedes or follows them. For advice on other uses of colons and semicolons. a or an: yes/no (x + y)/(a + b) male/female 60 km/h video tapes and/or CD-ROMs 1800 kJ/d $25 000/yr Emphasis Emphasis of particular words is sometimes necessary to aid a reader’s understanding. AusAID style is to use a spaced en rule instead of an em rule: Some projects – such as the women’s health initiative in Sri Lanka – would be of interest to several program areas. so using these character styles for emphasis may defeat your purpose. [Square brackets] are used to indicate additions. <Angle brackets> have gained prominence in recent years as a distinctive device for enclosing email and web addresses: For details of the program. Points of ellipsis The three points of ellipsis (…) are used mostly to mark the omission of words in quoted material. Shorter sentences eliminate the need for them.

You may need to rewrite sections and regroup points to do this. setting it out in bulleted lists makes it easier to understand. Dot points (bulleted lists) When you need to present a lot of interconnected information in correspondence or reports. Such emphasis should always be used sparingly. sentences.AusAID style in publications for external audiences is to emphasise by using italics or. But do not overuse lists. Bold can also be used for headings and warnings: ATTENTION This document case contains classified material. so use such devices with care. Quotation marks can be used to draw attention to technical terms: The new guide will define publishing terms such as ‘print run’ and ‘mock-up’. Repeated use of any emphasising device can become laborious for the reader. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’). Pass by hand only. Do not leave it on an unattended desk. (iii). where the text is already in italics. Punctuating dot points SHORT LISTS A list of points that are short phrases or clauses and form part of a lead-in sentence is introduced by a colon and finished with a full stop. a speech. Sometimes it is better to write a series of short sentences. (ii). Try to limit lists to a readable five or six points. with each point starting with lower case (unless the first word requires an initial capital): 28 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . It is better to use bold for select words. bold italics. Bold type may be used to draw attention to a word in. (b). Create a List Bullet style and apply it consistently (see ‘List Bullet’ in chapter 4. Emphasis can often be conveyed by the structure of the sentence rather than typographical devices. (c) or (i). for example. Use italics to indicate when a word is being used as an example: To search by keyword: Type Vanuatu and press Enter. There is no need to use letters or roman numerals in parentheses to enumerate the items in the list – ie do not use (a). In internal communications. Avoid making entire paragraphs bold. Underlining should not be used in hardcopy publications as this is now a standard way to indicate a hyperlink. to draw attention to particular words make them bold such as ‘Attachment A’. at most. phrases or. To do so detracts from readability.

nor should you use ordinal numbers (1st. so spelling out the date in full is preferred to avoid confusion.3. 2nd. 21 March 2002. But in this case ‘and’ preceded by a comma appears at the end of the second-last point: To further strengthen the contracting and tendering function. AusAID: • consolidated the major contracting sections into a branch to ensure quality and consistency • initiated a comprehensive review of its contracts and related documentation to ensure they reflect best practice and current legal requirements • introduced financial assessment of firms’ (due diligence) procedures into the tender assessment process to ensure firms are financially capable of implementing AusAID projects. single words and short phrases. etc). • Make sure you back up large files or files with a large number of graphics embedded in them just in case they get corrupted.In 1997–98 the objectives of the program were to: • promote sustainable development • alleviate poverty • promote understanding of the program. For more detail. see the Style Manual. For a list on points that are single sentences or short paragraphs. If you need to express a date entirely in figures. If the name of the day is included it should precede the date and be followed by a comma: The appointment was for Thursday. • Make sure that your hands are clean and free from grease from food and hand creams. • Make sure your hands are never wet when you handle CD-ROMs. and • established a process of consultation with a group of major private sector contractors to facilitate interaction on AusAID’s contracting arrangements.02 not 8/3/02). each point should start with an initial capital letter and finish with a full stop: There are a number of simple rules you can follow when you are using IT equipment. with each point starting with lower case (unless the first word requires an initial capital). 3 Dates Dates should be written in the following format: 3 February 2000 The word ‘the’ should not precede the date. If necessary rewrite your text to ensure that each item in a list is structured in the same way. such as in a table. A list should not have a mixture of full sentences. Keep in mind that a North American audience may misinterpret the date if written in this format. LONG LISTS A list of points that are longer than one line and form part of a lead-in sentence are also introduced by a colon and finished with a full stop. use full stops rather than slashes (8. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 29 . 3rd.

$10. Thousands As budget documents used by AusAID do not consistently follow any style either internally or across documents. If you are providing statistical information it is better to use figures. If other dollar currencies are mentioned. As a general rule. The aim is to be clear and consistent. Where numbers occur consecutively. distinguish the dollars: A$5000 US$52 000 For Ministerial information. To avoid confusion you should use figures in the text if you are using several numbers or if you want the numbers to stand out for the sake of comparison: AusAID administered 40 aid projects in Papua New Guinea and 9 in Bangladesh. $10 000. 52c. 5 mm Dollar amounts are taken to be Australian dollars unless specified otherwise. In any kind of writing. and use figures thereafter. we recommend using the Style Manual for guidance.50. smaller numbers are spelt out and larger numbers are given as figures. Generally. numbers with four or more digits are set with a space before each group of three figures: 1 000 19 920 1 220 000 30 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . in narrative or descriptive work it is preferable to use words instead of figures. US$5 million Percentages: 5 per cent (5% in a table) Dates: 7 August 2001 Times: 10. Following a recommendation by the Metric Conversion Board in 1974. expressing one as a word and one as a figure will aid comprehension: There are three 5-year projects. For example. 16 metres.Numbers and currency Figures or words? Whether numbers are expressed in figures or in words depends on the context. 50 g. When figures need to line up as in tables. A sentence should never begin with a figure: Twenty-five years ago such an approach was unheard of. spell out words up to and including nine. but the context may dictate otherwise. words might be more appropriate. amounts should always be given in Australian dollars. the use of spaces instead of commas to separate groups of digits was accepted as the general standard for use in Commonwealth government publications.00 or $10. the following should almost always be given in figures: Sums of money: $45. 72 hours Weights and measures: 120 kg. If your work is of a descriptive or narrative nature.30 am.

In text, four-digit numbers are set without a space. For numbers with more that four digits include a non-breaking space (Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar) between the groups of digits: The project directly influenced 4500 people out of a target group of 10 250. In contractual documents AusAID separates each group of three digits with a comma.

Linking numbers
Expressions that link numbers and nouns should be hyphenated: four-stage program 30-year-old unexploded ordnance 11/ -year-old (not one-and-a-half-year-old) 2 one-third


Telephone numbers
Telephone and fax numbers should be written with the following spacing and punctuation: STD numbers Mobile Special networks Freecall International code (02) 6206 1234 0418 123 456 132 345 1800 123 456 +61 2 6206 1234

For more detail on how to express numbers, see the Style Manual.

Electronic addresses
Internet addresses are commonly known as ‘URLs’ (uniform resource locators). They consist of the method of access (eg http (hypertext transfer protocol) or ftp (file transfer protocol)), a colon followed by a double slash, the online source (eg www), then the address of the computer in which the data or service is located. For brevity, AusAID style is to omit the http:// prefix from all URLs. Whenever you type a URL beginning with www, Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator automatically enter the http:// prefix. When citing Internet and email addresses, the spelling, spacing and punctuation of the addresses should be reproduced exactly: Full stops should not be used to close a sentence that ends with an email or Internet address because this can confuse inexperienced users – they may think the full stop is part of the address. It is a good idea to enclose an email or Internet address in angle brackets (see above ‘Round brackets, square brackets and angle brackets’). Internet and email addresses enclosed in angle brackets can be broken at the end of a line after a punctuation mark.

AUSAID STYLE GUIDE House style in written material 31

Internet and email addresses that are hyperlinked can be highlighted in colour, bold – not italics – or underlined. Do not use underlining in hard-copy publications. See ‘Style and format’ in appendix D, ‘Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website’, for guidelines on how to prepare text files to be converted to HTML.

Footnotes and references
The preferred system for referencing within AusAID is the note system. This places full acknowledgment of sources within footnotes (or endnotes). The Style Manual explains this system. Generally speaking, promotional material has endnotes so that they do not interfere with the overall design, whereas reports and scholarly works have footnotes where the evidence supporting a statement can be seen immediately. Numbering may run consecutively through the whole publication or restart in each chapter. The system you adopt will depend on the size of the document and the number of notes. The note identifiers should be placed at the end of the sentence to which they relate (after the full stop) rather than immediately after the particular word or phrase.

Nowhere is the instability of the English language more evident than in spelling. A few years ago the word ‘barbecue’ was regarded as the correct spelling. Now, ‘barbeque’ has found its way into dictionaries as an alternative spelling. Spelling should be consistent within a document and follow the most recent edition of the Macquarie Dictionary, which reflects common Australian usage. If there are alternative spellings in the dictionary, use the first. In particular you should note the preference for ‘-ise’ rather than ‘-ize’ in words such as ‘realise’, and for ‘-our’ rather than ‘or’ in words such as ‘colour’ and ‘harbour’. The full name of any official body should always be spelt exactly as the body itself spells it. For example, in the title ‘the Australian Security Intelligence Organization’ the ‘z’ should not be replaced by an ‘s’. Use the Commonwealth Government Directory or the Government On-Line Directory (GOLD) <> to check the spelling of Commonwealth department names, and the names of officers and Members of Parliament. Always check the spelling in your draft before printing. The spelling tool in software can be used but ensure it is set to Australian English. Note that this tool will not distinguish between your text and quotations, and will not identify wrong but correctly spelled words (eg alternate instead of alternative, or practise instead of practice). Also, it is not based on the Macquarie Dictionary. See appendix F, ‘Difficult and preferred spellings’.


Parts of a publication and layout
Conventionally, a publication consists of a cover enclosing preliminary pages (prelims), the text and end matter. The prelims may include the title page and its reverse, the contents list and other matter such as a foreword, a preface, a list of abbreviations and an introduction/summary, all of which helps the reader to understand the publication’s purpose. The text is the key part of the publication and is usually divided into chapters and sections within chapters, which include paragraphs, tables, charts and other graphic material. The end matter may consist of appendixes, a glossary, a bibliography and an index. For most publications with an external audience, a designer will make layout and type decisions in accordance with AusAID’s corporate design (see chapter 6, ‘Corporate design’). But sometimes the content of a publication is produced in-house and only the cover is designed externally. Whatever the case the following general guidelines will assist you to produce a good document that will suit internal readers and assist your designer to come up with an appropriate design covering all parts of a publication.


Cover (front and back)
In general, the front cover carries title details, the Commonwealth Arms, the AusAID logo and alongside the logo, the following text: The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Agency The AusAID logo can also appear on the back cover. The back cover should also have a short, simple paragraph or two about the contents of the publication (even if it is a standard paragraph about AusAID and its role), the ISBN, the full name of the Agency, AusAID’s contact information including the Internet address, and Canberra Mailing’s contact details. If the publication has a spine width of 5 mm or more, its title and the AusAID logo should appear on the spine (logo at the bottom). Your designer will advise on setting. For more information on the use of colour, logos and the Commonwealth Arms, see chapter 6, ‘Corporate design’. For examples of covers, see appendix G, ‘Sample designs’.

AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 33

All copies of a work published with the authority of the copyright owner are required to include the symbol © accompanied by the name of the copyright owner and the year of publication. PAG can provide advice on these issues. so that AusAID is identified as the author. designer and printer. contents list. the standard AusAID disclaimer for publications funded by AusAID but produced by non-AusAID bodies ➔ an acknowledgment of author(s) if not AusAID staff ➔ the ISSN (if appropriate) and the ISBN ➔ AusAID’s contact information including its Internet address ➔ acknowledgment of the editor. 34 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . Australian Agency for International Development. the AusAID logo and beside it the Agency’s full name. policy or advice. This should be located so that it is noticeable. see the Style Manual. their names and affiliation(s) are included on the title page. preface and introduction/summary) needed. COPYRIGHT The Commonwealth claims copyright on all material written by its employees in the course of their employment whether published or unpublished. foreword. Title page A title page should include the title and subtitle if there is one. They should not outweigh the text of the publication. AusAID publications should carry a full copyright notice. The names of staff members involved in writing text in AusAID publications should not normally appear on the title page (or the cover or the reverse of the title page). For further advice on preliminary pages.Preliminary pages (prelims) You need to consider the number and type of prelims (eg title page. The content is the Agency’s statement of its activities. There are several variations. The Commonwealth of Australia conforms to this requirement. not that of individuals employed by the Agency. the date of publication (month and year) and. as the publisher’s imprint. If AusAID commissioned outside authors to write the material. A title page may not be necessary if the final number of pages in the document does not warrant one. Contracts prepared for people or organisations who produce written work for AusAID should include a requirement to this effect. Reverse of title page The next page following the title page (or the cover if there is no title page) should normally include: ➔ a copyright statement ➔ if necessary. at the bottom of the page.

4 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 35 . The Style Manual provides an explanation of the law relating to publishing. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager. GPO Box 2154. Copyright Services. the Australian Government’s overseas aid Copyright Services. Reproduction for purposes other than those indicated above require the prior written permission from the Commonwealth available from the Department of Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager.The standard notice follows. Canberra ACT 2601 or email Cwealthcopyright@finance. particularly for educational purposes. Canberra ACT 2601 or email Cwealthcopyright@finance. contact Copyright Services of Info Access <Cwealthcopyright@finance. DISCLAIMER. © Commonwealth of Australia [year] This work is copyright. non-commercial use or use within your organisation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND CONTACT INFORMATION If a disclaimer is appropriate. The following variation of the standard copyright notice protects the interests of the Commonwealth of Australia and allows free access to the information. Copyright Services. © Commonwealth of Australia [year] This work is Canberra ACT 2601 or email Information Technology and the Arts. The following variation of the standard copyright notice protects the interests of the Commonwealth of Australia and allows Internet users to use the information. If an acknowledgment is appropriate. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968. Info Access. print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your>. GPO Box 2154. GPO Box 2154. use the following wording: A [project implemented or publication produced] by the [name of non-AusAID body] and supported by funding from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Information Technology and the Arts. use the following wording: The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). It may be reproduced in whole or in part for study or training purposes subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source and no commercial usage or sale. © Commonwealth of Australia [year] This work is copyright. All other rights are reserved. For updates and variations to copyright Info Access. You may download. Info Access. no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth available from the Department of Communications. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the

au ISBN AND ISSN An ISBN (International Standard Book Number) is a 10-digit product number (eg ISBN 0 642 76305 4) used by publishers. multimedia kits containing printed material. if any] Set in [typefaces used – designer to complete] Printed in [country] by [name of printer – printer to complete] For further information. An ISBN should be allocated to printed books and pamphlets. PAG has purchased a block of ISBNs for AusAID. or A4 to A5 size) ➔ more than 5 per cent change in content. new ISBNs should be allocated when there will be: ➔ a new title ➔ a new publisher ➔ a new format (eg hardback to paperback. booksellers and libraries for ordering. In general. contact: [Authoring section name] GPO Box 887 Canberra ACT 2601 Phone Fax Internet 02 6206 xxxx [authoring section phone number] 02 6206 xxxx [authoring section fax number] www. Canberra. If any part is available separately. year] Edited by [name of editor. An ISBN should appear on the back cover as well as the reverse of the title page. New ISBNs should not be allocated when there will be: ➔ a new cover design ➔ a new price ➔ a new marketing strategy.The remaining text for the reverse of the title page is as follows: ISBN [insert number here – see below] Published by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). a publication must be ‘book-like’ to receive an ISBN. and online publications. 36 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .gov. but new editions do. An ISBN must be allocated to whole kits (eg a CD-ROM with accompanying booklet). a separate ISBN must be allocated to each part and to the kit as a whole. educational computer software. if any] Designed by [name of designer. Websites do not qualify. see the Publications Unit manager. microfiche publications.ausaid. A publicity brochure does not need an ISBN. book readings on cassette and educational videos. listing and stock control purposes. Reprints do not require new ISBNs. [month. In general. It enables them to identify a particular publisher and a specific edition of a specific title in a specific format. To obtain an ISBN.

The Parliamentary Secretary will. contact: ISBN Agency 18 Salmon Street (Locked Bag 20) Port Melbourne Victoria 3207 Australia Phone: (03) 9245 7385 Fax: (03) 9245 7393 Email: isbn. usually on the reverse of the title page. Serials can be published in printed form or in a range of alternative formats including microfiche. contact: Australian ISSN Agency National Library of Australia Canberra ACT 2600 Phone: (02) 6262 1213 Fax: (02) 6273 4492 Email: issn@nla. yearbooks. A serial is a publication made up of a number of parts issued in sequence and linked by a common title. Usually each part bears an issue number and/or date. in the following order: ISSN 0813-4332 ISBN 0 642 99255 X To obtain more information on Normally all books in the series are issued by the same publisher in a uniform style and usually in a numerical sequence. In general.htm The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is a unique code for identifying serial publications. Serials are intended to continue indefinitely. Serials in all formats are eligible for the allocation of an newsletters. The ISSN is the serial equivalent of the ISBN.html 4 Foreword Many AusAID publications require a foreword by either the Minister or the Parliamentary Secretary. and include periodicals (eg Business Review Weekly).au Internet: www. wish to sign some forewords. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 37 . For monographic series the ISSN should appear with the ISBN. Monographs that have their own titles as well as a collective or series title (eg International Development Issues) are also a type of serial. the Minister signs forewords. CD-ROM and Internet: www. ie near the title or publisher details. Where a serial is published in more than one These can be obtained electronically from PAG. The Minister’s or Parliamentary Secretary’s photograph and signature should accompany a foreword.To obtain more information on ISBNs. a separate ISSN is required for each format. directories and The number should always be printed in two groups of four digits separated by a hyphen. newspapers. The series title of a monographic series is eligible for an The ISSN should appear in a prominent position on each issue. annual reports.thorpe. however.

It contains any information about the preparation of the report that the authors consider necessary for readers. calendars. Its detail generally should not extend beyond three heading levels.Types of publication requiring a foreword Ministerial forewords Overviews on the aid program Strategy publications Sectoral policy statements Program profiles Business publications Other priority policy issues Types of publication that do not require a foreword Evaluations Research Briefing documents Country profiles Internet-only publications Small leaflets and flyers Posts’ publications (which are not to be cleared by the Parliamentary Secretary but are submitted for information prior to distribution to external audiences) Global education curriculum texts General outreach materials. etc The Minister’s office will need to clear a foreword and authorise the use of the Minister’s or the Parliamentary Secretary’s signature block. ‘Publication and Ministerial clearances’. Preface A preface is usually written by the authors. including acknowledgments if these are not extensive. It sets out the publication’s main divisions and subdivisions as a broad guide to the reader. see chapter 5. Parliamentary Secretary forewords Demining NGO issues Volunteers Literacy/education Outreach Contents list The list (or table) of contents needs only the simple heading ‘Contents’. For details of clearance processes. 38 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .

keep with next Heading 3 Font: Arial. bold italic. line spacing single. Headings should be short and clear. They should aid readers’ comprehension rather than confuse or intrigue them. keep with next Heading 4 Font: Times New Roman. spacing after 3 pt. keep with next Heading 2 Font: Arial. ➔ Use a layout that reduces the need for punctuation: Department of Government Business ANNUAL REPORT 2000–01 rather than: Department of Government Business: Annual Report – 2000–01 Establish a hierarchy of headings by setting styles in Microsoft Word to give your work a consistent structure. because in most written work only two or three levels of heading are necessary. 12 pt. 12 pt. bold. lower case. spacing before 12 pt. bold. The first three heading styles are the default heading styles in a document generated from Word’s Normal template. minimal capitalisation Paragraph: Alignment left. relevant to the text that follows. spacing before 12 pt. lower case. All five levels of heading below in the example of a very simple style sheet that you could establish will rarely be required. Heading 1 4 Font: Arial. keep with next AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 39 . spacing before 12 pt. spacing after 3 pt. ➔ Other than in Ministerials. It will also greatly assist the Internet Unit if your text is to be converted to web pages. lower case. ➔ Do not use large point sizes (ie above 16 pt) except on signs and notices that need to be read at a distance. line spacing single. spacing after 0 pt. and presented in a clear typographical hierarchy that indicates order of importance. spacing after 3 pt. spacing before 12 pt. 14 pt. 12 pt. line spacing single. minimal capitalisation Paragraph: Alignment left. minimal capitalisation Paragraph: Alignment left. lower case. The following are some general principles for formatting headings. ➔ Use upper case sparingly and only for short headings.Text Headings Headings are used to guide readers to the contents that follow. do not use underlining – bold or italic are better ways to draw attention. line spacing single. minimal capitalisation Paragraph: Alignment left. A style sheet will enable you to produce a consistently formatted document faster and to generate a table of contents.

line spacing at least 15 pt. lower case. regular Paragraph: Alignment left. Text styles For the majority of documents. AusAID style is for text to be set flush on the left (no first line indent) and ragged right. and appendix H. hanging 0. spacing before 9 pt. Always use the headings in a consistent and hierarchical way. Widow/Orphan control List Bullet • Font: Times New Roman. under the Format menu select Paragraph and then the tab Line and Page Break where you check Widow/Orphan Control. eg names. To prevent this in Microsoft Word.Heading 5 Font: Times New Roman. keep with next Body Text Font: Times New Roman. spacing after 0 pt. Larger sizes can be used for titles and subtitles and in signs and notices. Smaller point sizes may be used in address lists. 40 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . When you use templates paragraph formatting will automatically prevent ‘widows’ (the final line of a paragraph at the top of a page) and ‘orphans’ (divided words. eg Arial black. When documents are to be published for external audiences. may also be appropriate for signs and posters. minimal capitalisation Paragraph: Alignment left. line spacing at least 15 pt. Do not use underlining in headings. all text should be typeset – usually through a design studio – in the corporate fonts (see chapter 6. line spacing single. ‘Sample fonts’). spacing after 0 pt. diagrams. italic. single lines or headings at the end of a page). bulleted. 12 pt. For further information on typography. indexes and captions. When preparing a document – whether for internal distribution only or ultimately for external audiences (after design input). Do not use full stops after headings and subheadings. tab 0. graphs and other special content. regular Paragraph: Alignment left. but no smaller than 8 point. 12 pt. spacing after 0 pt. ‘Corporate design’. spacing before 4 pt. Page breaks A page should not begin with the last line of a paragraph that begins on the previous page or end with the first line of a new paragraph. 12 point (see above Body Text style). spacing before 12 pt.6 cm. A contrasting typeface. body text should be in Times New Roman. tables. see the Style Manual. spreadsheets. 12 pt. Widow/Orphan control ‘Minimal capitalisation’ means you should capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any noun that is normally capitalised. Two or more columns may be necessary in tables. and presented in one column only.6 cm.

comments. that person should be named in the caption. and can advise on this. eg computers. maps and diagrams The inclusion of graphic material such as photographs. as well as by custom search words. see appendix I. enhancing the reader’s understanding of both the image and the text it illustrates. date. Use a smaller font (eg 9 point) than the body of the text and plenty of white space in tables. For information on the technical requirements of photographic images in AusAID publications. Images can be searched by subject (categories). All AusAID publications require high-quality images. A sans serif font such as Arial or Helvetica will improve legibility in tables and charts. ‘Writing and editing’. See also ‘Images and illustrations’ in chapter 6. etc. ‘Corporate design’. Often it is possible to reduce the number of lines by editing the text and deleting superfluous words.The last page of a letter should not begin with the closing salutation and signature block. See also ‘Simplify tables and statistics’ in chapter 2. 4 Photographs. captions should be meaningful. AusAID staff wishing to use photographic images in publications can browse the AusAID photographic library on the intranet. illustrations. photographer and source are available for every image. Remember to provide any captions required. health care. Previews and image details such as caption. the Recommendation/Action paragraph should be on the same page as the signature block. illustrations. In Minutes. The advantage of doing this is that your reader can focus on the key items of data without the distraction of sundry presentational features. date taken. ‘Photography for print and Internet publishing’. It is AusAID publications policy to use captions wherever possible. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 41 . monsoons and women’s rights. you will have to manipulate the formatted text on the first page of the letter and add more space between the address and opening salutation. MPSU has strict guidelines on formatting Ministerial correspondence. ‘Writing and editing’. To avoid gratuitous appropriation of people’s images. contact the photographic library manager in PAG. Tables and charts When preparing tables and charts. maps and diagrams will greatly improve the appearance of a publication and should be discussed with the designer at an early stage. remove unnecessary clutter such as vertical borders and grid lines (which are rarely needed) and shading. If it does. whenever a person’s face is clearly visible in a photograph. Generally. country. For further information about accessing the photographic library. See also ‘Writing for Minister(s) and the Parliamentary Secretary’ in chapter 2.

