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FOR CHILDREN – 2007
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG, NEW DELHI 110016 Telefax: 011 26561742 Website: www.ncert.nic.in
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN 2006 – 2007 AND 34th JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN – 2007
CONTENTS 1. 2. Guidelines for the Preparation of Exhibits and Models Guidelines for Organising the State Level Science Exhibition for Children 2005 – 2006 Objectives Call for Entries Screening, Evaluation and Monitoring of Entries Criteria for Evaluation of Exhibits Expenditure Norms Proforma for Filling Information about the List of Schools Participating in the State Level Science Exhibition for Children 2006 – 2007 Proforma for Information about the Exhibit/Model An Exemplary Write-up of an Exhibit “Automatic Light Controller in Railway Tunnels” Displayed in the 30th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition – 2003, Dehradun. Contact Address
GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS INTRODUCTION The National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi organises Jawaharlal Nehru Science Exhibition for Children (JNNSEC) every year to commemorate the birth anniversary of Pandit Nehru. Schools from all States and Union Territories, the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, the Navodaya Vidyayalya Samiti, Department of Atomic Energy Schools, and Demonstration Multipurpose Schools of Regional Institutes of Education participate in this national level exhibition. This national science exhibition is a culmination of various exhibitions organised in the previous year by the States, UTs and other organisations at district, zonal, regional and finally at the state levels. Such districts to state level exhibitions are to be organised during year 2006 - 2007 too. This as usual would form the first phase of preparations for the 34th Jawaharlal Nehru Science Exhibition for Children to be organised in November 2007. The main theme for the State Level Science Exhibitions for 2006 – 2007 would be Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. The main objective is to highlight the role of science and technology in the exploration of the new incognita of the mind and the shift that is taking place in mind; developing awareness about the importance of science and technology in the national development vis-à-vis the global changes; laying emphasis on the development of science and technology as a major instrument for achieving goals of self-reliance and socio-economic development; making the children realise the ways in which the science and technology have helped; and emphasizing role of science and technology for producing good quality materials for the use of society. Agriculture, energy, industry, health, natural resources and their management, chemicals, fertilisers, textiles, forestry, ocean development, shipping, information technology, computers, electronics, power, space, atomic energy, food processing, biotechnology, genetic engineering, mass media, nano-technology, cryogenics etc. are some of the new areas where science and technology have opened new pastures. It is envisaged that teachers and students would try to analyse all aspects of human endeavour with a view to identify where and how the new researches and development in science and technology can bring improvement in quality of life. The organisation of science exhibitions would also provide opportunities to all participating students, teachers, and visitors to get acquainted with different kinds of equipment, devices, and techniques. This exercise would enable the students and teachers to generate ideas for developing their exhibits for display in science exhibitions. In order to facilitate the preparation of exhibits and models for display
and the organisation of state level science exhibitions during 2006 – 2007, five subthemes have been identified. These are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Food and Agriculture; Industry and Environment; Energy; Educational Technology and Mathematical Modelling; and Transport and Communication
The importance of each sub-theme in the context of the main theme and a number of ideas for development of exhibits are given as follows. However, these ideas are only suggestive. Students are free to develop exhibits based on other ideas of their choice. I. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Intake of food is one of the most important areas of human activity. Application of the knowledge of various scientific principles has played an important role in providing new technology for improving food production. The agricultural activities, which lead to food production, is no longer a profession of only farmers. The modern agriculture cannot sustain itself without the support of scientists (research, improved variety of seeds and biotechnology), industry (fertilizers, chemicals, pesticides, tractors, farming machines and materials), transport (roads, trucks, waterways and railways), energy (electricity, irrigation, diesel, petrol), management (storage, processing, preserving, quality control and maintenance) and many other sectors. Agriculture is the backbone of India's economy; it provides direct employment to nearly 60 percent of working people in the country, contributes about 25 percent of gross domestic product and constitutes about 20 percent of the total value of India's exports. Initiatives started for an overall agricultural development in the country include the improvement in science and technology capabilities; production and supply of agricultural inputs like seeds and fertilisers; and public policy measures like land reforms etc. One of the greatest assets in rural areas could be the intelligent and effective use of emerging technologies such as biotechnology, microbiology, genetic engineering, energy management etc. For a proper use of such relevant technologies the conversion of all unskilled persons to skilled ones (through proper training programmes) is an important task. The main aim of this sub-theme is to make our school children and teachers realise the need of studying and removing the constraints responsible for "knowledge gap" on rural professions. Just as the green revolution of the nineteen sixties enhanced our selfconfidence about our agriculture capability, a knowledge revolution is now necessary to enhance our agricultural competitiveness. Technology, training, techno-infrastructure and trade are the four pillars of sustained agricultural progress and agrarian prosperity.
