Petro chem.

1. What is the composition of crude? 2. What are the various hydro carbons present in crude? 3. What do u mean by euro 3 and euro 4? 4. What is octane no? 5. What is flooding, weeping in a column? 6. What do u mean by stripping? 7. What is circulating and internal reflux in a column? 8. What are the types of crude? 9. What are the products of atmospheric distillation unit? 10. What are the products of vacuum distillation unit? 11. What is the composition of heavy naptha? 12. What is cracking? 13. What is flashing? Ans 7. IR: The internal reflux distillation technique is based on a particular type of column
which combines mass transfer and heat transfer, necessary for the fractionation of mixed vapours generated by boiling of a multi-component liquid mixture, in an equipment basically made of a number of vertical finned coils, internally cooled by a cooling fluid. The heat transfer thus carried out, thanks to a specific surface of about 500 m2/m3, is associated to an extremely efficient mass transfer, also advantaged by the uniform wetting of the surface at all points. Ans 8 classification based on types of hydrocarbons present

Paraffin-Base Crude Oils These contain higher molecular weight paraffins which are solid at room temperature, but little or no asphaltic (bituminous) matter. They can produce high-grade lubricating oils. Asphaltic-Base Crude Oils Contain large proportions of asphaltic matter, and little or no paraffin. Some are predominantly naphthenes so yield a lubricating oil that is more sensitive to temperature changes than the paraffin-base crudes. Mixed-Base Crude Oils The "gray area" between the two types above. Both paraffins and naphthenes are present, as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Most crudes fit this category.

Russian Export Blend is a medium.2%. Italy. sweet North Sea crude with an API gravity of approximately 38 and a sulfur content of approximately 0. . is a mixture of several crude grades used domestically or sent for export. the Netherlands. but significant volumes are also shipped to the US and Mediterranean countries. Rolling price assessments are based on physical Brent-Forties-Oseberg crude oil cargoes loading not less than 10 days ahead and loaded free on board at the named port of shipment (‘Brent Dated). sour crude oil with an API gravity of approximately 32 and a sulfur content of approximately 1. sweet crude oil with an API gravity of approximately 40 and a sulfur content of approximately 0.3%. which act as the two primary delivery points. the US benchmark crude oil. Its spot price is reported at Augusta. Brent Blend is used for pricing around two-thirds of the crude traded internationally. The spot price of West Texas Intermediate is reported at Cushing. and Rotterdam. Most Brent Blend is refined in Northwestern Europe.Based on sulphur content Brent Blend Brent Blend is a light. the Russian benchmark crude. Russian Export Blend Russian Export Blend. is a light.4%. West Texas Intermediate West Texas Intermediate. Oklahoma.

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