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Doing research without leaving your desk sounds like a great idea, but all too often you end up wasting precious time chasing down useless URLs. Almost everyone agrees that there's going to be a better way! But for now we're stuck with making the best use of the search tools that already exist on the Web. It's important to give some thought to your search strategy. Are you just beginning to amass knowledge on a fairly broad subject? Or do you have a specific objective in mind--like finding out everything you can about carpal tunnel syndrome, or the e-mail address of your old college roommate? If you're more interested in broad, general information, the first place to go is to a Web Directory. If you're after narrow, specific information, a Web search engine is probably a better choice. Searching by Means of Subject Directories Think back to the library card catalogue analogy. In the old card files, and even in today's computer terminal library catalogues, you find information by searching on either the author, the title, or the subject. You usually choose the subject option when you want to cover a broad range of information. Example: You'd like to create your own home page on the Web, but you don't know how to write HTML, you've never created a graphic file, and you're not sure how you'd post a page on the Web even if you knew how to write one. In short, you need a lot of information on a rather broad topic--Web publishing. Your best bet is not a search engine, but a Web directory like Yahoo. Yahoo is a subject-tree style catalogue that organizes the Web into 14 major topics, including Arts, Business and Economy, Computers and Internet, Education, Entertainment, Government, Health, News, Recreation, Reference, Regional, Science, Social Science, Society and Culture. Under each of these topics is a list of subtopics, and under each of those is another list, and another, and so on, moving from the more general to the more specific. Example: To find out about Web page publishing from Yahoo, select the Computers and Internet Topic, under which you find a subtopic on the Wide World Web. Click on that and you find another list of subtopics, several of which are pertinent to your search: Web Page Authoring, CGI Scripting, Java, HTML, Page Design, Tutorials. Selecting any of these subtopics eventually takes you to Web pages that have been posted precisely for the purpose of giving you the information you need. If you are clear about the topic of your query, start with a Web directory rather than a search engine. Directories probably won't give you anywhere near as many references as a search engine will, but they are more likely to be on topic. Searching by Means of Search Engines In an age where ererything is available on the Net, there are still those who feel stumped by it. Even persons who use web based email services, may feel uncomfortable or even overwhelmed at times while looking for some information. There is a huge amount of information available in cyberspace and the magnitude can be confounding.
Search Engine Servers Search engines. are housed on high speed computers called WW servers. to find the search words you have submitted as a query. like all other web sites. if you want information about a particular university. not seconds! The solution to this problem is the creation and maintenance of an enormous database. are located in Santa Clara. No search engine actually goes out onto the WWW to look for matches when a query is entered. Once a database is in place. it would simply be a copy of the whole WWW! Realistically. for example. not just on hard drives or other mechanical storage media. can serve up what you looking for. When a surfer performs a search. Due to additions and deletions and changes of thousands and millions of web pages every minute of every day. a search engine can . the results of the search are stitched into a web page and displayed by the search-engine. not the WWW itself. no search engine database meets this lofty goal. In this manner. Electronic searches (in memory) are much faster than mechanical searches (on hard drives) because electronic searches can be performed at the speed of electricity (near the speed of light). For instance. complete reflection of the WWW. At most. a search engine is a software that follows hyperlinks from one page to another . If you understand how search engines organize information and run queries. Search engine servers are connected to the backbone (high speed infrastructure) of the WWW via extremely fast. California. these databases are a perfect. frequently updated and detailed majority of the WWW. Most of Yahoo's servers. it is good to know something about a ‘search-engine’ . Think about it: . If it did. its search would take weeks. They are completely dedicated to providing effective search services 24 hours a day. expensive telephone lines called T3 lines. the engine searches its database. With a little help in using the right search technique you can learn how to leverage your search on the Net. search engines keep much of these giant summaries in the memory of their computers. Exploring search Before you set out to search the Net. Ideally. also called an index) to search. if used effectively. each database is at least a large variety and significant sampling of quality web sites. Search Engine Databases Before search engines can function.However the Internet. If a search engine were to initiate its search of the WWW when its visitor clicked the "Search" button. you can maximize your chances of getting hits on URLs that matter. these collections sport an impressive. you can get it off the Net in no time. Also known as a robot. they need to have a collection of information (a database. After combing the Net. any time.
