WINTER 2011/2012


Wynton Marsalis talks arts in education.

THE 2011


our bes t ideas. in one bo t t le.


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tH e

Winter 2011/2012 the Aspen institute



6 l key staff 8 l Aspen Institute facts l
What is the Aspen Institute?

14 l from the president 16 l insights & ideas l
What’s new and what’s news at the Institute: We host a Summer Celebration with a who’s who of foreign policy leaders, the vice president of Ghana stops by, and our first US-China Forum on the Arts and Literature will bring together Damian Woetzel and Yo-Yo Ma.


72 T he S o c ial (ch an ge)

78 D eparTmen T of in Securi Ty

36 l society of fellows l
Symposia and events for the Institute’s key donor group challenge participants to discuss democracy in Muslim countries, examine breakthroughs in stem-cell research, and much more.

The Aspen Global Leadership Forum brings Fellows from across the planet to Aspen to inspire one another and spark collaborative action.

A decade after 9/11, the Institute’s Homeland Security Program Director Clark Kent Ervin assesses the Department of Homeland Security. Plus, the program launches the Aspen Homeland Security Group.

38 l seminars l Educators gather at Wye to learn from and teach each other, while political leaders discuss transatlantic values in Italy. 40 l socrates program l
Socrates celebrates its 15th anniversary with Thomas Friedman, Sonal Shah, and Jonathan Zittrain, and holds seminars that tackle everything from capitalism to new media.

81 Th e cy ber revol uTi o n
iS h ere

Aspen Strategy Group Co-Chair Joseph Nye explains the growing threats from cyberspace and what the nuclear era can teach us about avoiding them.

42 l leading voices l The
McCloskey Speaker Series hosts leaders on national security, physics, politics, and justice.
On the Cover: Main Photo: Wynton Marsalis by Dan Bayer. Inset photos (left to right): Lance Armstrong by Riccardo Savi, Lisa Jackson by Michael Brands, Eric Olson by Dan Bayer, Elena Kagan by Riccardo Savi, Rick Perry by Riccardo Savi, Janet Napolitano by Dan Bayer, and Brent Scowcroft by Michael Brands.

Table of Contents continues on page 4.
Winter 2011/2012


the Aspen ideA



606 E. Hyman Avenue | 970.925.2811 | 866.925.2811 50 Snowmass Village Mall | 970.923.2006 | 800.898.4535 201 Midland Avenue | 970.927.8080 | 888.794.8080


tH e





44 l dialogue l Brent Scowcroft,
Condoleezza Rice, Joseph Nye, and Nicholas Burns discuss partisanship at home and power abroad.

46 l dialogue l Vice President
Joe Biden talks about debt, the economy, and Republicans.



47 l dialogue l Senator Marco
Rubio takes on immigration and those vice president rumors.

50 S p e cial feaTure
T he 2 0 1 1 aS p en iD eaS feSTival

48 l dialogue l Lance Armstrong
talks cycling, cancer, and getting back on the bike.

Academics, politicians, business leaders, journalists, and artists once again came together to provoke, inspire, and challenge one another.


84 l international Aspen l Aspen Institute Spain l Institut Aspen
France l Aspen Institute Germany l Aspen Institute India l Aspen Institute Italia l Aspen Institute Japan l Institutul Aspen Romania

87 l faces l Memorable people
and events from the season: behind the scenes at the Aspen Ideas Festival, the Aspen Security Forum, the Socrates Program’s 15th anniversary, and our annual summer dinner.

92 l next l What’s coming up at the Institute—in Aspen, Wye, Washington, New York, and around the world. 96 l last words l For better or
for worse, they said it at the Institute.

Winter 2011/2012


the Aspen ideA

there is an ExcLusivE club in one of the world’s most beautiful locations where some of the nation’s business leaders come together to learn. together they LEarn how to implement gamechanging strategies. How to stay grounded while rising to the next level. How to sEE the world through each other’s eyes. How to tHink as big as the ocean without forgetting the importance of each grain of sand.

