CHAPTER 1

1. Introduction
The emerging modern version of ultra-wideband radio technology (UWB-RT) is built on a long history of technological advancements based on the underlying principles and characteristics of wideband radio signals; a comprehensive account of the historical developments and principles of UWB-RT can be found in references [1] and [2]. Given the potential of UWB-RT for covert communication and ranging systems as well as the lack of appropriate regulatory guidelines regarding spectrum usage, the development and use of systems based on UWB-RT have thus far been mainly the privilege of US military and government agencies. However, the recent initiative taken by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the US to regulate the legal use of UWB radio devices have not only induced growing commercialization activities but also similar regulatory and research efforts in other geographies, notably in Europe [3], [4] and [5]. For example, CEPT study groups are currently investigating how to regulate the commercial use of UWB radio devices within the spectrum range 1–40 GHz such that they can coexist with other radio services. However, neither the FCC nor the CEPT will ultimately provide the functional standards for UWB radio systems. This important task can only be tackled by the pertinent industry and appropriate standard bodies after the necessary regulatory framework has been laid and based on—preferably broadly supported—market needs and technical requirements. The recent regulatory efforts and the significant technological advances made by several USbased pioneering developers of UWB-RT have spurred a growing interest within the wireless industry as well as within academic and other research institutions. The mainly classified nature of the early development efforts and the lack of legal spectrum regulations and limits explain the fact that widespread commercial interest in UWB-RT emerges only now. In this respect, the deployment of UWB-RT appears to follow a process similar to that observed during the
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commercialization of classical spread-spectrum communication systems [6].Thus, given the present status of UWB-RT it appears appropriate to call for the inclusion of UWB-RT on the agenda of any forum contemplating the future of wireless systems, particularly those considering ‗wireless systems beyond 3G‘. We consider the latter notion to include (infrastructure-based) wide area cellular systems as well as local (ad hoc) networks for specific environments, e.g. selforganized network topologies and supporting systems capable of accessing cellular networks. A suitable podium for a comprehensive treatment of the technical issues associated with designing these next-generation systems is provided by the recently established Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF). The WWRF aims to identify and promote research areas as well as technical and societal trends for mobile and wireless systems for the ‗wireless world‘ that could become operational within a decade's time. The WWRF's list of proposed research tasks covers the multiple technical and operational aspects of future wireless systems, including the exploration of systems based on UWB-RT [7]. Although the technological basis of UWB-RT is apparently well understood and developed today, it is generally recognized that efficient realization and widespread commercial deployment and application of this new technology still hinges on several significant regulatory and technical challenges. These problems must be resolved before the very promising benefits of UWB-RT can possibly be consumed in practice. Thus, it appears both timely and sensible to attempt this by dealing with the corresponding regulatory and technical issues as well as standardization questions on a global scale. Proponents of UWB-RT promise a broad array of new or improved (short-range) wireless devices and radio services that could provide enormous progress in the areas of public safety as well as for home and business applications. It has been proposed that the FCC's Part 15 rules be amended such that the imposed power limits (maximal electrical field strength at a defined distance) are also applicable to intentional emissions from an UWB radio device [3]. It is claimed that, ideally, UWB devices could operate over the entire spectrum, including the bands reserved for other radio services without degrading their quality of operation.

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Although this assertion has been maintained by only certain proponents, the very question concerning the degree to which UWB devices can potentially cause harmful interference in the receivers of other radio services—notably the Global Positioning System (GPS)—has become the primary focus of regulatory procedures [8]. The resolution of these and other interference issues (e.g. cumulative impact of many UWB radio sources) require complex technical investigations and assessments; in addition, it is equally challenging to reconcile the various competing business interests with legitimate security concerns. For the purpose of this paper, we shall assume that the regulatory issues will eventually be resolved—preferably on a global scale. The FCC has proposed a definition of UWB radio signals similar to that of the OSD/DARPA UWB radar review panel [3], i.e. that the fractional bandwidth—the ratio between the signal's bandwidth and center frequency—be greater than 0.25 (25%) or the signal occupy at least 1.5 GHz of the spectrum. The bandwidth is measured at the upper and lower cutoff points (−10 dB), fH and fL, respectively, and the center frequency, fC, is defined as the average of these cutoff points, i.e. fC=(fH+fL)/2. It is an open issue whether this definition should be applied only to UWB devices emitting pulsed signals of low duty cycle, where the bandwidth is inversely related to the width of the pulses. Clearly, other technical approaches can be employed to produce UWB radio signals, and it will be important to include these alternative methods in any future investigations of UWB-RT [9] and [10].