including directories. searching for occurrences of the entire search phrase. Their purpose is to deliver links to web pages most relevant to each search phrase. the relevancy scores are sorted in order from most relevant to least. document URL. The effectiveness can be measured by two main parameters : indexing exhaustivity and term specificity. Only now does another device come into play: the ranking algorithm. Each ranking algorithm assigns different weights to different occurrences of the key words. score the relevancy of web pages through these mathematical machines. Search Engine Ranking Algorithms After the database has been created and placed in the search engine computer's memory.millions of bytes) of memory in them. As compared to searching a database the search for a document content is perhaps more daunting since it is not structured. Finally. the device is finally ready to perform searches and deliver results. and the corresponding web pages are listed in this order with informative summary information from the database. for example. or for occurrences of the individual key words "martial". these algorithms generate a relevancy score for the first web page in their memory. Taking all these factors into account. the algorithm jumps into action. Indexing is the processing of a document representation by assigning content descriptors or terms to the document. third and millionth web pages. delivering very fast results. and the date of publication). "arts" or "phoenix" (extremely common words like "in" are usually ignored). INFORMATION RETRIEVAL STRATEGIES We can safely regard web searches as an IR (Information retrieval) problem. depending on where and in what form these matches are found (more on this below). Computers used as web servers for search engines have GigaBytes (GB . . When a surfer types in a search phrase on a search engine and hits the "Search" button. Viola! The surfer (hopefully) gets the results he or she was looking for. Say. and non-objective terms intended to reflect the information known as content terms. Each document has objective terms (for eg. The algorithm then looks at the first database entry in its memory.search through its database of millions of web site summaries within a few seconds. that a surfer types in "martial arts in phoenix" as their search phrase.billions of bytes) of memory to allow them to maintain much of their huge databases in quickly searchable electronic memory. They then proceed to do the same for the second. Document should be indexed for making search easier and less time consuming. The authors name. All search engines. Most household PCs these days have around 32 MegaBytes (MB .
your input is checked against the search engine's keyword indices.e. This often results in hits that are completely irrelevant to your query.HOW SEARCH ENGINES WORK Search engines use software robots to survey the Web and build their databases." CONCEPT BASED SEARCHING: Unlike keyword search systems. Unless the author of the Web document specifies the keywords for her document (this is possible by using meta tags in the latest version of HTML). THE PROBLEM WITH KEYWORD SEARCHING: Keyword searches have a tough time distinguishing between words that are spelled the same way. but are not actually entered in your query. Web documents are retrieved and indexed. Some sites index every word on every page. KEYWORD SEARCHING: This is the most common form of text search on the Web. Essentially. and the hard drive on your computer). There are two primary methods of text searching--keyword and concept. hard cider. subheadings and the hyperlinks to other sites. not just what you say. . A query on heart disease would not return a document that used the word "cardiac" instead of "heart. For example. this means that search engines pull out and index words that are believed to be significant. Search engines also cannot return hits on keywords that mean the same. concept-based search systems try to determine what you mean. even if the words in the document don't precisely match the words you enter into the query. a concept-based search returns hits on documents that are "about" the subject/theme you're exploring. a hard stone. Most search engines do their text query and retrieval using keywords. Others index only part of the document. The best matches are then returned to you as hits. but mean something different (i. headings. In the best circumstances. a hard exam. it's up to the search engine to determine them. Lycos indexes the title. along with the first 20 lines of text and the 100 words that occur most often. Excite is currently the best-known general-purpose search engine site on the Web that relies on concept-based searching. Words that are mentioned towards the top of a document and words that are repeated several times throughout the document are more likely to be deemed important. When you enter a query at a search engine website.