The exhibits in this sub-theme may pertain to: i. indigenous designs of farm machinery, agricultural implements and practices; ii. indigenous technology of farming; iii. Preservation and conservation of soil, soil and water management, iv. Indigenous technologies for irrigation with special emphasis on rural areas; v. Innovative/inexpensive/improved/indigenous technology/methods of storage/preservation/conservation/transport of agricultural products and food materials; vi. Application of biotechnology and genetic engineering to agriculture for improved and high yielding varieties; vii. Application of biotechnology and genetic engineering in improving breeds and production of animal products that are used as food, improved/improvised method of processing, preservation, storage and transport of animal products; viii. Development of low-cost technology for producing potable water; ix. Indigenous methods for rainwater harvesting and traditional irrigation methods; x. Issues related to the animal health and food safety; xi. ecologically sustainable farming methods; xii. organic fertilisers versus chemical fertiliser; xiii. application of biotechnology, microbiology, genetic engineering, and genomics to agriculture for improved and high yielding varieties; xiv. innovative/inexpensive/improved/indigenoustechnology/storage/reservation/ conservation/transport of agricultural and animal products, and food materials; xv. rainwater harvesting and storage in a manner that evapo-transportation losses are minimum; xvi. waste water treatment and recycling; xvii. participatory watershed development and management, desilting and renovation of ponds, tanks, lakes, and reservoirs (non-conventional methods for utilisation of water); xviii. river water sharing, and efficient and equitable use; xix. sea water use along the coast for raising mangrove and salicornia plantations together with agriculture; xx. Growing plants without seeds; xxi. effect of radiation, electric and magnetic fields on the growth of plants and protective measures; xxii. sugar levels in plant sap at different times and dates; xxiii. genetic variations among plants; xxiv. factors affecting seed germination; xxv. best conditions for mushroom production and growth of ferns; xxvi. tropisms in plants and growth hormones etc.
II. INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT India has abundant natural resources and its economy depends largely on the proper utilisation of the resources. The industrial development of India over the past five decades of planned progress is indeed spectacular. The country is now, more or less, self-sufficient in the production of consumer goods and some basic items like iron, steel, and aluminium. Service industries like tourism and banking are also growing. Power generation has been substantially stepped-up to fuel a variety of industries and infrastructure adequately built-up for the future progress. The potential for generating hydroelectric power in north-eastern part of the country has not developed because the region falls within a major earthquake zone. Among India’s major large scale industries are: cotton and silk textile industry with over a twelve hundred textile mills; iron and steel industry with six integrated steel plants and over 220 mini-steel plants; jute; sugar; cement; aluminium; electronics; jewellery; heavy machines and electrical equipment; light engineering; glass; leather goods; paper; chemicals and fertilisers; pharmaceuticals; petroleum; shipbuilding; sports; dairy; fisheries and other agricultural products; handicrafts etc. The knowledge-based information technology industry is one of the most promising sectors in India. The IT sector alone accounts for over Rupees Fifty Billion in revenue. Tourism has also emerged as an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. Presently the direct employment in tourism industry is estimated to be about 1.5 million. The emphasis is not only to accelerate industrial development but also make the Indian industries internationally competitive. The spectacular industrial development over the last few years has led to the replacement of the communities of nature by man-made communities. However, the principles that govern the life of natural communities have to be observed if these man-made communities are to thrive. Deforestation, overgrazing, indiscriminate mining and tree felling, and faulty tillage practices have led to severe soil erosion. Over-irrigation and over harvesting of agricultural lands has resulted into salinity of water, water-logging and land degradation. Overuse of tube-wells has substantially lowered down the underground water table. Destruction of lush tree covers has occurred due to the need of more agricultural and residential lands to meet the challenges due to over-population. Industrial effluents, forest fire and unplanned growth have led to severe water and air pollution. The eco-system represents a stable equilibrium of various physical and biological factors that have been operating in the past. The organic continuity of the system rests on a delicate network of independent relationships. The air, the water, the man and the animals, plants and planktons, the soil and bacteria are all invisibly inter-linked in a lifesustaining system we call the environment. All living organisms have survived by adjusting themselves to the environment and attuning their lives to its rhythm. The main objective of this sub-theme is to help us understand to think less about conquering nature and more about learning to work with nature.