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Radio requires transmitters for generating signals. we must grasp the basics of traditional radio. The present evolution to UWB is but an inevitable step in the evolution of wireless and radio. and receivers to translate the received information.[5]. Introduction UWB – ultra-wideband – is an unconventional type of radio. we see its resurgence as the modern ―wireless.2. but radio has many forms. wireless Internet connections. as depicted in Figure 1. That is true. such as wireless baby monitors. We follow the history of the development of wireless – to be dubbed radio at the start of the broadcast era – from its inception as crude wideband spark signals.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. we introduce the basics of traditional radio. through its relentless march towards narrowband-channelized solutions. 4 . Finally. garage door openers. 2.1. and mobile or cell phones. When most people hear the word ―radio‖ they think of the small device that brings music and news into their homes and automobiles. In fact. The Basics of Radio Radio is the art of sending and receiving electromagnetic signals between transmitters and receivers wirelessly. many common devices that perform some function in a wireless mode are a variety of radio.‖ History reveals that the march towards narrowband admits several instances in which wideband signaling has significant advantages over narrowband techniques. but to understand a variation on the convention. In this chapter.

or other information. All signals. the received signal and presenting it has received information. video. There is a plethora of services that carry voice.[17] Both use antennas for sending the signals as electromagnetic energy and for collecting that energy at the receiver. such as voice into a microphone. data. regardless of origin. Receivers recover that information by decoding. There are also signals that originate from beyond the earth‘s immediate vicinity. the information in some fashion on the signal. such as the radio station to which we wish to 5 . They are natural stellar sources. This information could be someone‘s voice. inundate our surroundings. Signals.and FM-band radio stations. telephony. and control instructions. television stations or consumer devices such as mobile phones. and a receiver. Information. or modulate. electromagnetic energy-bearing information. waves propagating and filling space.1 A basic radio link includes a transmitter. is supplied to transmitters. the air enveloping the earth and the many materials surrounding us. pulsars. Yet we can selectively choose the signal we want. and garage door openers.Figure 2. which then encode. and such. music. simultaneously share the same ―transmission medium‖ – the near vacuum of space. music. Their ―information‖ is carefully deciphered by radio astronomers to glean knowledge about our universe. They usually originate from commercial broadcasting such as our familiar AM. or demodulating.

listen. for instance.3). A signal without information has zero bandwidth. 6 . Narrowband signals are often represented by their zero bandwidth ideals. entertained. They are the narrowest possible representation of signals in the spectrum at distinct frequencies. and safe. For example. Radio signals share the limited spectrum by occupying slivers of spectrum that are as narrow as possible. Conventional radio signals can be discerned one from the other because they occupy unique locations in the radio spectrum (see Figure 1. Tuning radios to a particular frequency allows us to select the desired narrow band signal. Modulating information on that signal spreads its bandwidth in proportion to the information bandwidth. also known as circular functions or harmonic waves. [14] began to dominate radio development. So. The ―ideal‖ in radio spectrum usage has been to use the smallest bandwidth compared to the bandwidth of the signal information. indicated by channel numbers. a music signal with tonal content up to 15 kHz requires at least 15 kHz of information bandwidth. They are distinct. They are all crafted that way because of a century-old historical interplay between the technological development of radio and the regulations that brought order to the radio spectrum. Radio signals in the electromagnetic spectrum (see Figure 1. sines and cosines.2) keep us informed. the television program we want to watch. the dogma of the circular functions. the sine and cosine functions. narrowband places on a radio dial. or the call intended for our mobile telephone. unique audio tones or discrete colors in the rainbow spectrum.

Figure 2.3 Sines and cosines of different wavelengths occupy unique spots in the spectrum.[10] 7 .[11] Figure 2.2 Radio services occupy unique locations in the electromagnetic spectrum.

the signal occupies significant bandwidth.4). rather than in frequency. on the order of 50%. ultra wide bandwidths – but short – and ultra short slivers of time (see Figure 1.4 A finite length signal in time occupies a definite spectrum width in frequency. modulating. and packing of short signals in time. The tinier the sliver of time. These signals occupy wide bandwidths.[4] Clever coding. especially in tiny slivers of time. allows us to separate these desired short signals to distinguish one user from another. Figure 2. 8 . for that finite time.5. When confined to just four cycles of a sine wave. Information-bearing signals can also be separated in time. This variety of radio signaling is called UWB. by channels. the wider is the bandwidth of the signal in the radio spectrum as seen in Figure 1. and by frequencies is not the only way to share the radio spectrum.Separation of signals by bands.

