GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication
Architecture, Functionality and Management
Submitted by- VAZIR TERII, KURUKSHETRA 30/08/2010

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication


This record is concerned about my industrial training during the Summer Vacations after 2nd year. In course of B.Tech (Electronics And Communications Engineering) from Tecnology Education And Research Integrated Institute,Kurukshetra , it is required to undergo a practical training. Main objective of the training is to acquire knowledge and attitude of practical nature which can be learned in industrial environment. We have taken our Practical training at BHARTI AIRTEL LTD, Gurgaon. During this training, I learnt many new things about the industry and the current requirements of companies. This training proved to be a milestone in my knowledge of present industry scenario and a practical know how of the technology that is used in present communication techniques. It developed an awareness of general workplace, behavior and interpersonal skills.


GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication



This is to certify that this “TRAINING DOCUMENT ON GSM ARCHTECTURE, FUNCTIONALITES & MANAGEMENT” is the bonafide work of “Vazir ” carried out his industrial training under my supervision. who

Mr. Jaswant Rawat Zonal Team Manager Bharti Airtel Ltd Gurgaon


Last but not the least. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Every endeavor. Initially. I would like to take this opportunity to thank and show my gratitude to the stalwarts of this esteemed organization. Internally motivated to undertake some appreciable work as a part of curriculum of bachelor’s degree. I would like to thank our project guide Mr. Unsure though but with a hope and then I was introduced to the project work to be completed. In addition I would like to thank Mr. I undertook this project. Aditya Choudhary sir and Mr. I had hardly thought of the kind of work I was going to do. I understand takes an indomitable urge. I would like to acknowledge all the people who are nevertheless involved in the project directly or indirectly made it a success. Jaswant Rawat sir for his excellent guidance and time to time support. perseverance and proper guidance especially when it is most needed. Sikander sir of the operation and maintenance Department of MSC location for their continuous support and encouragement throughout the project work.

Chapter 2: Introduction to GSM: • • • • Page No. Edge 2.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 5 Table of Contents Index Chapter 1: Introduction to Bharti Airtel Ltd. 8 GSM history Services provided by GSM GSM specifications Mobile subscriber identities in GSM 10 11 11 12 Chapter 3: GSM Evolution • • Cellular network generations Various technologies for data transmission 1. GPRS 14 16 Chapter 4: Hardware technicalities of GSM • • Architecture of GSM GSM telecommunication services 18 20 BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

Uplink frequency 2. TDMA • • 36 Channel structure Call origination and termination Handover 37 40 42 47 • Chapter 8: NSS Chapter 9: BSS BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . FDMA 2.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 6 Chapter 5: Antenna and Transmission • • Important features of a tower Radio resource management 1. Downlink frequency 31 33 • • Tower mounted amplifier Transmission topologies 34 35 Chapter 7: Call flow • Multiple access scheme 1.

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication • • • • 7 BTS BSC TRAU Hardware 55 57 57 58 62 Chapter 10: MS Chapter 11: Operations and Maintenance • • • • OMT OSS MapInfo professional Ericsson Win foil 65 65 66 66 67 70 Chapter 12: Project management CONCLUSION BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

is an Indian company offering telecommunication service in 18 countries. Enterprise and Digital TV.Sunil Bharti Mittal Airtel comes to you from Bharti Airtel Limited. Bharti Airtel formally known as bharti –tele-venture ltd. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.(BTVL). The Digital TV business provides Direct-to-Home TV services across India. The Enterprise business provides end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate customers and national and international long distance services to telcos. The mobile business offers services in India. the fundamental focus remains unchanged: seek out the best technology in the world and put it at the service of pure ultimate user: our customer. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .Mobile. The company is structured into four strategic business units .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 8 Chapter 1 Introduction to Bharati Airtel LTd. Bharti Airtel since its inception has been at the forefront of technology and has pioneered several innovations in the telecom sector. The Telemedia business provides broadband. it also act as carrier for national and international long distance communication service. The company has submarine cable landing station at Chennai which connects the submarine cables connecting Chennai and Singapore. it offers it telecom service under the Airtel brand and is headed by Sunil Bharti Mittal. As we spread wings to expand our capabilities and explore new horizons.” . IPTV and telephone services in 89 Indian cities. one of Asia’s leading integrated telecom services providers with operations in India. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Bharti airtel is world largest single country mobile operator and fifth largest telecom operator in the world in terms of subscriber base. it is the largest cellular service provider in India with more than 135 million subscription as may 2010. it also offers fixed line service and broadband service internet access (dsl )in over 89 cities India. Telemedia.

joint managing director and current chief executive officer of Indian officer of India and south Asian operation will became the Sanjay Kapoor will replace Manoj Kohli and will be the CEO effective from 1 April 2010. Ericsson agreed for first time to be paid by the minute for installation maintenance of their equipment rather than being paid up front this unable the company to provide pan India phone call rates of Rs 1per minute (us$0. In January 2010 company announced that Manoj Kohli . Mobile Telemedia Enterprise Digital TV The mobile business offer service in 18 countries across the Indian subcontinent and Africa.4% for Vodafone essar. The company is structured in four strategic business units.6% share of the wireless service market followed by 17. The enterprise business provide end to end telecom solution to corporate customer and national and international long distance service to tellcos.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 9 It is known for being the first mobile phone in the world to outsource everything except marketing and sales . BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Telemedia business provides broadband IPTV and telephone services in 89 Indian cites .Its network (base station microwave link etc is maintain by ericsson and nokia Siemens network.The digital TV business provides direct to home TV service across India.02 minute). Globally Bharti Airtel is the 3rd largest in the country mobile operator by subscriber base behind china mobile and china Unicom is supported by IBM and transmission power by another company.7% for reliance communication and India has 24.

because not only was the mobile equipment limited to operation within national boundaries. Each country developed its own system.1 GSM HISTORY During the early 1980s.2 Services provided by GSM From the beginning. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 10 Chapter 2 Introduction to GSM 2. so economies of scale and the subsequent savings could not be realized. analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe. and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system. This was an undesirable situation. the planners of GSM wanted ISDN compatibility in terms of the services offered and the control signalling used. The Europeans realized this early on. but also in France and Germany. The proposed system had to meet certain criteria: * Good subjective speech quality * Low terminal and service cost * Support for international roaming * Ability to support handheld terminals * Support for range of new services and facilities * Spectral efficiency * ISDN compatibility 2. but there was also a very limited market for each type of equipment. which in a unified Europe were increasingly unimportant. radio transmission limitations. particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. However.