The exhibits and models may pertain to: models of improved versions of various types of machines and manufacturing plants; ii. schemes/designs to help reduce production cost and conservation of raw materials; iii. use of eco-friendly innovations that may help in increasing the industrial production; iv. innovative methods of exploration and processing of minerals, crude oil etc.; v. issues related with the service industries like tourism, banking, IT etc.; vi. plans for proper management of natural resources and environment; vii. monitoring the changes in wildlife caused by the human encroachment; viii. devices or methods that control pollution; ix. impact of pollution on living and non-living; x. devices to control and measurement of the noise, air, soil, water pollution; xi. study of chemical spills in industry; xii. awareness about various aspects of environment and disposal of harmful effluents; xiii. preservation, conservation and management of soil; xiv. analysis of soil samples for their components; xv. ecological studies of plants and animals; xvi. experiments with biodegradability; xvii. efficient methods of harvesting and using plankton; xviii. effect of lubricants on gears; xix. study and record varying water levels, over the year, in the water body, surrounding environment; xx. design and development of an automatic weather recording device; xxi. study of air and water purification methods; xxii. ozone destruction experiments etc.
III. ENERGY The social and economic development of a country owes a lot to the development of energy resources of that country. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing needs of society is the main task. Coal is among the most important conventional source of energy and accounts for about 67 percent of the India's commercial requirements. Coal still holds the position of major energy source in industrial economy of India. India has nearly 60,000 million tonnes of minerable coal reserves, which are sufficient to meet country’s coal demand only for another 130 years (total reserves in India are about 2,35,000 million tonnes to a depth of 1200 m). India is now the fifth largest coal-producing nation in the world.) Lignite (also called brown coal) reserves in India are estimated at nearly 35,000 million tonnes. The discovery of new off-shore oil fields have increased the crude oil production in the country to about 32 million metric tonnes per annum. The natural gas (green fuel) production is about 30 billion cubic metres per year.
Power (or electricity) is the most convenient and versatile form of energy. Its demand has been growing at a rate faster than other forms of energy. Its requirement in India is primarily met through network of thermal (about 82 percent) and hydroelectric (about 14 percent) power stations. However, nuclear electricity (presently about 4 percent) holds much greater potential of power supply in future. Presently, the agriculture, domestic, and industrial shares in the total power consumption is about 30, 40 and 30 percent, respectively. All of the conventional sources of energy are exhaustible. Enormously growing demand for energy and the increasing exploitation of the available energy resources is causing a rapid depletion in their reserves, which may thus not last for a very long time. Efforts are, therefore, being made to develop non-conventional energy resources, which are either non-exhaustible or renewable such as biogas, biomass, solar energy, tidal and wind energy, ocean power, geo-thermal power, small hydropower and other emerging technologies. India can generate 20 MW solar powers per square kilometre land area that can be used for a variety of applications like cooking, water heating, water pumping, drying of farm produce, home and street lights etc. The gross wind power potential of India is estimated to be about 45,000 MW. At present India is producing 13,000 MW wind power. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to: production of electrical energy from mechanical sources (working models); design of fuel-efficient engines, machines, hearths; mechanism of extraction, storage and processing of fossil fuels; life of battery and ways of increase in power storage in batteries; study of air tides; active and passive solar energy systems; design of solar heating devices, viz., solar cooker, “solar heated home” etc; principles and design of solar panels and solar still; designing a method of measuring how much sunshine is available each day; methods of heat retention in materials; study of propeller designs for wind generators; designing of a device that can float and hold a given weight; effects of landscaping and architecture on energy consumption etc.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii.