Many. If the word heart appears in a document with others words such as flowers. You will get back a lot of documents about love and romance online.. For example. and valentine.e. relying on sophisticated linguistic and artificial intelligence theory that we won't even attempt to go into here. lung. These are the logical terms AND.This is also known as clustering -. The results are best when you enter a lot of words. but not all search engines allow you to use so-called Boolean operators to refine your search.e." In a "basic" search. i. NOT. you will also get hits. and to exclude words that might be likely to muddy the results. artery. How does it work? There are various methods of building clustering systems. a very different context is established. Jump to Excite and enter the phrase "cyber love and relationships" (don't use the quotation marks). "heart" AND "attack.. attack. the word heart. even if they don't contain the precise words in your query. Concept-based indexing is a good idea. cholesterol. but some of the possibilities include the ability to search on more than one word. the title or URL). some of which are highly complex.which essentially means that words are examined in relation to other words found nearby. when used in the medical/health context. stroke. Here's an example of a concept-based query. and on words that are found within a certain proximity to other search terms. and the search engine returns hits on the subject of romance. Boolean AND means that all the terms you specify must appear in the documents. candy. on phrases.. Refining Your Search Most sites offer two different types of searches--"basic" and "refined. but they will be limited to those that do contain the precise words of your query." You might use this if you wanted to exclude common hits that would be irrelevant to your query. pump. blood. and whether you wish to restrict your search to certain fields on the internet (i. Some search engines also allow you to specify what form you'd like your results to appear in. would be likely to appear with such words as coronary. . You might also be able to search on proper names. all of which roughly refer to the concept you're seeking information about. love. NEAR and FOLLOWED BY. and the so-called proximal locators. On the keyword search engines. and arteriosclerosis. usenet or the Web) or to specific parts of Web documents (i. OR.e. you just enter a keyword without sifting through any pulldown menus of additional options. Search refining options differ from one search engine to another. but it's far from perfect. passion. Warning: This often works better in theory than in practice. to give more weight to one search term than you give to another.
many words in English are used both as proper and common nouns--Bill. FOLLOWED BY means that one term must directly follow the other. Lotus.e. since. NEAR means that the terms you enter should be within a certain number of words of each other. i. digital-the list is endless. . not the word itself.Boolean OR means that at least one of the terms you specify must appear in the documents. or if it has multiple other meanings. nirvana AND Buddhism.Some search engines use the characters + and . to the user. "space the final frontier. these lists often leave users shaking their heads on confusion. NOT Cobain. gates. you don't need to see it repeated over and over--it's the information about that word that you're interested in..e. acute OR chronic. bill.. Not quite Boolean + and . The best way to learn them is to read the help files on the search engine sites and practice! RELEVANCY RANKINGS: Most of the search engines return results with confidence or relevancy rankings. bronchitis. i. companies or products." Capitalization: This is essential for searching on proper names of people. Oracle. Digital. If you're researching diabetes and the word "diabetes" appears multiple times in a Web document. Unfortunately. it's reasonable to assume that the document will contain useful information. Most search engines use search term frequency as a primary way of determining whether a document is relevant. the results often seem completely irrelevant. you could end up with a lot of irrelevant hits.. In other words. they list the hits according to how closely they think the results match the query. oracle. Boolean NOT means that at least one of the terms you specify must not appear in the documents.e. a document that repeats the word "diabetes" over and over is likely to turn up near the top of your list. You might use this if you didn't want to rule out too much. Phrases: The ability to query on phrases is very important in a search engine.instead of Boolean operators to include and exclude terms. However. If your keyword is a common one. lotus. All the search engines have different methods of refining queries. Those that allow it usually require that you enclose the phrase in quotation marks. Gates. Why does this happen? Basically it's because search engine technology has not yet reached the point where humans and computers understand each other well enough to communicate clearly. You might use this if you anticipated results that would be totally offbase. i. Therefore. And if your keyword is a subject about which you desire information.
