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**Background | Recall from that the derivative of a function in the form
**

using the chain rule. That is, in general: can be found

For instance, if

(

) ( )

Because it can be put into the form , where , and ( ). Consequently, from the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, it follows that the integral of df/dx should give us , plus an arbitrary constant of integration. Hence: ∫ ( ) ( )

The method of u-substitution allows us to apply the principle in reverse, and thus find the antiderivative of certain functions.

**Definition | As alluded to above, u-substitution is the “inverse” of the chain rule of
**

differentiation, and used as a method to find anti-derivatives and integrals. █ Let I ⊆ 𝕽 be an interval and g(x) : [a,b] I be a function which is continuously differentiable. Also let f(x): I 𝕽 be a continuous function. Then, for any such function, ∫ Where F is the anti-derivative of f.

**Example 1 | Evaluate the integral:
**

∫ Here we can clearly see that the derivative of is . Therefore, write:

This means that du = (4x – 1) dx.

First. is to replace u with the original g(x): Example 2 | Evaluate the integral ∫ While it may not be obvious at first glance. This yields a much simpler equation to solve: ∫ The last step of course. [ ( )] [ ( )] √ Note that you must wait until you have replaced u with g(x) to evaluate the integral. and then put g(x): ∫ Now evaluate the integral. In particular we will replace with u and (4x – 1) dx with du. as the limits are given in terms of x. so we write: Replacing these into the original equation. this is also a problem where u-substitution can be used. we will use our knowledge of trigonometric identities and re-write the integrand as: So the integral is: ∫ Now we can see that the cos(x) is clearly the derivative of sin(x). we can substitute into the original equation. .From here.

∫ √ The following require may u-substitution to be done twice. Here. we will now replace the original equation with u and du. We can see that the derivative of coefficient shortly. 5. we must divide du by 3a. ∫ √ . We will show how to deal with this extra As usual. 2. ∫ ∫ EXERCISES Integrate each of the following: 1. it becomes quite difficult. ∫ 7. However. ∫ 9. However. it might be relatively easy to evaluate by expanding the polynomial. If we knew n. ∫ ∫ 4. in order to get t2.Example 3 | Given that a and b are real numbers. 3. This is possible. if n is large. ∫ ∫ Hint: tan(x) = sin(x)/cos(x) 8. only because a is a constant. We write: is 3at2. and a and b are rational numbers. and that n is an integer. and a and b are irrational. using u-substitution proves a convenient method. ∫ 6. evaluate the integral ∫ This is a more abstract example. and n is relatively small.

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