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Course Outline

ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems
These days many designers want to comply with both Standard 62.1 and Standard 90.1. Requirements from both standards have been incorporated into many building codes, and the minimum requirements of both standards must be met as prerequisites to LEED certification. In attempting to comply with the ventilation requirements of Standard 62.1 AND the energy-limiting requirements of Standard 90.1, some designers have concluded that it’s next to impossible to do so using traditional VAV systems. While in some specific cases these designers might be right, in most cases they are not right. In this broadcast, the Chair of SSPC 62.1 (Dennis Stanke), the Chair of SSPC 90.1 (Mick Schwedler), and the primary author of the HVAC sections in the User Manuals for both standards (Steve Taylor), discuss the potentially conflicting requirements and design choices. By attending this event you will learn: 1. Key VAV system requirements found in both standards 2. How to avoid the potential conflict between the central reheat restrictions of Standard 90.1 and dehumidification requirements of Standard 62.1 3. How to choose VAV box minimum airflow settings to avoid the potential conflict between the local reheat restrictions of and the minimum ventilation at all loads 4. How implement zone-level demand controlled ventilation to save energy while maintaining minimum ventilation
Program Outline: 1) Overview – Why are the standards important and why must they comply? 2) DCV a) 62.1 b) 90.1 c) Conflicts? d) How do you comply? 3) Dehumidification a) 62.1 b) 90.1 c) Conflicts? d) How do you comply? 4) Simultaneous heating and cooling a) 90.1 (2004 and 2007) b) 62.1 (2004 and 2007) c) Conflicts? d) How do you comply?

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engineers newsletter live

Presenter Biographies

ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems
Steve Taylor | principal | Taylor Engineering
Steve Taylor is the principal of Taylor Engineering, Alameda, CA. He is a registered mechanical engineer specializing in HVAC system design, control system design, indoor air quality engineering, computerized building energy analysis, and HVAC system commissioning. Mr. Taylor graduated from Stanford University with a BS in Physics and a MS in Mechanical Engineering and has over 30 years of commercial HVAC system design and construction experience. He was the primary author of the HVAC sections of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 and 1999 “Energy Conservation in New Non-residential Buildings” and California’s Title 24 Energy Standards and Ventilation Standards. Other ASHRAE project and technical committees Mr. Taylor has participated in include Standard 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (chair), ASHRAE Standard 55 Thermal Comfort (member), Guideline 13 Specifying DDC (chair), Guideline 16 Economizer Dampers (chair), TC 1.4 Controls (chair), and TC 4.3 Ventilation (vice-chair).

Dennis Stanke | staff applications engineer | Trane
With a BSME from the University of Wisconsin, Dennis joined Trane in 1973 as a controls development engineer. He is now a Staff Applications Engineer specializing in airside systems including controls, ventilation, indoor air quality, and dehumidification. He has written numerous applications manuals and newsletters, has published many technical articles and columns, and has appeared in many Trane Engineers Newsletter Live broadcasts. An ASHRAE Fellow, he is currently Chairman for SSPC62.1, the ASHRAE committee responsible for Standard 62.1, “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality,” and he serves on the USGBC LEED Technical Advisory Group for Indoor Environmental Quality (the LEED EQ TAG).

Mick Schwedler | manager, applications engineering | Trane
Mick has been involved in the development, training, and support of mechanical systems for Trane since 1982. With expertise in system optimization and control (in which he holds patents), and in chilled-water system design, Mick’s primary responsibility is to help designers properly apply Trane products and systems. To do so, he provides one-on-one support, writes technical publications, and presents seminars. To date, he has reached audiences throughout North America and in South America and the Far East. A recipient of ASHRAE’s Distinguished Service Award, Mick is Chair of SSPC 90.1, which was responsible for writing ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007, a prerequisite for LEED. He also contributed to the ASHRAE GreenGuide and is a member of the LEED Energy and Atmospheric Technical Advisory Group (TAG). Mick earned his mechanical engineering degree from Northwestern University and holds a master’s degree from the University of Wisconsin Solar Energy Laboratory. He also is a registered professional engineer in the State of Wisconsin.

© Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand

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ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems

an Engineers Newsletter Live telecast

© 2008 Trane

“Trane” is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

© 2008 Trane

© Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand

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ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems

Agenda

 Demand-controlled ventilation  Dehumidification  Simultaneous heating and cooling  Questions  Summary

© 2008 Trane

Today’s Presenters

Dennis Stanke staff applications engineer

Mick Schwedler Steve Taylor manager, principal, applications Taylor Engineering engineering
© 2008 Trane

© Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand

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ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems

Demand-controlled Demandventilation

© 2008 Trane

Std 62.1-2007 Requirements
 Areas of potential conflict with Standard

90.1 requirements

Ventilation control or dynamic reset options (DCV for zones, VRC for systems) Dehumidification requirements (65% RH analytical limit) Zone minimum airflow in VAV-reheat systems (intake airflow depends on zone airflow)
© 2008 Trane

© Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand

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1-2007 section 6.  “Demand controlled ventilation” (DCV) resets zone outdoor airflow (Voz) as zone population or effective OA per person varies (zone-level control) “Ventilation reset control” (VRC) resets outdoor air intake flow (Vot) in multiple-zone systems as system ventilation efficiency (Ev) varies (system-level control) “Ventilation optimization” combines DCV and VRC for multiple-zone (VAV) systems © 2008 Trane   © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 6 . based on TOD schedule.g.std 62.2. direct count of occupants.:  Variations in zone occupancy.7 Dynamic Reset Optional controls may reset zone or intake airflow in response to changing conditions. or outdoor air rate per person based on sensed CO2 Variations in system ventilation efficiency based on system airflow values Variations in VAV box minimums due to changes in system outdoor air intake flow (when economizing) © 2008 Trane   dynamic reset Operation As Conditions Vary For this presentation. e.

Calculate breathing-zone outdoor airflow. based on occupancy sensors COU: Determine Voz using Pz’ equal to actual population. using Table 6-1 rates (cfm/per. based on differential CO2 Rp’ = N/(Cr – Co) where N = CO2 cfm/person © 2008 Trane © Trane. in breathing zone. based on direct count Voz=(Rp*Pz’+Ra*Az)/Ez    CO2: Maintain effective “people outdoor air rate” Rp’. Pz’. cfm/ft2) Vbz = Rp × Pz + Ra × Az 2. Calculate zone outdoor airflow Voz = Vbz/Ez (Table 6-2) © 2008 Trane dynamic reset Zone-Level DCV Approaches  TOD: Determine Voz using effective population.0) 3. based on time-of-day schedule OCC: Determine Voz using Pz’ equal to design or zero population.2 Zone Calculations 1. a business of Ingersoll Rand 7 . Determine zone air distribution effectiveness.std 62. Ez Look up Ez (typically 1.1-2007 section 6.2.

5 Multiple-Zone Systems Can’t deliver OA with 100% efficiency because some excess OA exhausts VAV air handler Some excess (unused) OA leaves building EA VAV PA RA PA VAV RA PA OA RA VAV RA zone 1 OVERVENTILATED zone 2 PROPERLY VENTILATED zone 3 OVERVENTILATED © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 8 .  “Demand controlled ventilation” (DCV) resets zone outdoor airflow (Voz) as zone population or effective OA per person varies (zone-level control) “Ventilation reset control” (VRC) resets outdoor air intake flow (Vot) in multiple-zone systems as system ventilation efficiency (Ev) varies (system-level control) “Ventilation optimization” combines DCV and VRC for multiple-zone (VAV) systems © 2008 Trane   std 62.dynamic reset Operation As Conditions Vary For this presentation.2.1 section 6.

5 Multiple-Zone Recirculating Systems When one air handler supplies mixed air to many zones (e..2. efficiency system vent.2.std 62.1 section 6. VAV systems). a business of Ingersoll Rand 9 .5 System Calculations  6. efficiency outdoor air intake flow = = = = = = = = = = (entry) (entry) Vbz/Ez (measured) Voz/Vdz Vbz Vou/Vdz 1 + Xs – Zd smallest (Evz) Vou/Ev © 2008 Trane  Current system requirements Vou Xs Evz Ev Vot © Trane. zone outdoor airflow current discharge airflow discharge OA fraction uncorrected OA flow average OA fraction zone vent.g. find outdoor air intake flow (Vot) using prescribed equations: Vot = Vou/Ev Vou = f(Vbz in all zones) Ev = 1 + Xs – Zd 2 1 Xs = Vou/Vps Zd = Voz/Vdz 3 4 © 2008 Trane system calculations Ventilation Reset Control  Current zone requirements Vbz Ez Voz Vdz Zd = = = = = = = = = = breathing zone OA flow air distribution eff.

500/0.500 Xs = Vou/Vps = 6.810 8.300 85 760 0. a business of Ingersoll Rand 10 .300 85 760 0.500/18.500/0.357 – 0.190 2.200 = 0.585 8.410 Ventilation Reset Control reduces Vot © 2008 Trane dynamic reset Operation As Conditions Vary For this presentation.880 1.880 1.200 4.300 vent rate Vbz 1.379 0.585 = 0.738 = 8.65*7.000 4.348 0.000 4. 509 Vou = 6.357 Ev = 1 + 0.521 0.880 2.ventilation reset control Single-Duct VAV System Vot Vot req’d w/vent @ design reset 100% system load disc airflow Vdz vent rate Vbz vent fraction Zdz 4.400 4.410 300 1.283 0.500 Xs = Vou/Vps = 6.160 = 0.000 1.960 5.548 500 1.  “Demand controlled ventilation” (DCV) resets zone outdoor airflow (Voz) as zone population or effective OA per person varies (zone-level control) “Ventilation reset control” (VRC) resets outdoor air intake flow (Vot) in multiple-zone systems as system ventilation efficiency (Ev) varies (system-level control) “Ventilation optimization” combines DCV and VRC for multiple-zone (VAV) systems © 2008 Trane   © Trane.772 = 8.548 0.772 Vot = Vou/Ev = 6.880 2.808 90% system load disc airflow Vdz 4.322 Ev = 1 + 0.190 vent fraction Zdz 0.170 0.190 0.585 8.810 w/o VRC w/VRC Vou = D*Rp*Pz + Ra*Az = 0.459 0.100 4.470 0.585 = 0.500/20. 810 8.190 2.125 + 1860 = 6.738 Vot = Vou/Ev = 6.322 – 0.