so be careful. and have devised various methods to circumvent them. etc) are also given more weight by some search engines. As for the "description" meta tag. There is a lot of conflicting information out there on meta-tagging. too..e. The more clearly relevant the results are. What this means is that the Web page author can have some influence over which keywords are used to index the document. The search engines are aware of such deceptive tactics. and to include keywords in the "alt" image tags. Most of us don't have the time to sift through scores of hits to determine which hyperlinks we should actually explore. It seems to be generally agreed that the "title" and the "description" meta tags are important to write effectively. H2. It also takes into consideration whether the documents that emerge as hits are frequently linked to other documents on the Web. titles or text). so make sure your description is one that will entice surfers to your site.Some search engines consider both the frequency and the positioning of keywords to determine relevancy. Use relevant keywords in your title. H3. Words that appear in HTML header tags (H1. there's no assurance that you'll keep it for long. you should. and becomes more so as the sheer volume of information on the Web grows. Lycos ranks hits according to how many times your keywords appear in their indices of the document and in which fields they appear (i. and even in the description of the document that appears when it comes up as a search engine hit. relevancy ranking is critical. others don't use them at all. some search engines will use it as their short summary of your url. INFORMATION ON META TAGS: Some search engines are now indexing Web documents by the meta tags in the documents' HTML (at the beginning of the document in the so-called "head" tag). and vary the titles on the different pages that make up your website. Use keywords that are appropriate to your subject. There is no perfect way to ensure that you'll receive a high ranking. This is obviously very important if you are trying to draw people to your website based on how your site ranks in search engines hit lists. in order to target as many keywords as possible. Even if you do get a great ranking. . If you're confused it may be because different search engines look at meta tags in different ways. and make sure they appear in the top paragraphs of actual text on your webpage. reasoning that if the keywords appear early in the document. or in the headers. since several major search engines use them in their indices. For example. in headers. Some rely heavily on meta tags. reasoning that if other folks consider them important. the more we're likely to value the search engine. As far as the user is concerned. It sometimes helps to give your page a file name that makes use of one of your prime keywords. this increases the likelihood that the document is on target. Many search engine algorithms score the words that appear towards the top of your document more highly than the words that appear towards the bottom.
you submit keywords in its search box. or if you simply want to test run a couple of keywords to see if they get what you want.. search protocol (the way you enter search keywords) is far from standardized. phrases. aggregated into one list. all of them search subject directories as well as search engines and intermix results from all. and defaults they impose). Some only accept + or -. Some take * to truncate. How they handle your search terms and search syntax (Boolean operators. 3. Meta-search engines do not own a database of Web pages. and you get back a different display of documents from each search engine. How they display results (ranking. Three main factors determine the usefulness of any meta-search engine (see Table below): 1. AltaVista. and it transmits your search simultaneously to several individual search engines and their databases of web pages. Within a few seconds. the unique ranking algorithm used by Google (based on how many other sites link to a site) often finds exactly what you want. Almost all accept " " as causing a phrase. they send your search terms to the databases maintainted for other search engines. 2. A few accept Boolean AND. Other stem automatically. Google. In ordinary (non-"meta") search engines such as Northern Light.What are "meta-search" engines? In a meta-search engine. Meta-Search engines are useful if you are looking for a unique term or phrase (enclose phrases in quotes " ").. some to AND. OR. you submit keywords to their individual database of web-pages. and NOT. etc. IN-DEPH ANALYSIS OF POPULAR SEARCH ENGINES: AltaVista . you ability to choose the search engines you prefer). The search engines they send your search terms to (size. For such straight-forward searches. And so on. Some default to OR. or with each search engine's results reported separately) Good for simple searches. content. we can search within results on a term or phrase we specify. . you get back results from all the search engines queried. better than any meta-search engine (unless you choose one you can limit to Google only). Fewer accept ( ) to group terms. Limitations of Meta-Search engines How do you know if your search terms will "work"? As anyone who does Internet searching knows. number of search engines. For more difficult searches.