ExpEriEncE LEarning at

tHE prEsidEnts and kEy ExEcutivEs MBa
15-month program | One weekend per month | Malibu

Graziadio School of Business and Management
Master the Leader in You 

Security Program. He examines the effectiveness of the Department of Homeland Security since 9/11 on page 78. Previously, Ervin served as the department’s first inspector general. He also served as inspector general of the State Department and Broadcasting Board of Governors. Before so serving under George W. Bush, Ervin was associate director of policy in the White House Office of National Service in the senior Bush administration. Ervin was a member of the Wartime Contracting Commission on Iraq and Afghanistan. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano appointed him to the Homeland Security Advisory Council. He is the author of Open Target: Where America is Vulnerable to Attack. portfolio of leadership initiatives, designed to stimulate a new generation of leaders to play a greater role in the development of their societies. As deputy director, Golden-Vazquez is responsible for knitting these initiatives into a coherent and impactful Aspen Global Leadership Network. The Network is best exemplified by ACT II, a gathering of leadership Fellows from across the planet (see page 72). As a vice president at the Institute, she is part of the senior management team. university distinguished service professor, and former dean, at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. He explores the fascinating and vexing world of cyber security (the topic of this year’s ASG conference) on page 81. He has served as assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs; chair of the National Intelligence Council; and deputy under secretary of state for security assistance, science and technology. He is the author of several books, including Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, The Power Game: A Washington Novel, and his latest, published in 2011, The Future of Power.

TH e



Clark kent ervin is director of the Institute’s Homeland

Jamie Miller

Managing Editor

Sacha Z. Scoblic Jennifer Myers
Senior Editors

Publisher and Senior Editor

Missy Daniel Catherine Lutz Jean Morra James Spiegelman
Editorial Assistant

Devon Rodonets Glenn Pierce
Art Director

abigail golden-vazquez manages the Institute’s growing

Project Manager

Connie Otto

Senior Production Artist

Brenda Waugh Cynthia Cameron (970) 544-3453 Maria San José (202) 288-2222 TMG 1129 20th Street NW, Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036 The Aspen Institute One Dupont Circle NW Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 736-5800
The Aspen Idea is published twice a year by the Aspen Institute and distributed to Institute constituents, friends, and supporters. To receive a copy, call (202) 736-5850. Postmaster: Please send address changes to The Aspen Institute Communications Department, Ste. 700, One Dupont Circle NW, Washington, DC 20036. The opinions and statements expressed by the authors and contributors to this publication do not necessarily reflect opinions or positions of the Aspen Institute, which is a nonpartisan forum. All rights reserved. No material in this publication may be published or copied without the express written consent of the Aspen Institute. ©The Aspen Institute All Rights Reserved

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The Aspen Idea would like to thank our friends at SoftScribe for their fast, accurate, and detailed transcriptions.

The Aspen InsTITuTe
Winter 2011/2012


the Aspen ideA

Great A

great realtor does much the same.

leaders strive to create a better place to live.






running. She has the dedication needed to help you find your Aspen dream, and the tenacity necessary to turn that dream into a reality. So, if you’re interested in Aspen, give Carrie a call. Just like the Aspen Institute, she’s dedicated to creating a space where your spirit can flourish.

Those are a few of the qualities of a great resort. Likewise, a great Realtor. Which probably explains why Carrie Wells is the tenth top Coldwell Banker broker in the world and has been the leading Coldwell Banker broker in Colorado for fourteen years

