56 Progress Indicators and Exemplars for Tuhituhi

This section summarises the theoretical basis of asTTle’s approach to Tuhituhi. The approach is based on work undertaken in asTTle English Writing, with modifications to compensate where Mäori language structure and grammar differ significantly from English. Writing is a purposeful social interaction that functions to accomplish certain social goals. To use language as a system for representing and transforming their own worlds, students need to develop knowledge not just about texts, but also about writing as a purpose-driven communicative response in social and cultural contexts. The asTTle team conceptualised genre as driven by functional purpose rather than mode (text form). That is, the features of texts are related to the purposes and contexts for writing, and the same form may serve different purposes and a purpose may be served by more than one form of text. The design of the progress indicators reflects these ideas. Although there are different ways of classifying the functions of writing, there is considerable overlap among the systems of various authors. Using such research, we viewed writing as serving six major functions or processes. Note that although the curriculum map for Tuhituhi in Levels 5 and 6 (Technical Report 39) recommended release of materials for analyse, it was found through trials that no students were able to complete any of the analyse tasks. Thus, no materials are published for this seventh purpose. The six valid purposes in asTTle V4 are: • • • • • To argue or persuade (tautohe) To classify, organise and describe (whakaatu) To explain (whakamärama) To inform or entertain through narrating or story telling including imaginative narrative or personal interpretive (tuhi paki) To instruct or lay out a procedure (tohutohu) To recount (taki)

Using this framework and the New Zealand Curriculum and supporting documents, we developed progress indicators for each of the six major functions to score tasks designed to demonstrate that function. The progress indicators contain two levels from which to consider the features of text as related to the purpose and context (see Figure 9). Within the deep and surface features there are seven categories with detailed criteria. • Deep features (ähuatanga höhonu) include: effectiveness, i.e., audience awareness and purpose, content or ideas, structure or organisation, and language knowledge/resources for achieving purpose. Surface features (ähuatanga päpaku) include grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Criteria within the deeper features differ according to purpose, whereas the three surface features of text are common across all progress indicators.

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Figure 9 A Common Framework for All asTTle Progress Indicators

Ähuatanga Höhonu (Deep Features)

Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): This level of analysis relates to the writer’s ability to respond to the given task. A task is provided that requires a particular sort of communicative response for a specified audience. Scores awarded in this feature will ask teachers to judge the extent to which a writer was able to take account of the questions “Who am I writing this for?”, “Why am I writing this?”, and “What shape or form will this take?” to produce a piece that achieves its communicative purpose. Content/Ideas: This incorporates two main areas of the text written: domain elements and content/information. Domain elements acknowledge that texts have some common features or elements that are accepted as part of the cultural resources for achieving a purpose. In a report format, for example, we would generally expect to see a classification statement identifying the subject of the report, body text dealing with details of the subject, and a final or rounding-off statement. These aspects of text are closely linked to the structuring of the text but are considered here only in terms of their inclusion in the text. The ordering of text is dealt with in another section of the progress indicator. Content material is mainly concerned with what might be called “the aboutness” of the text. For any given task, we would expect that writers will write on the topic specified and that the content included will be, to a greater or lesser degree, relevant to achieving the purpose. Structure/Organisation: This dimension of text refers to the ordering or organisation that writers demonstrates in their text. The focus here is on the management of text through sequencing and linking of ideas. There are two main ways in which organisation is seen to operate. There is the “global” organisation of the text, dealing with sequence from start to finish. This kind of paragraphing may be a tool used by a writer to group ideas and between paragraph links. Another way in which text may be organised is through the linking of ideas within and across sentences. This may be particularly useful in texts where the job of the writer is to explain. In such texts, cause and effect sequences need to be made explicit. Language Knowledge/Resources: This feature deals only with language use. In order to achieve certain purposes in writing, the language we use reflects three main considerations: What are we writing about? (content influences vocabulary).
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What is our purpose? (language choices and grammatical structures that are associated with a desire to argue, to entertain, to instruct, etc.) Who are we writing for? (language choice and grammatical choices that acknowledge different ways of addressing our parents, our friends, the teacher, the principal, etc.). These three considerations combine to influence the language in use in a text. Studies of writers and writing highlight aspects of grammar that are common to achieving certain purposes through writing. There are differences to be seen again when a writer is attempting to persuade a reader. Also included here are aspects relating to sentences (e.g., control of simple and/or complex sentences).
Tautohe (Persuade) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deep features of Tautohe (persuade or argue) purpose writing. Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): This function of writing centres on an assumption that a writer must convince a particular reader, whether real or imagined, through the presentation of relevant points with supporting evidence. There are many types of persuasive texts with variations in focus, but the main focus here is to argue a position or to persuade a reader to a particular point of view. Content/Ideas: A thesis or position statement may provide the reader with the context. In the body of the text, there are main points with elaboration, usually in the form of supporting evidence. This part of the text takes the reader through a structured and logical presentation of information (i.e., evidence and/or illustration) to support the writer’s position or thesis. The conclusion restates the writer’s position and/or makes a recommendation for action about what ought or ought not to be done. Structure/Organisation: There is a focus on objects and ideas, rather than events, happenings or processes. Information and ideas are grouped logically and linked thematically. Organising devices such as paragraphing and conjunctions are used to show relations among content items or ideas. Language Knowledge/Resources: Arguments name and describe generalised participants or abstract concepts (e.g., parents or teachers). Arguments make statements of fact and offer personal opinions on the topic. Precise, descriptive, factual language is employed to give detail and credibility to the argument. Persuasive or emotive language is commonly used to add to the impact on the reader and make the argument seem powerful. There may be use of idiomatic language to appeal to readers’ senses and emotions. Technical language related to the topic (where appropriate) adds authority to the text and writer. Appropriate language is used to make clear the state of play. The choice of vocabulary often reflects the desire to create particular information-laden meanings for the reader.