190 2.170 0. Vou’   ventilation optimization (DCV with VRC) Single-Duct VAV System CO2 Design Pz 140 140 260 260 5 disc airflow Vdz vent rate Vbz vent fraction Zdz 5.321 Ev’ = 1 + 0.283 0.351 0. 509 0.880 1.500 0. no change in Vot calculations At part load:  Find effective OA rate.65*7.332 – 0.880 1.810 85 TOD 760 0.585 scheduled even more DCV & VRC © 2008 Trane © Trane.146 0.810 140 140 50 260 5 90% 20 Pz’ 8.190 500 1.130 Vbz population Xs = Vou/Vps = 6.840/18.738 Vot = Vou/Ev = 6.300 7.880 2.332 Ev = 1 + 0. use D = 1 © 2008 Trane For uncorrected OA flow. 0. Vbz’ = Rp*Pz’ + Ra*Az     For non-DCV zones.200 = 0.812 = 7.200 4.500/0.000 4. a business of Ingersoll Rand 11 .400 4.470 0. use Pz’ = design population For non-CO2 DCV zones.200 = 0.376 0.218 0.431 Vou’ = D*NONRp*Pz + NONRa*Az+co2[Vbz’] + NON-co2(Rp*Pz’+Ra*Az) = 0.509 = 0.431 0.812 DCV reduces Vot Vot’ = Vou’/Ev’ = 5.840/0.459 0.ventilation optimization part load Combining DCV with VRC   For design.500/20.410 disc airflow Vdz 4.810 Vou = D*Rp*Pz + Ra*Az =find new + 1860 = 6.840 VRC w/zone-level Xs’ = Vou/Vps = 5.000 5.585 = 0.321 – 0.738 = 8.548 CO2 TOD 40 Vot Vot w/vent w/vent reset & DCV 8.190 0.190 85 680 560 915 vent fraction Zdz 0.300 300 1.000 4.880 Sense 2. OCC zones) or actual (for COU zones) population For CO2 DCV zones. use D = design occupant diversity For DCV zones.190 2.780) + 1. use Pz’ = estimated (for TOD. disregard population and use controller to find Vbz’ based on sensed CO2 For non-DCV zones.260 + 915 + 560 = 5.000 1.190 vent rate Vbz 1.548 .65*(4.300 8.100 4.

ASHRAE Standards 62.1 Requirements – Demand-Controlled ventilation © 2008 Trane ventilation optimization Zone Level: DCV BAS lounge rest room mech room AHU storage office CO2 vestibule corridor OCC elevators TOD reception area OCC office CO2 conference rm TOD computer room © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 12 .1 and 90.1 and VAV Systems 90.

1 and DemandControlled Ventilation  Section 6. c.3.3.4.ASHRAE 90. a business of Ingersoll Rand 13 .9 Exceptions  Systems with energy recovery complying with Section 6.9 Ventilation Controls for HighOccupancy Areas “Demand control ventilation (DCV) is required for spaces larger than 500 ft2 and with a design occupancy for ventilation of greater than 40 people per 1000 ft2 of floor area and served by systems with one or more of the following: a.4. or A design outdoor airflow greater than 3000 cfm” © 2008 Trane Section 6. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper.1 Multiple-zone systems without DDC of individual zones communicating with a central control panel Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 1200 cfm   © 2008 Trane © Trane. An air-side economizer b.6.5.

3c.200 cfm of system outdoor air © 2008 Trane climate and system size determinants Economizers Climate zone 1a. 3a. Vancouver) © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 14 . lobbies  Most likely requirement to apply?   >3. 4c. Lubbock. 4a 2b.4.000 Btu/h (Yuma. 6a. 6b (Denver. 2a. 4b. 7. Chicago. Edmonton) 3b.3.000 cfm of outdoor air or outdoor air economizer  Most likely exception?  < 1. Louis.9 Apply?  High Occupancy  Lecture hall. 1b. Charlotte) Cooling capacity for which an economizer is required Economizer unnecessary ≥ 135.To What Types of Spaces Might 6. assembly.000 Btu/h ≥ 65. 5b. 8 (Miami. cafeteria. 5a. St. 5c.

1 defaults   35 people / 1000 ft2 Combined outdoor air rate 13 cfm/person  Default is < 40 people/1000 ft2  Ventilation controls not required © 2008 Trane © Trane.9 Apply to a Middle School Classroom?  62.Advanced Energy Design Guides Climate Zone Map Marine Dry Moist Required for Systems > 11T Required for Systems > 5T Economizer Not Required © 2008 Trane Does 6. a business of Ingersoll Rand 15 .4.3.