720 East Durant · Aspen, Colorado 81611 ·

B o a rd o f Tr u s t e e s
Chairman Robert K. Steel Vice Chairman Henry E. Catto President & CEO Walter Isaacson Madeleine K. Albright Paul F. Anderson Mercedes Bass Berl Bernhard Richard S. Braddock Beth A. Brooke Melva Bucksbaum William D. Budinger Stephen L. Carter James S. Crown Andrea Cunningham John Doerr Sylvia A. Earle Michael D. Eisner Brooks Entwistle Leonhard Fischer Alan Fletcher Henrietta Holsman Fore Ann B. Friedman Stephen Friedman Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Mircea Geoana David Gergen Alma L. Gildenhorn Gerald Greenwald Patrick W. Gross Arjun Gupta Jane Harman Hayne Hipp Gerald D. Hosier Ann Frasher Hudson Robert J. Hurst Jean-Pierre Jouyet Yotaro Kobayashi David H. Koch Timothy K. Krauskopf Leonard A. Lauder Frederic V. Malek James M. Manyika William E. Mayer Bonnie Palmer McCloskey David McCormick Anne Welsh McNulty Karlheinz Muhr Clare Muñana Jerry Murdock Marc Nathanson William A. Nitze Her Majesty Queen Noor Jacqueline Novogratz Olara A. Otunnu Elaine Pagels Charles Powell Michael K. Powell Margot L. Pritzker Peter A. Reiling Lynda Resnick Condoleezza Rice Isaac O. Shongwe Anna Deavere Smith Michelle Smith Javier Solana Gautam Thapar Shashi Tharoor* Giulio Tremonti Roderick K. von Lipsey Vin Weber *On Leave of Absence

Michael Brands

The Aspen Institute mission is twofold: to foster values-based leadership, encouraging individuals to reflect on the ideals and ideas that define a good society, and to provide a neutral and balanced venue for discussing and acting on critical issues. The Aspen Institute does this primarily in four ways: • Seminars, which help participants reflect on what they think makes a good society, thereby deepening knowledge, broadening perspectives, and enhancing their capacity to solve the problems leaders face. • Leadership programs around the globe that bring a selected class of proven leaders together for an intense multi-year program and commitment. The fellows become better leaders and apply their skills to significant challenges. • Policy programs, which serve as nonpartisan forums for analysis, consensus building, and problem solving on a wide variety of issues. • Public conferences and events, which provide a commons for people to share ideas. The Institute is based in Washington, DC; Aspen, Colorado; and by the Wye River on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. It also has offices in New York City and an international network of partners.
LIFETIME TRUSTEES Chairman James C. Calaway Prince Bandar Bin Sultan Keith Berwick John Brademas William T. Coleman, Jr. Lester Crown Tarun Das William L. Davis Alfred Dietsch William H. Donaldson James L. Ferguson Richard N. Gardner Jacqueline Grapin Irvine O. Hockaday, Jr. Nina Rodale Houghton Jérôme Huret William N. Joy Henry A. Kissinger Ann Korologos Robert H. Malott Olivier Mellerio Eleanor Merrill Elinor Bunin Munroe Sandra Day O’Connor Hisashi Owada John J. Phelan, Jr. Thomas R. Pickering Warren B. Rudman Jay Sandrich Lloyd G. Schermer Carlo Scognamiglio Albert H. Small Andrew L. Stern Paul A. Volcker Leslie H. Wexner Frederick B. Whittemore Alice Young


the Aspen ideA

Winter 2011/2012

The Aspen Seminar
For 60 years, the Aspen Seminar on Leadership, Values, and the Good Society has challenged leaders in every field to think more critically and deeply about their impact on the world. A premier leadership and professional-development roundtable, the Aspen Seminar is a unique opportunity to step away from the demands of the present and to reflect on the concept of a good and just society—with 20 others in a moderated, text-based, Socratic dialogue. The sublime settings of Aspen, Colorado, and Maryland’s Eastern Shore are ideal for rejuvenating body, mind, and spirit. “The Aspen Seminar is the best whetstone out there,” says Reed Hastings, founder and CEO of Netflix. aspenseminar

nars in major US cities; and will soon add international seminars. Recent topics include bioethics, the impact of the global financial crisis, technology and privacy, China and America, energy security, Afghanistan and Pakistan, globalization, Islam and democracy, sports and society, health care reform, and green investing. socrates