Help files: Complete. Alta Vista searches both the Web and Usenet. finds things others don't." Allows wildcards and "backwards" searching (i.. however. the better your results are. If you're serious about Web searching. Type of search: Both concept and key word . You can even search to discover how many people have linked their site to yours. news. search refining. and the more refining you do. Usenet Search refining: Boolean "AND. Too much thrown at you at once. where in the document." "OR" and "NOT. Domains searched: Web. and how close to one another the search terms are. largest database. Relevance ranking: Ranks according to how many of your search terms a page contains. some curious relevancy rankings. While "intelligent" is an exaggeration (the apparent intelligence comes from the clever use of statistics. You can decide how search terms should be weighed. More clarity and more explanation of options would be appreciated! Good points: Fast searches. travel. capitalization and proper nouns recognized. Advanced query now allows you to further refine your search at the end of each results page. Excite is one of our favorite search tools. powerful search engine with enough bells and whistles to do an extremely complex search. Type of search: Keyword Search options: Simple or Advanced search. Powerful search refining tools. User interface: Reasonably good.Alta Vista is a fast. It will search on both words and on phrases. mastering Alta Vista is a wise policy. especially on Simple search. Results presented as: First several lines of document. not from a sudden advance in artificial intelligence). including names and titles. but not very friendly to the casual user." plus the proximal locator "NEAR. and where in the document to look for them. exite Excite bills itself as the "intelligent" search engine because of its concept-based indexing. you can find all the other web sites that link to another page). Bad points: Multiple pages from the same site show up too frequently.e. You can also have the resulting pages of your searches translated into several other languages. "Detailed" summaries don't appear any more detailed than "standard" ones. but first you have to master all its options. You can also visit specialized zones or channels in areas like finance. but confusing.
Search options: Basic orAdvanced Domains searched: Web. it seems. too--grouped by confidence or grouped by Web site. clear. Lycos Type of search: Keyword. Good points: Large index. Bad points: Does not specify the format or the size in megabytes of the hits it returns. Usenet refined and classified ads Search refining: Suggests you use more words. and how best to use their site. giving preference to AND. By clicking on an icon beside each summary. Results returned in: Summaries. Proud of its ability to search on image and sound files. and the characters + and -. Not quite as up-to-date as it used to be. will also sort them by site. you will get a cross-reference of similar sites. News. nor does it tell you upfront exactly how many hits there are. Relevance ranking: Confidence percentile provided on all searches. focuses more on directory now than on simple search. Uses a fuzzy AND.Searchoptions:Simple. Has recently added Boolean operators to aid in search refining--AND. which they admit are actually highlights--the top few most important sentences in the document. nothing exciting. Mult-media. including a handbook that explains the site. you choose in advanced search--summary. OR. Domains searched: Web. the software. Stocks. Weather. which searches AND and OR. Results presented as: First 100 or so words in simple search. full results or short version. Excellent summaries. and more of a Yahoo-like subject index. Relevance ranking: Lycos no longer provides a relevancy ranking. User interface: Clean. Usenet. You can view your hits in various ways. derivation unclear. Search refining : Lycos now has full Boolean capabilities (using choices on drop-down forms). Help files: Very good. the Web. but Lycos is gradually becoming less of a search engine. AND NOT. . Has recently had a cool graphical facelift. User interface: Generally good. repeating key choices several times.
