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Randhawa

Summary

The centrifugal pump is composed of many different parts and many different values were taken and put together at the end to find the characteristics of the pump at different rpm’s. We found out that our overall efficiency for the pump averaged around 20%. And the calculated flow of water compared to the one we read on the flow meter was within 4% error margin. Our calculate pressure change from suction to discharge to that of the one we read on the meter was within 13% error margin. So overall our readings were very close to the ones we read.

Introduction

A centrifugal pump converts kinetic energy into static pressure using a rotating impeller. The rotating impellers increase the velocity of the fluid and therefore increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid. Once the shaped casing guides the fluid to the outlet, all of the kinetic energy is converted to potential energy, which increases the pressure at the pump outlet.

Experiment Procedure

Refer to CHEN 302 – Centrifugal Pump Lab Manual for detailed procedure

Report

1) TABLE OF RAW DATA Table 1: 1500 rpm Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Weight of torque (grams) 350.0 300.0 300.0 250.0 200.0 Flow rate (GPM) 21 19 15 9 0 Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.1 Suction (inHg) 0 0 0 0 0 Discharge ( lbs/in2) 5.0 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.5 Voltage (Watts) 250 250 220 200 175

Table 2: 2000 rpm Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Weight of torque (grams) 650.0 600.0 555.0 500.0 350.0 Flow rate (GPM) 38 34 28 19 0 Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.5 Suction (inHg) 0.5 1.1 0 0 0 Discharge (lbs/in2) 8.2 10 11 12 13 Voltage (watts) 600 570 550 510 390

Table 3: 2500 rpm Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Weight of torque (grams) 1050 950 850 750 550 Flow rate (GPM) 52 45 38 23 0 Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 11.9 12.1 12.6 13.8 14.3 Suction (inHg) 3 2 1.5 0 0 Discharge (lbs/in2) 13.5 14.2 16.1 19.5 21.0 Voltage (Watts) 1090 1000 940 860 660

Comments: At 1500 rpm the discharge and suction pressure doesn’t equal to the differential pressure reading but as the rpm was increased to 2000 rpm the sum of suction and discharge pressure was very close to differential pressure reading. Table 4: Accuracy flow meter Flow meter (gpm) 49 40.5 29 20 10 Comments: Reading from the flow meter and calculated flow by timing were very close to each other. You can see the comparison in Table 12. 2) PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE Tank Depth (inches) 3.5 6.6 7.5 8.7 9.5 lbs of H2O (From Graph) 72 112 128 144 154 Time (sec) 11 20 36 54 110

3)

CALCULATIONS

1. Pump Performance a) Calculate head in meters from the observed differential pressure. Table 5: Head Calculations 1500rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 4.50 4.70 4.70 4.90 5.10 head (m) 3.16 3.30 3.30 3.44 3.59 2000rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 7.50 8.00 8.50 8.90 9.50 head (m) 5.27 5.62 5.98 6.26 6.68 2500rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 11.90 12.10 12.60 13.80 14.30 head (m) 8.37 8.51 8.86 9.70 10.05

b) Convert observed flow in gpm to m3/s Table 6: Flow Rate in m3/s 1500rpm Flow Rate (gpm) 21 19 15 9 0 2000rpm Flow Rate (gpm) 38 34 28 19 0 2500rpm Flow Rate (gpm) 52 45 38 23 0

Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00132489 0.00119871 0.00094635 0.00056781 0

Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00239742 0.00214506 0.00176652 0.00119871 0

Flow Rate (m3/s) 0.00328068 0.00283905 0.00239742 0.00145107 0

**c) Calculate hydraulic power (delivered to fluid by the pump) Table 7: Calculating Hydraulic Power
**

1500rpm Flow (m

3

**2000rpm Head (m) Hydraulic Power (kW) Flow (m
**

3

2500rpm Head (m) Hydraulic Power (kW) Flow 3 (m /s) Head (m) Hydraulic Power (kW)

/s)

/s)

0.0013 0.0012 0.0009 0.0006 0.0000

3.1636 3.3042 3.3042 3.4448 3.5854

0.0411 0.0389 0.0307 0.0192 0.0000

0.0024 0.0021 0.0018 0.0012 0.0000

5.2726 5.6241 5.9756 6.2568 6.6786

0.1240 0.1183 0.1036 0.0736 0.0000

0.0033 0.0028 0.0024 0.0015 0.0000

8.3658 8.5065 8.8580 9.7016 10.053

0.2692 0.2369 0.2083 0.1381 0.0000

**d) Calculate Shaft Power Table 8: Calculating Shaft Power
**

1500rpm Mass of Weights (kg) Shaft Power (W) 2000rpm Mass of Weights (kg) Shaft Power (W) 2500rpm Mass of Weights (kg) Shaft Power (W)