Laura Taylor-Kale, Sid Shenai, Pablo Garcia-Berdoy, and Amanda High at a Socrates seminar

Philanthropy Seminar

Justice and Society

This seminar brings together individuals from diverse backgrounds to discuss what justice means and how a just society ought to deal with issues such as private conduct and public mores, entitlements, race and gender, criminal justice and the morality of punishment, and the meaning of justice beyond national borders. Judicial seminars introduce US judges to international human rights and humanitarian laws. The annual Justice and Society Seminar, co-founded by former Supreme Court Justice Harry A. Blackmun, is held in Aspen and led by preeminent judges and law professors.

The Philanthropy Seminar is a collaboration with the Global Philanthropy Forum and is open to principals of family foundations, individual philanthropists and CEOs of private and corporate foundations seeking a meaningful and substantive exploration of philanthropic values and wishing to share practical strategies that generate positive, lasting impacts both domestically and around the world. Because of the highly participatory nature of this seminar, the program is closed to auditors and is open only to those who can make the three-day commitment.

Michael Brands

cal and contemporary dynamics of structural racism, ideological and political debates regarding race-related issues, the ways public policies and social processes promote or limit racial equity, and social and cultural influences on popular perceptions of race and ethnicity.

Custom Seminars

Custom seminars enable organizations and companies to develop one- to multi-day seminars relevant to their day-to-day operations. This program has grown to include many of the world’s leading corporations. seminars

Wye Faculty Programs

Racial Equity and Society

The Racial Equity and Society Seminars provide an opportunity for participants to immerse themselves in readings, study, and dialogue on issues of race, ethnicity, and equity in the United States. Participants explore a range of issues, including histori-

In a longstanding collaboration with the Association of American Colleges and Universities, these seminars engage faculty, senior academic administrators, and college presidents in an exchange of ideas about liberal arts education, citizenship, and the global polity. seminars

For more information, contact Charlene Costello at (410) 820-5374 or visit seminars. Limited financial assistance is available for most seminars.


The Socrates Program

The Socrates Program provides a forum for emerging leaders (ages approximately 28–45) from a wide range of professions to explore contemporary issues through expert-moderated roundtable dialogue. Socrates also provides an introduction into a diverse professional network and into the broader range of the Institute’s programs. Socrates events include weekend-long seminars in Aspen and at Wye River; day-long semiWinter 2011/2012

The Aspen Seminar
By invitation/nomination only. Visit to learn more or contact todd Breyfogle at May 19–25, Aspen, CO June 16–22, Wye, Md June 23–29, Wye, Md July 28–August 3, Wye, Md August 11–17, Aspen, CO August 18–24, Aspen, CO

september 15–21, Aspen, CO October 6–12, Wye, Md

Topical Seminars
Socrates Seminar november 4–5, 2011, socrates salon, new York, nY February 17–20, 2012, Winter socrates seminars, Aspen, CO July 5–8, 2012, summer socrates seminars, Aspen, CO

the Aspen ideA


Our Policy Programs serve to advance knowledge on the most pressing issues of today. The programs frame critical topics, propose innovative ideas, and convene leaders and experts to reach constructive solutions. While each Policy Program is unique in substance and approach, each shares a common mission: to serve as an impartial forum that brings a diversity of perspectives together in informed dialogue, research, and action.
Participants at the Institute’s Energy and Environment Program’s annual Aspen Environment Forum
Michael Brands





the Aspen ideA

Winter 2011/2012

Aspen Ideas Festival
This weeklong, large-scale public event—co-hosted by The Atlantic—brings some of the world’s brightest minds and leaders to Aspen every summer for enlightened dialogue on the planet’s most pressing issues. The next Festival will take place from June 27–July 3, 2012. For information, call Deborah Murphy at (970) 544-7955.

The Washington Ideas Forum

Presented in partnership with The Atlantic and the Newseum, this Washington, DC-based event features leading figures in public policy discussing the most important issues of the day. The next Forum will take place in October 2012. By invitation. For information, contact Christine Gasparich at christine.gasparich@aspen or at (202) 736-2913.