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Table 9 Progress Indicators for Tautohe (Persuade) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Whaihua • Some or little evidence that (Audience writer recognises that his/her awareness and opinion is needed. purpose) • May state opinions from a personal perspective. Kiko • Writing covers some (1 or (Content/Ideas) more) task and topic appropriate domains: (e.g. position statement – writer identifies position on the issue, makes 2 or more simple opinion /statements related to the topic, makes use of a final statement to round off the text in some way). • Can include many statements not really relevant to the topic and/or task. Hanganga • Some or little semblance of (Structure/ organisation is evident (e.g. Organisation) occasional grouping of ideas) • Text often limited because of presentation of opinion statements as separate elements. • • • • Level 3 Proficient Evidence that writer recognises that his/her opinion is needed. Few opinions maybe stated from a personal perspective. May be little evidence of an attempt to influence. Some argument domain elements are present (main points, some supporting evidence/illustration, restatement of position). Little elaboration of main points occurs. Can include few statements not really relevant to the topic and/or task. Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient • Language use and writing style • Language use and writing style • Language use and writing style generally appropriate to mostly appropriate and directed appropriate and directed to audience. Writer states his/her to audience (e.g. writing audience (e.g. writing attempts position on the issue and attempts to persuade reader). to persuade reader). Clearly makes some attempt to Clearly stated position is stated position is evident and influence. usually evident. maintained throughout.

• Argument domain elements • Argument domain elements • Most argument domain (e.g. position statement, main (e.g. position statement, main elements are present (main points, illustration/evidence of points, illustration/evidence of points, some supporting main points, re-statement) are main points, re-statement) are evidence/illustration, recomprehensive and elaborated. sometimes comprehensive and statement of position). elaborated. • Content is relevant & functions • Some elaboration of main • to add weight to the writer’s • Content is mostly relevant & points occurs. position. usually functions to add weight • May include limited information • to the writer’s position. • Include appropriate conclusion that does not contribute to (providing thematic integration • Includes appropriate conclusion argument. of argument rather then (summarising points made & • May include appropriate summarising expanding the argument). conclusion. • points made). • Content managed effectively • Some Evidence of attempts at • Evidence of attempts at overall • Content generally managed effectively through grouping through grouping and/or structuring of content through overall structuring of content and/or paragraphing main ideas paragraphing main ideas & grouping ideas within and through grouping ideas within & supporting evidence. supporting evidence. across sentences (use of and across sentences (limited devices such as paragraphing • Ideas are sometimes linked in • Ideas are linked in more use devices such as and simple linking of ideas paragraphing and simple linking more complex ways (e.g. use of complex ways (e.g. varied use through conjunctions or linking of ideas through conjunctions or linking words & devices, of linking words & devices, devices). linking devices such as häunga, phrases, and conjunctions). phrases, and conjunctions). nö te mea, nä reira, otirä, • Relevant material selected to • Arrangement is logical and engari, me te mea nei, waihoki support ideas used to persuade aims to assist the reader’s etc). audience. understanding of the writer’s argument.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Language has structure of simple opinion statements (e.g. may be stated from a personal perspective “Ki a au nei”). • Topic related language present but very little opinion is conveyed through language choices (e.g. vocab. is very limited). • Simple sentences always used. • Some evidence of some use of task appropriate structures and language. • Topic related language present but little opinion is conveyed through language choices (e.g. vocab. is sometimes limited). • Simple sentences mainly used. • Limited use of complex sentences. • Good evidence of some use of task appropriate structures and language. • Evidence that the writer is a beginning to select language to create a particular effect and to influence the reader. • May be some unclear or repetitious reference. • Many simple sentences correct. Some complex sentences used. • Mostly consistent use of appropriate language for task & topic. • Language supports a particular viewpoint and is used to persuade the reader. • Reference links mostly clear. • Most sentences correct. • Some control of complex sentences evident. • Generally uses complete sentences. • Consistent use of appropriate language for task and topic. • Language supports a particular viewpoint and is used to persuade the reader. • Reference links clear. • Almost all sentences correct. • Control of complex sentences evident, where appropriate. • Uses complete sentences.

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Figure 10 Annotated Example for Tautohe (Persuade) Whainga (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 3B Language use and style appropriate, Writer’s position on topic clear. To score higher than 3B Writer needs to display more evidence of attempts to influence audience.

Kiko (Content/Ideas) 2A A number of good points given to support position. To score higher than 2A Requires more elaboration of main points, more evidence and could re-state position.

Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation) 3B Evidence of structured argument with appropriate linking. To score higher than 3B Needs clearer separation (or better grouping) between arguments and clear paragraphing.

Matauranga Reo (Language knowledge/Resources) 3P Mostly appropriate simple and complex sentences. Vocabulary mostly sufficient. To score higher than 3P Requires more descriptive language & vocabulary. Elaboration and more commentary possible on key arguments. Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 3B Most punctuation is correct, sentence separation generally good (although difficult to see full stops), includes limited use of paragraphs. To score higher than 3B Requires accurate paragraphing and use clearer sentence.

Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 3P Most of grammar suffices, and appropriate for an argument. Odd mistake, e.g., use of passive suffix following me, also possessive a and o not always correct. To score higher than 3P Requires fewer mistakes.

Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 3B Most spelling is correct and macron use is sometimes accurate. Word separation (e.g., passive suffix) not always accurate. To score higher than 3B Requires consistent application of macron (e.g., rätau) and fewer mistakes.

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Whaihua (Audience awareness and purpose) 5P Language use appropriate. Writer clearly states the issue and position taken, followed by attempts to persuade audience. To score higher than 5P Writer would need to adhere to stated position throughout the text. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 5P Main argument elements present and elaborated. Most of the content is relevant and adds weight to the writers position. To score higher than 5P Conclusion would need to provide thematic integration of argument. Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation) 5P Content generally managed effectively and grouped appropriately. Linking phrases are generally appropriately used. To score higher than 5P Arrangement could be improved, in terms of how main ideas are presented to aid the readers understanding. Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 5P Appropriate language used. Good use to idiom to emphasise certain points. Sentences mostly correct and complete. To score higher than 5P Demonstration of control of complex sentences and structures more appropriate and more use of language deliberately aimed to persuade the reader. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 5P Few errors and appropriate range of sentence structures. To score higher than 5P Demonstration of a wider range of sentence/grammatical structures and more accurate use of sentence separation and coordination. Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 5P Punctuation mostly correct. Dialogue punctuation accurate. To score higher than 5P Punctuation always correct and accurate use of complex punctuation. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 5P Very few errors, occasional macron missing, e.g., pä, märama, käore. To score higher than 5P No errors and accurate use of macrons. asTTle V4 Manual 1.0, Appendix