3 The Development of the technology 9 .2.

10 .

initially brought the matter to the attention of the FCC. the arrival of the technology has reshaped the concepts of spectrum management to allow modern UWB technology. Regulations respond to technology and market needs. and reception of wideband signals. and around the globe. Time Domain Corporation.4. Regulatory Procedures For more than a century. They define the rules for accessing the radio spectrum. Modern advancements in the generation. Regulations address the issues of separation and coordination of and interference among spectrum users. because it was the right thing to do at that time. have improved the manner in which we can efficiently utilize the spectrum. the concept of frequency management itself has been challenged. followed by many other interested parties. is in its modern infancy so there is no doubt that other regulations will spring up all over to accommodate UWB‘s growth and changes through future innovations and consumer demand. With UWB radio technology. The traditional allocation of spectrum had not anticipated the modern development of UWB. and that a few key commercial players really pushed the legislation. The shear weight of commercial interest in the technology caused the FCC to respond by enabling UWB with a balanced and fair set of regulations appropriate for the United States.2. Regulations have provided the mediation that frames how the many users of the electromagnetic spectrum can coexist. 11 . and drove technology along a narrowband path. in step with these modern developments. The earliest regulations responded to. Regulating bodies respondmto market pressure and other countries will develop their own regulations in their own fashion. however. the interplay between the evolution of the radio arts and regulations have shaped the way users share the precious and limited radio spectrum. and regulators. with their supporting organizations. In particular. The reason that the regulation changes adopting UWB happened more quickly in the United States than in other places is that US companies have devices they want to get to the market place. are responding to meet this challenge. However. transmission. Regulations again. When wider bandwidths for certain radio signaling methods were found to be superior to other methods. have adapted to permit modern UWB signaling. UWB. appropriate to their own market demands. though an old technology. those technologies were codified in new regulations.

2. The second method emits envelope-shaped ‗pulses‘ in the form of several sinusoidal cycles (e. (e) in footnote 5). Furthermore. In systems that use the first approach. (c) in footnote 5).  Multiuser communication. Key characteristics and applications of UWB-RT There are two principal methods to generate pulsed UWB signals. whereas the antenna is generally a more important spectral-shaping element in a system based on the first approach. In any case.5. The short pulses potentially allow differentially delayed multipath components to be distinguished at the receiver with the benefit that a reduced fading margin may be applied in a system's link budget analysis. fH-fL. the following are some of the benefits and characteristics claimed for practical systems based on UWB-RT [3]:  Extremely low power spectral density (PSD). and large emission bandwidth. control of the signal's center frequency. which in their purest form require spectra starting at very low frequency (nearly DC.  Spectrum reuse. the pulses are emitted as so-called baseband pulses.g. is intimately coupled to the actual shape of the single pulse emitted from the antenna. With the first method. The application of sequence-coded access methods to pulsed and inherently low-duty-cycle UWB signals could enable very densely populated multiuser systems with high immunity to interference. fC.g.  Robust performance under multipath conditions. independent of the method of signal generation. The second approach offers a more independent adjustment of the signal's center frequency and—typically somewhat smaller—bandwidth. 12 . the higher frequencies used by the second method tend to reduce the signal's ability to penetrate materials. Potential reuse of scarce spectrum resources by overlaying UWB emissions of extremely low power spectral densities on already assigned spectral bands. e. Average power levels in the order of millionths of a Watt (μW) and excessive signal bandwidth yield power spectral densities in the order of several tens of nW/MHz.