such as X. and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of access methods and protocols. GSM users can send and receive data. do not allow the standard ISDN B-channel bit rate of 64 kbps to be practically achieved Using the ITU telecommunication services can be divided into bearer services. speech is digitally encoded and transmitted through the GSM network as a digital stream.000 hertz (cycles per second) Milliseconds (ms)—one-thousandth of a second Watt (W)—a measure of power of a transmitter 2. and supplementary services. SinceGSM is a digital network. although an audio modem is required inside the GSM network to interwork with POTS.3 GSM SPECIFICATIONS: • • • • • • Bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits. the broader the bandwidth. ISDN. similar to that of 911) A variety of data services is offered. The IMSI is the only absolute identity that a subscriber has within the GSM system. teleservices. mobile network code (MNC) (to identify the PLMN). It consists of a mobile country code (MCC). As with all other communications. Packet Switched Public Data Networks. and a PLMN unique mobile subscriber identification number (MSIN). 2. to users on POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). a modem is not required between the user and GSM network. eight bits are equivalent to one byte Frequency—the number of cycles per unit of time.25 or X.000. at rates up to 9600 bps. The IMSI consists of the MCC followed by BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .4 MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITIES IN GSM International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) An IMSI is assigned to each authorized GSM user. the faster data can be sent Bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data. The most basic teleservice supported by GSM is telephony.32.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 11 in terms of bandwidth and cost. frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) Megahertz (MHz)—1.

Under certain condition (such as traffic system disruption and malfunctioning of the system). • The Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) The MSRN is allocated to the MS. The MSISDN numbers is composed of the country code (CC) followed by the National Destination Code (NDC). The MSRN is there for every mobile terminated call. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 12 the MNC and MSIN and shall not exceed 15 digits. Subscriber Number (SN).: location updating). which shall not exceed 15 digits. Here too the first two digits of the SN identify the HLR where the mobile subscriber is administrated. • Mobile Station ISDN Number The MS international number must be dialled after the international prefix in order to obtain a mobile subscriber in another country. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) ATMSI is a MSC-VLR specific alias that is designed to maintain user confidentiality. unauthorized (black).g. It is assigned upon demand by the HLR on a per-call basis. • International Mobile Equipment Identity The IMEI is the unique identity of the equipment used by a subscriber by each PLMN and is used to determine authorized (white). It is used in the case of systeminternal signalling transactions in order to identify a subscriber. In conjunction with the IMSI. The correlation of a TMSI to an IMSI only occurs during a mobile subscriber’s initial transaction with an MSC (e. It is assigned only after successful subscriber authentication. the MSC can direct individual TMSIs to provide the MSC with their IMSI. it is used to ensure that only authorized users are granted access to the system. and black marketed (gray) GSM hardware..

thus uniquely identifying each cell with an associated LA. • Cell Identifier The CI an identifier assigned to each cell within a network. the CI is only unique within a specific Location Area. However. the Cell Global Identity (CGI) is produced which is also internationally unique.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 13 • Location Area Identity Each Location Area within the PLMN has an associated internationally-unique identifier (LAI). When combined with the internationally unique LAI for its associated LA. The LAI is broadcast regularly by BTSs on the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 14 Chapter 3 GSM EVOLUTION 3.1 CELLULAR NETWORK GENERATIONS 1G • • • Analogue services are referred here. 2 technologies GSM & CDMA are defined here. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . • 2G • • • • • Widespread introduction in1990s Digital services are referred here. Circuit switching. Secure air interface. Provided internet access & improved voice quality. For voice only. Insecure air interface. didn’t provide for sms or other data services.

5G/3G • • Packet switching rather than circuit switching EDGE provides data rates 3 times greater than GSM/GPRS.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 15 2. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

needed for a site depend on the amount of traffic that is expected to be handled by the site as well as the site configuration. higher capacity. EDGE enables GSM operators to offer higher-speed mobile-data access. It allows consumers to connect to the Internet and send and receive's GSM. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 16 3.2. web pages and photographs. This enables services such as color Internet browsing.2 GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enabled networks offer 'always-on'.2 VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES FOR DATA TRANSMISSION The Wireless Evolution is achieved through the GSM family of wireless technology platforms . EDGE.providing a direct link into next generation solutions including GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) . and free up GSM network capacity to accommodate additional voice traffic. GPRS. three times faster than possible with an ordinary GSM/GPRS network. Internet-based content and packet-based data services. serve more mobile-data customers.1 EDGE EDGE (or Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) is a 3G technology that delivers broadband-like data speeds to mobile devices.2. 3. EDGE technology also enables each base station transceiver to carry more voice and/or data traffic. including digital images. It is the basis of a powerful family of platforms for the future . 3.3-GMSK signals. powerful visual communications.5 to 3 times while meeting essentially the same bandwidth occupancy as the original 0. The technology EDGE has been designed to increase GPRS on-air data rates 2. e-mail on the move.

GPRS utilizes multiple BTSs in the same BSS.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 17 multimedia messages and location-based services. which are reconstructed at the SGSN.6 kbps) and message length of the Short Message Service (160 characters). The MS sends different packets to different BTSs. This enables the MS to use a higher transmission speed than one transmission channel can handle. GPRS will fully enable the Internet applications you are used to on your desktop from web browsing to chat over the mobile network BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . GPRS is used to implement highspeed data transmission between the MS and some other party. GPRS facilitates several new applications that have not previously been available over GSM networks due to the limitations in speed of Circuit Switched Data (9.

whose functions and interfaces are specified. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). operation . performs the switching of calls between the mobile users. also known as the air interface or radio link. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile services Switching Center across the A interface. The Network Subsystem. and between mobile and fixed network users.1 Architecture of the GSM network A GSM network is composed of several functional entities. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 18 Chapter 4 Hardware technicalities of GSM network 4. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts.

GSM ARCHITECTURE MS BSS NSS OSS MT SIM BSC BTS TRAU RR MSC HLR VLR EIR AUC GMSC BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 19 The GSM network architecture as defined in the GSM specifications can be grouped into four main areas: • • • • Mobile station (MS) Base-station subsystem (BSS) Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS).

