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Submitted To:

Dr. B.K. Pattanayak

HOD, Department of CSE

Submitted By:ARUN MISHRA Regd. No-0811017089 Section- IT(B) 7th Semester

INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH

(Faculty of Engineering) SIKSHA O ANUSANDHAN UNIVERSITY (Declared u/s. The process of looking for a sequence of actions that reaches the goal is called search. but if a heuristic cost estimate h is used. At each step the current node is replaced by the best neighbor.VALUE then return current . uphill. A search algorithm takes a problem as input and returns a solution in the form of an action HILL-CLIMBING:. This resembles trying to ﬁnd the top of Mount Everest in a thick fog while suffering from amnesia. Hill climbing is sometimes called greedy local search because it grabs a good neighbor state without thinking ahead about where to go next. Hill climbing does not look ahead beyond the immediate neighbors of the current state.The hill-climbing search algorithm is simply a loop that continually moves in the direction of increasing value—that is. which is the most basic local search technique.STATE current ← neighbor The hill-climbing search algorithm.VALUE ≤ current. we would ﬁnd the neighbor with the lowest h. function HILL-CLIMBING( problem ) returns a state that is a local maximum current ← M AKE-NODE(problem . The algorithm does not maintain a search tree. 1956) BHUBANESWAR – 751 030 2011-2012 1) Compare different Informed Search Strategies.I NITIAL-STATE) loop do neighbor ← a highest-valued successor of current if neighbor. . so the data structure for the current node need only record the state and the value of the objective function. It terminates when it reaches a “peak” where no neighbor has a higher value. it turns out that greedy algorithms often perform quite well. Although greed is considered one of the seven deadly sins. because it is usually quite easy to improve a bad state. that means the neighbor with the highest VALUE. in this version. Hill climbing often makes very rapid progress towards a solution. 3 of the UGC Act.

function SIMULATED-ANNEALING( problem .e. let’s switch our point of view from hill climbing to gradient descent (i.VALUE – current . a version of stochastic hill climbing where some downhill moves are allowed. it will come to rest at a local minimum.SIMULATED ANNEALING SEARCH:-A hill-climbing algorithm that never makes “downhill” moves towards states with lower value (or higher cost) is guaranteed to be incomplete. LOCAL BEAM SEARCH:. it seems reasonable to try to combine hill climbing with a random walk in some way that yields both efﬁciency and completeness. at a high temperature) and then gradually reduce the intensity of the shaking (i. annealing is the process used to temper or harden metals and glass by heating them to a high temperature and then gradually cooling them. a problem schedule . Downhill moves are accepted readily early in the annealing schedule and then less often as time goes on. The local beam search algorithm3 keeps track of k states rather than just one.Keeping just one node in memory might seem to be an extreme reaction to the problem of memory limitations. Simulated annealing is such an algorithm. minimizing cost) and imagine the task of getting a ping-pong ball into the deepest crevice in a bumpy surface. The trick is to shake just hard enough to bounce the ball out of local minima. In metallurgy. At each step. If we shake the surface. but not hard enough to dislodge it from the global minimum. a “temperature” controlling the probability of downward steps current ← M AKE-NODE(problem . because it can get stuck on a local maximum. a purely random walk—that is.VALUE if ∆E > 0 then current ← next else current ← next only with probability e∆E/T The simulated annealing search algorithm. Therefore. The schedule input determines the value of T as a function of time. all the successors of all k states are . we can bounce the ball out of the local minimum.e.. a mapping from time to “temperature” local variables: T . moving to a successor chosen uniformly at random from the set of successors—is complete. schedule ) returns a solution state inputs: problem .e. It begins with k randomly generated states.. In contrast.. lower the temperature). To understand simulated annealing. thus allowing the material to reach a low-energy crystalline state. but extremely inefﬁcient. The simulated-annealing solution is to start by shaking hard (i. If we just let the ball roll.I NITIAL-STATE) for t ← 1 to ∞ do T=schedule(t) if T = 0 then return current next ← a randomly selected successor of current ∆E ← next .