UWB has many of advantages[5]. 2. On the other hand.Virtually NO Multi-path interference 3. UWB Advantages and Disadvantages: Due to wide spread of UWB characteristic. which are: 1. High-resolution position location and tracking or radar sensing. which make it one of the ten technologies that would change communication future as many observers‘ comment: 1. nearly all digital. due to FCC limit of power emission.Low installing cost in comparison with Fiber-Optic technology.Large bandwidth at relatively low frequency. 2. 5.Less interference suffering. 4. 2. Suffers from degradation with more than 10 Gbps. Performance is sensitive to Modulation Technique. 13 .6. there are some disadvantages of UWB. The large signal bandwidth yields a distance resolution between communicating devices or a radarsensing accuracy within a few centimeters.Simplified architecture.

CONCEPT Traditional narrow band communications systems modulate continuous waveform. which directly translates to longer battery life for handheld requipment. the average power becomes considerably lower.CHAPTER 3 DETAIL ANALYSIS ON THE TITLE TO DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 3. UWB devices require low transmit Power due to this control over the duty cycle. The average transmission power of a UWB system is on the order of microwatts.5 percent) for transmission and reception of the information. A continuous waveform has well-defined signal energy in a narrow frequency band that makes it very vulnerable to detection and interception. 14 .5 percent0 for transmission and reception with a very low duty (less than 0. the peak or instantaneous power of individual UWB pulses can be relatively large. UWB radio systems use carrier less. short duration (picoseconds to nanoseconds) pulses with a very low duty cycle (less than 0.1. Low duty cycle offers a very low average transmission power in UWB communications systems. The wide instantaneous bandwidth results from the time-scaling property of theoretical fouriertransforms. Consequently. Since frequency is inversely related to time. which is a thousand times less than the transmission power of a cell-Phone! However. RF signals with a specific carrier frequency to transmit and receive information. but because they are transmitted for only a very short time. the short-duration UWB pulses spread their energy across a wide range of frequencies-from near DC several gigahertz(GHZ)-with very low power spectral density (PSD).

What technological constraints there are from the feasibility. share. These factors include 1.500 MHz swath of spectrum extending from 3. To gain market acceptance. which is then modulated with desired information. Several factors decide what a UWB signal needs to look like. The system The first step in a radio communication link involves the generation of a suitable signal.3.6 GHz. The regulations define the broad rules and conditions for UWB communication systems to access and share a 7.2. UWB technology will need to be physically implemented in costeffective integrated circuits.1 . What is permissible under the rules and regulations? 2. and even perhaps interoperate with other radio services. which they have various limitations in performance across the frequency band. Intentional UWB radiators must be designed to guarantee that the 20-dB bandwidth of the emission is contained within the UWB frequency band.6 GHz.UWB radio signal definition The devices must operate in the UWB frequency band 3. cost. and marketability points of view? Rules and regulations such as those of the FCC do not define UWB technology.3 dBm/MHz. UWB radios will need to coexist with. 3. The equipment must also be designed to ensure that operation can only occur indoors or it must consist of handheld devices that may be employed for such activities as peer-to-peer operation.1 to 10. Against these constraints we now seek to generate useful and cost-effective UWB signals that are permissible under existing regulations. 15 .1 to 10. The minimum bandwidth measured at points 10 dB below the peak emission level is 500 MHz. The permissible emission levels for UWB signals in the UWB band are set at -41. Finally. What level of coexistence with other services in the band is desirable? 3.2.

Therefore. Figure 4. which must be below the maximum allowed PSD. the 20-dB bandwidth to make certain that the signal remains below the 20-dB band edge corners on the UWB communications power spectral density (PSD) mask. and the frequency of highest radiated emission. in UWB signal design.3 represents these limits pictorially. we are concerned with the 10-dB bandwidth to ensure compliance with minimum bandwidth requirements.1: UWB signal design point [16] 16 . Figure 3.

in bursts. UWB Radio Signal Modulation Modulation is the process of modifying a signal wavelet. Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) 2. one could generate precise UWB signal shapes and accurately place them in the allowable spectrum. or impulse. Modulations vary from simple pulse position.3. to the more energy efficient pulse polarity and to some very energy-efficient M-ary (multilevel or multistate) modulations.3.2. Finally. such as direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) systems. Transmitted Reference (TR) Modulation. One might choose to supply narrow impulses to a band-pass filter. Alternatively. 3.2 . so that it carries information. Pulses can be sent individually. Approaches to generating UWB signals UWB signals may be generated by a great variety of methods. so that the bandwidth resulting from the modulation occupies at least the minimum regulatory amount. The modulation state of a UWB signal must be discerned in the presence of noise and interference to be recognized correctly. or in near-continuous streams. Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 4. polarity. one can simply scale the modulation methods of conventional radio systems. and they can encode information in pulse amplitude.2. Developers of UWB impulse technology have perfected various ways for encoding information for transmissions. and position. 17 . M-ary Bi-Orthogonal Keying (M-BOK) Modulation 3. We must find one UWB signal among many other signals. The following commercially useful UWB impulse modulation techniques exemplify a wide range of implementation possibilities: 1.