‘House style in written material’. The typographical style and conventions adopted for appendixes are normally the same as for the text. For details. But the value and usefulness of a publication is enhanced if information can be found quickly and easily through a good index. If a glossary is only one page. an index may not be needed. For details on indexing. it should be sorted alphabetically by author’s surname or institution responsible for the publication. See ‘Footnotes and references’ in chapter 3. If a bibliography is prepared. Bibliography A bibliography is a list of sources that have been referred to. If the glossary is more than a page. it should be included just before the bibliography. in bibliographies the author’s surname precedes the first name or initials. See also ‘Electronic addresses’ in chapter 3. it may not be necessary to include a bibliography. 42 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . Unlike in footnotes. Glossary A glossary lists and explains technical or unfamiliar words and phrases used in the publication. If all sources have been acknowledged throughout the work within footnotes or endnotes. ‘House style in written material’. see the Style Manual. Index An index is an efficient means of locating particular information in a publication. see the Style Manual.End matter Appendixes Appendixes are generally used for material that is related directly to the text but that is placed at the end of the text because of its technical or secondary nature. A standard way of citing material sourced from the Internet is to include author or organisation. but not necessarily cited by. See the Style Manual for details on citing electronic material. If readers can find subject matter easily. it may be placed at the end of the preliminary pages (just before the summary if it is in the preliminary pages) or in the relevant part of the text as a box. title of source and location (URL). the author(s).

➔ The date it was published may be included. the section (eg Preface) is shown on both left-hand and right-hand pages. Page numbers Page numbers are best placed in the right-justified position on right-hand pages and leftjustified on left-hand pages. the following is general advice that applies in most instances. 4 External publications For external publications. (For self-covered brochures. v. Preliminary pages are numbered using Roman numerals (iii. Confidential. To create a header in a Word document. which do not have a title page. In some cases a header is included in a template. Remember to delete this information at final draft stage if the document is to be designed and produced externally or published on the intranet. It is not necessary to use a horizontal rule (line) to separate headers and footers from the text. Headers and footers should be at least 1 cm from the top and bottom margins.Headers and footers Headers and footers are the words and/or numerals appearing at the top and bottom of pages to assist readers to locate material. pages are counted from the title page. under the View menu select Header and Footer. They should appear in the footer of any document longer than one page. Internal communications In internal communications headers are often used to indicate classification (eg Unclassified. counting begins with the cover. For page numbering purposes. For preliminary pages. although it is acceptable to have them centred.) The number should not be printed on either the title page or the reverse of title page although these pages are counted. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Parts of a publication and layout 43 . …). This ensures that the source remains evident when portions are printed/copied and distributed. but this device is often used as a design element. But with all printed AusAID publications now being published electronically it is good practice to include both the publication’s title and the chapter title on each page. ➔ Unless design considerations preclude it. eg Ministerial submissions). Remember to leave at least three points of space between the header or footer and the rule. each page should include ‘AusAID’ and the title of the publication in either the header or footer. iv. …) and other pages are numbered with Arabic numbers (1. To assist with version control and the location of documents at draft stage. always create a footer (View menu. 3. but in italics or smaller sized capitals. Right-hand pages have odd numbers and left-hand pages have even numbers. etc). Text in headers and footers should be in the same typeface as either body text or headings. Header and Footer) that includes the autotext ‘Filename and path’. ➔ The convention for running headers in books is to put the title of the book or part title on the left-hand pages and the chapter title on the right-hand pages (the principle being that the larger part goes on the left). 2.


most publications without Ministerial forewords that are approved at this stage will not need to be resubmitted for clearance. you should discuss all publications with PAG at the start of the planning process. If you wish to add a publication to the Forward Publications Plan. ‘Publishing for different audiences’). Forward Publications Plan All publications are subject to approval as part of AusAID’s annual Forward Publications Plan. for publications to be planned well in advance of the start of the publishing process so that they appear in the Forward Publications Plan submitted to the Executive. PAG will then include the publication when it revises the Forward Publications Plan. you must have your branch head’s support. the Minister and the Parliamentary Secretary. This simplified clearance process addresses the concerns of the Minister and the Parliamentary Secretary. The plan is endorsed by AusAID’s Executive and submitted to the Minister and the Parliamentary Secretary for information and for their agreement to specific publication clearances. and makes the job of publishing easier. Also you must advise PAG of your intentions by completing and submitting a Publication Advice Form (see below ‘Publication Advice Form’). reduces the chance of expensive and time-consuming late changes to publications. be sure you inform PAG and your branch head. and the relevant branch head and/or DDG approval to publish.Publication and Ministerial clearances The authoring section is responsible for the passage of the publication through the publishing processes. PAG will retain AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publication and Ministerial clearances 45 . To facilitate clearances. If there is any possible sensitivity about the publication’s content. That is. It is preferable. 5 Publication Advice Form The start of the publishing process is marked by the submission of a completed Publication Advice Form (see a copy at the end of this guide) to the Publications Unit (see also ‘Checklist and timeline’ in chapter 1. however. PAG prepares this plan (which is revised quarterly) to ensure the optimal mix of publications to realise the aims of the Agency’s Communications Strategy. You are responsible for getting your publication’s content cleared within your branch/division prior to the Minister’s or the Parliamentary Secretary’s clearance. This agreement constitutes advance Ministerial clearance for all publications denoted as not recommended for forewords or further Ministerial clearance.

you should address the noted problems and make a new submission through MPSU. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. 46 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . ensuring that tight deadlines are clearly detailed. After determining what clearances you will need. If the Minister does not clear your publication. Minister The Minister/Minister’s office wishes to clear all publications requiring a Ministerial foreword as well as those addressing sensitive or highly visible issues. Forward the submission to MPSU and a copy to PAG. and ➔ a similar AusAID publication to show the proposed design style or a colour mock-up (eg cover and at least four pages). MPSU will manage document transfers between AusAID and the Minister’s office. check with MPSU on the availability of the Parliamentary Secretary for clearances. Parliamentary Secretary The Parliamentary Secretary wishes to clear publications prepared for external audiences that have forewords or quotes by the Parliamentary Secretary as well as those specifically noted for clearance in the Publications Plan. If a Ministerial foreword is required/proposed. check with MPSU on the availability of the Minister for clearances.) Allow at least 10 days for clearance by the Minister – longer if the Minister is overseas. prepare a Ministerial submission. see ‘Foreword’ in chapter 4. Branch heads should decide whether a Ministerial foreword/clearance is necessary.this form. as do other publications noted specifically for clearance by the Minister or the Parliamentary Secretary in the Forward Publications Plan. (Copies are sent to the Parliamentary Secretary and the Trade Minister through MPSU. including all outreach materials. attaching: ➔ black and white laserprints of the entire text. Its purpose is to help ensure that AusAID publications are consistent with the Communications Strategy and correspond to the approved Forward Publications Plan. For information on which publications require a foreword. cleared at branch or division head level ➔ colour or black and white photocopies of sample illustrative material. When does the Minister and/or the Parliamentary Secretary wish to clear publications? Publications that have forewords by the Minister or the Parliamentary Secretary require their respective clearance. including the foreword. All proposed publications submitted to the Minister for clearance are also submitted to the Parliamentary Secretary for information. providing PAG with a copy of the submission. After determining what clearances you will need.

Other clearances Any significant material published by overseas posts should be cleared by the Head of Mission. talk to PAG. If in doubt about what clearances are required. providing PAG with a copy of the submission. cleared at branch or division head level ➔ colour or black and white photocopies of sample illustrative material ➔ a similar AusAID publication to show the proposed design style or a colour mock-up (eg cover and at least four pages). attaching: ➔ black and white laserprints of the entire text.For information on which publications require a foreword by the Parliamentary Secretary. prepare a submission to the Parliamentary Secretary. MPSU will manage document transfers between AusAID and the office of the Parliamentary Secretary. If a Parliamentary Secretary’s foreword is required/proposed. 5 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Publication and Ministerial clearances 47 . see ‘Foreword’ in chapter 4. and ➔ any additional information on the publication such as a launch/outreach proposal and relevant documentation (which MPSU will return after clearance). If the Parliamentary Secretary does not clear your publication. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. (Copies are sent to the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Trade Minister through MPSU. PAG should be advised of publishing plans early in the process and be provided with samples of the publication when completed. you should address the noted problems and make a new submission through MPSU. Forward the submission to MPSU and a copy to PAG.) Allow at least 10 days for clearance by the Parliamentary Secretary and a further 10 days if Ministerial clearance is also required. including the foreword. ensuring that tight deadlines are clearly detailed.


editing and house style covered in other chapters in this guide. 6 Corporate colours AusAID’s corporate colours are demonstrated in recent publications and outreach material including fact sheets. It is not practicable to set up design styles for every kind. suitable fonts and font styles. and other design issues. providing great flexibility. ‘Sample fonts’). The colours allow considerable variation in tint and tone. and appendix H. Rationale The range of design used for AusAID publications for external audiences shows how uniformity of style has created a ‘look’ that enables AusAID publications to stand out in their field. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Corporate Design 49 . ranges of colours appropriate to the different kinds of material AusAID publishes. This uniformity should not be seen as a constraint to creativity. For this reason. The consistency and continuity of design style has become an asset to the Communications Strategy. They were selected to ensure that best results are achieved in terms of AusAID branding. other logos and the Commonwealth Arms. design parameters have been developed to be adaptable to different needs. The design parameters cover such elements as the dimensions of publications. as has AusAID’s approach to writing. They allow generic use of corporate colour schemes and font ranges to accomplish the task of achieving a corporate look (see appendix G. It should free authors and editors to focus on the task of producing relevant and accurate documents. interactive displays and info cubes. The designer you elect to work with will help you to select good colour combinations. AusAID’s corporate style overall aims to promote the feeling within readers that they are being given the best information available.Corporate design AusAID produces many kinds of publication. ‘Sample designs’. The colour palette for AusAID has a primary suite of six harmonious colours and a secondary suite of five colours. the use and positioning of the AusAID logo. You use the design parameters to brief designers and printers.

K0 Covers The integrity of the corporate look is associated with quality. M27. K56 C27. Y100. The Commonwealth Arms should always be in its defined position (upper left of page) and the AusAID logo in its (bottom of page. Y0. K56 Secondary suite PMS 166 (orange) PMS 215 (deep pink) PMS 383 (green) PMS 633 (aqua blue) PMS 258 (purple) C0. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’). Y27. Y0. M15. M0. M67. M56. Each has been accommodated for several different sizes of publication encompassing a considerable range of copy lengths. Y10. Y100. a date. See appendix G. M100. These elements are given a position that relates to their importance in understanding the function of the publication. K0 C0. M69. Y79. K38 C72. a subtitle. logo and tagline cannot be moved. Y0. Y100. K38 C72. ‘Sample designs’ for more information about positioning the Commonwealth Arms and the logo. M0. the title. which should be placed in a box and printed either solid on a tint or reversed out. not excess. the AusAID logo and the tagline ‘The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Agency’. K25 C43. right of centre). Y100. M15. image(s). 50 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . The Commonwealth Arms. M76. The tagline must always appear with the logo. a series title. M0. Both the Commonwealth Arms and the logo should always appear in the proportions with which they were designed – never skewed or stretched. K27 C20. The front cover designs allocate a position for each element – the Commonwealth Arms. along with other details (see ‘Cover (front and back)’ in chapter 4. K65 C0. Y35. The AusAID logo may appear on the back cover of the publication as well as the front cover.Primary suite PMS 131 (AusAID gold) PMS 174 (rust red) PMS 5275 (blue/purple) PMS 5405 (AusAID blue/teal) PMS 5753 (olive) PMS Warm Gray 10 (grey/bronze) C0. K25 C100. K9 C0.