IV. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
A. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Education is going global. One can choose to study many qualifications through distance and supported learning. One may work through the course at home in his or her own time, with the help of printed study materials and often also through videos, CD-ROMs, audio tapes and web based resources. One can also communicate with the tutor (or instructor) and with other fellow students by mail, e-
mail, web chat room, and fax. In this changed scenario, the use of educational technology undoubtedly helps in improving upon the quality of teaching/learning/of any subject. Suitable indigenous technology can be developed for designing and fabricating educational aids for teaching all subjects including science, technology and mathematics. The exhibits and models in this sub-theme may include: i. designing and fabrication of effective educational models by using indigenous raw materials; ii. innovative and inexpensive models of audio-visual equipment (specially multimedia); iii. low-cost educational toys, games, puppetry etc.; iv. curriculum based low cost demonstrations such as (a) transformation and conservation of mechanical energy (roller-coaster, archimedes’ screw); (b) conservation of angular momentum (revolving chair) and linear momentum (newton’s cradle); (c) illusions in viewing; (d) propagation of sound and light waves; demonstration of various phenomenon; (e) endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions; (f) effect of friction and gravity; (g) measurement of speed of sound: echo-tube; (h) resonance in organ pipes; (i) simple harmonic motions and superposition of harmonic motions; (j) levers and pulleys etc. v. study of formation of images on a T.V. tube; vi. use of low-cost semi-conductor lasers in class room activities; vii. voice communication with infrared light and fibre optics; viii. reproduction of the Stanley Miller experiment: ‘The Origin of Life’; ix. study of phosphorence as a tool for geologists; x. use of internet and computers; xi. applications in education using the computer as an education tool: simulations in science and non-science areas etc. B. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
The rapid development of high speed computers and the increasing desire for the answers of real life observations and problems have led to enhanced demands of modelling in almost every area. Although the mathematical modelling methods have always been useful, their role in the present-day scientific research is of fundamental importance. One reason for this is that the modelling can give the solution when ordinary analytical tools fail. In its broadest sense, the mathematical modelling encompasses all applications of mathematics, computer technology, and quantitative theorizing to real life situations and the underlying processes within them. In other words, the mathematical model building is the activity that begins with a situation and formulates a precise mathematical problem, whose solution, or
analysis in the case of theory construction, enables us to gain insight and understanding about the original situation. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to: mathematical models related to environment; mathematical models of heart, brain, kidney, lungs, bloodstream, bone, and endocrine and nuclear systems; computer diagnosis of human diseases; mathematical models of fluid flow in dams, spillways, rivers etc. probability for the accuracy of calculators and computers; mathematics of snowflakes; application of mathematical equations used in understanding various nuclear and sub-nuclear processes; observational orbit determination of comets, meteors, or other minor planets; mathematical models in physical geography such as rotation and revolution of earth, precession of equinoxes etc.; studies of storage and retrieval techniques for computer systems; handling of data transfer between 1/0 devices; data manipulation and information management techniques and procedures; statistics and random number problems; a programmable processing unit, design, function, and operation; developing a video game etc. maximum speed in fibre optic links; application of mathematical equations to biological situations involving chemical and physical processes, already understood such as process of diffusion, by which oxygen enters the bloodstream from the lungs and subsequently passes into the tissues to be utilised in energy production; modelling of intracellular biochemical reactions and metabolism to the treatment of the problems of population growth; modelling of highly abstract problems arising from control and communication processes in the brain etc.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi. xvii.
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
The Scientific and technological information available today has revolutionized worldwide the means of communication, which plays a key-role in the growth and development in all walks of life. Increased production in agriculture and industry also require an efficient transport system for transporting raw materials and finished products from one part of the country of other. Tremendous developments in the field of transport and communication have been made to meet the growing demands due to increasing number of users. The communication network in the world has undergone a sea change with the use of satellite and other communication systems. These global changes have influenced the quality of life in our country.
The fundamental research in the field of space science in India has recently taken long strides. Our country can now put a satellite in space. Today, the efficiency and speed of communication of information are one of the crucial factors in determining the pace of development in almost all the fields. Now, a patient in our country can get advised by a medical expert of any other country by getting all his reports regarding MRI, CAT scan, ultrasound, etc., transmitted through E-mail or Internet. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may include: i. Indigenous/Improvised/Improved devices for world-wide communication of verbal/printed/pictorial information; ii. Improvised/Indigenous models for efficient transport and fast communication especially Internet for communication in rural areas; iii. Working models of fuel efficient/pollution-free designs of automobiles/other vehicles; iv. Models showing use of innovative/inexpensive/locally available materials/designs for construction/maintenance of roads/railway tracks of vehicles; v. Innovative ideas for efficient management of road, rail, water and air transport systems, e.g. better safely measures, especially at unmanned railway crossings checking/control of pollution, providing immediate relief to accident victims, etc; vi. Models showing preparedness for disaster – both natural and man-made management; vii. Working models of devices for recording and reproduction of audio-visual material for entertainment and recreation, use of computers in motion pictures including cartoons, animation, graphics and television; viii. Working models of printing technology – communication with graphics and multi-media and low-cost methods for colour printing.