The New york Ideas Summit

In mid-January 2012, the Institute and The Atlantic will host a new, day-long discussion event focused on the state of the Union. For more information, contact Christine Gasparich at christine. or at (202) 736-2913.

US-China Forum on Arts and Literature

Aspen Environment Forum

The 2012 Aspen Environment Forum, co-hosted by the National Geographic Society, will convene eminent leaders in energy and the environment in Aspen June 22–26, 2012.

The Institute will host the first US-China Forum on Arts and Literature in Beijing with the Asia Society’s Center for US-Chinese Relations on November 16–19, 2011. The Forum will bring together American and Chinese cultural representatives for three days of artistic discussions, collaborations, and performances. The partners will present a second Forum in the United States in 2012. To learn more, contact Zlato Fagundes at zlato.

Aspen Writers’ Foundation

Throughout the year, the Aspen Writers’ Foundation encourages writers in their craft and readers in their appreciation of literature through its repertoire of year-round programs, including the Summer Words Literary Festival, Winter Words, Lyrically Speaking, and Story Swap.

Ongoing Programs in Washington, DC

Ongoing Programs in Aspen

Aspen Security Forum

Cultural Diplomacy Forum

Each fall, the Institute examines the relationship between arts, culture, and politics with its Cultural Diplomacy Forum. The next Forum—“The Art of Peace Building and Reconciliation”— will take place October 22–24, 2012, in Tokyo, Japan, at the International Christian University.

The Aspen Security Forum will convene leaders in government, industry, media, think tanks, and academia to explore key homeland security and counterterrorism issues in Aspen. The next Forum will take place July 25–28, 2012. Registration will open to the general public on November 7, 2011.

The Institute offers residents of Aspen and the surrounding Roaring Fork Valley communities a variety of programs throughout the year, including the McCloskey Speaker Series, Arts & Ideas Series, Community Great Ideas Seminar, Sharing Shakespeare, and NEW VIEWS Documentary Film Series with aspenFILM. For information, contact Cristal Logan at cristal.

From September through June, the Institute’s DC headquarters hosts the Alma and Joseph Gildenhorn Book Series, lunchtime discussions with major recent authors, and the Washington Ideas Roundtable Series, which focuses on world affairs, arts, and culture and is made possible with support from Michelle Smith and the Robert H. Smith Family Foundation. To learn more, contact Jeffrey Harris at jeffrey.harris@aspeninstitute. org.

Ongoing Programs in New york

The Institute now hosts a variety of programs in New York City, from book talks and benefits to Socrates seminars and the ongoing discussion series “Conversations with Great Leaders in Memory of Preston Robert Tisch.” For more information, contact Christine Gasparich at christine.gasparich@aspen or at (202) 736-2913. newyork
the Aspen ideA

Michael Brands

David Kelley, founder and chairman of the design firm IDEO, challenged the Aspen Ideas Festival audience to build their creative confidence.

Winter 2011/2012



Since 1997, the Institute has built a series of programs for accomplished leaders in the United States and abroad—
from South Carolina to South Africa. The Aspen Global Leadership Network, inspired by the Henry Crown Fellowship Program, is developing a new generation of civically engaged men and women by encouraging them to move “from success to significance” and to apply their entrepreneurial talents to addressing the foremost challenges of their organizations, communities, and countries. Each Aspen Global Leadership Network program selects an annual class of approximately 20 proven leaders ages 30–45 and convenes them four times over the course of two years for a series of intensive leadership seminars. Each Fellow is also required to design and carry out a high-impact leadership project. Today, the Network numbers nearly 1,400 Fellows from 43 countries and continues to grow. Another leadership program, the First Movers Fellowship, founded by the Institute’s Business and Society Program, seeks to have the business community live up to its full potential as a vehicle for positive social change.

The Henry Crown Fellowship Program The flagship leadership program.

