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Whakaatu (Describe) Purpose: Deep Features

This section describes the key characteristics of the deep features of Whakaatu (describe or report purpose writing). Effectiveness (Audience Awareness and Purpose): The purpose of this type of writing is to document, organise, and store factual information on a given topic. It usually classifies and describes whole classes of living and non-living things or specific living and non-living things. There are many types. This progress indicator deals specifically with information reports and factual descriptions. Content/Ideas: Texts that report and describe contain information statements. Domain elements include a general classification statement that provides information for the reader about the nature of the subject of the text (e.g., “Kiwis are flightless birds”). Elaborated, information-laden sections follow to tell what the phenomenon or item under discussion is like, and to provide details about, depending on the topic of the report or description, components and their functions, properties, behaviours, uses, locations or habitats, types, and their relationship to the writer. The writer may conclude the text in a simple manner, although such a conclusion is optional. The writer may round off with a general statement about the topic (e.g., “Today the Kiwi is well known around the world as a symbol of New Zealand”). Structure/Text Organisation: The text is generally organised around things and their description. There is a logical ordering of information. Content is grouped or structured according to common themes evident in the information presented. Sentences are linked thematically to the topic of a paragraph or section. Text organisers such as titles, headings, and subheadings are commonly used to orient readers. Language Knowledge/Resources: Descriptions name and describe specific people or things, while reports name and describe generalised participants or whole classes of things. Precise, descriptive, factual language is used rather than flowery or aesthetically pleasing language, while technical language related to the topic is common in reporting.

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Table 12 Progress Indicators for Whakaatu (Describe) Deep Features Dimension Level 2 Proficient Level 3 Proficient Level 4 Proficient Level 5 Proficient Level 6 Proficient • Appropriate background and context to meet intended audience’s needs. • Consistent/sustained reference to audience needs and own purpose throughout text. • Describes and adds some interpretation or evaluation material. • Comprehensive, detailed information and consistent elaboration (i.e., the writer classifies, deals with attributes, behaviours, properties, functions, location etc.) • Coherent logical, thematic structure throughout. • Introduction and conclusion enhance writer’s purpose. • Description is coherent and cohesive. • Structure enhances and strengthens ideas in text.

Whaihua • Some evidence that the writer • Evidence that the writer (Audience recognises the purpose for recognises the purpose for awareness and writing. writing. purpose) • Gives some information from • Gives information from a writer’s perspective. a writer’s perspective.

Kiko • Some evidence of statements (Content/Ideas) of fact. • Writing includes some facts relevant to the topic and task, covering, for example, some (2 or more) task-appropriate domains: attributes, behaviours, properties, functions, location, etc. • Can include many statements irrelevant to the topic or task. Hanganga • Some semblance of (Structure/ framework (e.g., some Organisation) grouping of information). • Text is limited because of presentation of fact statements as discrete elements. • May be attempting to section or paragraph.

• •

• • •

• Evidence of use of task• Language use and writing appropriate structures and style generally appropriate to language. audience and purpose. • Informs but may require some • Provides adequate background, little reader reader inference. inference required. • Audience included directly or indirectly in text and referred to at beginning and end. • Domain elements are • Most domain elements Evidence of statements of comprehensive & detailed for appropriate to the task fact. the given task. (e.g., title, the present (e.g., the writer Writing includes facts relevant writer classifies what is to be classifies and deals with to the topic and task, described or reported. attributes, behaviours, covering, for example, some properties, functions, location, • Almost all material related to (2 or more) task-appropriate etc.). topic of the given task. domains: attributes, • May include some material behaviours, properties, irrelevant to the topic of the functions, location, etc. given task. Can include few statements irrelevant to the topic or task. • Mostly logical, effective, and Semblance of framework • Evidence that the writer is obvious framework for (e.g., some grouping of using a framework for ordering report or description information). ordering content (e.g., (e.g., categorisation or categorising or classifying). Text is sometimes limited classification, grouping because of presentation of • May not be consistently or statements). fact statements as discrete optimally ordered, and • Elements appropriately elements. elements may be assigned. inappropriately assigned to Limited evidence of attempts parts of framework. • Paragraph or sections support to section or paragraph. the structure. • Evidence of attempts at sectioning or paragraphing. • Thematic linking of sentences to topic of paragraph/section.

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Mätauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/ Resources) • Language has structure of simple factual descriptions. • Topic-related language present but little detail conveyed through language. • Vocabulary limited. • Simple sentences used. • Language has structure of mostly simple factual descriptions. • Topic-related language present, some detail conveyed through language. • Simple sentences used, but may attempt complex sentences. • Evidence of use of taskappropriate structures and language. • May be some unclear or repetitious reference. • Many simple sentences correct. • Uses complex sentences. • Consistent use of appropriate • Rich and appropriate language for task and topic. vocabulary evident. • Language of comparison may • Uses a range of language be used to enhance techniques (possibly includes understanding. figurative language) deliberately to create an • Most sentences correct. affect. • Control of complex sentences • Controlled/sustained variety of evident, where appropriate. sentence structure for effect. • Uses complete sentences.

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Figure 13 Annotated Example for Whakaatu (Describe) Whaihua (Audience Awareness & Purpose) 2P Writer attempts to describe and explain the different types of activities. To score higher than 2P Writer needs to display detail including differences between the various activities. Kiko (Content/Ideas) 2P Writer describes some differences between each of the activities, how they are undertaken and their effects on the body. To score higher than 2P Requires clearer descriptions and more details on differences between activities and what is involved. Hanganga (Structure/Organisation) 2P Mostly simple sentences generally in sequence, separation not always clear. To score higher than 2P Needs clearer separation (or better grouping) and organisation of major activities discussed. Matauranga Reo (Language Knowledge/Resources) 2P Mostly appropriate simple sentences and descriptions. Vocabulary sufficient. To score higher than 2P Requires more descriptive language & wider range of vocabulary. Wetewete Reo (Grammar) 2P Most of grammar OK, and appropriate for description. Occasional mistake (e.g., i a koe he maha). To score higher than 2P Requires less mistakes and wider range of appropriate constructions.

Tohutuhi (Punctuation) 2B Some punctuation is correct, sentence separation often not clear, no evidence of paragraphs, sometimes incorrect use of capitals. To score higher than 2B Requires correct use of capitals, clear sentence separation and paragraphing. Tuhituhi Kupu (Spelling) 2P Most of spelling is correct and some macron use is accurate (noa iho is misspelled). Word separation sometimes is not correct (e.g., rerekë tanga, mete...) To score higher than 2P Requires correct spelling of common words and consistent application of macron, and accurate word separation.

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