© 2008 Trane © Trane.1 requires DCV for certain applications 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 16 .1 and 90.1?  There are no conflicts in theory   90.1 allows DCV for any application  But specifics are lacking in both standards so demonstrating compliance is difficult © 2008 Trane DCV Techniques Not Well Defined  Standard 90.DCV – Conflicts between Standards 62.1  Demand control ventilation (DCV): a ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

a direct count of occupants. or an estimate of occupancy or ventilation rate per person using occupancy sensors such as those based on indoor CO2 concentrations. Variations in occupancy or ventilation airflow in one or more individual zones for which ventilation airflow requirements will be reset. a business of Ingersoll Rand 17 .1  6. These conditions include but are not limited to: 1.DCV Techniques Not Well Defined  Standard 62. Cs I correlate CO2 setpoints to OA rate derived from basic principals C R  COA  8400E z m R A Rp  a z Pz (Vpz – VIot). © 2008 Trane Standard 62.2. CR VIot3 CR VIot3 CR © 2008 Trane © Trane.1 User’s Manual Appendix A: CO2-Based DCV outdoor air VIot3 COA  Equation to Vpz .7 Dynamic Reset: the system may be designed to reset the design outdoor air intake flow (Vot) and/or space or zone airflow as operating conditions change. v. Note: Examples of measures for estimating such variations include: occupancy scheduled by time-ofday. CRA N.

1 User’s Manual Appendix A: CO2-Based DCV  Key assumptions: CO2 generation rate  Is proportional to bioeffluent generation rate Is proportional to activity level and activity level is predictable  © 2008 Trane CO2 Concentration and Ventilation Rate 8400E z m C R  C OA  R A Rp  a z Pz CR COA Ez Rp Ra Az Pz m = = = = = = = = room CO2 concentration outdoor air CO2 concentration zone ventilation effectiveness people component area or building component zone floor area design number of people activity level (met) © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 18 .Standard 62.

Steady State CO2 Concentration Based on 400 ppm CO2 outdoor air concentration © 2008 Trane Constant Volume Single Zone CO2 DCV Procedure  Calculate the Vot at design occupancy  Using the same equations. calculate the outdoor air rate with no occupants (Vat)  Determine the steady-state CO2 concentration (CO2max)    Provide a CO2 sensor/relay adjusted to send Maximum output signal when room CO2 is at CO2max Minimum output signal when room CO2 is ambient (400 ppm) At maximum output signal. a business of Ingersoll Rand 19 . outdoor air rate = Vot At minimum output signal. outdoor air rate = Vat © 2008 Trane  Adjust outdoor air damper actuator so that   © Trane.

a business of Ingersoll Rand 20 .1 min OA rate 0 10 20 30 40 zone population.Constant Volume CO2 DCV Performance 1200 1000 differential CO2. Pz 50 60 200 0 Vat 0 © 2008 Trane Types of CO2 Sensors solid state gas molecules infrared incandescent infrared source custom designed infrared filters reference diffusion target gas membranes interactive sensor element reduction oxidation (voltage output) light resistance emission change quenching (color change) patented waveguide microprocessor dual beam micro-machined thermopile detector © 2008 Trane © Trane. Vbz Room CO2 Voz 800 600 400 OA rate w/DCV 62. ppm breathing zone OA.

CO2 Sensor Accuracy NBCIP Product Test CA Title 24 requirement © 2008 Trane Single Zone CO2 DCV Control Schematic exhaust air signal converter outdoor air sensor in breathing zone zone CO2 sensor © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 21 .

CO2 DCV with Multiple Zone Systems  Exact technique for optimum energy usage and to ensure 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 22 .1 compliance has not yet been determined statement being developed – results probably in late 2010  ASHRAE Research Project RP 1547 work © 2008 Trane CO2 DCV with Multiple Zone Systems 2) Increase minimum system OA and cooling (or heating) load? 1) Increase zone airflow and reheat? On rise in space CO2 what do you change? CO2 © 2008 Trane © Trane.

1 and VAV Systems Dehumidification © 2008 Trane © Trane.Multiple Zone System CO2 DCV  One Approach (TBD by ASHRAE RP 1547)  Increase the zone damper up to 100% of zone maximum Then stage the OA damper open from unoccupied minimum to design OA minimum 100% Zone Minimum Setpoint  OA Minimum Setpoint 0% CO2 Signal © 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standards 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 23 .1 and 90.

1-2007 Requirements  Areas of potential conflict with Standard 90. a business of Ingersoll Rand 24 . VRC for systems) Dehumidification requirements (65% RH analytical limit) Zone minimum airflow in VAV-reheat systems (intake airflow depends on zone airflow) © 2008 Trane   std 62. mean coincident dry bulb) impact ability to meet the Std 62. configuration and controls © 2008 Trane © Trane.10 Dehumidification  Std 62.1 limit  System type.Std 62.1-2007 section 5. analyzed at dew point design (design dew point.1-2007 limits space relative humidity to 65% or less.1 requirements  Ventilation control or dynamic reset options (DCV for zones.