Yahoo is case insensitive. Good points: Easy-to-navigate subject catalogue. easy-to-use Help files: Not very complete. E-mail addresses. If your query gets no hits in this manner. Yahoo also has search capabilities. then gives you a two-line description of the site. Bad points: Only a small portion of the Web has actually been catalogued by Yahoo. Yahoo searches titles. Yahoo is an attempt to organize and catalogue the Web. URLs and the brief comments or descriptions of the Web sites Yahoo indexes. Yahoo will also automatically feed your query into the other major search engine sites if you so desire.. Yahoo is an important Web resource. Thus. detailed help files are not necessary. Comprehensive results given--i. Search refining: Boolean AND and OR. Advanced Domains searched: Yahoo's index. Relevance ranking: Since Yahoo returns relatively few hits (it will never return more than 100). User interface: Excellent. informative. You can search the Yahoo index (note: when you do this you are not searching the entire Web). etc. the date of the document. Usenet. Type of search: Keyword Search options: Simple. Yahoo should be your first stop on the Web.e. FEATURES OF SELECTED META-SEARCH ENGINES: TABLE: Features of Selected Meta-Search Engines . its size. Good points: Large database.Help files: Good. Lycos indexes the frequency with which documents are linked to by other documents to make sure the most popular web sites are found and indexed before the less popular ones. it's not clear how results are ranked. If you know what you want to find. Yahoo has the capacity to act as a kind of meta-search engine. Results presented as: Yahoo tells you the category where a hit is found. It works as an hierarchical subject index. graphical help screens are easy to understand. but since there aren't a lot of search options. allowing you to drill down from the general to the specific. Yahoo offers you the option of searching the Alta Vista. Yahoo Although not precisely a search engine site. which does search the entire Web.
but they will be removed when search is sent where they are not accepted. and AltaVista first. They change often. Netscape Netcenter. and more. Lycos. Google. The results can be VERY inconsistent.com. AltaVista. Not aggregated into . Many advanced features. Phrase. Webcrawler & 3 others (not listed on the site). especially from We recommend you Customize Dogpile to send it to Google.com *** What's Searched As of date at bottom of page. Infoseek. GoTo. Direct Hit. and Yahoo! and more. but free of charge. Aggregated into one list.chubba.copernic. About. All searches seem to default to AND. Complex Search Results Display Ability Excellent for phrases and simple searches.Ranked as: **** very useful. * entertaining Meta-Search Tool Chubba www. Lycos. Direct Hit. ** limited usefulness. Default is (in this order) LookSmart.com / **** Seems better than WebFerret as a downloaded searcher. Changes frequently. GoTo. AltaVista. Yahoo! (can select in Settings).com. ANY. Dogpile Open Directory. Infoseek. EuroSeek. Help humorous but not very informative. Snap. Also international collections of Integrated with search engines. LookSmart. tracks previous searches. *** useful. Must be downloaded and installed. MSN Web. Fast Search. Alta Vista. Real Names. GoTo. Infoseek. Also Boolean searching within results under Refine (powerful!). Internet Explorer (not Netscape).com. You can "ungroup" to get the results from each search engine. HotBot. Copernic http://www. can change results display. InfoSeek. and ranked usefully. Open Directory. Excite. May accept NOT.com *** only if customized * if used with defaults Can include Booleans and parentheses and " ". AOL. Dogpile www. Excite. Magellan. ALL. Results are retrieve in lists of 10 hits from each engine queried. Extensive help under Help menu. Lycos.dogpile. Dogpile Web Catalog. Web Crawler.
Aggregates results into one ranked list. LookSmart. Select "ALL" for most searches. Lycos.to exclude. Hotbot.some of the one list. FastSearch.profusion. Excite. Snap. Translates your search into each search engine's syntax. Boolean searches (with Brings "top 10" from each search engine. ALL terms. Excite. GoTo. ANY terms. Also uses and reports ranking in each site.ixquick.com **** Tied for best in this list AOL. GoTo. GoTo. RealNames.metacrawler. MSN. Yahoo! MetaCrawler www. and . InfoSeek. Does not . parentheses. Offers "simple". Infoseek. VERY sensible alternative to Google for most searches. AltaVista. but subject directories. because Ixquick knows which search engines can cope with which complex searches. About. or NOT or ( ). Can customize or use Power Search to specify which search engines to use and other parameters. Lycos. WebCrawler. WebCrawler. LookSmart. Also accepts + to require. Ixquick www. Live Directory. Does not Boolean AND. Supports all forms of Booleans and phrases. Google. DirectHit. Aggregates results based on "vote" of individual sites. smaller sources. WebCrawler. Infoseek. LookSmart. and other modifiers such as NEAR. Thunderstone. wildcards. Excite. which are NOT search engines. Magellan.com. OR. Also lists pages with some of your terms (further down). ProFusion www. AltaVista.com **** Tied for best in this list.com *** AltaVista. and aggregates results. Eliminates duplicates.