The Africa Leadership Initiative (ALI)/ West Africa Ghana and Nigeria

The Africa Leadership Initiative (ALI)/ Mozambique

Dan Bayer

The Africa Leadership Initiative (ALI)/ East Africa tanzania, Uganda, rwanda, and Kenya

Aspen Institute/NewSchools Fellows: Entrepreneurial Leaders for Public Education

The Africa Leadership Initiative (ALI)/ South Africa

The Aspen Institute-Rodel Fellowships in Public Leadership American elected leaders.

Henry Crown Fellows Stace Lindsay and Jay Coen Gilbert, a 2011 John P. McNulty Prize finalist, at the ACT II convening, which brings together AGLN Fellows from around the world

The Catto Fellowship Program Leaders in the environment.

The Middle East Leadership Initiative (MELI)

The Central America Leadership Initiative (CALI)

Nigeria Leadership Initiative-Senior Fellows Program

The India Leadership Initiative (ILI)
Dan Bayer

First Movers Fellowship of the Business and Society Program

Africa Leadership Initiative Fellow Leslie Rance and India Leadership Initiative Fellow Anand Shah at ACT II

The Liberty Fellowship South Carolina leaders.


the Aspen ideA

Winter 2011/2012


We can be heard around the valley, around the globe. We speak through lead-the-pack marketing, our Olympian track record, and a deep reserve of experience. We are Real Estate on Higher Ground. You can hear us loud and clear and strong.

Aspen • Snowmass • Basalt


from the president

A Haven for Civil Dialogue


he ten-year anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, which we marked in September, was a meaningful time to think about the health of our democracy. One of our most important liberties is of course freedom of speech. And in our public and political spheres, it is well and alive: We are, thankfully, as free as ever to express ourselves and our politics to whoever might listen. Which means we’re free to disagree—loudly, publicly, and passionately. But at the same time, the level of partisanship, polarization, and profound incivility that we’ve been watching our leaders engage in more and more is troubling. We as a nation need to be able to discuss the issues that matter most in a manner that’s civil, thoughtful, and intelligent. And we must believe that when we really need them to, our leaders can do the same. This is what the Aspen Institute is all about. Through our public programs, our policy groups, our global leadership network, and our seminars, we are creating spaces where American and global leaders can focus on issues in deeply substantive ways, explore their own views, and seek to understand the views of others. Places where they can find common ground where they might not have expected it and ways to compromise when the common good requires it. Sometimes the conversations we set in motion are public. Seven years after its creation, the Aspen Ideas Festival, which we host each summer in partnership with The Atlantic, has become one of the best places in the world to hear, and be a part of, provocative civil dialogue on key issues—from foreign policy and the economy to food and the arts. You can find highlights from the 2011 Festival on page 52, and more extensive multimedia coverage at and on Twitter and Facebook, where the conversation continues. Other times, the dialogues we facilitate are specifically for select groups of policymakers. Few issues we face demand this kind of collaboration among our leaders more acutely than homeland security, which is why we’ve recently created the Aspen Homeland Security Group, co-chaired by former Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff and former Congresswoman Jane Harman. Modeled on the longstanding, foreign policy-focused Aspen Strategy Group, it is a bipartisan group of former government officials and policy experts in

Institute CEO Walter Isaacson holds up a photograph taken in 1988 of Joseph Nye, co-chair of the Aspen Strategy Group, and Condoleezza Rice, former secretary of state and Institute trustee, at an early Strategy Group meeting. Rice and Brent Scowcroft, the other co-chair of ASG and the 2011 Public Service Awardee, are at right.

the field of homeland security and counterterrorism that will advise and offer counsel to the secretary of homeland security and other relevant leaders. In September, the co-chairs joined Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano at our DC headquarters to launch the project (see page 82 for more). When this group comes together, it will work alongside our nearly 30 other policy programs—focused on issues such as education, energy, poverty, and global health—in creating nonpartisan and nonideological convenings that give leaders at the highest levels the opportunity to come together in a neutral setting, free from cameras, sound bites, and posturing. And though the leaders we bring together through these programs might not agree on everything they discuss, I hope that our urgent need for civil, intelligent dialogue is something we can all agree on. All best,