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Tohutohu (Instruct) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deeper features of the Tohutohu (instruct purpose writing). (Effectiveness) Audience Awareness and Purpose: This purpose usually involves describing how something may be accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps to tell someone how something is done. There are several common types of text associated with this function, namely recipes, appliance manuals, assembly instructions, games’ rules, etc. Content/Ideas: Texts intended to instruct or to outline a procedure contain information statements that tell another person how something may be achieved. Domain elements usually include a goal statement or often a title that provides information for the reader about the nature of the procedure to be outlined. It identifies the product to be made or the process to be carried out. There is information about materials, though this is not required for all procedural texts, which tells the reader what resources may be required to complete the procedure. This is usually ordered. Then the description of the sequence of steps required in order for the reader to achieve the goal is laid out. Advice or background information may be included at any time as a means of clarifying the procedure. Structure/Organisation: The text is generally organised around a process from beginning to end. The focus is on actions and human agency. Content is structured according to the prescribed sequence of events required to complete the task. Text organisers such as titles, headings or subheadings may be used to orient readers. Language Knowledge/Resources: Precise, descriptive language is employed to clarify aspects of the procedure. Vocabulary is used to describe processes to be done by the reader (e.g., whisk, cut, deal, transfer, twist). Precise word choices reflect the desire to clarify meanings for the reader (e.g., trim rather than cut). Time and sequence relationships when instructing or laying out a procedure are generally indicated by the use of specific language (e.g. i te tuatahi, ka, I, I muri mai… etc. or numbering).

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Table 10 Progress Indicators for Tohutohu (Instruct) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient

Hahira • Some evidence that the writer (Audience recognises the purpose for awareness and writing (e.g., attempts to purpose) instruct the reader) and that he/she is writing for an audience other than the self. • May assume much shared knowledge with the reader. Kiko • Few elements of procedure (Content/Ideas) (e.g., headings, actions, materials) included. • Some topic-related information included. • Evidence of instruction-like statements.

• Language use and writing style • Interprets needs of audience. • Experience, background, • Good evidence that the writer is mostly appropriate to purpose motivation and needs recognises the purpose for • Language use and writing style audience. of audience taken into account. writing (e.g., attempts to instruct directed to audience. the reader) and that he/she is • Instructs but relies on context. • Gives/explains to audience writing for an audience other appropriate rationale for than the self. instruction. • May be some elements of procedure (e.g., headings, actions, materials) included. • Little elaboration of elements. • Some irrelevant information. • Basic procedure elements (i.e., headings, actions, materials) included. • Some elaboration of elements. • Limited irrelevant information. • May include list-like instructions. • Procedure elements (i.e., headings, sub-headings, materials, actions). • Sufficiently elaborate, precise, and comprehensive. • Mostly appropriate content. • Ideas given with evidence of selection where appropriate. • Procedure elements (i.e., headings, sub-headings, materials, actions) sufficiently elaborate, precise, and comprehensive. • Includes only appropriate content. • Affective selection of details included. • May include conditional steps. • Clear, logical, coherent structure. • Elements of procedure grouped or sequenced appropriately. • Variety of affective, appropriate methods to organise material (itinerary, list, subject group paragraphs) • Affective concluding address to reader.

Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation)

• Semblance of order to procedure. • May use a simple ordering device (e.g., numbers).

• Limited grouping or sequencing • Some grouping or sequencing • Generally clear, logical, of procedure elements evident. coherent structure. of procedure elements evident. • Limited simple ordering device • Adequate use of headings, or • Elements of procedure mostly numbering & conventional grouped or sequenced (e.g., numbers). paragraphing. appropriately. • Deliberate use of ordering devices where applicable. • May include a concluding address to reader.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Some evidence of use of task• Simple, unelaborated appropriate language to statements evident. describe materials and actions. • Some command-like • Command-like statements may statements present. predominate. • Actions recounted from a • Simple sentences used but may personal perspective. attempt complex sentences. • Simple sentences mostly used. • Evidence of use of taskappropriate language to describe materials and actions. • Sometimes may refer to reader in generalised way (koe). • Many simple sentences correct. • Some successful complex sentences evident. • Consistent use of taskappropriate language to describe materials and actions. • May refer to reader in a varieties of ways (koe, koutou). • May adjust language to both instruct and advise. • Most sentences correct. • Control of complex sentences evident, where appropriate. • Usually uses complete sentences. • Language use (including vocab. always appropriate for task. • Sentences always correct. • Good control of complex sentences evident, where appropriate. • Always uses complete sentences.

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Figure 11 Annotated Example for Tohutohu (Instruct) Whainga (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 3P Details requirements and sequence of events appropriate for audience. To score higher than 3P Writer needs to display evidence of more effective and clearer orientation to audience. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 3P Basic procedures given in order with some elaboration on certain points. To score higher than 3P Requires clearer description and more detail on key stages in the instructions. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 3P Instructions are sequenced and in order (with corrections of sequence indicated by use of arrows). To score higher than 3P Needs clearer separation (or better grouping) between major sections of instructions. Matauranga (Language knowledge/Resources) 3P Mostly appropriate simple sentences and instructions. Vocabulary sufficient (odd mistake, e.g., hiako can’t be used as verb). Use of English to describe nonstandard terminology is acceptable to some teachers, and not permissible for others. To score higher than 3P Requires more descriptive language & vocabulary. Elaboration and more commentary required on key instructions. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 3P Most of grammar suffice, and appropriate for instructions. Marking of object after passive verb is inconsistent (sometimes i in front of object used, other times the i is correctly omitted). To score higher than 3P Requires fewer mistakes.

Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 3B Most punctuation is correct, sentence separation generally good, includes use of paragraphs. To score higher than 3B Requires accurate paragraphing and use of appropriate markers for lists. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 3P Most spelling is correct and some macron use is usually accurate. To score higher than 3P Requires consistent application of macron (e.g. ngä) and fewer mistakes (e.g., hiakö, käria).