the algorithm halts. Yet it can be shown mathematically that. if any. The primary advantage. If anyone is a goal. A variant called stochastic beam search. the advantage comes from the ability of crossover to combine large blocks of letters that have evolved independently to perform useful functions. which is a substring in which some of the positions can be left unspeciﬁed. Like stochastic beam search. The theory of genetic algorithms explains how this works using the idea of a schema. stochastic beam search chooses k successors at random. of genetic algorithms comes from the crossover operation. The analogy to natural selection is the same as in stochastic beam search. it could be that putting the ﬁrst three queens in positions 2. crossover conveys no advantage. Each state. Instead of choosing the best k from the the pool of candidate successors. rather than by modifying a single state. with the probability of choosing a given successor being an increasing function of its value. local beam search can suffer from a lack of diversity among the k states—they can quickly become concentrated in a small region of the state space. At ﬁrst sight. making the search little more than an expensive version of hill climbing. is represented as a string over a ﬁnite alphabet—most commonly. GENETIC ALGORITHM:-A genetic algorithm (or GA) is a variant of stochastic beam search in which successor states are generated by combining two parent states. except that now we are dealing with sexual rather than asexual reproduction. a local beam search with k states might seem to be nothing more than running k random restarts in parallel instead of in sequence. genetic algorithms combine an uphill tendency with random exploration and exchange of information among parallel search threads. 4. called the population. thus raising the level of granularity at which the search operates. analogous to stochastic hill climbing. useful information is In its simplest form. In a random-restart search. and 6 (where they do not attack each other) constitutes a useful block that can be combined with other blocks to construct a solution. whereby the “successors” (offspring) of a “state” (organism) populate the next generation according to its “value” (ﬁtness). In a local beam search. helps to alleviate this problem. Like beam search. For example.generated. Stochastic beam search bears some resemblance to the process of natural selection. Otherwise. it selects the k best successors from the complete list and repeats. . the two algorithms are quite different. if the positions of the genetic code are permuted initially in a random order. or individual. GAs begin with a set of k randomly generated states. Intuitively. In fact. each search process runs independently of the others. a string of 0s and 1s.

The main difference between IDA∗ and standard iterative deepening is that the cutoff used is the f -cost (g + h) rather than the depth. FITNESS-FN) y ← RANDOM-SELECTION( population . the cutoff value is the smallest f -cost of any node that exceeded the cutoff on the previous iteration.function GENETIC-ALGORITHM( population . 1. c ). . parent individuals n ← L ENGTH(x ). 2) Explain the procedure for MemoryBounded Search also called IDA* search. SUBSTRING(y . FITNESS-FN. IDA∗ is practical for many problems with unit step costs and avoids the substantial overhead associated with keeping a sorted queue of nodes. FITNESS-FN) child ← REPRODUCE(x . according to F ITNESS-FN function REPRODUCE(x . y ) if(small random probability) then child<-MUTATE(child) add child to new_population population<-new_population until some individual is ﬁt enough. Genetic algorithms work best when schemata correspond to meaningful components of a solution. or enough time has elapsed return the best individual in population . a set of individuals. n )) It can be shown that. if the average ﬁtness of the instances of a schema is above the mean. this effect is unlikely to be signiﬁcant if adjacent bits are totally unrelated to each other. Clearly. y . FITNESS-FN) returns an individual inputs: population .empty set for i = 1 to SIZE( population ) do x ← RANDOM-SELECTION( population . c + 1. at each iteration. a function that measures the ﬁtness of an individual repeat new_population<. then the number of instances of the schema within the population will grow over time. because then there will be few contiguous blocks that provide a consistent beneﬁt. y ) returns an individual inputs: x . c ← random number from 1 to n return APPEND(SUBSTRING(x .