GUIDELINES FOR ORGANISING THE STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN 2006 – 2007
OBJECTIVES The purpose of science exhibition is to develop the scientific attitude in the young generation of our country to make them realise the social relevance of science, technology and society and the responsibility of the scientists of tomorrow. These objectives may be achieved by presenting the exhibits as an exciting experience of creativity of children, innovations through improvisations of science kits, and various devices and models for providing solutions to many present and future socio-economic problems particularly those confronted in the rural areas, using available materials and local resources. The exhibition will help children and teachers to learn from each other’s experience motivate them to design and develop something new and novel. It will also provide a medium for popularising science and increasing the awareness of the public towards it. The objectives of organising science exhibitions may briefly be put as follows: i. ii. iii. iv. Exposing and encouraging scientific and technological talent among children; Making children realise the relationship between science, technology and society; Understanding the need of the proper management for the optimum utilisation of resources and prevailing technology; Give a fillip to the habit of exploration, encourage creative thinking and promote psychomotor and manipulative skills among children through self-devised exhibits or models or simple apparatus; Stimulating interest in science and technology and inculcating scientific spirit in younger generation; Encouraging problem-solving approach and development of appropriate technology, especially for rural areas, and integrating scientific ideas related to daily life situations; Inculcating aesthetic sense and team spirit among the participants; Popularising science among masses and creating an awareness regarding the role of science and technology in socio-economic growth of the country; Developing appropriate techniques for communication of science, technology and management.
CALL FOR ENTRIES
The main theme for the State Level Science Exhibitions 2006 – 2007 and for the 34th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition For Children – 2006 would be Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. The identified five sub-themes are: i. Food and Agriculture; ii. Industry and Environment; iii. Energy; iv. Educational Technology and Mathematical Modelling; and v. Transport and Communication In order to facilitate the preparation of exhibits and models for display in district to state level science exhibitions during 2006 - 2007, GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS are also being communicated. i. Children from all schools [including the government, government-aided, public and private, catholic, mission, armed-forces (army, air force, navy, Sainik, BSF, ITBP, Assam-Rifles, CRPF, Police etc.), DAV management, Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Sarawati Vidya Mandir, Navyug, Municipality, Bharitya Vidya Bhavan, science clubs etc.] are eligible to participate in state level science exhibitions. Preference may be given for students in senior classes (i.e. in secondary and higher secondary stages). NOTE FOR ALL STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION COORDINATORS BELONGING TO STATE/UT GOVERNMENTS: It may please be ensured that entries from children belonging to • Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan; • Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti; • Department of Atomic Energy Kendriya Vidyalayas; • CBSE affiliated Public Schools (independent schools); and • Demonstration Multipurpose Schools of Regional Institutes of Education are not forwarded to NCERT for consideration for participation Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children. These organisations are conducting their own science exhibitions separately. These organisations would also be sending their selected entries for consideration for participation in JNNSEC – 2007. ii. Wide publicity should be given for inviting entries. GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS for display in district to state level science exhibitions during 2006 – 2007 should be provided to all schools. These guidelines may also be translated in local languages, if possible, and be given wide publicity. This may also be given on the internet web-site(s) of the respective states/union territories and other participating organisations, It is also envisaged that guidelines be printed in local language(s), hindi, and
english in the form of a booklet for their dissemination among all the schools for generating the ideas for developing the exhibits and models. Public Sector Undertakings, Industries, and other Non-Government Organisations working in the areas (where these science exhibitions are organised) may also be invited to participate as the exhibits displayed by them would be of instructional value for the children and teachers.
SCREENING, EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENTRIES
i. A screening committee should be set up to finalise the selection of entries from the various institutions for participation in the State Level Science Exhibition in case Districts/Regional Level Science Exhibition are not being organised by the state/UT. The Screening Committee may consist of representatives of SISE/SIE and some selected representative institution(s). All records about the meeting of the committee should be maintained. The selection procedure adopted should lay more emphasis on the quality of the exhibits rather than quantity. It should be ensured that the exhibits are not crude and hazardous and have good finish and are presentable. The above-mentioned Screening Committee or a separate panel of judges should evaluate the exhibits according to the criteria of Evaluation attached herewith and best three exhibits in each sub-theme from each category viz. higher secondary and others should also be selected by the said panel of judges. A separate list of the selected entries of the exhibits and models under each sub-theme (to be displayed in the state level science exhibition) must be prepared. This must contain the name of the exhibit/model, names of the student(s) and guiding teacher(s), name of the school and a brief information about the exhibit (may be in two sentences only). This list may also be distributed among all participating children and teachers. A copy of this list should be forwarded to NCERT together with the formal report of the exhibition. Such a list may be prepared in accordance with the NCERT un-priced publications on List of Exhibits to be displayed in Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children being published every year and distributed to all participating children, teachers, and visitors during the JNNSEC. A copy of this may be obtained from the Head, Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110016.