Radiation of UWB radio signal Short UWB pulse signals. which are equivalent for sinusoidal signals. manifest some interesting differences compared to the behavior of narrowband signals. and there is sometimes a partial time-delay derivative operation on the current density from the various parts on the antenna involved in the radiating process. The transmitter sends pulses separated by a delay D that are differentially encoded using pulse polarity. while narrowband signals are sinusoidal everywhere.2.2.5 . the choice of the receiving antenna – whether it is a ―constant gain‖ design like a dipole. 18 . The method employs differentially encoded impulses sent at a precise spacing D. the radiated UWB signals are related to the transmitter signal by a partial time-delay derivative. This is because instead of steady state harmonic wave solutions. This is because the radiation of signals supplied to an antenna involves an acceleration of charges. and that the received UWB signal is proportional to a weighted sum of time delayed copies of the radiated signals.4 . but rather than considering them in frequency form. we are interested in the transient responses.2. or a will see that certain antenna designs.Transmitted Reference Modulation Impulses can be sent with the information encoded differentially.3. We will also see that because of the way UWB emissions regulations are crafted. A method of transmitting and receiving impulses that can easily implement a rake receiver is exemplified by a TR-UWB. There is no special magic in UWB propagation. UWB signals obey Maxwell‘s equations. 3. no special exemption or dispensation from physical laws. The pulses. when radiated. The system is shown in the simplified block diagram of Figure 3. can behave very differently for short pulses. are received and detected using a self-correlator with one input fed directly and another input delayed by D. Short wideband signals have different shapes depending on where in the UWB radio link they are observed. The data value of the pulse is referenced to the polarity of the previously sent pulses. We need to abandon the narrowband (sine wave) simplifications to Maxwell‘s equations. We will see that for the antennas of maximum interest to us. including propagation induced multipath replicas. we prefer the time formulation.

2. 3. and the SBY statistical multipath model.Figure 3. The free-space law is exactly the same for time-harmonic (sinusoidal.Propagation UWB signal Propagation models useful for UWB signals are: the free-space and two-ray deterministic models. This law is applicable to propagation between antennas that are generally in the clear. and the signal paths can be accurately described by an unobstructed direct path plus a ground-reflected path.6 . or narrowband) signals as it is for UWB signals. The SBY model is statistically based 19 . The two-path model signal shape is path length and frequency dependent. [14].2: A TR-UWB transmitter and receiver.

[16] 20 . and present that information. It became economical enough to build impulse radios that could offer precision distance measurements. Receiving UWB Radio Signals Signals. and especially for UWB signals.3. the SBY model can be applied as a simplified model for two signal paths. With the proper choice of parameters. A receiver. UWB impulse technology has been around for many decades. 3. must be received in order to be understood. once generated. The art is in taking the signal in and efficiently recovering the conveyed information. multipath delay spread. and propagated. Efficient signal recovery and information detection is the key to a successful radio link.2. and rake gain. high data rate communications. It reveals a close relationship between the propagation law. extract the information from the signal. such as your home entertainment radio. The fusion of all of these capabilities has already been demonstrated in early UWB prototypes. This emergence of commercially viable impulse radio drove and converged with regulatory evolution that now permits UWB to appear in a large tract of shared spectrum. They capture signal energy with the antenna. Efficient signaling involves matching the signal to the receiver and detector. The model is particularly applicable to propagation in short-range wireless personal-area networks. and high-resolution radars for nongovernment markets.and provides a description of an average behavior of signals in full multipath. Digital logic has also been around for many decades. 3.7. The SBY model provides a theoretical basis for the propagation exponent in scattering and multipath. takes in the signals and translates them to music. The convergence of wideband impulse technology with the decreasing cost and increasing capabilities of digital logic enabled the emergence of UWB as an appealing technology. Receivers carry out several functions. transmitted. UWB Radio relation with communication Progress and innovation occur fastest and evolve in unexpected ways when two or more processes converge in time.