Therefore the number of node expansions in this case is close to the number of nodes A* expands. the algorithm will expand only one new node per iteration. there are few possible f values (f values are only integral in this case. In the worst case. Next f-limit=minimum cost of any node pruned The cut-off for nodes expanded in an iteration is decided by the f-value of the nodes. the algorithm runs out of main memory much earlier than the algorithm runs out of time. and thus if A* expands N nodes. The number of nodes expanded relative to A* depends on # unique values of heuristic function. Knowledge base for the Wumpus world . and many more nodes may need to be expanded. Each iteration is depth first search. but with the following modifications:The depth bound modified to be an f-limit 1.IDA* Algorithm . it I usually the case that for slightly larger problems. The number of iterations is equal tit h number of distinct f values less than or equal to C*. Start with limit = h(start) 2. In problems like 8 puzzle using the Manhattan distance heuristic.Iterative deepening A* or IDA* is similar to iterativedeepening depth-first. : each f value may be unique.). the maximum number of nodes expanded by IDA* is 1+2+…+ N = O(N2). Prune any node if f(node) > f-limit 3.IDA* is complete & optimal Space usage is linear in the depth of solution. In the case of A*. IDA* Analysis . 3) Design an agent for the Wumpus World Environment in First Order Predicate Logic. if all f values are distinct. and thus it does not require a priority queue. But in problems like traveling salesman (TSP) using real valued costs.

g].. rather than eternally E. b. t) ⇒ Smelt(t) ∀ s.. t) ⇒ Action(Grab. t At(Agent. t Percept([Smell. y) Causal rule—infer eﬀect from cause ∀ x. t) Holding(Gold.g. t) ∧ Smelt(t) ⇒ Smelly(x) ∀ x. b. t Percept([s. y)] Keeping track of change Facts hold in situations. y P it(x) ∧ Adjacent(x.. y) ⇒ Breezy(y) Neither of these is complete—e. Holding(Gold.“Perception” ∀ b. the causal rule doesn’t say whether squares far away from pits can be breezy Deﬁnition for the Breezy predicate: ∀ y Breezy(y) ⇔ [∃ x P it(x) ∧ Adjacent(x.g. t) ⇒ AtGold(t) Reﬂex: ∀ t AtGold(t) ⇒ Action(Grab. Now) rather than just Holding(Gold) Situation calculus is one way to represent change in FOL: Adds a situation argument to each non-eternal predicate E. g. t) ∧ Breeze(t) ⇒ Breezy(x) Squares are breezy near a pit: Diagnostic rule—infer cause from eﬀect ∀ y Breezy(y) ⇒ ∃ x P it(x) ∧ Adjacent(x. Glitter]. Now in Holding(Gold. x. Now) denotes a situation . t) cannot be observed ⇒ keeping track of change is essential Deducing hidden properties Properties of locations: ∀ x. b.g. t) Reﬂex with internal state: do we have the gold already? ∀ t AtGold(t) ∧ ¬Holding(Gold. t At(Agent. x.

s)) ⇔[(a = Grab ∧ AtGold(s)) ∨ (Holding(Gold. s Holding(Gold.Situations are connected by the Result function Result(a. s) is the situation that results from doing a in s Describing actions “Eﬀect” axiom—describe changes due to action ∀ s AtGold(s) ⇒ Holding(Gold. s)) Frame problem: ﬁnd an elegant way to handle non-change (a) representation—avoid frame axioms (b) inference—avoid repeated “copy-overs” to keep track of state Qualiﬁcation problem: true descriptions of real actions require endless caveats — Ramiﬁcation problem: real actions have many secondary consequences— Successor-state axioms solve the representational frame problem Each axiom is “about” a predicate (not an action per se): P true afterwards⇔∨[an action made P true P true already and no action made P false] For holding the gold: ∀ a. Result(Grab. s)) “Frame” axiom—describe non-changes due to action ∀ s HaveArrow(s) ⇒ HaveArrow(Result(Grab. Result(a. s) ∧ a = Release)] .

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