No ( ). Lycos. Default is ALL terms. Northern Light. Infoseek. Can customize at bottom of results. NEAR and ( ) and modifies search to work everywhere). Use Boolean AND. Yahoo! Can customize what is searched ("You choose"). Yahoo!. Does not aggregate.com *** Chooses 6 among: AllTheWeb/FastSearch. a collection of web indexes.AllTheWeb/FastSearch. AltaVista. ANDNOT (yes. Many interfaces specialized for different topics. Can have links checked. Under this scheme. OR. Does not eliminate duplicates.to exclude. Opens new windows frequently. and * to truncate. May not translate searches for each search engine. Seek123 www. Webcrawler. Must capitalize Boolean operators. each with its own specialized search tool. is quite promising.seek123. Indexing the entire web and building one huge integrated index will further deteriorate retrieval effectiveness.which varies. DirectHit. AND. it is not unwise expecting an efficient search engine. Excite. each web index is targeted to comprehensively represent documents of a specific information space. Possibly useful gateway to many search engines internationally. Information spaces are bounded by.searchcaddy. Accepts + to require and . OR. or by clicking Simultaneously and going down to the Meta-Search section (upper part is not a true meta-search). HotBot. Default is "best 3" . the searching methods and the engines need to go a long way for efficient retrieval of information on relevant topics. Others searched one at a time. Infoseek. eliminate duplicates (despite its claim to). Reports each search engine's results. Capitals not required. which addresses all the needs. Accepts "" for phrases. no space).com ** AltaVista. LookSmart. Default is whatever the default at each search engine is. since the web is growing at an exponential rate. As the technology advances at an unimaginable pace. NOT. CONCLUSION: Though there are many search engines available on the web. Aggregates results in one ranked list. SearchCaddy www. Hard to locate help. Yahoo! as true meta-search. On the other hand. . WebCrawler. Can suppress summaries.
Developing a search strategy which contains the keywords you are likely to use. Search smarter The search results you get are entirely based on the query you submit. They can be broadly divided into index-based engines and subject-directory based engines. The good news is that new search engines are evolving every day to improve retrieval efficiency.for example academic disciplines. or a song. possible synonyms and the search engine that is best suited to for your search should be determined before you begin. Reward your query if you do not find the information you are looking for in the first three pages of the search results. Do not use one-word searches either. This tends to restrict your serch.altavista. The current generation of search tools and services have to significantly improve their retrieval effectives. The search tool for such an index can also be specialized for the information space.co.rediff. Otherwise.*(or) for example “jobs+India+Hyderabad” will display sites with the words jobs in India but not in Hyderabad For a particular phrase like the name of a movie. Use Meta search engines. +(and).www. It also supports the incorporation of domain semantics into the indexing process.yahoo. and a group of services. a class of industries. Search engine watch Different search engines work differently. the web will continue to evolve towards an information entertainment center for users with no specific search objectives. They minimize your search to a great extent.com. The commonality in the subject matter indexed supports the capture of semantic level features. Advanced search allows for filtering through various parameters and options that help you narrow your search. the search can be enclosed in quotation marks eg:(“Mission Impossible”) Don’t use long sentences as a search query.com Sites also offer ‘advanced’ and ‘simple’ search preferences. You can use Boolean search symbols to string words together.in and www.-(not). Choosing the right search engine will need patience and experience. . For India centric information you can use search engines that make use of exclusively Indian websites like in.
infoseek.com and www.altavista. www. www.lycos. .www.Index-based engines are keyword-based and depend on the words you submit as the query.hotbot.com.com.com.fastsearch. This is the most common type of search engine and it takes into account the number of times the search word or phrase occurs in a document. Common words like “and.and the“ are called ‘stop words’ and are omitted from the search.com. www. www.google.com are index based search engines.
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