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Every society has an organizational principle, with authority figures, with defined roles and obligations. There are written or oral laws. Some societies are tightly knit, while others are very loosely organized. Political institution is one of the important social institutions which keep the society, organized and united through the organ of government. There are four elements in political institution they are 1. Population 2. Territory 3. Government 4. Sovereignty Without these political institution cannot be formed.
A government is an institution entrusted with making and enforcing the rules of a society as well as with regulating relations with other societies. In order to be considered a government, a ruling body must be recognized as such by the people it purports to govern. A person or group that considers itself the leading body of a society has no power if the members of the society do not recognize the person or group as such.
Types of Governments Monarchy
Monarchy is a political system in which a representative from one family controls the government and power is passed on through that family from generation to generation. Example: Saudi Arabia is a monarchy. Until recently it was an absolute monarchy, meaning that the king had complete control of the country.
Democracy is a political system in which citizens periodically choose officials to run their government. Example: Nepal
Authoritarianism is a political system that does not allow citizens to participate in government. Example: Zimbabwe is controlled by an authoritarian leader whose human rights violations and disastrous economic policies have brought on international condemnation.
e. Administrating the laws: This is the job of the elected government who direct the bureaucratic part of government.and the manner of collecting those resources. the huge range of civil servants or bureaucrats which include the police. to fund the universal education system B. social welfare officers. taxation) must pay to be able to fund the actions that the various laws generate e. the opposition. the courts. One of the major laws that government makes concerns the amount of resources . through the political system a society sets its goals and the methods of achieving these goals C. The political system also includes the whole adult population in their roles as a)voters b)pressure groups from the smallest neighborhood group to the largest lobbying groups. Introducing laws: This is the role of the parliament which includes both the elected government and the elected members of the parties which didn’t achieve government i. 3. So from this point of view the role of politically powerful is to favor one class . This includes debating over whether these laws should be enacted or not.g. this is the job of the various levels of the Judiciary i. Example: Cambodia ROLES OF POLITICAL INSTITUTION:A. 2. Conflict sociology: focuses more on the inequality of power and resources . Liberal democracy answer: the poltical sphere of modern society has the three interconnected jobs which are carried out by these different sets of political groups: 1. education employees.e. Judging: Judging on whether these laws are fair and whether the administration of these laws is fair. Functionalist theory Talcott Parsons summarizes all this as the 'goal attainment role' of politics i. etc.e.Totalitarianism Totalitarianism is a political system under which the government maintains tight control over nearly all aspects of citizens’ lives. that the general public (i.e.
CRITICISM OF POLITICAL INSTITUTION If there is more political institution there may be conflict in the state or country. FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL INSTITUTION 1. which people in every society need. Economic Systems The two dominant economic systems in the world are capitalism and socialism. This involves the production of goods and the organization of labor. they must have something to exchange. 4. Economic and political institutions are related. Provide for the welfare of members of society. The customs surrounding exchange and distribution of goods and services shape societies in fundamental ways. Capitalism Capitalism is a system under which resources and means of production are privately owned. . The adjudication of conflict (Court). ECONOMIC The economy is the institution that provides for the production and distribution of goods and services. 5. When people rely on others for goods or services. buying and selling. Most societies have varying blends of the two systems. such as currency (in industrialized societies) or other goods or services (in non-industrialized societies). citizens are encouraged to seek profit for themselves. Common hybrids of capitalism and socialism are welfare capitalism and state capitalism. Whilst it is also the institution through which people can oppose this unfairness. and success or failure of an enterprise is determined by free-market competition. Sometimes they can provide these things for themselves. and sometimes they rely on others to provide them. The Institutionalization of norms (Laws). The enforcement of laws. And if the parties cannot gain the major voting then the government cannot be formed on its own. Protection of Society from external threat. 3. the provision of care and similar factors. 2. Every society has systems of provision or procurement.(or ethnic group or gender etc) over another. not just money.
S. State capitalism State capitalism is a system under which resources and means of production are privately owned but closely monitored and regulated by the government. Diversity in the workplace: Once the bastion of white males. the good of the whole society is stressed more than individual profit. and the government maintains control of the economy. Example: South Korea’s government works closely with the country’s major companies to ensure their success in the global marketplace. Self-employment: New. but the government does regulate business practices. . and teachers. Example: Sweden allows private business ownership. developing nations now produce the raw materials for the world’s multinational corporations. communications professionals. Demand for educated professionals: The postindustrial economy is driven by trained professionals such as lawyers. Most U. but the government controls a significant part of the economy. affordable communications technology has allowed more people to go into business for themselves. Poorer. doctors. professional offices are heavily populated by women and minorities in today’s society. Socialism Socialism is a system under which resources and means of production are owned by the society as a whole. rights to private property are limited.Example: The United States is one of the most purely capitalistic societies in the world. Economic Trends There are several important trends: Globalization: The expansion of economic activity across many borders characterizes the global economy. These multinational companies control most of the world’s economy. Example: China is a socialist country. businesses are privately owned. The government owns and controls almost all natural resources Welfare capitalism Welfare capitalism is a system that features a market-based economy coupled with an extensive social welfare system that includes free health care and education for all citizens.
So. 3. as a citizen it’s our duty to respect all the institutions and respect its functions for a betterment of society and the nation. 2. CRITICISM OF THE ECONOMIC INSTITUTION The country’s future and fate is highly dependent on the economy of the country.FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS 1. . Provide methods for the production of goods and services. These all functions are important aspects of society and if the duties should be performed in a proper and organized way than every society can improve. If the economy of the country falls then they should be dependent on others and the government cannot do or perform its activities and it cannot develop the nation. Enable society’s members to consume goods and services which are produced. Provide methods for the distribution of goods and services.
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