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Tuhi Paki (Narrate) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deep features of Tuhi Paki (narrative) purpose writing). Effectiveness/Audience Awareness and Purpose: Here the writer informs or entertains a reader or listener by constructing a view of the world that the reader can enter. Narratives centre on a problem that is usually resolved in the course of the telling. There are many types of narrative with variations in focus, including püräkau, pakiwaitara, körero paki, folk-tales, myths, legends, and short stories (e.g., historical, romance, fantasy, crime, science fiction, adventure, etc.). Narratives develop characters and include settings, plot and theme. A point of view (perspective from which the story is told) is evident. There is often use of dialogue. Content/Ideas: Many narratives contain the elements of orientation, complication, resolution and coda (conclusion), although not always in this order. The orientation provides the setting and usually introduces the main characters. The complication presents a problem or crisis where something is or goes wrong. This usually necessitates going through a series of events (i.e., steps to resolve the problem) until readers are taken through to a resolution where the problem is solved, for better or worse. The coda is an optional part and is a reflective statement often related to the theme that may occur at any time in some types, although it is most commonly found at the end. Structure/Text Organisation: A narrative is generally organised around events or happenings and/or as a temporal sequence. Language Knowledge/Resources: Specific people, places and events are named. Language resources (e.g., figurative language devices such a metaphor, idiom, etc.) are commonly used to add interest, engage the audience, and give detail to characters, settings and events. Dialogue or direct speech is often used to develop characters and plot and to give the story a “realistic” feel. Vocabulary choices include words that tell of happenings and behaviours in addition to words that are used to describe the thoughts and feelings of characters. The choice and use of vocabulary often reflects the desire to create particular images or feelings for the reader.

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Table 11 Progress Indicators for Tuhi Paki (Narrate) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient • Engages audience and consistently sustains reader attention. • Language use and writing style always enhance the story telling. • Sustained, credible world created for reader. • Story includes comprehensive elements (e.g. orientation, complication, resolution, and sometimes coda conclusion). • Clear focus on and development of specific events, characters, and settings. • Ending appropriate and involves completion. • Story element arrangement managed well (e.g., effective plot or development of events). • Effective linking is evident through the use of some linking devices.

Whaihua • Some evidence that the writer • Good evidence that the writer (Audience recognises the purpose for writing recognises the purpose for awareness and (to tell a story) and that he/she is writing (to tell a story) and that purpose) writing for an audience other than he/she is writing for an the self. audience other than the self. • May attempt to adopt a perspective to tell the story. Kiko (Content/ Ideas) • Some attempt at a story. • • Writing is a series of loosely • related sentences or a series of sentences that all describe a single event. • •

Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation)

• Semblance of order evident but limited because of haphazard or stream of consciousness-type organisation.

• Engages audience and generally sustains reader attention. • Language use and writing style usually enhance the story telling. • Mostly consistent “world” created for reader • Story mostly includes comprehensive elements (e.g. orientation, complication, resolution, and sometimes coda) . • Some focus on and development of specific events, characters, and settings. • Ending not always adequately controlled. Reasonable semblance of order • Some arranging of story • Story element arrangement evident but occasionally limited elements evident. mostly managed well (e.g., because of haphazard or stream of • The story is organised around effective plot or development consciousness-type organisation. of events). happenings and has a point. • Effective linking is mostly • Ideas/events may be linked evident through the use of through the use of devices some linking devices (e.g. I such as paragraphing or linking muri mai i …, nö te mea …, words and/or phrases (e.g., I otirä, engari, etc.), which make muri mai i …, nö te mea …). the story flow.

• Evidence of attempts to capture the reader’s interest. • Language use and writing style appropriate to telling a story. • Attempts to adopt a perspective to tell the story. • Attempts to create internally consistent “world” for reader Reasonable attempt at a story. • Writing includes important elements of story e.g. has Writing is a series of sentences that essentials of characters, all mostly attempt to describe a settings, and events. single event. Some important elements of story • Evidence of inclusion of problem or complication. (has essentials of characters, settings, and events) included. • May attempt to conclude events.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Language is simple. • Actions recounted with little elaboration, and, overall, style lacks variety (may be limited for topic e.g. limited use of vocabulary). • May insert direct speech but context lacks clarity. • Simple sentences used. • Language is mostly simple. • May be evidence of attempts to • May use language devices (e.g. figurative language, add interest and detail through • Actions sometimes recounted with idiom) and descriptive the use of descriptive little elaboration, and, overall, style language to engage the language. lacks variety (may be limited for audience and give detail to topic e.g. limited use of vocabulary). • May attempt to use dialogue to and develop characters, add to story. • May insert direct speech.. actions, and settings. • Simple sentences mostly used but • Many simple sentences • Purposeful use of dialogue correct. may attempt complex sentences (where included). • Some successful complex • Most simple sentences sentences evident. correct. • Control of complex sentences evident where appropriate. • Language devices used (e.g. figurative language, idiom) and descriptive language to engage the audience and give detail to and develop characters, actions, and settings. • Control of appropriate types of language. • Purposeful use of dialogue. • Simple sentences correct. • Control of complex sentences evident.

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Figure 12 Annotated Example for Tuhi Paki (Narrate) Whaihua (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 3A Good evidence of attempts to capture audience attention by outlining a whare mataku full of rauemi täkaro and setting scene of children entering the whare. To score higher than 3A Writer needs to develop the scene with effective and organised language. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 3A Good display of ideas and setting of scene for an interesting narrative. Scene, characters well set and good activity for children to undertake with significant obstacles. To score higher than 3A Needs clearer focus on setting of scene and character introduction and their associated tasks.

.

Matauranga Reo (Language knowledge/Resources) 3P Some of use of complex sentences (e.g., the introductory sentence). Mostly correct linking through use of ä and nä te mea. Good use of modifiers for emphasis tino mataku rawa. Good combination of simple and complex sentences. Vocabulary appropriate. To score higher than 3P Requires more descriptive language and more detailed language for character development.

Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 3P Good introduction and organisation, and sequence of events, well linked through correct use of sentence joiner ä.. To score higher than 3P Plot could be better organised and developed. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 3B Most of spelling is correct and generally macron use is accurate. Mostly appropriate simple sentences and descriptions. Vocabulary sufficient. To score higher than 3B Requires correct spelling of common words and consistent application of macron.

Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 3P Punctuation is correct, but no evidence of paragraphs. To score higher than 3P Requires accurate paragraphing.

Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 3P Most of grammar correct. Occasional mistake – e.g., e rima ngä tamariki vs. ngä tamariki e rima(tokorima). Also a räua tuahine vs. ö räua tuähine. To score higher than 3P Requires fewer mistakes and wider range of appropriate constructions.

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Whakaatu (Describe) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deep features of Whakaatu (describe or report purpose writing). Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): The purpose of this type of writing is to document, organise, and store factual information on a given topic. It usually classifies and describes whole classes of living and non-living things or specific living and non-living things. There are many types. This progress indicator deals specifically with information reports and factual descriptions. Content/Ideas: Texts that report and describe contain information statements. Domain elements include a general classification statement that provides information for the reader about the nature of the subject of the text (e.g., “Kiwis are flightless birds”). Elaborated, information-laden sections follow to tell what the phenomenon or item under discussion is like, and to provide details about, depending on the topic of the report or description, components and their functions, properties, behaviours, uses, locations or habitats, types, and their relationship to the writer. The writer may conclude the text in a simple manner, although such a conclusion is optional. The writer may round off with a general statement about the topic (e.g., “Today the Kiwi is well known around the world as a symbol of New Zealand”). Structure/Text Organisation: The text is generally organised around things and their description. There is a logical ordering of information. Content is grouped or structured according to common themes evident in the information presented. Sentences are linked thematically to the topic of a paragraph or section. Text organisers such as titles, headings, and subheadings are commonly used to orient readers. Language Knowledge/Resources: Descriptions name and describe specific people or things, while reports name and describe generalised participants or whole classes of things. Precise, descriptive, factual language is used rather than flowery or aesthetically pleasing language, while technical language related to the topic is common in reporting.

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Table 12 Progress Indicators for Whakaatu (Describe) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient • Appropriate background and context to meet intended audience’s needs. • Consistent/sustained reference to audience needs and own purpose throughout text. • Describes and adds some interpretation or evaluation material. • Comprehensive, detailed information and consistent elaboration (i.e., the writer classifies, deals with attributes, behaviours, properties, functions, location etc.) • Coherent logical, thematic structure throughout. • Introduction and conclusion enhance writer’s purpose. • Description is coherent and cohesive. • Structure enhances and strengthens ideas in text.

Whaihua • Some evidence that the writer • Evidence that the writer (Audience recognises the purpose for recognises the purpose for awareness and writing. writing. purpose) • Gives some information from • Gives information from a writer’s perspective. a writer’s perspective.

Kiko • Some evidence of statements (Content/Ideas) of fact. • Writing includes some facts relevant to the topic and task, covering, for example, some (2 or more) task-appropriate domains: attributes, behaviours, properties, functions, location, etc. • Can include many statements irrelevant to the topic or task. Hanganga • Some semblance of (Structure/ framework (e.g., some Organisation) grouping of information). • Text is limited because of presentation of fact statements as discrete elements. • May be attempting to section or paragraph.

• •

• • •

• Evidence of use of task• Language use and writing appropriate structures and style generally appropriate to language. audience and purpose. • Informs but may require some • Provides adequate background, little reader reader inference. inference required. • Audience included directly or indirectly in text and referred to at beginning and end. • Domain elements are • Most domain elements Evidence of statements of comprehensive & detailed for appropriate to the task fact. the given task. (e.g., title, the present (e.g., the writer Writing includes facts relevant writer classifies what is to be classifies and deals with to the topic and task, described or reported. attributes, behaviours, covering, for example, some properties, functions, location, • Almost all material related to (2 or more) task-appropriate etc.). topic of the given task. domains: attributes, • May include some material behaviours, properties, irrelevant to the topic of the functions, location, etc. given task. Can include few statements irrelevant to the topic or task. • Mostly logical, effective, and Semblance of framework • Evidence that the writer is obvious framework for (e.g., some grouping of using a framework for ordering report or description information). ordering content (e.g., (e.g., categorisation or categorising or classifying). Text is sometimes limited classification, grouping because of presentation of • May not be consistently or statements). fact statements as discrete optimally ordered, and • Elements appropriately elements. elements may be assigned. inappropriately assigned to Limited evidence of attempts parts of framework. • Paragraph or sections support to section or paragraph. the structure. • Evidence of attempts at sectioning or paragraphing. • Thematic linking of sentences to topic of paragraph/section.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Language has structure of simple factual descriptions. • Topic-related language present but little detail conveyed through language. • Vocabulary limited. • Simple sentences used. • Language has structure of mostly simple factual descriptions. • Topic-related language present, some detail conveyed through language. • Simple sentences used, but may attempt complex sentences. • Evidence of use of taskappropriate structures and language. • May be some unclear or repetitious reference. • Many simple sentences correct. • Uses complex sentences. • Consistent use of appropriate • Rich and appropriate language for task and topic. vocabulary evident. • Language of comparison may • Uses a range of language be used to enhance techniques (possibly includes understanding. figurative language) deliberately to create an • Most sentences correct. affect. • Control of complex sentences • Controlled/sustained variety of evident, where appropriate. sentence structure for effect. • Uses complete sentences.

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Figure 13 Annotated Example for Whakaatu (Describe) Whaihua (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 2P Writer attempts to describe and explain the different types of activities. To score higher than 2P Writer needs to display detail including differences between the various activities. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 2P Writer describes some differences between each of the activities, how they are undertaken and their effects on the body. To score higher than 2P Requires clearer descriptions and more details on differences between activities and what is involved. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 2P Mostly simple sentences generally in sequence, separation not always clear. To score higher than 2P Needs clearer separation (or better grouping) and organisation of major activities discussed. Matauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 2P Mostly appropriate simple sentences and descriptions. Vocabulary sufficient. To score higher than 2P Requires more descriptive language & wider range of vocabulary. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 2P Most of grammar OK, and appropriate for description. Occasional mistake (e.g., i a koe he maha). To score higher than 2P Requires less mistakes and wider range of appropriate constructions.

Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 2B Some punctuation is correct, sentence separation often not clear, no evidence of paragraphs, sometimes incorrect use of capitals. To score higher than 2B Requires correct use of capitals, clear sentence separation and paragraphing. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 2P Most of spelling is correct and some macron use is accurate (noa iho is misspelled). Word separation sometimes is not correct (e.g., rerekë tanga, mete...) To score higher than 2P Requires correct spelling of common words and consistent application of macron, and accurate word separation.

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Whakamärama (Explain) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deeper features of whakamärama (explain) purpose writing. Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): The explain purpose gives an account of how something is formed or works, along with associated reasons. It involves explaining the processes involved in, and the reasons for, mechanical, natural, technological, or socio-cultural phenomena. There are two main types of explanation, with variations in focus. One concerns how something works. The other involves an explanation of why something is the way it is. Content/Ideas: Essential features include an introduction that comprises a general statement to establish the purpose of the text and to position the reader, which may be in the form of a title. This introductory portion identifies the phenomenon to be explained. The body portion is used to elaborate the explanation sequence, and an account is given of how and/or why something occurs/works, with a focus on giving reasons and making the process understandable. Note that complex explanations may have multiple parts or subsections. Explanations may be part of more complex or substantial texts (e.g., a piece on the tuatara may include an explanation section to detail the reproductive cycle – “How tuatara reproduce”). Structure/Text Organisation: This generally involves organisation around a sequence explaining why something is or how it works. The ordering is logical. Links between aspects of the phenomenon (e.g., sequence or parts) and their associated reasons or functions are evident through the use of conjunctions of time, or cause and effect. Organising devices such as paragraphs assist writers to structure related aspects into themed groups and links between paragraphs help to create cohesion and relevance. Language Knowledge/Resources: Precise, descriptive, factual language is employed to give detail to the explanation and causal circumstances. Technical language related to the topic, where appropriate, adds authority to the text and writer. Vocabulary usage involves words that tell of actions and behaviours, depending on the field.

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Table 13 Progress Indicators for Whakamärama (Explain) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient • Language use and writing style appropriate to explanation and directed to the reader/audience (e.g., evidence that needs of reader are being considered). • Explanation is clear and can stand alone. • Content is clear, comprehensive and relevant to topic sentences/ paragraphs. • Multiple causes/aspects of phenomenon are acknowledged and explained. • Specific relevant, accurate details • selected and targeted to support explanation. • Concise introduction to topic and structured overview if student’s own text given. • Clear sequential structures/ transitions evident within and between paragraphs and throughout the text. • Appropriate and varied linking language sustained in use.

Whaihua • Language and writing style is • Language use and writing • The writer provides some • The writer recognises that an (Audience style is mostly appropriate to appropriate to the audience. recognition that an explanation is required and that awareness and explanation and directed to explanation is required and he/she is writing for an audience • May rely on context and purpose) the reader/audience (e.g., that he/she is writing for an other than the self. requires some reader evidence that needs of audience other than the self. • Assumed shared knowledge with inference to understand reader are being explanation. • Assumed shared knowledge the reader on few occasions considered). with the reader may interfere interferes with meaning. • Explanation is mostly clear with meaning. and can stand alone. Kiko • Content is mostly clear, • Writer identifies the • Writer makes some attempt • Writer generally makes an (Content/Ideas) adequately detailed and phenomenon or process attempt to identify the to identify the relevant to topic sentences/ clearly. phenomenon/process and gives phenomenon/process and paragraphs. two or more simple reasons for • Body of text contains further gives at least one simple its occurrence. reasons for its occurrence. • Simplistic single chain-like elaboration and gives immediate causes are used associated reasons for • May include statements that • May include a few statements to explain why phenomenon why/how it occurs. that are irrelevant to the topic are irrelevant to the topic occurs. and/or task or include a personal • Limited irrelevant information and/or task or include a perspective to the explanation. personal perspective to the • Generalised level of relevant, evident. explanation. accurate details provided for at each stage. Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation) • Somewhat organised at sentence level. • Limited attempts to paragraph. • Attempts at grouping or • Generally organised at sentence • Evidence of attempts at sequencing of explanation level. structuring content through evident. the grouping of ideas within • May be attempting to paragraph. and across sentences. • Across the text there is a sense of an attempt to • May be attempting to sequence content. construct between-paragraph links.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Vocabulary choices • Vocabulary choices reflect topic • Evidence of use of task adequate. and task. appropriate language. • Topic-related vocabulary • Topic-related vocabulary present • Topic-related vocabulary present but very little detail but little detail conveyed through contributes to understanding conveyed through the the language. of parts or aspects of language. phenomenon to be • Simple sentences used but may explained. • Only simple sentences used. attempt complex sentences. • May be some unclear or repetitious reference. • Many simple sentences correct. • Some successful complex sentences evident. • Precise use of appropriate • Mostly consistent use of language for task and topic appropriate language for task enhances the clarity and and topic enhances the coherence of the explanation clarity and coherence of the explanation (e.g., technical • Control of a variety of language is included where sentence structures is appropriate). evident. • Most sentences correct. • Sentences used are complete and correct. • Control of complex sentences evident, where appropriate. • Uses complete sentences.

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Figure 14 Annotated Example for Whakamärama (Explain) Whaihua (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 2P Writer attempts to explain the process. It is mostly appropriate. To score higher than 2P Writer needs to add clarity and better orientation towards audience. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 2B Writer attempts to explain the process, several reasons/ explanations are offered. Writer has added personal perspective and included some irrelevant content (i.e., last paragraph). To score higher than 2B Requires clearer explanations and reasons, less personal perspectives, and should give irrelevant information. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 2P Mostly simple sentences generally in sequence, separation not always clear. To score higher than 2P Needs clearer separation (or better grouping) and organisation of major processes involved. Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 2P Most punctuation is correct, sentence separation often not clear. To score higher than 2P Requires, clear sentence separation and paragraphing. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 2P Most of grammar OK, and appropriate for description. Occasional mistake (e.g., ka taea koe ki te kite). To score higher than 2P Requires less mistakes and wider range of appropriate constructions. Matauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 2P Mostly appropriate simple sentences and explanations. Vocabulary sufficient. To score higher than 2P Requires more descriptive language and wider range of vocabulary to add detail to explanations offered.

Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 2P Most of spelling is correct and some macron use is accurate. Word hyphenation sometimes is not required (e.g., wai-poroporo, whaka-whanui). To score higher than 2P Requires correct consistent application of macron, accurate word separation, correct use of hyphen.

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Whaihua (Audience awareness and purpose) 5P Language use and style appropriate for explanation. Explanation is clear and generally stands alone. To score higher than 5P Writer would need to demonstrate greater consideration of audience needs and understanding. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 5P Content is clear, comprehensive and relevant to the topic. To score higher than 5P Specific aspects of the explanation could more detailed with specific explanation. Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation) 5P Good introduction to the topic and sequencing of the explanation. To score higher than 5P Better sequence transitions between paragraphs and main points. Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 5P Appropriate language used for explanation. Sentences mostly correct and complete. To score higher than 5P Demonstration of control of complex sentences and structures more appropriate with sentences always correct and complete. Wetewete reo (Grammar) 5P Few errors and appropriate range of sentence structures. To score higher than 5P Demonstration of a wider range of sentence/grammatical structures and more accurate use of sentence separation and coordination. Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 5P Punctuation mostly correct. Dialogue punctuation accurate. To score higher than 5P Punctuation always correct and accurate use of complex punctuation. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 5P Very few errors, occasional macron missing, e.g., Mäori, kötiro, möhiotanga. To score higher than 5P No errors and accurate use of macrons.

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Taki (Recount) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deep features of taki (recount) purpose writing. Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): The writer aims to inform or entertain a reader or listener by reconstructing a view of the world that the reader can enter. Recounts centre on the sequenced retelling of experience, whether real or imagined. There are three common types of recount that have variations in focus. Personal recounts involve the reconstruction of a personal experience that often includes reflections on the writer’s feelings. Factual recounts involve the recounting of events from an informational perspective (“A visit to McDonalds”) and often include statements of observation as asides to the recounting of events (“The ice-cream machine behind the counter is big and shiny. I saw people polishing it. It takes a lot of work to keep it that shiny”). Imaginative recounts may involve the writer in recounting events from an imagined perspective (“A day in the life of a Viking raider”) or recounting imagined events from a personal perspective (“A field trip to Mars”) that may include both imagined observation and comment. Content/Ideas: Recounts can use a succinct orientating device early in the piece to introduce characters, settings and events to be recounted (i.e., who, what, why, where, when, how). A point of view, the perspective from which the recount is told, is often established here. Events are related in time order. Comment or observation and/or reflection is used to foreground events or details of significance to the writer. These may be interwoven with the retelling. Optional is a re-orientation that is an ending statement often used to reflect or comment on the events recounted or to predict future events (“I had a great time at Camp Hunua. I wonder what will happen to us next year!”). Structure/Organisation: Recounts are organised around a sequenced account of events or happenings. They follow a temporal sequence in that they are organised through time. Language Knowledge/Resources: Specific people, places and events are named. Detailed recounting makes extensive use of descriptive and idiomatic language to catch and maintain reader interest. Dialogue or direct speech is often used to give the recount a “realistic” feel, to assist in the reconstruction of the events, or to provide opportunities to comment on the happenings.

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Table 14 Progress Indicators for Taki (Recount) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient

Whaihua • The writer attempts a recount • The writer recounts a past (Audience of a past experience or event. experience or event. awareness and • Recognises that he/she is • Recognises that he/she is purpose) writing for an audience other writing for an audience other than the self, but may be than the self. limited by assumption of • May attempt to adopt a shared knowledge. particular perspective. Kiko • • Some attempt to recount (Content/Ideas) events. • • Some background information • provided. • May include content not relevant. •

• Hanganga (Structure/ Organisation) • Events are usually sequenced • in time order. • Events are sometimes linked • by using common words that indicate the passage of time (Ka, I, I muri mai etc.).

• Language use and writing style appropriate to recounting a past event. • Text provides details of setting, situation etc. • Recount may show evidence of attempts to capture the audience’s interest. Writer recounts events. • Writing includes, in addition to where, when, who, what, and Writing may begin with an why, evidence of orientation (background foregrounding of significant information) using some of the content. elements of recount (when, where, who, what, and why). • Evidence of attempts to add detail to, comment on, or May be some evidence of evaluate selected points of selection of events for interest. inclusion or of comment on • There may be an attempt to events. conclude. May include some content not relevant. Events are largely sequenced • Events are in time order and seem to follow on. in time order. • Events are linked in a variety Events are linked by using of ways. common words that indicate the passage of time (Ka, I, I • Some evidence of attempts at muri mai, nä wai rä, nö te … paragraphing to section (e.g., etc.). orientation, sequence of events, reorientation).

• Language use and writing • Language use and writing style help to engage the style precise. reader and sustain interest. • Text entertains and sustains • Events detailed for audience. reader attention. • The text is mostly complete for • Contents, style etc. engages audience understanding. audience. • Text ending shows writer awareness of audience. • Orientation is comprehensive, • Writers sense of looking back and analysing event is yet succinct. integrated through out the • Clear focus on and recount. development of specific • Recount is enriched with events of interest. interpretive comments, • Recount may be enriched with evaluation, and observation. interpretive comments, evaluation, and observation. • Conclusion is linked thematically to recount • Conclusion is usually linked content. thematically to recount content. • Events are in time order, and sequencing is managed well. • The detailed sequence of events is often interwoven with evaluative comment/observation. • Paragraphs support the structure. • Sustained control of sequence, tense, time, point of view, appropriate sentence structures.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Language is often simple. • Language is simple. • Some verbs used but limited • Verbs/adjectives used mostly limited in scope. Events and in scope (e.g., “ka haere au”, actions recounted with some “ka tiki au” etc.). Events and elaboration. actions recounted with little elaboration (may be limited by • Simple sentences used, but repetitive use of sentence may attempt complex structure and/or language to sentences. indicate passage of time). Simple sentences only used. • Evidence of attempts to add detail to content through using a variety of language. • Variety in sentence structure. • May include dialogue to assist reconstruction of events. • Many simple sentences correct. • Some successful complex sentences evident. • Language devices may be used (e.g. idiom) to amplify content. • Varied use of words to describe actions and events and to capture thoughts and feelings. • Most sentences correct. • Control of complex sentences evident, where appropriate. • Mostly uses complete sentences. • Language devices used (e.g. idiom) to amplify content. • Varied use of words to describe actions and events and to capture thoughts and feelings. • Sentences correct. • Good control of complex sentences evident. • Uses complete sentences.