A formal report of the state level science exhibition and one-day seminar should reach NCERT at the earliest after the conclusion of the exhibition. It would include the following a. Dates and venue of exhibition. b. List of schools participating and the number of students/teachers participating as per the proforma attached. Break-up of the male and female participants should also be given. It should also reflect on the number of rural and urban schools, which participated in the exhibition. c. List of entries of the exhibits and models being displayed in the state level science exhibition, as explained in paragraph (iv) above. Number of exhibits displayed under each sub-theme should also be mentioned separately. d. Highlights of the exhibition including other activities such as lectures, filmshows etc. and participation of other scientific/industrial organisations. e. Panel of judges for evaluating the exhibits/models displayed in the exhibition (in accordance with the Criteria for Evaluation of Exhibits). f. List of selected exhibits being sent for consideration for display in JNNSEC – 2007 bearing the name of student, teacher, school etc. and their write ups for consideration for participation in JNNSEC – 2007. (A proforma for information about the exhibit/model is also attached for this purpose.) g. Number of visitors to the exhibition.
THE REPORT SHOULD STRICTLY FOLLOW THE ABOVE FORMAT AND BE FORWARDED WITHIN A MONTH AFTER THE CONCLUSION OF THE EXHIBITION TO: COORDINATOR STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2006– 2007 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG, NEW DELHI 110 016 Telefax: e-mail: Website: 011 26561742 sciencencert@ yahoo.co.uk www.ncert.nic.in
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF EXHIBITS
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children, organized every year by the NCERT, receives entries from States/UTs selected from the State Level Science Exhibitions held in the preceding year. It was felt that the criteria for evaluating the exhibits was not uniform in all the States/UTs. Therefore, to evolve common guidelines, State/UTs were requested to submit the criteria of evaluation adopted by them. After the analysis of the criteria adopted by the various states, it was decided that the following criteria might be used for judging the exhibits: 1. Creative ability/originality/innovation; 2. Scientific thought/principle/approach; 3. Technical skill/workmanship/craftsmanship; 4. Utility/educational value for layman, children etc.; 5. Economic (low cost), portability, durability etc.; and 6. Presentation.
It is suggested that criteria numbers 1 to 3 listed above may be given 70% weightage while criteria numbers 4 to 6 may be assigned 30%.
The exhibits need to be judged keeping in view the category of the participant. However, following points should be kept in view while evaluating the exhibits and models. 1. CREATIVE ABILITY/ORIGINALITY/INNOVATION Science exhibitions are held in the hope of nurturing scientific creativity and innovativeness in children. Therefore, the judges may bear this aspect while judging the exhibits. 2. SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT/PRINCIPLE/APPROACH The judges may assess whether the model has been able to bring out as to how the scientific ability of the student has been stretched –– whether the model is traditional or an improvement over the traditional model or it is innovative. 3. TECHNICAL SKILL/WORKMANSHIP/CRAFTSMANSHIP Various skills involved in constructing the exhibit/model, the degree of neatness and craftsmanship involved should be taken into account. 4. UTILITY/EDUCATIONAL VALUE FOR LAYMAN, CHILDREN ETC. Is the exhibit one that has an applied commercial value or is it one that has an educational value or both?
5. ECONOMIC/PORTABILITY/DURABILITY Low cost self-fabricated and durable exhibits preferably made from locally available materials should be given preference. 6. PRESENTATION The presentation may include aspects like demonstration, explanation, and display. General layout of the exhibit, neatness, relevance, clarity of charts accompanying the exhibit and overall attractiveness to the layman and children should also be assessed. Working models should be encouraged.
The ‘Grant-in-Aid’ provided by the NCERT to respective states/UTs is a catalytic grant for organising the State Level Science Exhibition and One-Day Seminar on ‘Popularisation of Science’. States and UTs are expected to spend the additional expenditure, if any, from the state funds. The funds given to the states/UTs are to be utilized exclusively for meeting the travel and boarding costs of participating students and their teachers and experts. It is suggested that the following norms of payment may be followed: A. For organising the One-Day Seminar on Popularisation of Science: i. Honorarium to five (three outstation and two local) experts/scientists may be disbursed at the rate of Rs. 400.00 each. Note: The expert/scientist should be preferably from a research institute/laboratory/ university. Travelling allowance to three outstation experts/scientists from a maximum distance of 500 km may be disbursed as per the state/central government rules. Daily allowance and incidental charges to five (three outstation and two local) experts/scientists for a maximum of three days (for outstation experts) and for one-day (for local experts) duration may be disbursed as per state government rules. Conveyance charges to two local experts/scientists may be disbursed as per state/central government rules. Contingency grant for tea/coffee with light snacks, typing/photocopying/cost of transparencies/transparency pens etc.: Rs. 2,000.00
B. For organising the State Level Science Exhibition: i. Only one student and one teacher may be permitted to participate with each exhibit. However, for more than one exhibit from any one school, only one teacher may be permitted to participate. Travelling allowance: actual second-class sleeper rail/bus (non-AC) fare. Incidental charges: Rs. 25.00 each way for outward and inward journeys subject to a maximum of Rs. 50.00 provided the journey time by rail or bus is more than 6 hours. For journeys less than 6 hours no incidental charges should be paid. Boarding expenses: Rs. 50.00 per head per day for each participant for a maximum of 4 days. Local conveyance charges may be disbursed as per state/central government rules.