The use of illustrations should be carefully monitored to avoid overuse and to ensure a reasonable standard of quality. maps and diagrams’ in chapter 4. The top smaller bar is a constant colour – AusAID gold (PMS 131) if printing full colour or black if printing two colours. a Canberra-based professional illustrator. enhancing the reader’s understanding of both the image and the text it illustrates (see ‘Photographs.Spine colours AusAID publications have been divided into five representative groups and each has been allocated a distinguishing spine colour from the primary suite: Policy Government/AusAID statements of intention policy. This adds a distinctive feature to the publication when it appears on the bookshelf. A single image is both striking and memorable. AusAID owns the copyright to the Sparke artwork that is reproduced in AusAID’s publications and outreach material. The image can be cropped if necessary. This artwork is available for use by the Agency. See ‘Photographs. The artwork for AusAID’s 1999 and 2001 calendars was produced by Franki Sparke. 6 Captions It is AusAID policy to caption photographs where possible. The bar is in two parts. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. Images and illustrations It is preferable to use a single illustration or photograph on the cover. etc. illustrations. AusAID has a good photographic library and this should be accessed whenever possible. maps and diagrams’ in chapter 4. distinguishing one group of publications from another. Captions should be meaningful. Its subject should be carefully defined and be the focus of attention. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Corporate Design 51 . wrapping around from the front to the back cover. outcomes. The longer bar is the colour that defines a particular publication group – policy. It encourages the reader to remember a particular publication on a particular subject. including publications arising out of or country strategy documents Statements of outcomes/activities. including program profiles General information on aid for the general public/stakeholders Research studies on sectoral and specific regional program issues PMS 5275 (blue/purple) Outcomes General Research PMS 174 (rust red) PMS 5405 (AusAID blue/teal) PMS 5753 (olive) PMS Warm Gray 10 (grey/bronze) Evaluation and Evaluations and quality control issues for quality issues agency/stakeholders A colour bar runs the length of the spine of a publication. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. illustrations.

redrawn. PAG can supply contractors with digital versions of the AusAID logo. The reverse logo is a white encapsulated postscript file that can be used against any colour background. in various formats and resolutions. PAG should also check the logo artwork to ensure that it is the correct resolution for the intended medium. These materials include project signage. USE OF THE LOGO IN COMPUTER TEMPLATES A bitmapped black and white version of the logo is on every personal computer in AusAID. and all stationery including business cards. ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND SIGNAGE DURING PROJECTS All project materials produced by a contractor in the course of conducting a project should have some form of acknowledgment of the Australian Government as the funding body/co-funder/supporter of the project. The logo may be reproduced in the range of corporate colours and any of the following styles: ➔ solid ➔ as a percentage of the colour ➔ ‘reversed out’ (ie white on a solid colour) ➔ black. Care should be taken that the correct electronic version of the logo is supplied to the printer. The logo should never be traced. can be found on the World Drive in the AusAID_Digital_Masters directory. gold). The logo should be printed in the specified PMS colours wherever possible. 52 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .Logos AusAID logo The AusAID logo consists of two arcs and title. in colour and black and white. you should obtain prior approval from PAG. For any other electronic use of the logo (eg on CD-ROM or the website). Talk to PAG if you wish to use the logo in this format. If a designer wishes to alter the colour of the logo to fit in with the design of a publication. retypeset or modified in any form. blue) and PMS 131 (arcs. PAG can supply a 72 dpi version at the appropriate size. Electronic versions of the logo. The arcs should never appear without ‘AusAID’ except as a design element. fax and letterhead that is created for the project. This is automatically used by the computer to generate the logo image when you print out any of the forms or templates available on your computer. any publications produced in the course of or as part of the contract. The logo used in these templates is not of high enough resolution to be used in documents that are to be professionally printed. All material AusAID publishes for external use should include the AusAID logo as well as the Commonwealth Arms to identify its source. including adding additional words such as the country or program name. COLOURS FOR THE AUSAID LOGO The standard logo colours are PMS 5405 (lettering.

Publication sizes AusAID generally uses the standard range of publication sizes used by the Australian Government – A4 (297 x 210 mm). It is a stylised outline of a kangaroo and joey. activities. It is not suitable for instant print or laser printing. supplies and products be strongly identified as Australian. product. To obtain an electronic version of the kangaroo logo or to obtain kangaroo stickers in a range of sizes. As well. the Australian Government’s overseas aid agency’. depending on the space available on the document. but not in such a way that the contractor’s identity masks or diminishes AusAID’s. or the acknowledgment ‘A project implemented by [name of contractor] and supported by funding from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). etc. a new logo has been designed. The key message of all signage should be that the project. The Publications Unit can supply Posts with digital versions of both the AusAID logo and the kangaroo logo. which would be used in the policy range of documents. etc (but not new logos) for projects. Because the Commonwealth Arms is difficult to reproduce with any accuracy it should not be used in such materials. ‘The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Agency’. and may be used as a stencil as well as a logo. We have introduced one other size. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Corporate Design 53 . This is 297 mm high x 200 mm wide. card. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’. structure or vehicle is from the Australian Government.All that is required is the AusAID logo. plus the AusAID logo. INFORMATION FOR POSTS Posts are entitled to devise their own signage. Locally devised logos/emblems may be used where they have already been developed and are well recognised (eg North Asia’s panda). See also ‘Text’ in chapter 4. All signage must use the AusAID logo accompanied by the tagline ‘The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Agency’ (this can also appear in the language of the country concerned) and/or the kangaroo logo. B5 (250 x 176 mm) and A5 (210 x 148 mm). 6 Typography The typeface Rotis and its associated families are the corporate fonts used in AusAID publications for external audiences (see appendix H. and are strongly encouraged to do so where this is not a matter of political sensitivity. contact the Publications Unit. Project contractors may put their logo/insignia on the project materials in addition to the Australian Government acknowledgment. This format is a good cut from standard full sheet paper but should be used only when the publication is to be printed and bound by a recognised printing establishment. sign. ‘Sample fonts’). stickers. AUSTRALIAN IDENTITY (KANGAROO LOGO) To comply with the expressed wish of the Minister that AusAID projects. it is often appropriate to have signage in the language of the country concerned. accompanied by the tagline.

‘Electronic production’. illustrations and captions. Full details of these contractors are available on the intranet. Contracting a designer Before engaging a designer. Design brief Once you have the text cleared for publishing. and the standard of printing and the number of copies needed if hard copies are being produced. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’). A number of graphic designers are now on period contract with AusAID. In many cases. The brief needs to cover objectives. ‘Example Scope of Services’. as the Public Affairs period contracts do not include separate printing services (see chapter 7. tables. see chapter 8. typography and colour schemes. If hard copies are being produced.Avoid landscape publications because they are difficult to shelve and difficult to guillotine accurately because the pages can twist in the collating stage of binding. text. They are often awkward to handle when reading. you can brief the designer. content. For more information. The designers must meet specifications relating to sizes. and seek advice from the Publications Unit. proportions. the number of colours. target audience. giving the recipient the choice of printing it out or reading it on screen. gatefold leaflets and other sizes. whether photos/illustrations will be used. See also appendix B. B5. The purpose of the brief is to inform the designer about the project so that the resulting design meets your requirements and communicates with your target audience. See appendix G. ‘Sample designs’. ‘Print production’). It is mandatory that printed AusAID publications be posted on the Internet. You should instruct your designer to ensure that any electronic files supplied for the Internet meet AusAID’s requirements. format. It is important that you give your designer the format details for the publication to ensure that the design meets the set corporate styles for A4. and end matter (see chapter 4. 54 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . including the cover. It should also include a timetable with payment milestones. finalised and cleared. The brief will be the basis for a contract. PAG can assist you in preparing a design brief. contents list. ‘Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website’. The Contract Services Group can help you with drafting a services order/EOL. you will also engage your designer to assist you with the selection of a printer and to manage the printing process. positioning of the logo and the Commonwealth Arms. a message can be conveyed electronically. Talk to the Internet Unit about your Internet publishing plans at an early stage. The design stage of publishing is not the time for changing text as costs can quickly escalate and schedules fall over. and appendix D. Consider whether hard copies are necessary at all. ensuring that your requirements are fully understood. it is important that the content of all parts of the publication is edited. preliminary pages. charts and maps.

Example design schedule Depending on complexity. styles of headings and positioning of illustrative matter (if any). photos & captions to designer Page proofs (PDF file including cover art plus black and white laserprints of complete layout) to AusAID for proofing. illustrative material will be scanned by the printer. 6 August Monday. In some cases. When there are no further changes and you have given the designer approval to proceed. containing all the text and graphics.Design output The designer will supply you with a mock-up of the publication so that you can see the main elements that the designer has chosen – cover. the design and print process can take several weeks and involve close liaison with the designer. If there are no amendments to the mock-up. as changes after this output has been approved become very time-consuming and expensive. typography. Check this work carefully. cleared and returned to designer (Time before next proof received will depend on size of document. These show you how the body of the publication. 17 July Friday. 19 August Wednesday. get someone with a fresh perspective to look at it. checked. 2 September AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Corporate Design 55 . 26 July Wednesday. Be especially careful to proofread all the material (see the Style Manual for detailed advice). colours (if any). will look in their final form. Forward PDF file to PAG for comment/approval Corrected proofs returned to designer Final proofs received. the designer will proceed with typesetting and laying out all parts of the publication and then provide page proofs. The designer should check to ensure that this is done correctly. 1 August Tuesday. There are usually several proofing steps (see below ‘Example design schedule’). 10 July Wednesday. Amendments may also mean a complete recasting of the publication so that this stage has to be repeated. layout. and returned to printer by Finished copies delivered Monday. ‘Print production’).) Printer’s chemical proof and/or dyeline received and checked by author area (to ensure that pages are correctly ordered and aligned) and designer.) Cleared content. 17 July 6 Thursday. the designer will deliver a disk containing the entire publication in digital form to the printing firm you have selected from print quotes provided (see chapter 7. An example design schedule follows: Content of all parts of the publication cleared by Desk/Post/branch head by Designer mock-up of representative internal pages provided as PDF file and/or colour laserprints by Content cleared by Parliamentary Secretary/Minister by (Build in time for further clearance stages if necessary. If possible. 3 July Wednesday.