76°F WB RA 74°F DB.500 cfm) et w 55 u -b basic CV system 85 wetter warmer drier 180 160 140 120 100 80 humidity ratio.6°F DB SA 55.single-zone system Basic Constant Volume RA T space constantspeed fan EA OA MA C SA space temperature determines cooling capacity © 2008 Trane full load OA 96°F DB. a business of Ingersoll Rand 25 . °F 90 100 © 2008 Trane © Trane.° re F 75 colder t lb 60 4.8atu r to 70 ns pe em 65 full load OA 50 35 40 45 MA RA 60 40 20 0 110 30 SA 30 40 50 60 70 80 dry-bulb temperature. 52% RH MA 80. grains/lb of dry air 80 .7°F DB (1.

84°F DB RA 74°F DB. a business of Ingersoll Rand 26 . 67% RH MA 77°F DB SA 63°F DB (1.8 tons at full load 50 35 40 45 SA 60 40 20 0 110 30 30 40 50 60 70 80 dry-bulb temperature.7 tons compared to 4. °F 90 100 © 2008 Trane part load OA 76°F DP. grains/lb of dry air 65% RH t ra 70 pe ° e. ur F 75 80 part load OA full load OA RA' 60 MA 80 60 40 20 0 110 50 35 40 45 SA RA 30 30 40 50 60 70 80 dry-bulb temperature.part load OA 76°F DP. °F m te tu ra 70 pe re 80 75 part load OA full load OA lb 60 65 MA RA 3. °F 90 100 © 2008 Trane © Trane. grains/lb of dry air compared to 52% at full load .500 cfm) et w 55 l bu b m te 65 basic CV system 85 180 160 140 120 100 humidity ratio. 52% RH MA 77°F DB SA 63°F DB (1.500 cfm) et w 55 u -b basic CV system 85 180 160 140 120 100 80 humidity ratio. 84°F DB RA 74°F DB.

°F 90 100 © 2008 Trane © Trane. 50% RH SA 68°F DB (1. 84°F DB CA 52°F DB. a business of Ingersoll Rand 27 . 52°F DP (450 cfm) 100% OA system (“cold” air) 85 180 160 humidity ratio.050 cfm) 50 35 40 45 et w 55 u -b lb 60 m te tu ra 70 pe part load OA 140 120 100 65 RA' SA RA 80 60 40 20 0 110 CA 30 30 40 50 60 70 80 dry-bulb temperature.° re F 75 RA 74°F DB.100% outdoor air system Dedicated Outdoor Air OA dedicated OA unit CA CA SA CA SA RA direct to spaces RA © 2008 Trane part load OA 76°F DP. grains/lb of dry air 80 .

multiple-zone recirculating system Single-Path VAV EA RA space T OA MA T SA variablespeed fan space T © 2008 Trane part load OA RA MA SA 76°F 84°F 74°F 57% DP. °F 90 100 © 2008 Trane © Trane. RH multiple-zone VAV system compared to 67% with 80 basic CV system 75 70 65 60 55 85 180 160 humidity ratio. DB DB. grains/lb of dry air 79°F DB 55°F DB (900 cfm) part load OA MA 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 110 50 35 40 45 SA RA 30 30 40 50 60 70 80 dry-bulb temperature. a business of Ingersoll Rand 28 .

direct) VAV w/local reheat 52% 52% 52% 52% 50% 52% Std 62.2.comparison of dehumidification in humid climate Classroom Relative Humidity system type basic CV system peak DB peak DP mild. a business of Ingersoll Rand 29 .1 Zone Controls  6.rainy comment 52% 67% 65% 65% 60% 55% 55% 53% 57% 73% 70% 68% 68% 60% 55% 55% 60% watch out not so good not so good works OK works well works well* works well* works well + total-energy recovery 50% + mixed-air bypass + 2-speed fan + return-air bypass + reheat (direct) 100% OA (DOAS.1 requires 65% RH or less at peak DP *Std 90.1 reheat rules apply © 2008 Trane 6.2 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling Limitation  6.5.5.5.2.3 Dehumidification © 2008 Trane © Trane.

§11) Simplified Approach Option (§6.5) (§6. a business of Ingersoll Rand 30 .2.3) proposed HVAC design 90.3 Dehumidification Dehumidification Prevent:    Reheating Mixing of hot and cold airstreams Heating and cooling the same airstream © 2008 Trane © Trane.4) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB.1-compliant HVAC system (small buildings only) © 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements 90.1-2007 Section 6.section 6: HVAC Mandatory Provisions prescriptive requirements mandatory provisions (§6.5.

museums.simultaneous heating–cooling Dehumidification Exceptions a) Reducing supply airflow to 50%. a business of Ingersoll Rand 31 .1 b) Systems < 6. surgical suites. or minimum ventilation rate specified by 62.67 tons that can unload at least 50% c) Systems smaller than 3.g.3 tons d) Systems with specific humidity requirements for process needs (e. supermarkets) e) 75% of reheat/recool energy is site-recovered or site-solar f) Desiccant systems where 75% of the heat added is removed by a heat exchanger using energy recovery © 2008 Trane Most Likely Exceptions for Dehumidification Reheat   Reducing airflow to 50% Using recovered heat for 75% of reheat © 2008 Trane © Trane.