Walter Isaacson President and CEO
WINTER 2011/2012



Michael Brands

Find Your Inspiration


Events ¬ Business ¬ Leisure
800.452.4240 845 Meadows Road, Aspen CO 81611

What’s neW and What’s neWs at the InstItute

The national center for Performing Arts in Beijing


Ghanaian VP Visits the Institute
In June, the transFarm africa initiative of the Institute’s Global health and development program hosted his excellency John Dramani mahama, vice president of Ghana, for a roundtable discussion on the prospects of agricultural development in Ghana and throughout sub-saharan africa. Participants included high-level experts and policymakers from government, business, and nonprofit organizations interested in promoting public-private partnerships in agriculture, as well as agribusiness representatives, investors, farmers, scientists, and trade specialists. Rajiv Shah, administrator of the us agency for International development, attended the meeting and pledged $60 million to strengthen agricultural development initiatives in Ghana. the event was co-hosted by the Whitaker Group with support from the World Cocoa Foundation. to learn more, visit www.

The Institute’s Arts Program and the Asia Society’s Center for US-Chinese Relations are co-hosting their first US-China Forum on Arts and Literature in Beijing this November. The Forum will bring together American and Chinese cultural representatives for three days of artistic discussions, collaborations, and performances. Chef Alice Waters will serve an opening night banquet at the US Embassy, offering a menu created with Chinese organic-food purveyors. Other events include an advance screening of The Iron Lady, Meryl Streep’s new film about former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, and a performance at China’s National Center for the Performing Arts led by Arts Program Director Damian Woetzel and featuring cellist yo-yo ma along with renowned Chinese musicians. A second US-China Forum on Arts and Literature will take place in the United States next year. For more information, contact Zlato Fagundes at

E c o n o m i c R E c o v E R y,

one Skill at a Time

On a June visit to Northern Virginia Community College, President Barack obama joined Skills for America’s Future, part of the Institute’s Economic Opportunities Program, as it announced a new partnership with the Manufacturing Institute, an affiliate of the National Association of Manufacturers. Together, they will provide 500,000 community college students with industry-recognized credentials that will help them obtain secure jobs. Students and workers will gain the skills for entry-level jobs along with access to higher-level credentials and degrees. “Together, we will train American workers for advanced manufacturing jobs and offer them the resources to obtain well-paying jobs,” said Penny Pritzker, who chairs the Skills for America’s Future advisory board. To learn more, visit 16

Getty Images

WINTER 2011/2012

Steve Johnson

Exploring Arts and Literature in China


Judges put their heads Together

In June, judges from the highest courts in 15 states gathered at Long Island’s Greentree Estate for a special Justice and Society Program seminar on “US State Courts: Learning from Other Jurisdictions,” the first in a three-seminar series funded by the Ford Foundation. Sessions featured Philip Alston of the New York University School of Law and Ralph Steinhardt of the George Washington University Law School, among others. The participants, who included six chief judges, explored state laws and cases on prisoner treatment, family law, and access to quality public education. The second seminar will be held in December, and the next two seminars will cover the same topics but with a new group of state court judges. To learn more, visit

AuthorS on MAdoff And VIetnAM’S LeGAcy
New York Times senior financial reporter Diana Henriques kicked off the tour for her latest book, The Wizard of Lies: Bernie Madoff and the Death of Trust, this spring as part of the Institute’s New York Book Series. New York Times national legal correspondent John Schwartz moderated the conversation. In September, veteran broadcast journalist marvin Kalb discussed his recent book, Haunting Legacy: Vietnam and the American Presidency from Ford to Obama, a history of presidential decision-making post-Vietnam, written with his daughter. Kalb is the emeritus Edward R. Murrow professor of practice at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. For upcoming New York book events, visit www.aspen
WINTER 2011/2012