Cnr Johns Place & Sheppard Street. ‘Publishing for different audiences’). publications of 56 pages or more should be perfect-bound (glued).Print production If you are reading this chapter you are likely to have already considered. discussed and sought advice on the best medium to use to reach your audience (see chapter 1. Production specifications If the agreed publishing strategy for your document involves using a printer there are production specifications you and your designer need to be aware of as the Public Affairs period contracts do not include separate printing services. saddle-stitched 2 wires into cover & trimmed Pre-formatted disk supplied Supply digital colour 2000 Please cost run-on to 5000 (cost per 1000) Two points ACT: 200 to AusAID. You will engage your designer to assist you with the selection of a printer and to manage the printing process. Canberra City 1800 to Canberra Mailing. designer to scan Text folded. 20 colour photographs/graphics. Below is an example of the production specifications your designer will need to know: Size: Extent: Stock: Colour: Illustrations: Finish: Artwork: Proofs: Print run: Delivery: A4 portrait (297 x 210 mm) Text 16 pp + cover Text 115 gsm part-recycled stock (Monza Satin or equivalent) Cover 250 gsm celloglaze part-recycled stock (Monza or equivalent) Four-colour throughout including cover Approx. Booklets under 56 pages would generally be saddle stitched (stapled). 62 Northbourne Avenue. It is usually worthwhile to select a stock of greater weight for the cover to give the publication more substance (and to prevent it becoming dog-eared). Hume (Tel 6269 1230. Fax 6269 1229) 7 Black print on a medium quality paper stock would generally be specified unless there were particular reasons to do otherwise. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Print Production 57 .

and ➔ printed materials and publications for bulk distribution. if used in the wrong situation it can cause costly problems in the future. In due course. This is not the time to make major changes. Recycled paper is suitable when hard-wearing and lasting qualities are not important. Paper If you have decided that the best medium for reaching your audience is a printed publication. message and scribble pads. digital printing is a good option. ask to see a sample. Ask the Publications Unit for advice on this. departments are encouraged to use recycled paper as much as possible.If the print quote your designer or printer gives you specifies different stock (paper) or binding specifications. ‘Corporate design’. Printer proofs After the designer delivers the entire publication in digital form to the printing firm you have selected. 58 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . If you are going for a short print run (up to 300 copies – economical if most of your target audience will access your publication on the Internet). check the corrected proofs before giving approval to print. you will need to consider what paper to use. Check these proofs with care. you will receive the dyeline and/or colour proofs (if you have specified colour) of the text and cover art (see ‘Example design schedule’ in chapter 6. but before the commercial printing process begins. If no corrections are required. you will give the printer approval to proceed with printing. Because recycled paper deteriorates over time. Recycled paper Recycled paper may be used for: ➔ documents to be retained less than 30 years ➔ documents that are not used intensively or do not require durability (eg internal Minutes and forms) ➔ short-term or frequently updated office manuals ➔ writing. and see the Style Manual). As part of the Government’s environmental and waste minimisation policies. you will receive bulk copies of the printed publication ready for distribution (see below ‘Distribution’). If corrections are required. but it is your final opportunity to find and correct mistakes.

Is there a ready-made mailing list for the distribution of publications? PAG has an extensive database of addressees who have answered a questionnaire stating interest in particular areas of the aid program. Your designer can also help you. title deeds and gifts to foreign countries). professionals and stakeholders? Perhaps your audience’s needs would be met by a web-only publication or a minimal print-run of. ➔ Select a printer. The purpose of the publication. memoranda. 7 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Print Production 59 .Archival paper The National Archives of Australia has developed specifications for archival paper. and ➔ documents provided by the Commonwealth to members of the public or other governments for commemorative or legal reasons (eg legal documents. In general. Choosing paper There are many considerations when deciding on a paper stock for a publication. The standard weight for internal publications and for letters is 80 gsm. You can use this list when calculating your print run. ➔ Check a copy of the publication to find out who designed the publication. Will the publication be distributed at outreach events such as rural shows? See below ‘Fact sheets and leaflets’ and consult the Outreach Unit for advice. Are the majority of the intended readers experts. an all-purpose stock such as Monza or Bonart Matt is suitable for text (115–150 gsm) and covers (250 gsm). say. The number of copies to print arises out of the target audience you are planning to reach. Print run It is a good idea to think carefully about the number of copies of the publication you will need. If additional copies of a publication are required after its initial print run. supply the artwork and check proofs (see above ‘Printer proofs’). 200 copies. ➔ Contact the designer and obtain a print-ready CD-Rom version of the artwork of the publication. as copies surplus to requirements are expensive to store and additional print runs are more expensive on a unit basis than run-on copies. for AusAID publications aimed at an external audience. Archival paper is to be used for: ➔ records to be kept for more than 30 years (eg files containing policy and procedural development in relation to continuing functions) ➔ high-level policy records and any records likely to have continuing governmental or historical interest (eg Cabinet submissions. The Style Manual covers this topic in detail. the cost and the format are just a few. ➔ Obtain quote(s) from printer(s) for the print run you require. the following process should be followed. Minutes and Ministerial briefings) ➔ publications needed for long-term reference.

When planning the external distribution of printed publications. 60 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . ‘Electronic production’).Distribution When a publication is being planned. the author section should consult PAG about its distribution. Information Technology and the Arts) has responsibility for administering the schemes and arranges for the recording of document details and delivery to participating Commonwealth and State Libraries. CDs and videos. for example. purchasing and printing labels and non-standard size envelopes. as this section is responsible for both internal and external distribution of that publication. Info Access (the Department of Communications. you should take into account the costs involved. designer. State and Post) ➔ all members of the Aid Advisory Council ➔ the Parliamentary Secretary (20 copies) ➔ the editor. The author section provides the publication in electronic form to PAG for publishing on the Internet (see chapter 8. All Commonwealth departments. One copy is held by the department in the Copyright Collection to assist in copyright administration. including gathering or hiring address lists of targeted groups. The main source of all current AusAID publications for both external and internal audiences is the AusAID Internet site. and postage. agencies and entities are requested to provide copies (44) of each publication they produce to fulfil the schemes’ requirements. Discuss the appropriate distribution strategy for small print runs with the Publications Unit. Library Deposit and Free Issue Schemes The purpose of the combined Commonwealth Library Deposit and Free Issue Schemes is to create collections of Commonwealth Government publications that are freely available to the public through the library system. indexer and any others involved in production ➔ all staff who need the publication in their day-to-day work ➔ the AusAID Library (2 copies) ➔ all overseas Posts ➔ the Public Affairs Group (100 copies) ➔ Info Access (44 copies required for the Commonwealth Library Deposit and Free Issue Schemes – see below). You will need to distribute copies of your publication to: ➔ all AusAID Senior Executive staff ➔ all AusAID Directors (Canberra. The department liaises with author agencies and the library community. If a publication has a small print run (less than 500 copies) you may need to tailor its distribution.

au/infoaccess/publishing_information. including Focus ➔ maintains mailing lists for regular publications such as Focus ➔ maintains mailing list databases for other AusAID publications ➔ stores bulk stocks of current publications in its Hume warehouse.dcita. Staff should contact Canberra Mailing at least one week in advance of printing to arrange for delivery by the printer. Canberra Mailing Centre Canberra Mailing is contracted by AusAID for routine distribution outside the Agency and stock warehousing services.html>. The AusAID Internet site. All publications are sent out free of charge to the public. For most distribution jobs.To ensure AusAID publications are included in the Commonwealth Library Deposit Scheme and Free Issue Scheme. Canberra Mailing’s costs are met by PAG through the contract. Fyshwick ACT 2609 Street address: Cnr Johns Place & Sheppard Canberra Mailing provides the following services: ➔ sends free copies of AusAID publications to the general public in response to routine requests ➔ bulk mails regular publications. 7 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Print Production 61 .gov. Focus magazine and other publications advertise Canberra Mailing as the contact point for anyone wanting copies of AusAID publications. All requests for hard copies of AusAID publications should be referred directly to Canberra Mailing address: PO Box 650. the Canberra Mailing Centre (see below) sends 44 copies to: Library Deposit Publications Warehouse 16 Nyrang Street Fyshwick ACT 2609 For more information go to the website <www. Canberra Mailing can be contacted in the following ways: Telephone: (02) 6269 1230 Fax: (02) 6269 1229 Email: books@ausaid. Hume Canberra Mailing does not store or distribute publications funded by AusAID but produced by a third party (eg an academic institution). This contractor provides a distribution service for use by all AusAID officers and the general public.

discuss your ideas with PAG. The leaflets cover such topics as gender. These are available for distribution at a variety of outreach events held throughout the country. If you would like to distribute any of these fact sheets or leaflets to your key audiences.Fact sheets and leaflets The Outreach and Publications Units have worked together to produce a variety of fact sheets and leaflets for distribution to the Australian public at outreach events. landmines. The fact sheets cover such topics as human rights. HIV/AIDS. Standard designs for the fact sheets and leaflets were developed using a new range of corporate colours to create an identifiable corporate theme. microfinance and the environment. 62 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . emergencies and the Australian Youth Ambassadors Development Program. Another important addition is fact sheets on each State and Territory in Australia that include a breakdown of each region’s contribution to the aid program. Each major country program now also has a fact sheet that highlights major aid initiatives within that country.

which can facilitate widespread. including both internal documents (manuals. The Internet is a relatively inexpensive means of disseminating information to a worldwide audience. electronic internal documents are distributed internally over the intranet. handbooks. administrative material. audio. Other advantages include the ability of users to communicate and offer feedback. Because our Internet site plays a key role in establishing our image as the Australian Government’s overseas aid agency.Electronic production Through the use of powerful searching and viewing facilities. Electronic publishing can be used for a wide range of information. government reports. as well as external. contractors and the general public. We are required to publish all of our printed products for external audiences on the Internet. although CD-ROMs can also have a role. schools. its content and design must be of a high quality. text and graphics (although access considerations strictly limit the use of memory-intensive files). other aid organisations. the ability to gather statistics on usage. The AusAID Internet site is one of our primary vehicles for communicating with clients and colleagues in government. universities. AusAID communication. electronic publishing can transform your information into highly accessible. Internet Publishing on the Internet is becoming the norm for a great deal of internal. legislation. and forms) and information for external publication (annual reports. Knowledge of the audience and their needs and expectations. media releases. tender documents. Short time frames will limit your choice. cost-effective dissemination of public information. and allows the use of video. All material published on the site must therefore conform to the standards set down in this style guide. technical and user documentation. user-friendly documents. Electronic external documents are usually distributed via the Internet. directories and catalogues. although they could also be delivered through fixed media such as CD-ROM (or diskette). Typically. and the ability to make users pay for services or information. legislation and regulations. as well as the nature of your information. It allows hypertext linking both within documents and to other documents/sites around the world. reference material. Publishing on the Internet should be part of your publication planning processes. 8 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Electronic production 63 . The Communications Strategy identifies the Internet as a key means of transmitting the AusAID message. will help determine the choice of medium for your electronic publication. and general publications). guides and handbooks.

InDesign. contact the Internet Unit manager.PDF files Because all printed AusAID publications must appear on the Internet you will need to provide the Internet Unit with a PDF file of the text and/or graphic material prepared for the printer. ➔ The PDF file must contain a bookmarks column to the left of the screen linked to all relevant sections/pages. 64 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . For further information. ➔ A single. colour-balanced and of high print quality. PageMaker or Word file in agreement with AusAID. and ➔ a date. ie all bookmarks should retain fit to width when navigated. ➔ AusAID is to be included in the document General box within the Acrobat Document Info box after conversion or in the Word document Properties before file conversion. starting with the cover and followed by the remainder of the document in its correct order. date of publication and ISBN (see ‘Preliminary pages (prelims)’ in chapter 4. Usually this means that you will have to ask the designers involved in your publication to prepare the file (which means you will need to include this task as part of the design brief). if any. ➔ The file’s display setting should be ‘fit to width’ and the bookmarks setting should be ‘fit to width’. ➔ The file must open in ‘one page’ only – not ‘readable spread’. ➔ The file should be readable in Acrobat Version 3. ➔ The PDF file can be created directly from the QuarkXPress. ➔ The ‘Contents’ of the publication should be hyperlinked to all relevant sections/pages. graphics. ➔ All text. Excel or PDF files ➔ details of where the document should be located on the site. if known ➔ details of the person. ➔ The PDF should not be locked and should be available for future editing. All PDF files prepared for the AusAID Internet site must meet the following standards. SUBMIT THE REQUIRED INFORMATION AND MATERIAL To have material published on the Internet AusAID staff should send an email request to the Internet Unit manager and include: ➔ the material to be published – Word. ➔ The file should contain the total publication. images and colours must be clear. ➔ The document should include appropriate copyright details. ‘Parts of a publication and layout’). including graphics. high-quality PC-compatible PDF file should be provided via email or on a PC-compatible ZIP disk or CD-ROM. their position and the section responsible for the publication ➔ a paragraph of two or three sentences that succinctly describes the purpose and content of the document. ➔ The cover must include the Commonwealth Arms. text and images. that the document should be deleted from the Internet site. These bookmarks must appear when the file is opened. a title and an approved AusAID logo and tagline. ie optimised at 72 dpi. ➔ The file should be web-ready.