Some of the transmission modes and rates already used in modern data networks are implemented. If a GSM subscriber roams out of the entitled area there is no possibility of establishing communication (roaming not allowed). The bearer services describe what the network can offer (e. The following.2. The bearer services are pure transport services for data. speech.2 GSM TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES 20 The ETSI Standards define the telecommunication services.1 Bearer Services Bearer services are telecommunication services providing the capability of transmission of signals between access points. The use of GSM telecommunication services is subject to subscription. others are planned. 4. already implemented.g.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 4. bearer services provide unrestricted information transfer between the reference points in the mobile stations. A basic subscription permits participation in those GSM telecommunication services that are generally available. except the use of the tele-service emergency call. With D900/D1800 the GSM telecommunication services offered to the GSM subscriber are subdivided as follows: • • • Bearer services (for data only) Tele-services (for voice and data) Supplementary services Bearer services and tele-services are also called basic telecommunication services. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . data and fax).

emergency call and short message service).2.2 Teleservices are telecommunication services including terminal equipment functions.g. which provide communication between users according to protocols established by agreement between network operators.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 21 • Data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous) + basic PAD (packet assembler Data CDS (circuit duplex synchronous) PAD CDA (dedicated PAD access) Alternate speech/data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous) Speech followed by data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous) Data compression on the GSM radio interface Teleservices Dissembler) access. The following tele-services have already been realized: • • Telephony Emergency call • • • • Short message service (SMS) Short message cell broadcast Automatic facsimile (group 3) Alternative speech and facsimile (group 3) BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Tele-services use both low layer and high layer functions for the control of communication from terminal to terminal. The teleservices are user end-to-end services (e. • • • • • 4.

Consequently. Most supplementary services are directly inherited from a fixed network. They must be offered together or in association with a basic telecommunication service.2. Supplementary services extend beyond the normal bearer services and teleservices (basic telecommunication services) and can be subscribed to separately. The same supplementary service may be applicable to a number of telecommunication services. • Number Identification Services ♦ Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) ♦ Calling line identification restriction (CLIR) • Call Offering Services ♦ Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) ♦ Call forwarding on mobile subscriber busy (CFB) ♦ Call forwarding on no reply ♦ Call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .3 Supplementary Services Supplementary Services modify or supplement a basic telecommunication service. with minor modifications (when needed) to adapt to mobility. Examples of supplementary services are calling line identification and call waiting. in contrast to basic telecommunication service.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 22 4. In the following a supplementary service is called simply service. they cannot be offered to a customer as a stand-alone service.

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication • Call Completion Services ♦ Call hold ♦ Call waiting (CW) • • • Multi-Party Service Charging Services ♦ Advice of charge (AOC) Call Restriction Services ♦ Barring of all outgoing calls (BAOC) ♦ Barring of all outgoing international calls (BOIC) 23 ♦ Barring of all outgoing international calls except to home PLMN country ♦ Barring of all incoming calls (BAIC) ♦ Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside home PLMN country (BIC Roam) • Closed User Group (CUG) • Call rates are highly discounted with in a closed user group. Indian Railways is the biggest closed user group in India. ter 6 ANTENNA & TRANSMISSION . Its service provider is Bharti. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

• Vertical antennas are having two types of tilts: electrical (for waveform polarization) and mechanical (for dropping the signal at any desired angle) tilt. Antenna gain is the gain over an isotropic radiator in the direction of maximum intensity (expressed in dB). All the slots are equidistant.5 m. • The Polarization mismatch b/w Rx and Tx antennas reduce the received signal level.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 24 CHAPTER . BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . • • Vertical antennas are used for the latching the user mobile with the tower. • The vertical height of the antenna can also be varied mechanically according to the vertical antenna on the tower in front of this tower. • Tower is divided into 3 sectors of 120 degrees each & each of these sectors have a hop and a vertical antenna installed on them.6 6.1 IMPORTANT FEATURES OF A TOWER: • Polarization can be defined as the direction of the electrical field vector. • Tower height is measured by the number of slots that are being used. Two types of polarization are used: For mobile communication – vertical polarization For broadcast systems – horizontal polarization. generally of 1. • Beam width is generally the angular distance b/w the -3dB points of the antenna pattern main lobe.

. where f is frequency & D is length. • The Hops control the network of Airtel through the E1s that travel in the microwaves. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .15 V. • At the back of the hop there is a point for measuring the attenuation of the Hop.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication • 25 There are 2 types of towers: vertical and triangular towers. • • Antenna gain = 20 log f + 20 log D. Antenna path loss = 20 log f + 20 log D. where f is frequency& D is diameter. • • The Hops are linked to the transmission rack in the site with the help of an RF cbl. The hops receive and transmit these microwaves.5 V. The angle of the Hop is put according to the next hop on the other tower. The best possible voltage is 2. The triangular towers need pole mounting for installation of any hop or vertical antenna. The voltage should be in the range of 2 to 2. We open it and we measure the voltage of the hop using a multimeter. Both these hops should have a perfect view of each other else there can be problems in the network.

Frequency GSM900 GSM1800 Range 880 . However there are several bands where GSM terminals are. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Downlink frequency: This is the frequency of the signal when it travels from the BTS to the Mobile.915 MHz uplink and 935 .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 6. Uplink frequency: This is the frequency of the signal when it travels from Mobile to the BTS.1880 MHz downlink Now there are 2 types of frequencies: uplink and downlink frequency.1785 MHz uplink and 1805 . Furthermore.960 MHz downlink 1710 . Uplink frequency: 890-915 MHz Downlink frequency: 935-960 MHz The difference between the uplink and the downlink frequency is of 20 MHz. GSM terminals may incorporate one or more of the GSM frequency bands listed below to facilitate roaming on a global basis. or will shortly be available.2 RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: 26 In principle the GSM system can be implemented in any frequency band.

if we use it then due to the high frequency more power will be required and it will also travel a smaller distance. And because of the less frequency it will cover more and more distance and less number of antennas will be required.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 27 The uplink frequency is less than the downlink frequency because the mobile has less power because it works on battery. But in the case of downlink frequency.33 m) frequency band because we will have to give less power for this. 6.17 m) frequency band.3 TOWER MOUNTED AMPLIFIER BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . it is more because we supply power continuously to the antenna (BTS). In the case of 1800 MHz (wavelength = . We usually use 900 MHz (wavelength = . So more antennas will be required and it will result to increase in the interference.