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Figure 15 Annotated Example for Taki (Recount) Whaihua (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 2A Retells a past event telling for an audience in an appropriate style. To score higher than 2A Writer needs to display evidence of attempting to capture audience’s attention. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 2P Event is recounted, but lacks background and orientation To score higher than 2P Needs clearer focus and more detail on elements of the event – i.e., when, where, who, what, why. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 2P Events are sequenced and in order. To score higher than 2P Needs to clearer separation between each event, more detail required, comments required on points of interest, and perhaps some evaluation. Paragraphs required. Matauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 2P Mostly simple sentences. Some correct linking through use of ä and nä te mea. Vocabulary sufficient. To score higher than 2P Requires more descriptive language and vocabulary. Elaboration and more commentary on events would be helpful.

Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 2B Some punctuation is correct, sentence separation often not clear, no evidence of paragraphs. To score higher than 2B Requires accurate paragraphing and sentence separation.

Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 2P Most of grammar suffice, and appropriate for dialogue. Occasional mistake (e.g., I hoko rätou he… To score higher than 2P Requires fewer mistakes and wider range of appropriate constructions.

Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 2P Most of spelling is correct and some macron use is accurate. Very common words are misspelled (ätaahua, whakaaro). Word separation sometimes is not correct. (e.g mä runga). To score higher than 2P Requires correct spelling of common word and consistent application of macron, and accurate word separation.

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Whaihua (Audience awareness and purpose) 5P Language use and style appropriate. Writer engages audience and details events. To score higher than 5P Writer would need to have greater awareness of audience, more efforts to capture audience attention. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 5P Details of event comprehensive, with good development specific details of interest. To score higher than 5P More interpretative comments and observations required, along with more appropriate (thematically linked) conclusion. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 5P Events in time ordered and sequencing is well managed. To score higher than 5P Events should contain more evaluative comments and observations. Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) 5P Appropriate language used for topic. Good use of idiom to emphasise certain details. Sentences mostly correct and complete. To score higher than 5P Demonstration of control of complex sentences and structures more appropriate and more use of language deliberately aimed to persuade the reader. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 4P Few errors and appropriate range of sentence structures. To score higher than 4P Demonstration of a wider range of sentence/grammatical structures and more accurate use of sentence separation and coordination. Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 4P Punctuation mostly correct and generally accurate. To score higher than 4P Punctuation always correct and accurate use of complex punctuation. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 4P Very few errors, occasional macron missing, e.g., nö, käo. To score higher than 4P No errors and accurate use of macrons.

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Ähuatanga Päpaku (Surface Features)

Grammar: This dimension of text refers to accepted patterns in language use rather than to grammatical choices made by writers to achieve particular purposes. It is a student’s ability to control language patterns at this level of text that is judged here. Punctuation: This dimension of text refers to the degree of control a writer shows over punctuation. This control ranges from showing an awareness of sentence punctuation to being able to use complex punctuation effectively. Again, scorers are required to locate evidence to support their judgements about a student’s competence. Spelling: This is considered separately and is related to increasing skill with and knowledge about very common words and the spelling of less common or technical vocabulary. The judgement of spelling is made in the context of the student’s text but evidence to support the judgement needs to be considered carefully.

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Table 15 asTTle Tuhituhi Progress Indicators for: Surface Features/Ähuatanga Päpaku Dimension Wetewete Reo/ Grammar Level 2 Proficient • Errors interfere with meaning. • Very limited range of grammatical constructions. • Word order follows English patterns. • Sentence coordination and separation sometimes not accurate. Level 3 Proficient • Some errors interfere with meaning. • Limited range of grammatical constructions. • Word order at times may follow English patterns. • Sentence coordination and separation may not always be accurate. Level 4 Proficient • Occasional errors in sentences. • Mostly appropriate range of grammatical constructions. • Occasions where word order follows English patterns. • Sentence coordination and separation generally accurate. Level 5 Proficient • Few errors in sentences. • Appropriate range of grammatical constructions. • Few occasions where word order follows English patterns. • Sentence coordination and separation mostly accurate. Level 6 Proficient • Minimal errors in sentences. • Wider and appropriate range of grammatical constructions. • Sentence coordination and separation always accurate.

Tohutuhi/ • Generally sentence • Sentence punctuation usually • Sentence punctuation Punctuation punctuation used correctly (i.e., correct and other basic occasionally used correctly caps for proper nouns, punctuation is usually correct. (i.e., caps for proper nouns, commas in lists, question commas in lists, question • May be attempting more marks, and full stops, etc.). marks, and full stops, etc.). complex punctuation (e.g., • May be attempting to use semi-colons and colons, use of speech marks. hyphen). • Dialogue punctuation sometimes accurate (if required). Tuhituhi • Some common words spelt • Many common words spelt • Most common words spelt Kupu/ correctly. correctly. correctly. Spelling • Little evidence of correct • No evidence of correct • Some evidence of correct spelling of less common words. spelling of less common spelling of less common words. words. • Word separation may not • Word separation generally • Word separation may not always be accurate. accurate. always be accurate. • Macrons may lack consistency • Macrons sometimes lack • Macrons (tohutö) may not and/or have errors. consistency and/or have some be used, and/or lack errors. consistency and/or have many errors.

• Sentence punctuation mostly • Sentence and other basic correct and other basic punctuation always correct. punctuation is mostly correct. • Evidence of correct use of some examples of complex • Sometimes attempting more punctuation where appropriate complex punctuation (e.g., (e.g., semi-colons and colons, semi-colons and colons, use of use of hyphen). hyphen). • Dialogue punctuation accurate (if required). • Almost all common words spelt correctly. • Good evidence of correct spelling of less common words. • Word separation mostly accurate. • Macrons rarely lack consistency or have few errors. • Very few/no errors. • Word separation accurate. • Much evidence of correct spelling of less common words. • Macron application is consistent and accurate.

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