and ➔ ensure that Excel charts and spreadsheets are formatted to A4 size paper and not ‘US letter’. Web pages are usually published from Word and Excel files. ‘House style in written material’) ➔ delete page numbers and any headers and footers.The Internet Unit manages the AusAID Internet site. disk drives. ‘Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website’. no further approval is required for electronic production. Give the Internet Unit a call for advice on how to do this. If a document has been approved for publication as a hard copy. PDF files are usually prepared by the designer of a hard-copy publication. 8 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Electronic production 65 . items to promote current or new programs and other general public communications material can all be made available via the Internet. There are ways of making a spreadsheet fit the page size. Also see ‘Writing for the Internet’ in chapter 2. and appendix D. especially those that describe file names. consult the Internet Unit manager to discuss options and standards to be met. texts of speeches and press releases. ‘Writing and editing’. PREPARE YOUR MATERIAL APPROPRIATELY Web pages Explanatory material. Before submitting files for publishing as web pages: ➔ run a spelling check using Australian English (see ‘Spelling’ in chapter 3. OBTAIN APPROVAL Information cannot be published on the AusAID Internet site without prior approval by the relevant director or branch head. background statistics and figures. authors. not ‘US letter’ ➔ ensure that pages in Word documents are not formatted in columns – although this may not be possible if the document has already been prepared for print production ➔ use underlined text to indicate where a link is required and indicate the link destination in angle brackets and red text – preferably as a URL and not a page heading. Procedures for publishing on the Internet Much of the process of electronic publishing is the same as for any other form of publishing. It is the responsibility of the author or section producing the material to ensure that a document has been approved for publication. Before you write and/or submit material to be published on it. All information that appears on the AusAID Internet site is published as HTML files (web pages) or PDF (portable document format) files. etc ➔ ensure that Word pages are formatted to print A4.

immutability of content. Allow at least five days for material to be scanned. games).ALLOW ENOUGH TIME Preparing documents for publishing on the Internet can be time-consuming. tested and published. 66 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . CD-ROM CD-ROM is an ideal medium to disseminate large volumes of information. a relatively long production cycle. audio. CD-ROM replication alone can take 15–17 working days. Disadvantages include limited space (especially if you need to produce one version of the CD-ROM to play on both PC and Macintosh platforms). You will be notified by email when your publication becomes available on the Internet site. coded. With access speeds much faster than the vast majority of Internet connections. Distribution through CD-ROM (or diskette) may be more appropriate when the target audience is quite narrowly focused. animations. or where Internet access may not be freely available. and the need for physical distribution. it is currently the best vehicle for graphic-intensive or multimedia content (video.

which cover requirements for signage on aid projects. have now been updated as follows. Project documentation. For instance. These guidelines are intended to help AusAID officers successfully meet the Government’s requirements for the promotion of Australian identity. Judgment should be exercised in promoting Australian identity.Appendixes A Australian identity In order to meet the Government’s requirement for effective promotion of Australian identity. It is one of the six key principles that underpin Australia’s aid program. They can include: ➔ labeling or badging of project materials (ranging from water tanks through to computers and training manuals) ➔ the recognisable participation of Australian advisers in project activities. for a particular project or activity. and the use of the AusAID logo and Commonwealth coat of arms and other emblems on a range of materials. and to demonstrate Australian partnership with a community or country. Opportunities for the promotion of Australian identity take many shapes and forms. The Government places importance on the effective promotion of the Australian identity of our aid program. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 67 . and should carry the standard AusAID disclaimer. reports and the like produced by contractors as part of a funded project should not display the Commonwealth Coat of Arms. visits by Australian officials ➔ signage. reports or publications that are prepared with AusAID funding but over which we have no editorial control should not be strongly badged or otherwise labeled to give the impression they are Australian Government documents or endorsed by Australia. The objective of the promotion of Australian identity is to highlight the support of the Australian Government. as outlined in Better Aid for a Better Future: Our aid program will remain identifiably Australian – it is a reflection of Australian values and is a projection of those values abroad. The guidelines. through its overseas aid program. these guidelines were developed in September 1999 for posts and desks to follow when producing project signage and other forms of promotional material.

the AusAID logo. These guidelines are not intended to be prescriptive but aim to provide a framework for ensuring effective signage. but experience suggests that efforts to replicate the intricate design of the Coat of Arms often fail. Implementing partner agency logos or emblems should be equivalent in prominence to the main Australian identification element. Country specific emblems Where Posts have developed logos or emblems for bilateral development cooperation programs or logos that have wide local recognition. It is important that signage reflects the substance of Australian Government support for an activity. for instance. Beijing Post’s kangaroo and panda motif side-by-side. accompanied by the words ‘The Australian Government’s overseas aid program’ ➔ if appropriate. Where the AusAID logo is used. new programs. inauguration ceremonies or the like should be developed. but only in conjunction with the kangaroo motif. Coat of Arms Posts should strongly discourage the incorporation of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms in any signage. and that reference to contractors and NGOs engaged to implement it does not obfuscate the main message: that this is an Australian-funded activity. Use of the AusAID logo The AusAID logo on its own is not sufficient in terms of promotion of Australian identity. It is far better to have no Coat of Arms than a poor rendition. the Gift of Australia kangaroo logo ➔ information about the project in the language of the country concerned. Precedence of logos/emblems The kangaroo motif and wording highlighting Australian Government support for the project should take precedence over the AusAID logo and those of contractors. No new logos for signage.Signage Flexibility is needed in creating signs that suit local conditions and reflect the partnerships through which the aid program is delivered. especially in the case of well-intentioned but hand-painted jobs. it should be accompanied by the words ‘The Australian Government’s overseas aid program’ 68 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . these may be used. Signs should feature as a minimum requirement: ➔ the words ‘Australia’ or ‘Australian Government’ ➔ only if appropriate. There may be some occasions where Posts consider this appropriate.

Project titles can be used where they reflect the joint involvement of the Australian and other governments. Again.National flags The use of flags on signs is allowable. it would be better to have no flag than a poorly painted one. Costs of signage and promotional materials The costs of developing signage and other materials to promote Australian identity should be borne out of project funds or PASU funds managed by Posts. as long as the renditions are accurate. The following words are suggested as examples: ➔ Funded by Australia / Funded by the Australian Government ➔ Constructed with the help of Australia ➔ Supported by the Australian Government ➔ Gift of Australia / Gift of the Australian Government / Gift of the People of Australia Avoid using project acronyms – it is preferable to spell them out. The language of the country concerned should always be used either in addition to English or on its own. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 69 . Wording Posts and desks should use their judgment when applying wording. contact PAG. The Australian flag and that of the partner country must be of the same size. Assistance and advice on Australian identity For further advice on Australian identity issues.

The publication plays a key role in communicating AusAID’s activities to this audience. politicians.5 70 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .B Example Scope of Services The following example is a Scope of Services order for designers. The Contractor shall include in the work up to 5 hours of author’s corrections to the design. people in developing countries or the general public. SCHEDULE 1 Scope of Services 1. The audience for the publication is [could be business. 1. women and youth].2 1. overseas governments. After all initial author’s corrections have been completed satisfactorily. particularly Australians in rural and regional areas. and at other stages during the design and production process as required by AusAID. graphics and/or other illustrations consistent with the corporate messages of AusAID]. as instructed by AusAID.3 2. the Contractor shall make further author’s corrections beyond the 5 hours allocated as instructed in writing by AusAID at the rate of $95 per hour. the media. The Contract Services Group can help you with drafting a services order/EOL. [The design will also include photos. The Contractor is required to work closely with AusAID to develop the publication’s design. The Contractor shall not charge for correction of errors made by the 1. The Contractor shall provide AusAID with one or more complete sets of black and white laser print proofs of the initial design for approval and carry out corrections and/or amendments according to AusAID’s requirements as instructed in writing.4 2. The design is to highlight key corporate messages in the document.2 2. DESIGN TASKS TO BE PERFORMED The Contractor shall attend a meeting at the beginning of production of the publication to be held at the Contractor’s office to discuss content and design of the publication. 2. This includes the cover plus […] pages of text [and graphics/illustrations]. You can adapt it for other publishing services if necessary.3 2. The Contractor shall attend meetings at first proof stage and at final proof stage in the production of the publication.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE TASK The project involves the design of the AusAID publication [insert publication name].1 2. The Contractor shall design the artwork for the entire publication.

11 2. where there is a contents page in the publication then the main headings of the contents will be hyperlinked to their relevant sections within the document. The PDF shall not be locked and should be available for future editing. The Contractor shall not charge for failure to meet AusAID’s quality standards. The Contractor shall arrange necessary couriers to courier material to AusAID and to the printers as required. linked to all relevant sections/pages and visible on opening the file. The Contractor shall arrange for delivery to AusAID of a colour proof of the final fully designed publication incorporating all corrections and amendments for approval by AusAID in writing before the artwork is provided to the printer. combined front and back covers. etc) 2. ie 72 dpi and: be readable in Acrobat Version 3 contain a bookmarks column to the left of the screen.8 2. text. and colours shall be clear. The Contractor shall check final colour printing proofs supplied by the printer and identify any errors in colour. in the case of very large documents) PDFs laid out in printer-ready order (for example. 2.10 2. images. This file shall be web-ready and shall contain the total publication. including graphics.15 (i) (ii) AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 71 . text and images.13 2. The Contractor shall make proofing marks to enable AusAID to instruct the printer to make necessary corrections. The Contractor shall provide the final artwork for the cover and all internal material that has been given written approval by AusAID for printing to the printer on disk. combined inside-front and inside-back covers. colour-balanced and of good print quality.Contractor. starting with the cover page and followed by the remainder of the document in its correct order. any problems with photos or other marks or blemishes on the proofs. All graphics. and other sections.12 2. The Contractor will keep AusAID informed of progress and finalisation of the printing of the publication.6 2. The Contractor shall arrange high resolution scans of all photographs and other relevant graphical elements during the design stage. AusAID will reimburse the Contractor at the agreed rate for a reasonable time only in undertaking corrections as instructed by AusAID. The Contractor will supply AusAID with a PC-compatible PDF file.14 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iv) 2. AusAID will not accept the following: Separate files for cover. The PDF file shall be web ready. The Contractor will take full responsibility for pre-press management.7 2.9 The Contractor shall develop additional design as instructed by AusAID in writing at a rate of $120 per hour up to a limit agreed in writing by AusAID. unless otherwise agreed to in writing (for example.

1 Macintosh format files or disks Unicode fonts in document titles or document index information. The Contractor shall keep AusAID regularly informed of the progress of the design and printing of the publication. QUALITY The quality benchmark for the design will be samples of previous AusAID publications as supplied by AusAID for reference.1 2.5 and 2. *Note: It is not essential to stagger payment throughout the production stage. within thirty (30) days from the date of delivery of [….1 3.(iii) (iv) 3. 72 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . 4. 1. The Contractor shall ensure that the high design quality standards demonstrated by [insert name of benchmark publication] are upheld throughout the life of the contract.] copies of the publication that satisfies AusAID’s required specifications as described in Schedule 1. SCHEDULE 2 Basis of Payment* 1. 2.1 TOTAL FEES The total fees payable by the Commonwealth to the Contractor shall not exceed the sum of $A…. (e) additional copies will be at an agreed rate. plus any additional monies payable pursuant to clauses 2. within thirty (30) days from: Written acceptance by AusAID of the satisfactory completion of the initial design (b) the sum of $A…. PAYMENT OF FEES The fees payable by the Commonwealth to the Contractor shall be paid as follows: (a) the sum of $A….6 within thirty (30) days from: Written acceptance by AusAID of the satisfactory completion of the final proof stage (d) a final payment of $A…. within thirty (30) days from: Written acceptance by AusAID of the satisfactory completion of the first proof stage (c) the sum of $A…. 3. It may be more convenient for both parties to pay a lump sum at the conclusion of the contract when the publication has been completed and delivered.2 4. TIMELINES The Contractor shall strictly meet the deadlines of the AusAID timetable as set out as in Attachment [ ].