It is necessary to maintain a separate account for the expenditure of the grants-in-aid provided by the NCERT and the same should be forwarded to the NCERT, along with all relevant vouchers and receipts, in original within a month of
the close of the exhibition for adjustment in the NCERT account. All vouchers may be signed by the Coordinator/In-charge of the exhibition. All those vouchers/receipts that are in regional language should accompany with a translated copy in English certified by the Coordinator/In-charge of the State Level Science Exhibition to facilitate audit and settlement of accounts. Only those Vouchers/Receipts against such items of expenditure, which are covered under the expenditure norms, may please be sent to this department for adjustment/settlement of accounts. All payments exceeding Rs. 5000.00 should be supported by payee’s receipt with a revenue stamp. It may please be ensured that each Voucher/Receipt against the expenditure is duly verified for the amount and then passed for payment. The specimen of this certificate is indicated below for convenience:
“Verified and passed for payment of Rs. ………………………………………… (Rupees …………………………………………………………………………. Only).
(To be signed by the Coordinator/In-charge of the State Level Science Exhibition)”
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN 2006 – 2007
MAINTAINANCE OF ACCOUNTS State/Union Territory: Dates of Exhibition: Venue of Exhibition:
Voucher No, Date of Receipt Particulars of Grant Draft No. Amount Received Voucher No.
________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________
EXPENDITURE Date of Expenditure Particulars (Headwise) Amount Spent Signature of Controlling Officer
Other Income, if any
Balance Refunded to NCERT, if any, vide …………………………… ………………………... Total Total
Certified that the expenditures have been made in accordance with the norms and Guidelines as given by the NCERT for organising the State Level Science Exhibition. It is also certified that no other voucher is included.
Signature of the In-Charge (Controlling Officer) Seal
STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN 2006 - 2007
LIST OF SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING PROFORMA State/Union Territory: Dates of Exhibition: Venue of Exhibition:
Type of School* No. of
________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________
Participants from the School Teachers Male Female Total Boys Students Girls Total SC/ST
Tribal/ Rural/ Urban
Number of Exhibits/ Models
T G R U T LB R U T PA R U T PU R U
* G: Government
A Government School is that which is run by the State Government or Central Government or Public Sector Undertaking or an Autonomous Organisation completely financed by the Government. A Local Body School is that which is run by Panchayati Raj and Local Body Institutions such as Zila Parishad, Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee or Cantonment Board.
LB: Local Body
PA: Private Aided A Private Aided School is that which is run by an individual or a private organisation and receives grants from the Government or Local Body. PU: Private Unaided Private Unaided School is that which is managed by an individual or a private organisation and does not receive any grant from the Government or Local Body.
34th JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN – 2007
THEME: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Proforma for Information about the Exhibit/Model
1. TITLE OF THE EXHIBIT/ MODEL (BLOCK LETTERS) Sub-theme:
(Tick only one)
Food and Agriculture / Industry and Environment / Energy/ Education Technology and Mathematical Modelling / Transport and Communication
NAME(S) OF THE STUDENT(S) with SEX (BLOCK LETTERS) NAME(S) OF THE TEACHER(S) with SEX (BLOCK LETTERS)
_________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F)
NAME AND COMPLETE ADDRESS OF THE SCHOOL (BLOCK LETTERS): ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PIN ----------------------------
Type of the School*:
7. 8. 9. 10.
Affiliation of the School: Location of the School: Nature of the Exhibit/Model:
Approximate Cost of the: Exhibit/Model 11. Requirement for Display: i. Shamiana/Open space/Dark room: ii. Table size: iii. Water supply: iv. Number of electrical points:
Government/Local Body/Private Aided/Private Unadided/Any Other (Please specify) _____________________ _________________ State Board/ICSE/CBSE Any Other (Please specify) _________________ Tribal/Rural/Urban Working/Static/Charts Any Other (Please specify) _________________ Rs. _____________
____________________________ Length: _____ m; width: ______ m. Yes/No No.: _____ (5 Amp); No.: _______ (15 Amp)
* Government: A Government School is that which is run by the State Government or Central Government or Public Sector Undertaking or an Autonomous Organisation completely financed by the Government; Local Body: A Local Body School is that which is run by Panchayati Raj and Local Body Institutions such as Zila Parishad, Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee or Cantonment Board; Private Aided: A Private Aided School is that which is run by an individual or a private organisation and receives grants from the Government or Local Body; Private Unaided: Private Unaided School is that which is managed by an individual or a private organisation and does not receive any grant from the Government or Local Body.