We saw the same with UWB.Theoretical advances in communications theory coupled with the increasingly economical digital processing capabilities gave rise to spread-spectrum technology. Once the bandwidth is fully utilized. the information capacity of a communications system is proportional to the bandwidth B that is employed. of a particular communications system and define it as the minimum signal energy per data bit Eb to noise power density ratio No. any further increase in capacity comes at an exponential increase in the required signal-to-noise ratio.[12]. eb is denoted the relative efficiency. Regulations permitting the technology are now in place in the United States and are being contemplated elsewhere. Just invert the formula solving for the required signal-to-noise ratio 21 . This value can be derived from the theoretical work of Claude Shannon. Again. Shannon’s Capacity Formula It will be instructive to know the theoretical limits of any system so that we can better understand the efficiency of our UWB communication system. the channel bandwidth B. the regulations accommodate progress and spectrum was set aside for the technology. and the signal-to-noise ratio S/N: In the simplest terms. or communications efficiency. Shannon derived a relationship between the channel capacity C.

5 GHz of bandwidth is available (in the United States). an alternative to transmitting a signal with a high power density and low bandwidth would be to use a low power density and a wide bandwidth.UWB Radio Applications in Digital communications Ultra-wideband radio is the contortionist of the wireless world – it is flexible enough to work in many different ways while still maintaining its character. Because it can be used with such diversity. [10] 3. Hence. 7. the regular carrier is the UWB impulse. We are approaching the notion that signal spreading has the operational advantage of being resistant to interference. Shannon showed that the more a transmission resembles random noise.1 . according to Shannon. 22 . there are almost infinite manners in which to utilize UWB in applications that run the gamut from invaluable to ingenious to ridiculous.5 GHz. One needs a low-entropy carrier to bear a high-entropy message. the more information can be conveyed. so exceptionally high data rates are possible at signal-to-noise ratios depending only on the modulation efficiency. Another way of looking at a stream of unexpected bits is in comparison to random data.[10] The information content of a sufficiently coded signal is entropy – it is a measure of how well the energy is spread out. This plays to an advantage of UWB – large available bandwidth. These applications are distributed amongst three categories: • Communications and sensors • Position location and tracking • Radar. provided it is modulated to a regular carrier frequency such as a sine wave signal. UWB can operate in the linear Shannon region for C up to B = 7. which resembles random noise.3. In UWB.In the case of UWB.

Communication Applications Applications for communications present some of the most exciting opportunities in the consumer market. like knowing the distance to the garage door. One scenario might include a mouse. monitor. and PDA – all wireless.1. Special capabilities of UWB. but the solutions on the market today are bound by line-of-sight interference with other devices. UWB 23 . audio speakers. keyboard. power issues. let us consider some of the applications that could be improved or created using this innovative method of communicating at low data rates. and for countless other purposes.3.1 . It is also less affected by shadows and other light-related interferences than is the case with infrared. Computer peripherals offer another fitting use of UWB. interference is not significant either – that means that hundreds of devices could operate in the same space without intruding on each other. and other less than ideal compromises. Low data rate devices can effectively be wireless. especially when mobility is important and numerous wireless devices are utilized in a shared space. and made more efficient with UWB are endless. since the wavelengths are long by comparison and can generally bend around or transmit through objects without impeding the connection. UWB is not constrained by line of sight quite as dramatically as is infrared light. to detect home intruders. which are the star qualities of UWB. Communication is a part of our daily life and the ways in which it can be enhanced. Low Data Rate Low data rate devices surround us in our technological world – but they are usually attached by wires and cables. can create more security for you and your neighbors. Both require low power and high capacity. printer. joystick. enriched. We will first consider existing items whose performance could be greatly enhanced by using UWB. Since UWB operates at such low power and in intermittent fashion. Consider a garage door opener that would open only your garage and never your neighbors.[11] Given the numerous benefits UWB offers over current technologies on the market. microphone. We use these items to enter data into or retrieve data from our computers. all sending messages to the same computer from anywhere in the given range. Applications in communications can be classified into two areas – low or high data rates.3.