The Reader’s Digest aims for 10.C The Fog Index Can your audience understand your writing and message? To answer this question.4. How to calculate your Fog Index ➔ Count the number of sentences and the number of words in each sentence. Four or five paragraphs will do. ➔ Add the average sentence length to the hard word count and multiply this figure by 0. It allows you to assess whether your readers will be able to understand your writing. Tabloid newspapers aim for a Fog Index of 8. ➔ Count the number of words of three or more syllables (called the ‘hard word count’). How to interpret your Fog Index ➔ Average: 6 years primary and 4 years secondary schooling = 10 ➔ Higher school certificate = 12 ➔ University graduate = 15 ➔ Postgraduate = 17+ To reach the general public successfully. your Fog Index should be 10 or less. use a small segment of your latest writing to calculate the Fog Index. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 73 . ➔ Work out the average number of words in a sentence. Time magazine’s aim is 8–15. This gives you the Fog Index – the number of years of schooling needed to understand text.

Don’t require users to read long continuous blocks of text. Principles Useability testing has found that: ➔ reading from computer screens is about 25 per cent slower than reading from hard copy ➔ many people often feel ‘unpleasant’ reading online text. ➔ Write no more than 50 per cent of the text you would have written to cover the same material in a printed publication. ➔ Ensure pages are formatted to print to A4 paper size. ➔ Keep text concise and simple. especially when using Excel charts. ‘House style in written material’). and pick out keywords. sentences and paragraphs of interest. Remember to use house style (see chapter 3. headings and bulleted lists. probably due to the poor resolution of computer screens ➔ reading large amounts of text makes users impatient ➔ users tend to scan the screen. and ➔ users don’t like to scroll when reading. Conclusion: keep text short and simple. Style and format The following style and formatting guidelines are intended to ensure that users of AusAID’s website have positive experiences and that text files can be easily converted into browser-readable HTML. 74 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . not ‘US Letter’. ➔ Use short sentences and paragraphs.D Writing and preparing information for AusAID’s website AusAID has developed guidelines to assist those preparing content for publication on its Internet site. rather than read from left to right.

➔ Do not use headers and footers. plainly worded reminder of the page contents as it will be used as the title for any bookmark the reader makes to your page. ➔ Any text that exceeds three A4 pages should include a short summary or abstract of three to five sentences. See below ‘Feature stories’. Its hard-copy equivalent is an article in a magazine. ➔ Where a link is to be included. ➔ Avoid using tabs and do not use spaces to format. Single page feature The single page feature is best suited to a single story or event. ➔ Do not use underlined text for emphasis as this will be presumed to indicate a hyperlink.➔ Include the main idea in the first sentence of a paragraph. Choosing the most appropriate format will depend on the subject. the amount of content. ➔ Do not use columns or coloured text. Instead use the ruler or table options provided in your word processing application. ➔ Avoid using forced page breaks or line breaks. ➔ Article length should be kept to no more than three A4 pages. underline the text to be linked and indicate the link destination in red text between angle brackets – preferably a URL address and not a page heading. This should be a concise. ➔ Images: no more than three images. Use italics for emphasis. ➔ Word count: 300–400 words. ➔ Do not use page numbers. captions to be provided. ➔ Photos and graphics should be used sparingly as they slow down the speed at which users can view Internet pages. disc drives. Note that the Internet is essentially a text-based medium. especially those that describe file names. Feature stories Several formats are available for preparing feature stories for the Internet. Use following sentences to expand the main idea as in media releases. ➔ When preparing documents for conversion into PDF files it is important that the heading styles are applied in the correct hierarchical order (ie Heading 3 after Heading 2) and not chosen for appearance purposes only. authors etc. meaningful. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 75 . if possible. and the quality and subject matter of available images. ➔ Charts should be accompanied by a table of the data contained within it and include table headers. ➔ Assign styles to consistently headings and body text. ➔ Always include a title. Images are generally used only to provide interest or to illustrate the text.

Slide show A slide show consists of a series of images with limited text associated with each image. ➔ Examples: Aid Close Up: PNG Disaster Remembered. Each individual page will have its own heading and may contain further subheadings. ➔ All images should include captions. ➔ Text = 30–60 words per ➔ Production timeline: up to three weeks. The text component may be expanded with additional supporting text of 150–250 words per image. All images must be of high technical and compositional quality. ➔ A subtitle for each image should be provided. 76 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . ➔ Story format: – Opening screen: introduction of subject matter of slide show – Body screens: elaboration of subject matter – Closing screen: summary of subject matter or role of aid program in general. ➔ Examples: Aid Close Up: East Timor Community Assistance Scheme. ie chronological. The images must have some intrinsic interest beyond their associated text. The hard-copy equivalent is a collection of articles on a single topic. narrative or demonstrate multiple examples of a single theme. ➔ Production timeline: up to three weeks. Images need not be included on all pages. ➔ Each individual page: 200–400 words. ➔ Examples: Aid Close Up: Vietnam – 10 Years of Aid. This will be presented on a separate text page. Multipage feature A multipage feature consists of several single pages linked to a common entry page.cfm>. ➔ Production timeline: allow at least one week. ➔ Total word count: 500–2000 words.➔ Relevant links to further information may be included. Each page elaborates different aspects of a single theme and should be self-contained. Its hard-copy equivalent is the photo-essay. Please note that slide show development should be undertaken only after approval by the Internet Unit manager. Peace in Bougainville <www. Youth Ambassador at Work.ausaid. including links to related information. ➔ Images: at least 5 but no more than 10 images per slide show (including opening and closing screens). ➔ Relevant links to further information may be included. The image subject matter should form a sequential. ➔ Images: generally one image per page. ie they should stand alone as a story in their own right. An entry page provides links to the collection of pages and should include two or three sentences to introduce the

and you want them to go away feeling that some real good is being done in the world by their aid program with their taxes. short paragraphs and good captions will help get your message across more effectively. and the picture captions – sometimes only the latter. Digital images should be avoided as they are rarely of high enough quality. If you must use a technical term. put their words in quotes and use those interesting quotes upfront in the first few paragraphs. ➔ Facts (eg statistics) about the project should be provided separately as sidebar information or as a pie graph. ➔ Use an interesting. explain it in simple language. Short sentences. ➔ Remember that most people will read only the first three or four paragraphs of a story. ➔ Write short sentences.E Writing for Focus The key messages we are trying to get across to our target audiences are that ➔ aid works ➔ it helps to reduce poverty ➔ it makes a lasting difference ➔ it improves regional security. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 77 . ➔ Don’t start your story with the title of the project. and ➔ it creates jobs for Australians and opportunities for people to get involved hands-on if they want to. acronyms and lists of statistics. lively style of writing to engage readers from a range of backgrounds and interests. General writing tips ➔ Be mindful of your audience. ➔ Interview people. Describe the benefits that have made real differences to the lives of real people – and name them. ➔ Keep your headings brief and catchy. You are not writing for your peers. ➔ A story should focus on project outcomes and how the project has improved the quality of life for a particular person or community. ➔ Provide high quality film photos (reflective or slide) with captions to accompany your story wherever possible. jargon. ➔ Avoid technical terms. You are writing for readers who have little knowledge of the aid program.

Always spell out what the acronym stands for (unless it is extremely well-known. and should be full sentences with full stops. eg ‘The Australian Government supported the project with funding of $1 million. A dash separates parts of sentences. Credits Almost all stories have the initials of the writer at the end. Australia funds an ongoing project aimed at improving infrastructure’ (NOT ‘AusAID supported …’ or ‘AusAID funds …’). aid etc must be to the Australian Government. using upper case.Styles Acronyms and abbreviations Avoid using if possible. Some stories have a byline within the standfirst par. not simply describe what is shown. 78 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . or Australia. eg UNICEF). eg ‘The Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC) was funded by …’ [where this organisation is referred to more than twice in the story] … BUT ‘The Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres promotes … The Society also has input in …’ Especially try not to use numbers of acronyms in the one story. No full stop after Mr. eg in most cases the title ‘coordinator’ would be lower case. Captions Captions run at the end of the story. All attributions of funding. otherwise use an abbreviated reference. courtesy UNICEF. Cap G for Government (all Governments). A hyphen joins words or parts of words. support or pay for anything: the Australian Government does. Dr or any abbreviated word that ends in its original final letter. Only use capitals for titles if clearly necessary. They should be clearly connected to the photograph they refer to. ‘AusAID’ should only be used when referring to the agency as the manager of an activity or information about the organisation itself. Capitalisation Avoid excessive use of capitals. Dashes and hyphens These are not the same thing. support. Where the acronym appears more than twice in the story. use it. but ‘Manager of Reafforestation Projects’ would be upper case in the first instance. AusAID vis a vis Australian Government Use of the word ‘AusAID’: AusAID does not fund. Photos should be credited eg: Photo: Mary Brown. They should supplement and enhance the content of the photograph.

Foreign words All unfamiliar foreign words or phrases should be italicised and the English meaning given next to the word/phrase in brackets. not %. ‘almost half’ rather than ‘49. These projects also helped nearly 90.000. Money All sums are to be in Australian dollars and not specified as Australian dollars.000. worth $300. Avoid adverbs if possible. BUT: ➔ Use two levels of heading: main head and crossheads in story. giving a taste of the contents. Sudan (not The).500’ Oddities Solomon Islands (not The). Spell out all numbers where they fall at the beginning of a sentence. It is an invitation to read the story. was …’ and NOT ‘The project. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 79 . was …’ (NOT ‘The project. $8. Formatting ➔ Single space after full stops. and spell per cent.820 of a population of 102. $50. During 1998 and 2002. a population of 200. ➔ Minimise formatting (all formatting done by designer). ➔ Where possible.000 people to walk again with artificial limbs. but ‘the girl was five years old’. It should be between 20 and 36 words. ‘The project. eg 5 per cent. Lists Dot-point lists should be used sparingly and are more appropriate as sidebar information.000 …’) Comma after thousands. use words rather than figures. amounts of money spent on projects should be provided briefly as sidebar information. eg ‘one third’ rather than ‘33 per cent’. Generally speaking. ➔ Percentages always in numerals. worth A$300.000.000. projects worth $2 million were successfully completed …’ Numbers ➔ Spell out one to nine. Heading and standfirst par Heading should be no more than six words and should contain a verb. thereafter 10 etc. worth US$220. Avoid using figures in crossheads. 38 per cent. The standfirst is not the first par of the story.000 people in Cambodia to learn about landmines and unexploded ordnance.500. eg: ‘Australian aid projects helped more than 300. ➔ ‘A five-year-old girl’. Ni-Vanuatu (not Vanuatuan).

avoid semicolons if possible. Punctuation with quotes: generally punctuation falls inside the quote marks. ‘even though we had terrible weather to contend with. Make shorter sentences rather than using dashes. Typography Always italicise Focus when referring to the journal.’ said John.’ Spelling Use the first spelling choice in the Macquarie Dictionary where two or more spellings are possible. Quotes Single quotes except for quotes within quotes. Use s not z. -our not -or. not bold.Punctuation Use punctuation where sense and clarity require it. 80 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . Use italics for emphasis if necessary. Program not programme (except for UN programmes). Minimal use of commas. eg ‘The project was very successful.

opinion) counsellor (adviser) AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 81 . advice.). cancelled. CD-ROMs centre commitment complement (which makes complete) compliment (praise) contemporary contractual cooperate coordinate correspondence council (assembly) councillor (member of council) counsel (n. benefiting bracketed budgeted C calendar cancellation. advisory affect (v. cataloguing CD-ROM. If you are using a hard copy of this list. you will find it useful to continue adding unfamiliar or difficult words for your own reference. catalogued. The compilers of this guide would appreciate advice on additions. A Aboriginal (adj. cancelling catalogue. adviser.) (do not use Aborigine) accessible accession accommodation acknowledgment advice (n.F Difficult and preferred spellings The following is a list of difficult spellings and AusAID’s preferred spellings.) Aboriginal person (n. cataloguer.) advise (v. influence) (see also effect) ageing airconditioning all right alphanumeric annotate anomaly Antarctica apparent appendixes appraisal arguable ascertain audiovisual B bankruptcy battalion benefited.

bring about. focusing fulfil. focused.) long term (adv. result) (see also affect) eg (for example) eligible email etc (et cetera) Excel (software) extant (in existence) extent (range) J judgment K keyword L labelled. n. fulfilment full-time (adj.) dependent (adj. inquiry inaccessible Internet intranet it’s (it is) its (possessive) E effect (v. labelling labour (but Australian Labor Party) licence (n.) decision-maker decision-making defence dependant (n.) develop development Director General disc (gramophone) discreet (prudent) discrete (distinct) disk (floppy.) license (v.) F facsimile fact sheet film-maker flyer focuses. computer) dispatch G Gopher (computer search software) grassroots H handwritten hard copy home page HTML (computer markup language) I ie (that is) implementer inquire.) 82 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . fulfilled.) life cycle life span lifetime likelihood long-term (adj.D database day-to-day (adj.