Main path and production path are there. Enhanced risk of service failure due to absence of protection path. Chain Topology: Linear approach to connect several BTS.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 28 Tower mounted amplifier helps to give a boost to the uplink frequency so that it can properly reach the TRU in a good shape or manner. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .SNCP protocol is used here.4 TRANSMISSION TOPOLOGIES 1. 2. 6. Ring Topology: Redundancy gives some protection if a link fails.

Star Topology: Expensive as each BTS has its own link. Dependability upon single node.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 29 3. If central nod efails all connected nodes also link feature always results in loss of BTS. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

between different mobile stations situated in different cells. Usually TDMA is used with a FDMA structure. into 8 bursts. TDMA allows several users to share the same channel. a frequency is assigned to a user. using a FDMA scheme. combined with frequency hopping. This scheme splits the radio channel. sharing the common channel. are assigned their own burst within a group of bursts called a frame. On the other hand. In GSM.577 msec. Normally a 25 MHz frequency band can provide 125 carrier frequencies but the first carrier frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and other services working on lower frequencies.1 MULTIPLE ACCESS SCHEME: The multiple access scheme defines how different simultaneous communications. A TDMA frame is formed with 8 BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . share the GSM radio spectrum. A mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). has been adopted as the multiple access scheme for GSM.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 30 Chapter 7 CALL FLOW 7. Each of the users. FDMA and TDMA Using FDMA. So the larger the number of users in a FDMA system. and it lasts approximately 0. with a width of 200 kHz. A burst is the unit of time in a TDMA system. explain why the number of users in a FDMA system can be "quickly" limited. into 124 carrier frequencies spaced one from each other by a 200 kHz frequency band. Each carrier frequency is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme. The limited available radio spectrum and the fact that a user will not free its assigned frequency until he does not need it anymore. a 25 MHz frequency band is divided. the larger the number of available frequencies must be.

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 31 bursts and lasts. are then assigned to a single user. The control channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks.2 CHANNEL STRUCTURE In GSM there are two types of channels: • • The traffic channels used to transport speech and data information. that form a TDMA frame. consequently. 4. 7. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .615 msec. Each of the eight bursts.

are also grouped in a 26-Multiframe but the internal structure is different. the mobiles will not need to transmit and receive at the same time that simplifies considerably the electronics of the system. the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by 3 bursts. *1 The Synchronization Channel (SCH). Three different types of BCHs can be distinguished: *0 The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). Here. Control channels: 1. which gives to the mobile station the training sequence needed in order to demodulate the information transmitted by the base station. The 26-Multiframe lasts consequently 120 Ms. The frames that form the 26-Multiframe structure have different functions: • • 24 frames are reserved to traffic. This idle frame allows the mobile station to perform other functions. which gives to the mobile station the parameters needed in order to identify and access the network. 1 frame is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). As a consequence. to provide the mobile station with the sufficient information it needs to synchronize with the network.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication Traffic channels (TCH) 32 Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26-Multiframe. In this 26-Multiframe structure. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . speech coding is done at around 7kbps instead of 13kbps. which double the capacity of the system. such as measuring the signal strength of neighboring cells. The last frame is unused. • Half-rate traffic channels (TCH/H). by the base station. Broadcast channels (BCH) The BCH channels are used.

by the base station. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH) The DCCH channels are used for message exchange between several mobiles or a mobile and the network. 2. 7.It is used. It is used for channel maintenance and channel control.It is used by the mobile station to request access to the network * The Access Grant Channel (AGCH) . The FACCH channels carry the same information as the SDCCH channels. Two different types of DCCH can be defined: *The Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). *The Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). It is used in order to exchange signaling information in the downlink and uplink directions. This channel is the answer of a base station to a RACH from the mobile station 3. *The Fast Associated Control Channels (FACCH) replace all or part of a traffic channel when urgent signaling information must be transmitted. * The Random Access Channel (RACH). It is used to alert the mobile station of an incoming call.3 CALL ORIGINATION AND TERMINATION BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 33 *2 The Frequency-Correction Channel (FCCH). which supplies the mobile station with the frequency reference of the system in order to synchronize it with the network. Three different types of CCCH can be defined: * The Paging Channel (PCH). Common Control Channels (CCCH) The CCCH channels help to establish the calls from the mobile station or the network. to inform the mobile station about which channel it should use.

The MSC/VLR checks if the mobile station is authorized to access the network. 2. MSC/VLR asks the corresponding BSC to allocate a traffic channel (a radio channel and a time slot). The MSC/VLR receives the message of a call request. 3. 6. 5. The BSC allocates the traffic channel and passes the information to the mobile station. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . 4. service will be denied.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 34 Call from Mobile Phone to PSTN: When a mobile subscriber makes a call to a PSTN telephone subscriber. MSC/VLR analyzes the number and initiates a call setup with the PSTN. If the mobile station is not authorized. the mobile station is activated. the following sequence of events takes place: 1. The called party answers the call and the conversation takes place. If so.

In the reverse direction. takes place. The MSC checks the VLR for the location area of the MS. through a paging request. The BSC converts (or transcodes) the speech to 64 Kbps and sends it over a land link or radio link to the MSC. that is. The MS codes the speech at 13 Kbps for transmission over the radio channel in the given time slot. If handover is not required. a new traffic channel is allocated to the mobile station and the handover is performed. 5. 3. the speech is received at 64 Kbps rate at the BSC and the BSC does the transcoding to 13 Kbps for radio transmission. 4.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 35 7. the sequence of events is as follows: 1. The GMSC routes the call to the MSC/VLR. The mobile station keeps on taking measurements of the radio channels in the present cell and neighbouring cells and passes the information to the BSC. The MS responds to the page request. The MSC then forwards the speech data to the PSTN. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . 7. 2. 6. after the subscriber answers. The MS generates a ringing signal and. The BSC decides if handover is required. if so. if required. the mobile station continues to transmit in the same frequency. The MSC contacts the MS via the BSC through a broadcast message. as discussed in the earlier case. Handover. the speech connection is established. Call from PSTN to Mobile Phone: When a PSTN subscriber calls a mobile station. The BSC allocates a traffic channel and sends a message to the MS to tune to the channel. The Gateway MSC receives the call and queries the HLR for the information needed to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR.

BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Cells under the control of different MSCs. which involve transferring a call between: • Channels (time slots) in the same cell • Cells (Base Transceiver Stations) under the control of the same BSC.4 HANDOVER Handover Types 36 There are 4 different types of handovers in the GSM system. • Cells under the control of different BSCs. Handover. the radio and fixed links required are not permanently allocated for the duration of a call. Cells in different BSS.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 7. is the switching of an on-going call to a different channel or cell. There are four different types of handover in the GSM system. The execution and measurements required for handover form one of basic functions of RR management. or handoff as it is called in North America. which involves transferring a call between: Internal Channels (time slots) External Cells within the same BSS in the same cell. but belonging to the same Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) • Cells under the control of different MSCs. In a cellular network.

except to notify it at the completion of the handover. at least once per second.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 37 Intra-BSS handovers are known as Internal handovers as they involve only one Base Station Controller (BSC). Handovers can be initiated by either the MS or the MSC (e. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . This information is passed to the BSC and MSC. they are managed by the BSC without involving the Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC). An important aspect of GSM is that the original (or anchor) MSC. with the exception of subsequent inter-BSC handovers under the control of the new (or relay) MSC. remains responsible for most call-related functions. based on the received signal strength. To save signalling bandwidth. Inter-BSS (either intra. During its idle time slots of a multiframe. and is used by the handover algorithm.g.or inter-MSC) are known as external handovers and are handled by the MSCs involved. the MS scans the BCCH of up to 32 neighbouring cells. and forms a list of the six best candidates for possible handover. as a means of traffic load balancing).

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is used just for security reasons. otherwise it is slipped. Location update: The network must always know our current location. it searches BCCH.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 38 Hand Over Causes: • • Hand over can be initialised either by MSC or MS. Also. Even when we are in the same MSC. HLR & VLR also gets updated. handset monitors BCCH after intervals of time (keeps on comparing new & old LAI). the earlier MSC sends all the information to the new MSC. Now. BCCH compares the new LAI with old LAI & same it does with CGI. mobile latches with it. TMSI is just in VLR & not in HLR. These are always sent in Radio link. Hand over decision is based on following parameters: o Received signal quality o Received signal length o Distance of MS from BTS o Drops below power budget margin • Each parameter has an operator defined threshold and handover decisions can be based on one or a combination of parameters. When mobile station moves from one place to another. there is a timer in our handset. The new MSC has to send the acknowledgement to the early MSC that is being updated. For this. When it reaches the new MSC. In idle state. whichever BCCH is strong. sending the TMSI. then the location gets updated. If it is not the same. the LAI is compared. IMSI is given to the user till it stays in that particular MSC. IMSI to it. if there are 2 different LAIs. BCCH provides with LAI & CGI. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

The message contains a 64-bit ciphering key used as a Session Key (Kc). If the SRES obtained from the mobile matches the SRES value obtained from the HLR. the subscriber authentication procedure completes successfully. The old subscriber's record is deleted. TMSI is always allocated by VLR & always sends TMSI on radio link because it is not a secure link. The RR BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . The new MSC replies back to the mobile via the Virginia BSC.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 39 then the HLR is contacted. The MSC initiates ciphering of the data being sent on the channel. The mobile passes the computed SRES value in the response. If MSC wants data from HLR then it has to tell the IMSI to it. Since the TMSI assignment is being sent after ciphering is enabled. Ciphering has already been enabled. Ask the Old MSC to delete the record for this subscriber. Authentication in GSM: Protects against intruders in air interface by maintaining authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets (RAND. The TMSI assigned to the mobile is also released.The MSC VLR decides to authenticate the subscriber. The RAND value received from the HLR is sent to the mobile. the relationship between TMSI and the subscriber cannot be obtained by unauthorized users. Pass information about the new subscriber to the new MSC. Kc). HLR has IMSI. Authentication centre is generally associated with HLR. The message also assigns a new Temporary Mobile Subscriber Id (TMSI) to the terminal. The SIM applies secret GSM algorithms on the RAND and the secret key Ki to obtain the session key Kc and SRES. The BSC replies back to the MSC. The new MSC replies back. so this message is transmitted with ciphering. so it changes the LAI & gets updated. These parameters will be used in the authentication process. a 128-bit random challenge (RAND) and a 32-bit Signed Response (SRES). The Old MSC replies back to the HLR. The BSC sends the CIPHERING MODE COMMAND to the mobile. SRES. indicating that ciphering has been successfully enabled. so it replies back to the new MSC. The HLR has updated all records. The GSM mobile replies back indicating that the new TMSI allocation has been completed. This IMSI is given to it by the previous MSC.

A8 algorithm for key generation AUTHENTICATION IN GSM: BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .  SIM is provided 4-8 digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM  3 algorithms are specified : . The BSC initiates RR release with the mobile. GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.A3 algorithm for authentication .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 40 connection is released by the MSC.A5 algorithm for encryption . The BSC informs the MSC that the RR connection has been released. The BSC replies with an Unnumbered Acknowledge message Security in GSM:  On air interface. The mobile sends a disconnect message to release the LAPm connection.


When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators.1 NSS (Network and switching system) The switching system is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . The AUC protects networks operators from different types of fraud found in today’s cellular world. the VLR connected to that MSC will request data the mobile station from the HLR.the HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 42 Chapter 8 NETWORK AND SWITCHING SYSTEM 7. the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. as it stores permanent data about the subscribers. Later. and activity status. Mobile services switching center (MSC) . The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. if the mobile station makes a call. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. including a subscriber’s service profile. location information.the MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. The HLR is considered the most important database. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area. and others.the VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. network interfacing. Authentication center (AUC). The switching system includes the following functional units: • • • • Home location register (HLR).a unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user’s identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. common channel signaling. Visitor location register (VLR).

unauthorized. 7. The implementation of OMC is called the operation & support system (OSS). The AUC and EIR implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC\EIR node.2 The operation and support system The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer costeffective support for centralized. AXE is a future-proof solution based on continuous research and development in the field of communications and meets the demands of the future by incorporating advances such as BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors & controls the system. or defective mobile stations.3 AXE SURVEY The AXE architecture is an “open architecture” which is capable of supporting a whole range of communication services for large or small network operators in public fixed and mobile networks. 7. regional & local operational & maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network.the EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication • 43 Equipment identity register (EIR). As important function of OSS is to provide a network overview & support the maintenance organizations.

