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What is EndNote?
EndNote is a software program that helps you organize references and create properly formatted bibliographies. References can be imported from online databases or can be typed in by hand. EndNote works with Microsoft Word to produce bibliographies and embedded references in hundreds of available styles. EndNote also makes it easy to change the style of your references. EndNote is available for Windows or Macintosh computers. Students (but not faculty or staff) are eligible for a substantial discount through the campus bookstore. Although Information Services librarians are available to assist users and teach workshops on EndNote, it is not available for use on Library computers.

Preparing your EndNote Library

Setting Up an EndNote Library 1. Open EndNote. If the Get Started with EndNote screen appears, select Create a new EndNote Library and click OK. Otherwise, from the File menu, select New.... 2. Give your new library a name and save it in a location that makes sense to you. Installing EndNotes List of Medical Journal Titles and Abbreviations Some databases and citation styles use journals' complete titles; others use abbreviations. EndNote can make the necessary changes, but only if the list of titles is imported before references are added to the EndNote library: 3. Under EndNotes Tools menu, select Define Term Lists, then click on Journals. 4. Click the Import List button. Navigate to the folder where EndNote is installed (usually C:\Program Files\EndNote) and open the Term Lists folder. (If you do not know where the program file is, or cannot access it, contact the person who installed EndNote on your computer.) 5. Double click on medical.txt. After the terms are installed, click OK.

Exploring the EndNote Library

Groups help organize your references by topic, source, or project.

All references in the currentlyselected group.

The currently-selected reference, formatted in the currently-selected style


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Adding References
Importing Citations Directly from Databases Most online databases, and many electronic journals, offer an Export feature that allows you to transfer citations directly into an EndNote library. The steps may vary slightly between databases, but the following process works in Ovid databases (such as MEDLINE) and EBSCO ones (such as CINAHL). Ovid databases EBSCO databases 1. Run your search as usual. From the list of results, select the citations you want to save: Place checkmarks before the citation(s) you First you need to Add the citations to the folder want to save:

Then display the contents of the folder:

And finally, select the items in the folder:

2. Display the export options: The Results Manager can be found at the bottom of the results screen:

Click on Export:

3. Select the appropriate options: Under Fields, select Complete Reference:

Select Direct Export to EndNote:

Under Citation Format, select Direct Export:

Click Save:

Click Save under Actions:

Select Export results to Endnote:

Click Continue:


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4. If your browser displays a message asking whether you want to save the file or open it, choose to Open it. 5. You will next be asked to locate the EndNote Library to which you wish to download your citations. 6. The imported citations will appear in your EndNote Library in a special group called Imported References:

The Export feature may have different names in different databases. Look for options like "Direct Export", "Send to EndNote", "Export to Reference Software" or "Export to Procite/Reference Manager/EndNote." Check the databases Help files for more information.

Importing Citations using an Import Filter PubMed is one of the few major databases that cannot export references directly to EndNote. However, you can import citations from PubMed using Import Filters, which help EndNote "translate" your saved citations into a format it understands. 1. Saving citations in the correct format o After selecting citations to save, select MEDLINE from the drop-down Display menu:

From the Send to drop-down menu, select File and save your references to a text file. Your browser will probably ask if you want to save or open the file. Pick Save.

The default name for the saved file is pubmed-result.txt. You can change this if you want. Just be sure you know where the file is being saved.
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2. Importing Under EndNotes File menu, select Import. Youll see a box like this:
Import Option: See notes below Click here to locate the text file you saved

Duplicates: See notes below

Keep as No Translation

Import Data File: Click Choose File to locate the text file you saved from PubMed. Import Option: Click on the down arrow next to Import Option to see filters that have been used before. Select the database from which you downloaded your citations. o If the database you need isnt there, click Other Filters and select the desired database. Duplicates: This lets EndNote know what to do if it finds identical citations. If you choose Discard Duplicates, it will ignore any citations that already exist in the library. If you choose Import All, see Removing Duplicates below to locate and remove duplicates later. Click Import. Youll probably see EndNote counting citations. Note: If your file is downloaded as one big citation, they probably weren't saved in the correct format: download them again, being sure to save them in the MEDLINE format. If it still doesnt import properly, you may need to update the filter. See the handout "EndNote Tips & Troubleshooting" for more information. Adding References Manually Occasionally you will want to add a reference to your Library by typing it in, rather than by downloading. Here are some tips: To add a reference manually, open your database, then select New Reference from the References menu. Be sure to use the right Reference Type. The default is Journal Article, but other choices in the pull-down menu include Book Section (used for book chapters) and Thesis. When you change Reference Types, EndNote automatically prompts you for fields needed for that type (editors names, chapter authors names, etc.). In general, you dont need to use any punctuation when entering (some exceptions are listed below). Authors names are the trickiest things to add: o Authors must be entered one per line, so press Enter after each authors name. o The following examples illustrate some the most common situations: Einstein, Howard G. de Gaulle, Charles Einstein, H G or Einstein, H.G. (not Einstein, HG) Einstein, Albert, Jr. American College of Physicians, (notice the comma at the end) Page numbers can be entered in any of the following forms, with commas between non-consecutive ranges: 1492-1497 1492-7 124-127, 130, 191-194 Removing Duplicates However you add citations to your Library, it is likely that you will end up with duplicates. To remove duplicates, select Find Duplicates from the References menu. EndNote will scan the Library, and will then show duplicate references it detects. Duplicates will be highlighted; you can delete them all at once by -4 UTHSCSA Library 9/08 (lmh)