1 Reheat using exhaust air sensible heat recovery or refrigerant hot gas © 2008 Trane © Trane. humidity control is inherent Limit supply air temperature reset upper limit   Dedicated OA Systems (DOAS)   Any type of reheat is allowed by 90.1?  No conflicts – compliance with both is possible  90.Dehumidification Conflicts between Standards 90.1 simply limits how dehumidification can be done to limit energy waste from simultaneous heating and cooling © 2008 Trane Compliance Techniques  VAV Systems  Except in unusual applications with high space latent loads.1 and 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 32 .

5 tons by Addendum 90.Compliance Techniques  Single zone systems   Reheat allowed for small units Use variable speed or two-speed motors  To be required for single zone systems ≥7. a business of Ingersoll Rand 33 .1n in 2012  Consider ECMs for small fan motors  Don’t oversize constant volume systems!  Or: always use variable volume systems © 2008 Trane Single Zone VAV maximum setpoint supply air temperature setpoint minimum speed maximum speed minimum setpoint heating loop signal cooling loop signal © 2008 Trane © Trane.

2.1 and 90.ASHRAE Standards 62.5.1 Zone Controls Zone controls    No reheating No recooling No mixing or simultaneously supplying mechanically (or economizer) cooled and mechanically heated air © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 34 .1 and VAV Systems Simultaneous Heating and Cooling © 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Section 6.

4 cfm/ft² © 2008 Trane © Trane.simultaneous heating–cooling Zone-Control Exceptions a) Reduce zone airflow to prescribed limit b) Zones with special pressurization requirements or code-required minimum circulation rates energy provides ≥ 75% of reheat energy c) Site-recovered or site-solar © 2008 Trane simultaneous heating–cooling Zone-Control Exceptions Zone airflow does not exceed whichever is largest: a) ASHRAE Standard 62’s zone requirements for outdoor air b) 0. a business of Ingersoll Rand 35 .

5 1 1.6 0.Airflow at which Reheat is Allowed Reheat Minimum 0. a business of Ingersoll Rand 36 .4 cfm/ft² c) 30% of supply air d) 300 cfm e) ASHRAE Standard 62’s multiple-space requirements.2 0 0 0.8 0.5 2 2.5 Room Airflow (cfm/ft2) © 2008 Trane simultaneous heating–cooling Zone-Control Exceptions Zone airflow does not exceed whichever is largest: a) ASHRAE Standard 62’s zone requirements for outdoor air b) 0.4 0. if approved by AHJ © 2008 Trane © Trane.

1-2007 Requirements  Areas of potential conflict with Standard 90.1 requirements  Ventilation control or dynamic reset options (DCV for zones. VRC for systems) Dehumidification requirements (65% RH analytical limit) Zone minimum airflow in VAV-reheat systems (intake airflow depends on zone airflow)   © 2008 Trane multiple-zone recirculating system Single-Path VAV Reheat EA RA space T OA MA T SA variablespeed fan space T © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 37 .Std 62.

std 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 38 . Determine zone air distribution effectiveness Look up Ez (typically 1.1-2007 section 6.2. Calculate zone outdoor airflow Voz = Vbz/Ez (6-2) (Table 6-2) © 2008 Trane © Trane.5 Multiple-Zone Recirculating Systems  Prescribes procedures and equations to find minimum outdoor air intake flow for the system © 2008 Trane std 62. cfm/ft2) Vbz = Rp × Pz + Ra × Az (6-1) 2.2 Zone Calculations  Prescribes minimum zone outdoor airflow rates for 63 “typical” occupancy categories  6.1-2007 requirements Ventilation Rate Procedure  5. Calculate breathing-zone outdoor airflow.2 Zone Calculations 1. using Table 6-1 rates (cfm/per.0) 3.2.4 Ventilation System Controls  Provide at least minimum OA required by Section 6 at any load condition (all conditions)  6.2.

2.std 62. Why?  Designer must determine the minimum primary airflow expected at the condition being analyzed for design purposes  Is it the minimum zone outdoor airflow for ventilation (Vdz-exp = Voz) per Std 62.2. Find system ventilation efficiency Xs = Vou/Vps Vps = Vps-exp at condition analyzed Evz = 1 + Xs – Zd (App A) Ev = lowest(Evz) Find outdoor air intake flow: Vot = Vou/Ev (6-8) © 2008 Trane 7.1-2007 section 6. Multiple-Zone Systems Find discharge outdoor air fraction (each zone) Zd = Voz/Vdz (6-5) Vdz = Vdz-exp at condition analyzed Find uncorrected outdoor airflow Vou = D*(Rp×Pz) + (Ra×Az) D = Ps/Pz (6-6) 5. std 62.1?  Is it the “reheat-minimum” setting (Vdz-exp = Vdz-rm) per Std 90.1. a business of Ingersoll Rand 39 . 6.5 Multiple-Zone Systems  Step 4 (find Zd = Voz/Vdz). use “minimum expected” value (Vdz = Vdz-exp)  Potential conflict arises. Exception a?  Is it some other value (Vdz-exp ≥ Vdz-rm ≥Voz)? © 2008 Trane © Trane.1-2007 section 6.5 4.