AXE business communication services can be categorized as follows: • • • • • System and networking services Analogue extension services Digital extension service Attendant services Call distribution services AXE System has: System level 1: Highest system level at which nodes and networking configurations are defined. The main features of AXE are as follows: • • • AXE modularity Meeting network operators’ requirements AXE is a telecommunication node. AXE is fully scalable and can be dimensioned to offer cost effective support for all sizes of network applications. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . System level 2: This is further divided into AM based & Non-AM based systems.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 44 increased processor capacity. higher switching capacity and improved in-service performance (ISP). increased storage capacity.

For example. only one of the processor sides controls the applications hardware. which is the control part. the AXE system is divided into two parts: • • APT. Regional processors. which means. application hardware control and processing-intensive tasks such as protocol handling.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 45 Fig: NON-AM BASED AXE DIAGRAM In Non-AM based. the number and type of regional processors are adapted to the need. connection and disconnection of speech or signal paths that pass through the group switch as well as connection or disconnection of telephony devices to the speech or signal path. RP/RPG/RPP/RPI are used for routine repetitive processing. at any given time. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . impact on traffic handling. APZ is the computer system that runs the software programs controlling the operation of the switching part. The CP is duplicated with an A-side and a B-side. The architecture allows full scalability. which is the switching part. control may be swapped to the other side (if the fault is considered serious) with minimum. The Group Switch performs functions such as selection. APZ. thereby offering a high level of hardware fault tolerance as well as a high processor capacity. The work of the two central processors is continuously compared so that any fault is detected immediately. Group switch. 7. CP is duplicated. or no. APT provides the switching functions needed to implement a PSTN local exchange or node.3.1 APZ: Central Processor. In the event of a fault in the operational side. The two-processor sides operate such that. GS is generally seen as the hub around which the system is built.

The maintenance subsystem (MAS) handles the automatic maintenance functions in APZ. DLEB . one pair of DLHB boards and sixteen slots for device boards. This is achieved by means of duplicated interface boards called DLEB inside the GEM magazine.“Digital Link multiplexer for Existing equipment Board” DLHB -“Digital Link Handling Board. which are: • Fault detection BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . which stands for Generic Ericsson Magazine. GEM.”. one for each plane in the group switch.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 7. Each DLEB board can connect up to 4 DLHB boards (up to 4 GDM subracks) and there is always a need for two DLEB boards. The GDM consists of one pair of RP4s. Hardware not included in GEM is located in the GDM. is the main building block in APT and it can hold many important and fundamental APT functions: • • • • • Group Switch ET155 Transceivers Echo Canceller Interfaces to GDM subracks This means that the majority of hardware devices will be located in the GEM subracks. GDM (GENERIC DEVICE MAGAZINE): AXE equipment inside the older GDM subracks must in some way be able to co-exist with the new GEM magazines.2 APT: GEM (GENERIC ERICSSON MAGAZINE): 46 The GEM sub rack is one of the cornerstones in the new APT hardware.3. which is an older type of magazine. These boards interface the DL3 interface from the GDM subrack.

It is being used as a router. 4. Software faults are programming errors that can result in for log off or system restarts. These sup1 and sup2 control the switches below. This is optional. 3. 5. Normally 1 supervisor does the job but here at this site we use 2 supervisors in 1 LP3 switch.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication • Recovery diagnostics • Alarm generation within APZ 47 The MAS is responsible for the supervision of both software and hardware faults. SUP2) in it. We can use as many supervisors as we want. Hardware faults can be either temporary or permanent. Catalyst 4507 BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Supervisory engines can be placed in each and every slot. This is because it has supervisors (SUP1. All the optic fibres are terminated here in the ports in the L3 switch. L3 switch (CS02/CS01) 1. Protocols are also implemented through this switch. 2.

4 MSC: The Mobile-services Switching Centre is an exchange which performs all the switching and signaling functions for mobile stations located in a geographical area designated as the MSC area. 48 In this switch more amount of connections and ports are there if compared with the CS02. HSRP is implemented. The main difference between a MSC and an exchange in a fixed network is that the MSC has to take into account the impact of the allocation of radio resources and the mobile nature of the subscribers and has to perform in addition. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . at least the following procedures: · procedures required for location registration.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication CS01 Both of them are redundant. This is the other switch that is there in this site. JACK Panel The jack is for knowing whatever connections this particular site has and from where are these connections coming and how long they are. 7.

This is divided into 2 parts: 49 1. But if the traffic control malfunctions then the whole network goes down. All the connections that are made while we are talking on the mob phone are made and controlled by it. Running in parallel means that the normal and the standby group of hardware work simultaneously but the signals sent by both of them have a time difference in between. This unit takes the signal from the control unit. 2. But if the normal group malfunctions then the standby unit takes control. Control unit: This is the unit that controls the whole system or governs the system. The most important thing is that if the control unit malfunctions then the signals will keep on running. This unit has 2 kinds of hardware same as the BSC but the only difference in this is that they run in parallel. This means that when the signal is passing through the main group of hardware to the traffic control this signal has a time difference between it and the signal of the standby unit so the signal of the main unit reaches faster or earlier so it is taken. Here all the optic fibers terminate.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication · procedures required for handover. The network will be fine. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . No calls can be made. But we won’t be able to control the network. Traffic control: This is the unit that controls the traffic. And all the calls that the customers are making will not be affected.

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication


The BSS consists of BTS, BSC and TRAU. It is capable of performing the configuration, fault and maintenance task related activities. Operational & Maintenance Terminals (OMT)s are used for installing the software in network elements. Antenna, rectifiers, cabinets, feeders etc are required as transport essentials. The BSS network architecture includes the following main components:
• • •

BTS BSC TRAU 1. BASE TRANSEIVER STATION EQUIPMENT • Radio Transmitter/Receiver (TRX) • Signal processing and control equipment • Antennas and feeder cables The BTS comprises the entire radio network equipment installed in a site for a single cell or a group of cells. In case of sector cells, each cell refers to its own BTS, although all BTSs are physically grouped together in the same site (BTS). The BTS provides functions such as speech and channel encoding/decoding, transmission and reception, etc. The purpose of the BTS is to provide radio access to the mobile stations and manage the radio access aspects of the system.


GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication



GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication


The BSC is the main component of the BSS system and it provides the interfaces to the BTS and TRAU network elements and to the radio commander for operation and maintenance functions. All the main components of the BSC are duplicated in order to provide a fault-tolerant mechanism. The BSC allocates a channel for the duration of a call and maintains the call also monitoring the call quality. It controls the power transmitted by the BTS or MS. Thus administers the radio resources, it maps the radio channels to terrestrial channels and it supports handover procedures between the connected cells. 3. TRANSCODING AND RATE ADAPTATION UNIT (TRAU) For each traffic channel, the TRAU adapts the different transmission rates for speech and data calls on the radio side to the PCM 64 Kbit/s transmission rate on the MSC side. It also performs transcoding functions between the different speech coding algorithms used on the radio interface (full rate, half rate, enhanced full rate) and the interface (PCMA or μ law G.711) used within the terrestrial network.



Signals are filtered with Band Pass Filter (BPF). . 4. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED provides radio 2. TRXC: The transceiver controller controls all the functions for signal processing. Combiners(CDU) transmitter 3. 3. Functions: 1. 6. Interworking Switch: connects time slots to transceivers. 2. Timing Function: synchronization with the PCM link and generates the timing reference for the BTS. Interface between the transceiverstime slot basis. CDU-F used for Baseband hopping. 5. Flash card makes it possible to change a faulty DXU card without the need of loading BTS software from the BSC.DOUBLE TRANSCEIVER UNIT 1. radio receiving and transmitting. frequency transmission one a (TRU) CDU &CXU 4. Built in combiner for combining 2 TX signals into one output. 2. DTRU. RX: The receiver provides the radio frequency reception functionality for 1 transceiver. 2. DXU is the central control unit for BTS.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 53 1. BTS 2206 has maximum 3 CDUs. Contains 2 TRXs for transmission and reception of carriers. OMT is the BTS configuration tool. TX: The and the antenna system. 3. Digital Path: associated object in each of the PCM systems terminating in TG. 3. 1. Functions: 1. CDU-G is most commonly used for synthesizer hopping. 2. Central function: control part of the TG.

2. Climate Unit 9. DC connection unit 3.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 54 1. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . AC connection unit. Built up software controlled switches. DC filter 7. FCU: Fan control unit 4. PSU: Power supply unit 6. Makes it possible to reconfigure a cabinet without cable moving. IDM: For supply of 24V+ DC power to all units. Battery Fuse Unit 8. 3. Distributes RX signal from CDU to DTRUs. Other Standard Hardware Units: 1. 2. 5. EPC bus: For alarm signaling.

It is provided with internal stabilization circuit.G) rating is 45KV and if single sharing is there then 25KV. Generally both types of power are available at a site. The above diagram shows the general structure of power supply in a site. • Battery Bank (B. Then the power from distribution box is sent to the SMPS through which further supply is carried out. which if increased to 250KV then PIU disconnects the power. Mains give power of 230 to 250KV. • • Diesel Generator (D.B) has a backup of 300A/H. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 55 POWER SUPPLY: The power is supplied from power plants and is sent to the distribution box which may be single phase or three phase depending upon the kind of supply.

Critical and Non Critical.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 56 o -48 V supply is provided by B.e. • Maximum capacity of Air conditioner is about 3 tonnes depending upon the requirement. Non Critical are concerned with BTS All the equipments work on DC supply except the Air conditioning equipment which works on AC supply.B. • Now a days BBS has been replaced by SMPS. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .   • Critical are concerned with Transmission rack. o 48 V is converted to 24V when given to BTS. This is to prevent acid accumulation because -48V causes a current of 1A to flow in the reverse direction in the circuit. o There are two types of SMPS loads i. • Heat load is the factor from which we decide the power supply of AC.

Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that the MS features neither conflict with the air interface nor interfere with the network. Each feature is classed as being mandatory or optional. Mandatory features must be implemented as long as they pertain to the MS type.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 57 Chapter 10 Mobile station Introduction: The MS is the equipment used to access the network. any other MS. The choice of implementing optional features is left up to the manufacturers. Standardization of a minimum set of features is desirable to make a simple and uniform set of MS features independent of the MS manufacturer and type. or the MS itself.  Supplementary: A supplementary MS feature is directly related to the BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . There are three categories of MS features:  Basic: Basic MS features are directly related to the operation of basic telecommunication services. The MS consists of two independent parts:  Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card  Mobile Equipment (ME) MOBILE STATION FEATURES TYPES OF MS FEATURES: MS features are defined as mandatory or optional. This minimum set includes all the mandatory features.

When more than one GSM/PLMN is available in a given area this information is indicated. 7.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 58 operation of the supplementary service (e. recorded messages or a visual display based on signaling information returned from the PLMN. Both the country and PLMN are indicated. There is a special function MSC to generate DTMF tones. All Mandatory Features: 1. Subscription identity management: The IMSI is part of the SIM card and is physically secured and standardized in the GSM system.g. display of calling line number). All supplementary MS features are optional. 4. and preventing the initiation of further calls (except emergency calls). This indicator is necessary so that the user knows when roaming is taking place and that the choice of PLMN is correct. 5. On data calls. If the user can remove the SIM. 8. MS just sends a digital signal to this function in MSC. Country/PLMN indication: The country/PLMN indicator shows in which GSM/PLMN the MS is currently registered. 2.  Additional: Additional features are neither basic nor additional MS features are optional. the user must have the ability to select their preferred choice. This can be combined with the Country/PLMN Selection. Indication of call progress signals: Indications are given such as tones. its removal detaches the MS from the network causing a call in progress to be terminated. 3. International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI): Each MS must have a unique identity and must transmit this if requested by the PLMN. Display of called number: This feature enables the caller to check that the selected number is correct before call set-up. Service indicator: The user is informed that there is adequate signal strength (as far as can be judged from the received signal) to allow a call to be made and that the MS has successfully registered on the selected PLMN. supplementary. Country/PLMN selection: If more than one GSM/PLMN is available. 6. The IMEI is incorporated into a module which is built into the MS and is physically BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . this information may be signaled to the Data Terminating Equipment (DTE). Dual Tone Multi Frequency function (DTMF): The MS must be able to send DTMF tones.