0.350 0.300 0.300 0.250 0.200

164.389 140.905 140.905 117.420 93.936

0.650 0.600 0.555 0.500 0.350

407.058 375.746 347.565 313.121 219.185

1.050 0.950 0.850 0.750 0.550

821.943 743.663 665.383 587.102 430.542

**e) Efficiency Calculations Table 9: Calculating Hydraulic Efficiency
**

1500rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 41.117 38.855 30.675 19.188 0.000 Shaft Power (W) 164.389 140.905 140.905 117.420 93.936 Hydraulic Efficiency (%) 25.012 27.575 21.770 16.341 0.000 2000rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 124.004 118.348 103.555 73.576 0.000 Shaft Power (W) 407.058 375.746 347.565 313.121 219.185 Hydraulic Efficiency (%) 30.464 31.497 29.794 23.498 0.000 2500rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 269.242 236.914 208.328 138.102 0.000 Shaft Power (W) 821.943 743.663 665.383 587.102 430.542 Hydraulic Efficiency (%) 32.757 31.858 31.309 23.523 0.000

**Table 10: Calculating Motor Efficiency
**

1500rpm Shaft Power (W) Motor Efficiency (%) 2000rpm Shaft Power (W) Motor Efficiency (%) 2500rpm Shaft Power (W) Motor Efficiency (%)

WaltMeter reading (W)

WaltMeter reading (W)

WaltMeter reading (W)

164.39 140.90 140.90 117.42 93.94

250 250 220 200 175

65.76 56.36 64.05 58.71 53.68

407.06 375.75 347.56 313.12 219.18

600 570 550 510 390

67.84 65.92 63.19 61.40 56.20

821.94 743.66 665.38 587.10 430.54

1090 1000 940 860 660

75.41 74.37 70.79 68.27 65.23

**Table 11: Calculating Overall Efficiency
**

1500rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 41.117 38.855 30.675 19.188 0.000 2000rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 124.004 118.348 103.555 73.576 0.000 2500rpm Hydraulic Power (W) 269.242 236.914 208.328 138.102 0.000

WaltMeter reading (W) 250 250 220 200 175

Overall Efficiency (%) 16.447 15.542 13.943 9.594 0.000

WaltMeter reading (W) 600 570 550 510 390

Overall Efficiency (%) 20.667 20.763 18.828 14.427 0.000

WaltMeter reading (W) 1090 1000 940 860 660

Overall Efficiency (%) 24.701 23.691 22.163 16.058 0.000

EFFICIENCY NUMBERS ON PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

i. HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY TREND

II. MOTOR EFFICIENCY TREND

III

OVERALL EFFICIENCY TREND

COMMENT: From the above curves it can be noticed that both hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiency are going up as the capacity of the pumps are increasing. However, the motor efficiency is keeping steady as the flow rate increases. 4) ACCURACY OF FLOW METER

TABLE 12: CALCULATION OF FLOW OF WATER Flow of Water (lb/s) 6.55 5.6 3.56 2.67 1.4 Calculated Flow of Water (gpm) 47.08 40.28 25.58 19.18 10.07 Actual Flow of Water (gpm) 49 40.5 29 20 10

Comment: Calculated flow of water was very close to the actual measured flow of water.

6) Calculate differential pressure from suction and discharge pressure gauges. Table 13: Calculated Differential Pressure at 1500rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.1 Suction (inHg) 0 0 0 0 0 Discharge ( lbs/in2) 5 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.5 Calculated ( lbs/in2) 5 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.5

Table 14: Calculated Differential Pressure at 2000rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 7.5 8 8.5 8.9 9.5 Suction (inHg) 0.5 1.1 0 0 0 Discharge ( lbs/in2) 8.2 10 11 12 13 Calculated ( lbs/in2) 8.45 9.46 11 12 9.5

Table 15: Calculated Differential Pressure at 1500rpm Differential Pressure (lbs/in2) 11.9 12.1 12.6 13.8 14.3 Suction (inHg) 3 2 1.5 0 0 Discharge ( lbs/in2) 13.5 14.2 16.1 19.5 21 Calculated ( lbs/in2) 12.03 13.22 15.4 19.5 21

Comment: As differential pressure is increased, error is reduced.

7) PRIMING THE PUMP A pump starting out full or air might not have enough pressure to pump put the air, therefore it will never achieve the flow of liquid. To prime the pump, an operator should fill the pump up with the liquid to remove all the air. Usually there is a check valve fitted in the suction line so that the liquid will not drain out if the pump is stopped. The reason to do pump prim is that if there were vapours present in the pump while the motor is on, the impeller of the pump becomes gas-bound and the pump will be powerless. 8) CAVITATION At high flow rate and high rpm we noticed a white strip. The pump sounded different and we could hear growling sounds and vibration. As the suction valve was closed the liquid inside the pump started vaporizing due to pressure drop to vapor pressure limit. Some bubbles could also be seen in the pump. 9) The calculated NPSHA for the pump was 7.59m.

Conclusion

• When operating the pump, we need to first prime the pump therefore the data won’t have a high % error in calculations

•

When cavitation occurs within the pump, to correct it you must change operating conditions such as increasing suction pressure and maintaining pipe lines.

• • •

The pump has a better efficiency when running at higher rpm’s The measured flow rate and the calculated flow rate were not the same due to equipment. The differential pressure measured and the differential pressure calculated was not equal due to lack of pressure sensitivity in pressure gauges.

Recommendations

Using gauges which sense lower pressure and this will provide more accurate readings.

Torque arm sometimes got stuck while weights were placed on it, a digital weighing machine will provide more accurate results.

References

• • Centrifugal Pump Lab Module Chen 302 Applied Fluid Mechanics Text Book pg.407

Priming and operating Centrifugal Pump

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