choosing Delete... from the References menu, or examine them singly by clicking one to select it, then deciding whether to delete it. You can change the fields EndNote uses to identify duplicates by choosing Preferences... from the Edit menu. Select Duplicates from the left frame. You can then select which fields EndNote will compare, and whether they need to match exactly or if EndNote should ignore spaces and punctuation. By default, EndNote compares the author, year, article title, and reference type fields. o Note that the same article downloaded from different databases may have slightly different authors, titles, and even journal names (some databases do not include all authors for example, or may include a longer subtitle); EndNote will not usually recognize these as duplicates. Linking PDFs or Other Files to EndNote References You can attach a PDF or other file to a reference in EndNote. The file can be on your own computer or on the Internet. Open the reference to which you wish to link. o o To link to a file on your computer, go to the References menu and choose File Attachments and then Attach File.... Locate the file and click Open. To link to a file on the Internet, simply type (or paste) the URL into the references URL field.

Producing a Bibliography
When EndNote is installed, it will also create an EndNote ribbon in Microsoft Word 2007 (in older versions of Word, it will create a toolbar instead).

The tools on this ribbon help you to produce a properly-formatted bibliography. EndNote knows about three thousand bibliographical "output styles"; you just need to tell it which to use. You can change styles at any time. 1. If you are preparing a paper for publication, be sure to check the journals Instructions to Authors (usually available on the journals website) or the appropriate style manual to know what style to use. 2. At the top of the EndNote screen, youll see a drop-down menu showing the style currently being used. (The default is Annotated.) Click on the arrow to see the default styles and any you have used. Click on Select Another Style... to see all available styles. Be patient: it can take a minute for the list to appear. Select the style recommended by your publisher or instructor and click Choose. 3. Leaving EndNote open, open your Word document. Place your cursor where you want to enter your first reference, and click Go to EndNote in the EndNote ribbon's Citation panel. Your EndNote Library will display. (If you want to use a different library, you can open it now.) This establishes a link between this Word document and this EndNote Library. 4. Locate the reference you want to use by scrolling through the list or by using EndNotes Search function. (From the References menu, choose Search References.) 5. Leaving EndNote open, return to your Word document. Click the arrow next to Insert Citation in the EndNote ribbon's Citation panel, and select Insert Selected Citation(s). 6. You can either repeat steps 4 through 6 for each additional citation, or click Insert Citation in the EndNote ribbon's Citation panel. An EndNote X1 Find Citation(s) window will open. Enter keywords and click Search to search through -5 UTHSCSA Library 9/08 (lmh)

your whole library. A list of matching references will appear. Select the one(s) you want to use and click Insert. 7. EndNote will embed the citation in the desired format, and append the bibliographic reference at the end of the paper. This may not be instantaneous; if you have many references, you will probably first see a generic citation that looks like this: {Albretsen, 1998 #11} for a short while before the formatted citation appears. If these generic citations don't go away, or if the wrong output style is being used, see Changing the Format of a Bibliography in the next section. 8. You can add, remove, or rearrange citations within the Word document. EndNote will renumber or realphabetize as necessary. 9. When you are all done, save your document. (Actually, you should be saving it every now and then anyway, but be sure to do so when you're all done.) 10. Remember to proofread your bibliography! There may be small formatting errors or even typos that you should correct manually. If you find major formatting errors, make sure you are using the correct output style. If you still see major formatting errors, check out the "EndNote Tips & Troubleshooting" handout for help editing a style. 11. If you are submitting the document electronicallyespecially to a publisher whose Instructions to Authors say not to use EndNoteyou will need to remove the field codes. Click Convert Citations and Bibliography from the EndNote ribbon's Bibliography panel. Then select Convert to Plain Text. Word will create a new copy of your document, removing EndNote's field codes and leaving the fully formatted bibliography. Save this document under a new name, and submit it to the publisher.
Be sure to keep the original version of your document with the field codes, in case you need to make any changes: EndNote cannot work with a document that has been converted to plain text, so if you need to make changes you will have to have the original document to work with.

Changing the Format of a Bibliography In the EndNote ribbon's Bibliography panel, select the output style you want to use. If your style isn't on the dropdown, pick Select Another Styleto see the full list. Select the appropriate style and click OK. It may take a few seconds for the bibliography to be reformatted. If it doesn't reformat automatically, click Update Citations and Bibliography from the EndNote ribbon's Bibliography panel.

Moving an EndNote Library to Another Computer

If you need to move your EndNote Library to another computer, or want to share it with another EndNote user, you will need to move two separate parts, which will be located in the same folder. These two parts are your EndNote Library, which will have the extension .enl, and a folder with the same name as your EndNote Library, but with a .Data extension. In EndNote X1, these two files can be compressed into a single file, which makes moving the file or attaching it to an email message simple. To do this, go to EndNotes File menu, select Send to..., the select Compressed library. The library and data file will be compressed into a single file with a .enlx extension. To open this file, simply double-click it (note: the recipient must have EndNote version 9 or later to open the file).

Need More Help?

Check the handout EndNote Tips and Troubleshooting, which covers updating filters and styles, editing styles to use journal title abbreviations, customizing your display, merging libraries, and more. EndNotes Help files contain a lot of very good information, and is generally well-written. Advanced users are advised to review the table of contents and read sections of interest. And as always, you can contact Lynda Howell, MLS, at or (210) 567-2450 with any questions. -6 UTHSCSA Library 9/08 (lmh)