12. Brief Summary (Please explain the purpose and the scientific principle involved in the exhibit/model in not more than three lines). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. WRITE-UP OF THE EXHIBIT/MODEL (not more than 1000 words) in the following format (Note: Proper submission of the write-up will ensure that if selected for participation in the 34th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children – 2007, it will be considered for publication in the booklet titled: Structure and Working of Science Models. For convenience an exemplary write-up is also given next.): (a) Introduction: a. Rationale behind construction of the exhibit; and b. The scientific principle involved. (b) Description: 1. Materials used for the construction; 2. Construction and working of the exhibit/model; and 3. Applications, if any. (c) References: Books, journals exhibit/model.
(d) Illustrations: 1. Black and white line diagram of the model, illustrating the working of the exhibit. 2. Close-up photographs of the exhibit (if available). Note: i. Please neither pin nor paste the photographs of the exhibits. Enclose them in a separate envelope. Also do not write anything on the photograph. ii. Please do not enclose the photographs of participating student(s) and their guide teacher(s).
(Signatures of all students and teachers)
An Exemplary Write-up of an Exhibit "Automatic Light Controller in Railway Tunnels" Displayed in the 30th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition 2003, Dehradun
Automatic Light Controller in Railway Tunnels Student: Ankit Kulkarni Teachers: Shri R. Sharma Shri P.K. Thukral Introduction The working of an automatic switching system of lights in a railway tunnel with the entrance and exit of a train has been demonstrated. Case studies of Mumbai-Pune (Central Railway) and MumbaiMangalore (Konkan Railways) routes, which have 26 and 92 tunnels, respectively, along their paths have been taken into consideration. The basic scientific principle involved here is the conduction of current through closed circuits. Materials Required Toy train with tracks, 1.5 meter × 1 meter plywood, 3.5 feet PVC pipe cut into shape of tunnels, 4 torch bulb holders with 2.2 W bulbs, dry battery bank (9 V) copper strip on the tracks and toys for relevant decoration/display. Construction The exhibit constitutes a simple series circuit of 4 bulbs (2.2 W each) with the battery supply voltage of 9 V. Two copper strips are laid on the plastic tracks fitted on the plywood. One terminal of the battery is connected to one end of copper strip (track) and the other terminal is connected to second copper strip (track) through 4 bulbs placed in series inside the PVC tunnels. Toy train with the metallic wheels (herein 10 paisa coins are used) is made to move on the track with its dry cell battery power supply. Working Toy train is made to run on the track. When metallic wheels of train come in contact with the copper strip the electric circuit is completed and bulbs in the PVC tunnels start glowing (Fig.14.1). When the train leaves the tunnel then the bulbs in tunnel are automatically switched off (Fig. 14.2). Bulbs are fitted only in the tunnel. The tunnels with lengths less than 100 m are not provided with lights. Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2 Air Force Station Pune 411 032
Fig. 14.2 Application Application of this simple circuit can be done in various tunnels of Indian Railways. Indian Railways has one of the largest networks in the world. There are several tunnels all over the railway routes with lengths ranging from 100 m to 6.5 km. `Kharbwde' is the longest tunnel with length of 6.5 km in Konkan Railways. With the application of light controller the consumption of electrical energy can be conserved/controlled to a large extent. And also the wear/tear and life of the components used for electrification can be prolonged. Data of Mumbai-Pune railway route was collected to bring out the case study and highlight the importance of the exhibit. No. of tunnels on Mumbai-Pune route = 26 Length of the longest tunnel = 2 km Length of the shortest tunnel = 100 m (wherein no-electrification/illumination is necessary) Bulb wattage = 70 W. Distance between bulb fittings = 10 m. (Variation in distance in case of straight tunnels) Sample Calculation of Energy consumption in the longest tunnel 70 W × 200 (No. of bulbs) = 14,000 W Consumption per day :14,000 WW × 24 hr = 3,36,000 W hr. Consumption per year : 3,36,000 × 365 = 1.23 × 108 W hr = 1.23 × 105 Units
(Source: Structure and Working of Science Models, 30th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children 2003, published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, p. 30 - 32.)
DR. GAGAN GUPTA COORDINATOR STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2006 – 2007 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG NEW DELHI 110 016
Telefax: 011 26561742 e-mail: sciencencert@ yahoo.co.uk Website: www.ncert.nic.in