including varying zones of alarm [13].1. as pictured in Figure 3. ―Good fences make good neighbors.3. televisions. A variety of sensors are used to secure homes.2 . video cameras. This concept is a sure win in the marketplace as it is gratifying across the senses – free movement. Again. temperature. though. a patient is shackled by wires and cables when extensive medical monitoring is required. Today.‖ The best fences are unobtrusive and invisible: the domain of UWB.has the inherent capacity so that this multitude of closely spaced devices can operate and not interfere with each other or with additional computers. UWB can be used as the communications link in a sensor network [16]. personal video recorders. Sensors are also being used in medical situations to determine pulse rate.3. [9] 3. and the UWB signal itself can function as the sensor. community minded. and automobiles will provide new experience in home and personal entertainment.Sensor Networks Sensors of all types offer another opportunity for UWB to flourish. Why? This is because wires are expensive and time intensive to install. Imagine what else could be done with this concept to provide safety. the cost of installation and maintenance could drop dramatically and the coverage could be expanded and made more reliable. and peace of mind. Sensors are currently being used copiously in applications. High data rate transmissions between computers and consumer electronics like digital cameras. which might have an equal number of wireless devices operating at the same time in the same space. Robert Frost wrote in Mending Walls. Often. [12] UWB radio has the potential for very high data rates using very low power at very limited range. placing these wired sensors only on the most visible entrances. It could even be tailor-made to form security bubbles around a given area in need of protection. and other properties. security. families cut corners. though. Installation of modern security systems is time consuming and expensive. automobiles. and other critical life signs. aesthetically pleasing with no wires. and technologically elegant. UWB can be used to transport the sensor 24 . which will lead to the applications well suited for WPAN. With a wireless solution.

the UWB solution provides a comfortable ―bedside manner‖ for a patient in need of constant monitoring. for medical imaging.4. Figure 3.4:Removing the sensor wires improves patient comfort[11] 25 . A UWB sensor network frees the patient from the tangle of wired sensors. but can also function as a sensor of respiration.3 Medical sensor wiring can be invasive [11] Figure3. Noticeably devoid of wires in Figure 3. in some instances. and.information without wires. heartbeat.

for example with GPS. With the new radar capability created by the addition of UWB. Location and tracking with a smaller range could change the way we organize and track items.3 . collision avoidance sensors. 26 . intelligent highway initiatives. This. and the tracking of high-value assets for security and efficient utilization. and through-the-wall public safety applications.3. smart airbags. UWB localizers can be strategically placed in a network of wireless signposts along a trail to mark the route. including fire fighters in a burning building. an injured skier on a ski slope. has changed the way we travel. These applications could improve security of material goods. Some of the key new radar applications in which UWB is likely to have a strong impact include automotive sensors.3. in turn.1. or children lost in the mall or amusement park [17]. They can be used to find people in a variety of situations. Some varieties of UWB radio can be used to determine the range between UWB radios indoors. help us find our car keys and even keep pace with our children when they are away from us. 3.Position Location and Tracking Location and tracking on a large scale. UWB implementations allow the precise determination of location and the tracking of moving objects within an indoor space to an accuracy of several centimeters. personal security sensors. Though UWB is not an efficient solution for outdoor location (the ranges are too short).1.3.4 . it is an excellent solution for short-range problems. the radar market will grow dramatically and radar will be used in areas currently unthinkable. enables the delivery of location-specific content and information to individuals on the move. precision surveying.Radar UWB signals enable inexpensive high definition radar. hikers injured in a remote area. police officers in distress.

Typically this will be many Gigahertzes. ultra wideband radio technology is gaining considerable acceptance and being proposed for use in a number of areas.4. is a form of transmission that occupies a very wide bandwidth. The key characteristics and potential application areas of UWB-RT were discussed. the members of the group have summarized their work that UWB RT or Ultra-Wide Band radio technology offers many advantages. ultra wide band technology. as the name implies UWB. Last but not least. and it is this aspect that enables it to carry data rates of Gigabits per second. and a brief overview of the status of this emerging wireless technology was given. As such UWB RT. especially in terms of very high data transmission rates which are well beyond those possible with currently deployed technologies. In addition. this report constitutes but an incomplete introduction to UWB-RT and provides a mere glimpse at the potential capabilities of this unconventional but promising wireless technology. 27 . Commercial deployment of UWB-RT and its application is only on the verge of being explored and the development of devices towards form and power factors suitable for widespread integration in mobile platforms and appliances will remain a challenge for some time to come. Conclusions After it was made research about UWB radio.

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