typical “single-supply” VAV-reheat Primary* Airflow Minimums max htg Zd = Voz/Vdz-exp = 1. a business of Ingersoll Rand 40 .0 airflow Ev = 1 + Xs – Zd = Xs Vot = Vou/Xs = Vps If Vdz-exp = Voz … max clg airflow Questionable design: 100% OA discharge airflow Vdz-exp Vdz-rht Vdz-clg Voz local reheat design heating * Vpz = Vdz for single-supply systems deadband cool primary air design cooling © 2008 Trane zone load typical “single-supply” VAV-reheat Primary* Airflow Minimums max htg Zd = Voz/Vdz-exp < 1.0 Vot = Vou/Ev < Vps If Vdz-exp = Vdz-rm … max clg airflow Conservative design: < 100% OA discharge airflow Vdz-exp Vdz-rht Vdz-clg Voz local reheat design heating * Vpz = Vdz for single-supply systems deadband cool primary air design cooling © 2008 Trane zone load © Trane.0 airflow Ev = 1 + Xs – Zd << 1.

typical “single-supply” VAV-reheat Primary* Airflow Minimums max htg Zd = Voz/Vdz-exp << 1.0 airflow Ev = 1 + Xs – Zd = Xs Vot = Vou/Xs = Vps If Vdz-exp = Vdz-rm = Voz … Using SFP box airflow increases Vdz-exp: < 100% OA max clg discharge airflow Vdz-exp Vdz-rht Vdz-clg Voz local reheat design heating * Vpz = Vdz for single-supply systems deadband cool primary air design cooling © 2008 Trane zone load © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 41 .0 Vot = Vou/Ev << Vps If Vdz-exp > Vdz-rm … Less airflow conservative design: << 100% OA max clg discharge airflow Vdz-exp Vdz-rht Vdz-clg Voz local reheat design heating * Vpz = Vdz for single-supply systems deadband cool primary air design cooling © 2008 Trane zone load typical “single-supply” VAV-reheat Primary* Airflow Minimums max htg Zd = Voz/Vdz-exp = 1.0 airflow Ev = 1 + Xs – Zd < 1.

g.1 and 62. a business of Ingersoll Rand 42 . fan-powered boxes.g. interior conference room will not be at minimum airflow if fully occupied  Include population diversity  This can completely offset system inefficiency compared to DOAS  Provide transfer air (e.1?  No conflicts – compliance with both is possible  But some common VAV system design and control options will not work well  Traditional single-duct VAV reheat systems are limited But VAV is still a viable option! DOAS is not required and may not be the most efficient option! © 2008 Trane   Compliance Techniques for VAV Systems  Use the Multiple Spaces Spreadsheet “62MZCalc”  Model only realistic supply airflow scenarios  E. dual fan dual duct) to potentially critical zones  Low or even zero VAV minimums are possible © 2008 Trane © Trane.simultaneous heating and cooling Conflicts between Standards 90.

a business of Ingersoll Rand 43 .62MZCalc Spreadsheet © 2008 Trane 62MZCalc Spreadsheet © 2008 Trane © Trane.

62MZCalc Spreadsheet © 2008 Trane 62MZCalc Spreadsheet © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 44 .

62MZCalc Spreadsheet © 2008 Trane VAV Reheat System – Heating Condition with 30% Minimums © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 45 .

VAV Reheat System – Heating Condition with 30% Minimums © 2008 Trane VAV Reheat System – Heating Condition with 30%/0. a business of Ingersoll Rand 46 .4 cfm/ft2 Minimums © 2008 Trane © Trane.

a business of Ingersoll Rand 47 .VAV Reheat System – Heating Condition with 30%/0.4 cfm/ft2 Minimums © 2008 Trane Impact of Series Fan-Powered VAV Boxes © 2008 Trane © Trane.

Impact of Series Fan-Powered VAV Boxes © 2008 Trane Impact of Series Fan-Powered VAV Boxes © 2008 Trane © Trane. a business of Ingersoll Rand 48 .

a business of Ingersoll Rand 49 .Low Minimums Possible with Fan-Powered Boxes © 2008 Trane Answers to Your Questions This concludes the American Institute of Architects Continuing Education System Program ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and VAV Systems © 2008 Trane © Trane.1 and 90.

Do ASHRAE Standards 62.1 requires specific humidity levels  VAV systems inherently control humidity   90.1 allows reheat via exceptions No conflict  Use VAV or two-speed fans  Consider recovering energy. a business of Ingersoll Rand 50 .1 and 90.1 Conflict?  Dehumidification  62. even if not required © 2008 Trane © Trane.1 requires in some cases No conflict  CO2 sensing is often used  System controls are important © 2008 Trane Do ASHRAE Standards 62.1 Conflict?  Demand Controlled Ventilation    62.1 and 90.1 allows 90.