) practise (v.) short term (adv. occurrence offence omitted ongoing online on-screen (adj. servicing short-term (adj. occurred.M metadata movable minuscule multimedia principle (general law) printout program (but World Food Programme) Q questionnaire N naturalise necessary R receipt receive recommend reconcilable regrettable relevant resourcing O occasion.) PDF (portable document format) per cent percentage permissible personal (individual) personnel (staff) possessive postwar practice (n.) preventable preventive principal (chief) AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 83 . occasionally occur.) sincerely sizeable Solomon Islands (not the Solomon Islands) spreadsheet stationary (not moving) stationery (paper) succinct Sudan (not the Sudan) superhighway supersede susceptible P paper-based part-time (adj.) organisation (but use ‘z’ if it is in names) outsource S schedule secrecy seize self-service separate service.

T targeted. transferred V Viet Nam Vietnamese (adj. targeting technique temporarily their (possessive pronoun) there (place) they’re (they are) transferable.) W website wholly withhold work plan worldwide World Wide Web (www) U under way unmistakable unnecessary until URL (uniform resource locator) usage useable 84 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .

G Sample designs A4 publication 4 colour Size 297 x 210mm Commonwealth Arms Width 15mm Centred in 20 x 20mm box Crest to print Black on box filled with a 60% tint of Pantone Warm Gray 10 AusAID logo Width 15mm Placed in 20 x 20mm box Allow 3mm for bleed Typeface A 36pt on 38pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface B 24pt on 28pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Typeface C 10pt on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Rule 1pt 60% tint of Pantone Warm Gray 10 Colours See colour palette information Image box Depth 126mm 112mm 12mm 0mm 0mm Australia and Viet Nam A better future through partnership 1999–2001 26mm A 50mm 64mm B 106mm 277mm The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 85 136mm 112mm Scale 50% 290mm C .

A4 publication back cover Size 297 x 210mm Typeface A 14pt on 18pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold 3mm space before next line Typeface B 10pt on 16pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular 2mm space between paragraphs Typeface C 8. is well placed to work as a partner with Viet Nam in its quest for development and poverty reduction. Australia.ausaid. C please contact: The Director Viet Nam Section AusAID GPO Box 887 Canberra ACT 2601 Fax (02) 6206 4696 E-mail InfoAusAID@ausaid. 50mm B For more information on Australian-assisted projects in Viet Fax 02 6269 1229 E-mail ISBN – 0642 41427 0 Scale 50% 86 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . as a relatively wealthy For hardcopies of AusAID publications. This brochure provides an overview of Australia’s development cooperation on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular 2mm space between paragraphs Colours See colour palette information 54mm A 26mm 198mm 0mm 0mm Australia and Viet Nam A better future through partnership 1999-2001 Viet Nam faces many challenges in today’s changing world to ensure the future well being of its people. which assists Viet Nam to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable economic and social development for its AusAID’s corporate publications from November 1997 onward are available in full on the AusAID internet site at www. contact: Canberra Mailing Centre PO Box 650 Canberra ACT 2609 Telephone 02 6269

A4 publication 3 colour Size 297 x 210mm Commonwealth Arms Width 15mm Centred in 20 x 20mm box Crest to print Black on box filled with a 60% tint of Pantone Warm Gray 10 AusAID logo Width 15mm Placed in 20 x 20mm box Allow 3mm for bleed Typeface A 36pt on 38pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface B 24pt on 28pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Typeface C 16pt on 21pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface D 11pt on 21pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface E 10pt on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Rule 1pt 60% tint of Black Colours See colour palette information 112mm 12mm 0mm 0mm China Restricted Not for external circulation 21 December 1998 40mm A 50mm 67mm B C Country program strategy 1998–1999 86mm D The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program 277mm 290mm E AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 87 136mm 112mm Scale 50% .

A4 publication 2 colour
Size 297 x 210mm Commonwealth Arms Width 15mm Centred in 20 x 20mm box Box filled with a 30% tint of spine colour Crest prints 100% spine colour AusAID logo Width 15mm Placed in 20 x 20mm box Allow 3mm for bleed Typeface A 36pt on 38pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface B 24pt on 28pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Typeface C 10pt on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Rule 1pt 30% tint of the second colour Colours See colour palette information
112mm 12mm 0mm


Program profiles 1998–1999

40mm A 50mm 67mm B

The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program

277mm 290mm C




Scale 60%

B5 publication
Size 250 x 176mm Commonwealth Arms Width 15mm Centred in 20 x 20mm box Crest to print Black on box filled with a 60% tint of Pantone Warm Gray 10 AusAID logo Width 15mm Placed in 20 x 20mm box Allow 3mm for bleed Typeface A 23pt on 28pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Subtitle (if appropriate) 16pt on 20pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Typeface B 14pt on 18pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface C 10pt on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Colours See colour palette information Image box Depth 105mm






International Development Issues No.50

HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care Evaluation of the Thailand-Australia HIV/AIDS Ambulatory Care Project

26mm A

66mm B


The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program




Scale 70%

243mm C

DL brochure
Size 210mm x 100mm (folded size) Commonwealth Arms Width 15mm Centred in 20 x 20mm box Crest to print Black on box filled with a 60% tint of Pantone Warm Gray 10 AusAID logo Width 15mm Placed in 20 x 20mm box Allow 3mm for bleed Typeface A 24pt on 28pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold Typeface B 10pt on 14pt leading Rotis Sans Serif Regular Colours See colour palette information





Australia’s overseas aid program

32mm A

Image box Depth 112mm

The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program
30mm Scale 80% 52mm 203mm B


H Sample fonts Adobe Rotis Sans Serif ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Sans Serif Light ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Sans Serif Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Sans Serif Extra Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Sans Serif Italic ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 91 .

Adobe Rotis Serif ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Serif Bold ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? Adobe Rotis Serif Italic ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789()$%&!? 92 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE .

Digital images suitable for high-quality publications – created by scanning original negatives or slides – are measured by ‘dots per inch’ (dpi).5 million dots of information in the image). This far exceeds the capability of most digital cameras (except the very expensive). Images from the Web are no good for print reproduction as they are usually 72 dpi. Generally.5 Megapixels (3. Web images will appear grainy if used directly in a high-quality print publication.I Photography for print and Internet publishing All AusAID publications require high-quality images. For publishing on the Internet. speak to your designer or printer. images down to 72 dpi are acceptable. Anything smaller is suitable AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 93 . Prints from negatives or slides lack the quality of the original. A JPEG file (with the file extension ‘.tif’) will usually be of minimum suitable quality if it is about 18 MB or more. The size of the file you receive can be an indication of its quality. Most digital camera output does not provide the level of detail required for AusAID publications. These digital files are of a much higher quality than files produced by a digital camera. Quality requirements Film negatives or slides should be used where possible as they are easiest to scan and provide the highest quality images.5 MB or more at compression level 10. as they may have suggestions for capturing a screen image of suitable resolution. Printers usually scan negatives or slides and save them in digital format. as the Web is a very low-resolution environment. A TIFF file (with the extension ‘. This produces an image of about 2000 x 1750 pixels. An average digital camera will take an image of 3.jpg’) will usually be of minimum suitable quality if it is about 1. But first-generation copies of negatives and slides are as good as the originals. The minimum resolution considered acceptable is 300 dpi at A4 size (297 mm x 210 mm). If you require web images (such as a snapshot of a website or application) to be included in a publication. The output of most digital cameras is adequate for this purpose. AusAID requires images to be at least 6 Megapixels (about 3000 x 2000 pixels) for print purposes. The quality of images taken by digital cameras can be measured in ‘Megapixels’. This is the number of dots of information that the camera can capture in the image. the quality of digital images you receive via email will be too low for print production.

) If you must use a digital camera. a film camera of reasonable quality will produce images of superior quality to the output of the best digital camera. you can put the Flashcard into a carrier that looks like a floppy disk to insert into your PC’s floppy drive. For printed publication purposes. transparency or print. Digital-only images are not accepted due to quality issues. where the image was taken and what AusAID project the image relates to (if relevant) ➔ country – where the image was taken. For example.for preview purposes only. Images can be transferred from camera to PC via a memory card reader that takes the different storage media and plugs into a USB port. Also the cost. All images must be provided as a negative. 94 AUSAID STYLE GUIDE . ease of use is a key attribute to look for as many of them are harder to program and use than a VCR. Supplying images to the photographic library All images included in AusAID’s photographic library must be aid-related. and need to buy one. It is not intended to be a full documentary archive of the aid program. the better the result will be. If you have any images that meet AusAID’s technical and detail requirements and could be useful in promoting the Australian aid program. meet the quality requirements and be accompanied by the following details: ➔ caption – details about what the image is showing. Fully automatic film cameras are easier to use than digital cameras and are less likely to fail. Because the photographic library is a resource to be used for promoting the aid program it is not a repository for all aid project images. For advice and further information about photographs for AusAID publications. If you have a camera that uses the Flashcard memory system. All images must be legally reproducible by AusAID without further need to contact the photographer or source for permission. contact the photographic library manager in PAG. Find a digital camera best suited for the sort of photographs you are likely to take. Check whether you can obtain copies of the original negatives or slides the images came from. contact the photographic library manager in PAG. (Additional memory cards for digital cameras are not so readily available. who is in the image. including province or state where possible ➔ photographer – name and contact details where possible ➔ source – the organisation the image was obtained from ➔ date – the date the image was taken. Ask your dealer to demonstrate this function to you before you buy. The general rule for providing any image for reproduction – either on the Web or in print – is that the better it is to begin with. And you will rarely run out of space for new images as you can buy rolls of film in almost every country. The ease of transferring images to computer also varies considerably between digital cameras. storage and transport of image memory cards can be expensive compared with film. if you take outdoor photos you will need to be able to view the image on the display screen in bright light.

6th edn. G. 5th edn. 3rd edn. London. AGPS Press. Canberra. Canberra. Editors and Printers. 1988. Pauwels. Collins. Editors and Printers. P. Non-discriminatory Language. Version: 1. Canberra The Macquarie Dictionary. 1996. Department of Finance and Administration. January 2000. 2002. Sydney. A. Style Manual for Authors.Bibliography AusInfo. AusInfo. Stern. Canberra.1. 1991. Collins Gem Dictionary of Spelling & Word Division. McCawley. John Wiley & Sons Australia. Guidelines for Commonwealth Information Published in Electronic Formats. Canberra. AGPS Press. English and Statistics. 1988. AUSAID STYLE GUIDE Appendixes 95 . internal AusAID publication. Style Manual for Authors. with Guidelines on Plain English. Spot on! Correspondence and Report Writing. Macquarie Library.

AusAID Public Affairs Group GPO Box 887 Canberra ACT 2601 Phone (02) 6206 4960 Fax (02) 6206 4695

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