The MS must therefore provide an indication to the user that a message has been received from the service center and must also send an acknowledgment signal to the PLMN. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . The implementation of each individual module is to be carried out by the manufacturer.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 59 secured. 12. Support of A5/1 and A5/2: Provisions are made for support of up to seven algorithms as well as the support of ‘no encryption’. The service center then transmits the message to the active MS user. 9. 11. The PLMN then returns this acknowledgment to the service center. Short message overflow indication: An MS user using the short message service will be informed when an incoming message cannot be received due to insufficient memory. Such messages are submitted to the service center by a telecommunications network user who can also request information on the message status from the service center. 10. to show that this indication has been activated. but other algorithms are optional. It is mandatory for A5/1 and A5/2 and non-encrypted mode to be implemented. Short message indication and acknowledgment: This feature allows delivery of short messages to a MS from a service center. Emergency call capabilities: It must be possible to make an emergency call even without a valid SIM.

1 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE TERMINAL (OMT) OMT is the ERICSSON software which is used at the site. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . due to the development of cellular radio networks. Now if each sector has equal traffic then the DB will be 3X4 (3 sectors having 4 TRX each). the increasing number of base stations. This transfer decreases considerably the costs of the maintenance of the system 11. Eg.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 60 Chapter 11 OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEMS (OSS) The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC. Rectification of faults is done as per their severity and service affecting nature. This is usually plugged into the DXU. has provoked that some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS. However. If only one of the sector has traffic in it and the other 2 point towards inhabitant areas then the IDB to be installed will be 1X12 (this means 1 sector has all the 12 TRX for itself). in order to control and monitor the GSM system. This is the software which helps to connect with the remote BTS with our laptop and then helps us to see whatever is happening inside the hardware. The DX has a flash card in which the IDB (installation data base) are installed through this software. Now IDBs are installed by this Software according to the traffic around that site and the different amount of traffic in the 3 different sectors of the tower.

) and add the script file with adding new word for answer the login prompt such as "login:" and "Password:".AXE etc. winfiol. WinFiol = command handling interpreter that is used for trouble shooting in Ericsson. The names of program executable files are IconF26A7E5C. you should change properties on the channel where u will use .it even tells us where the fault is in the hardware ans what type of fault is it.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 61 This software also tells us about the faults and the alarms raised in the BTS.1.exe. To make automate login with Winfiol. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . Now the best thing about this software is that if a site is down then till the point where the network isn’t fine it will show a red connecting line.and check the enable login on the channel properties after that you should fill the IP target(OSS.2 MAP INFO PROFESSIONAL: This is the software in which there is an outline of each and every site airtel has in a particular area and how are the sites connected to each other and finally to the hub site.3 ERICSSON WINFI OL Winfiol is developed by Ericsson AB and is used by 102 users of Software Informer. 11.the full description is given fault wise in this software. The most popular versions of this product among our users are: 7.. Winfiol is a remote connection software developed by Ericsson. It is similar to telnet but with little bit of graphical interface and at the same time with inbuilt command for scripts and provision for macros. There are the two types of faults: internal and external faults. So we will come to know where to check for the problem.exe.0 and 7. 11.

It may happen that sometimes fault is generated in the equipment. which is sent to center here the center is at Badlapur border. of the faulty equipment is generated. approximately 1month 10 days to and fro. 4) Email-ID 5) service technician BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . immediately serial no. Through warehouse information goes to authorized personnel of Airtel. hops etc. When the fault is generated at site.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 62 Chapter 12 Project management. As this is case of Airtel. giving all detail information about product. 12. order is put forth about quantity and fault. through software. And after this process again same consignment is sent back through coastal area. PDH. The duration of this shipment is 40 days. which is sent to warehouse for collection of faulty equipments. After generation of serial no. arrangement of vehicle is done. on the entire faulty products and then it decided whether product can be repaired or it should be replaced. From center it sent to Singapore through coastal area for lab test.1 SHIPMENT CYCLE DESCRIPTION (PROCESSES) The entire project of GSM architecture consists of different type of equipments in it. multiplexers. When this shipment is sent then at that time blue tag is attach to it containing all information about product which is faulty which contain information about as shown in tag format such as 1) prepared 2) Date 3) phone no. For example SDH. At Singapore lab testing is carried out. that particular product goes to warehouse.

R-states 10) serial no 11) magazine position etc as shown in the following format.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication company 63 6) country 7) company 8) customer name 9) product no.2 Block diagram of shipment carried out in GSM architecture Project Fault generated site Serial no generation Put order through software& quantity in Ware house Authorized person of Airtel Vehicle arrange ment Center Coastal area Singapore lab /test repair center BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . 12.

3 BLUE TAG FORMAT 1 )Prepared: 2 )Date: 4 )Email id: 5 )Service technician company: 6 )Country: 7 )Customer name : 12) magazine position 13) glot position 11) superior or product no incl R states: 22) failure verified Yes No 23) fault description 14) type if node 8) Site identity : 16) product sw release 18) fault situation 24) only replacement 25) CSR ref no.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 64 12. 16)fault category 19) unit failure 15) system sw release 3) Phone no: 9) Product no incl R state: 10) serial no 20)I instruction during fault situation 21) fault code CONCLUSION BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED .

that I gave the general flavor of GSM and the philosophy behind its design. For example. however. resulting in lighter. Telecommunications are evolving towards personal communication networks. anywhere. many functions of the mobile station can be built on one chipset. standards and interoperability is the compatibility with the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) that is evolving in most industrialized countries and Europe in particular (the so-called Euro-ISDN). I believe. Another point where GSM has shown its commitment to openness. and especially one covering a standard there are many details missing. BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED . The economies of scale created by a unified system are enough to justify its implementation. GSM is also the first system to make extensive use of the Intelligent Networking concept. by a single identity number and a pocket able communication terminal. by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) microprocessor technology.GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication 65 In this report. As with any overview. not to mention the convenience to people of carrying just one communication terminal anywhere they go. It is a standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition and innovation among suppliers. but that is probably the price that must be paid to achieve the level of integrated service and quality offered while subject to the rather severe restrictions imposed by the radio environment. instead of being distributed over every switch in the country. an international standard already deployed in many countries and specified as the backbone signaling network for ISDN. more compact and more energy-efficient terminals. In addition. in which services like 800 numbers are concentrated and handled from a few centralized service centers. I have tried to give an overview of the GSM system. whose objective can be stated as the availability of all communication services anytime. regardless of national boundaries. to anyone. This is the concept behind the use of the various registers such as the HLR. It was a monumental task. the signaling between these functional entities uses Signaling System Number 7. GSM is a very complex standard. to the benefit of the public both in terms of cost and service quality.

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