1 and 90.1 requires reduction of zone airflows prior to using new energy for reheat 62. design and operation © 2008 Trane references for this broadcast Where to Learn More www. a business of Ingersoll Rand 51 .1 requires specific ventilation airflows No conflict. but…  Challenges must be met through proper system   selection.Do ASHRAE Standards 62.com/engineersnewsletter © 2008 Trane © Trane.1 Conflict?  Zone controls and reheat  90.trane.

and IAQ  November 4 © 2008 Trane © Trane.trane. Energy.com/bookstore     © 2008 Trane 2009 ENL Broadcasts  March 11  May 13 LEED 2009 Modeling and Energy Savings Ice Storage System Design: Round-theClock Operation for Office Buildings and K-12 Schools Air-Handling Systems.watch past broadcasts ENL Archives Insightful topics on HVAC system design:  Chilled-water plants     Air distribution Refrigerant-to-air systems Control strategies Industry standards and LEED Energy and the environment Acoustics Ventilation Dehumidification www. a business of Ingersoll Rand 52 .

Stanke. pp 30-37. July 2006. Yuill. December 2006. and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). “Better Part-Load Dehumidification.Trane Engineers Newsletter Live Program Bibliography Industry Standards and Handbooks ASHRAE Standard 62..1 and 90.1-2004. pp 20–30.. Refrigerating.1-2007: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. “System Operation: Dynamic Reset Options. and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).. pp 67–75.1-2007.” Engineers Newsletter 29-4 (2000).ashrae.” ASHRAE Journal 47(1). (ASHRAE). March 2007. “Dehumidify with Constant-Volume Systems..” Engineers Newsletter 33-2 (2004). “Dehumidification Performance of HVAC Systems. Stanke. January 2005.org> Industry Trade Journal Articles Murphy. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. “Single-Path Multiple-Zone System Design. Atlanta. Stanke.org/bookstore American Society of Heating. “CO2-based DCV Using 62. ASHRAE. May 2005. Stanke. “Smart Dedicated Outdoor-Air Systems. Refrigerating. J. Available at Available at www. G. 62. D.” ASHRAE Journal 47(5).ashrae..1 and VAV Systems American Society of Heating.1-2004 User’s Manual.1 User’s Manual: ANSI/ASHRAE IESNA Standard 62.1-2004: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. S.. J. Research Project 1276-RP: A Study of Multiple Space Effects on Ventilation System Efficiency in Standard 62. pp 23-31. J.” ASHRAE Journal 48(7). Taylor. D. pp 18–32..ashrae.ashrae. D. J.org/bookstore American Society of Heating. ASHRAE.” ASHRAE Journal 48(12). “Advances in Desiccant-Based Dehumidification. Murphy.” ASHRAE Journal 48(5). D. Available at <http://www. Available at www. ANSI/ASHRAE IESNA Standard 90. D. ANSI/ASHRAE IESNA Standard 62.” ASHRAE Journal 44(3). Murphy.. Refrigerating.” Engineers Newsletter 34-4 (2005). “Designing dual-path multiple-zone systems. pp 28-35.. Available at Available at www.1 – 2004 and Experimental Validation of the Multiple Spaces Equation. Page 1 of 2 . Inc. GA Trane Publications Murphy. Standard 90. March 2002.org/bookstore American Society of Heating. and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Yuill. May 2006.

” Engineers Newsletter 34-5 (2005). D. 2005 “Improving Dehumidification in HVAC Systems. 2005. “Air-to-Air Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems” Trane application manual SYS-APM003-EN (2002) Trane..trane. “Addendum 62n.1-2004: Ventilation Requirements.. D. CDS-PRM001-EN. APP-CMC024-EN (DVD). Trane. APP-APV005-EN (VHS). 2005 “ASHRAE Standard 62.” Engineers Newsletter Live broadcast. APP-CMC023-EN (DVD). 2007 Analysis Software Trane Air-Conditioning and Economics (TRACE™ 700).” Engineers Newsletter Live broadcast.com/bookstore> “Building Moisture and Humidity Management.” Engineers Newsletter 33-1 (2004). “CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation with ASHRAE Standard 62. “Dehumidification in HVAC Systems” Trane application manual SYS-APM004-EN (2002) Murphy. Page 2 of 2 . 2000 “CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation.aspx?i=1136> TRACE™ 700 User’s Manual. Stanke. APP-CMC030-EN (DVD).1-2004.Trane Engineers Newsletter Live Program Bibliography Stanke. Trane Engineers Newsletters Live Broadcasts available to purchase from <www.” Engineers Newsletter Live broadcast. “Dedicated Ventilation Systems. Available at <www. J.com/Commercial/DNA/View.” Engineers Newsletter 30-3 (2001).trane.” Engineers Newsletter Live broadcast.

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