On November 3, 2011, the Institute will host the 28th Annual Awards Dinner at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. The honorees for the Institute’s Public Service Award are all distinguished leaders in public education and education reform: cory Booker, mayor of Newark, New Jersey, and Institute Henry Crown Fellow; Kaya Henderson, chancellor of DC Public Schools and an Institute NewSchools Fellow; and Joel Klein, former chancellor for the New York City Department of Education. Additionally, former Secretary of State and Institute trustee madeleine Albright will be honored with the Henry Crown Leadership Award. The dinner is co-chaired by mercedes and Sid R. Bass. The Institute is most grateful to their continued leadership and generous support. Please visit www.aspeninstitute. org/annualdinner for more information.
Booker Albright



Patrice Gilbert

Michael Brands

dan Bayer



Thebooktheysaid they wouldneverread is thebook theycan’t put down.

By LexieBrockway Potamkin
With art by Deborah Lieberman Fine


mind, Body, Spirit

~and yoga

Thanks to the Aspen Yoga Society, yoga has been integrated into Institute activities held in Aspen. Society founder Gina murdock and a team of instructors began offering free yoga classes at the Aspen Meadows Health Club over the winter and introduced short yoga sessions as part of the Aspen Seminar, the Aspen Environment Forum, and the ACT II conference. At the Aspen Ideas Festival, Murdock and several volunteers guided nearly 2,000 delighted audience members through a series of breathing and stretching exercises between discussions. “It used to be that business executives and government leaders would come for a seminar and just taking a walk outside was a big deal,” said Murdock. “But these days, people are much more active. Yoga still pushes the envelope and helps create that memorable experience the Institute is known for.” For more information, visit

Education for Lawmakers
Under the new leadership of former US Representative Dan Glickman, the Institute’s Congressional Program held two conferences for members of Congress this summer on education reform and on policy challenges in the Muslim world. The education conference was held in Banff in Alberta, Canada, and featured experts on innovative education initiatives, as well as practitioners and scholars discussing better ways to prepare American youth for success in the global arena. The conference on the Muslim world met in Barcelona, Spain, and included participants from Egypt, Bahrain, and Pakistan, as well as American scholars. Aspen España Chairman and former Spanish Foreign Minister Javier Solana also Glickman addressed the bipartisan, bicameral group on trends and opportunities in Northern Africa and the Middle East. To learn more, visit www.
WINTER 2011/2012



Steve Johnson

dan Bayer

murdock (left) and volunteers lead the audience in a “body break” during the Aspen ideas Festival.

LIstenInG to IndIan Country

Dorgan talks with native American youth.

The Institute’s Center for Native American Youth hosted a series of summits and roundtables this year, bringing together tribal leaders, young people, and Indian advocates to discuss the challenges young Native Americans face. “As hard as families and tribal governments have worked to address teen suicides, substance abuse, education challenges, and more, there is still so much to do,” said former US Senator Byron Dorgan, the Center’s founder. A summit in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, drew more than 100 attendees, including 60 Native youth from ten states. Roundtables took place in Scottsdale, Arizona, with teens and teachers from the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, and in Minneapolis, Minnesota, at a national conference attended by Native youth from across the country. The Center has also held meetings with top federal officials, including Bill mendoza of the White House Initiative on Tribal Colleges and Universities. To learn more, visit
The ministers of health from Ethiopia, mali, Senegal, and Sierra Leone, as well as the secretary of the ministry of health and population in nepal, sign the call to Action for country-Led Development in Geneva.

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A Push for national ownership of Health Programs
“Country-led” health development has become a buzzword in the world of global health, but what does it look like on the ground? The Ministerial Leadership Initiative for Global Health, a program of the Institute’s Global Health and Development program, launched a Call to Action for Country-Led Development in Health, which released a practical guide to fostering supportive relationships between development partners and country governments. Signed by ministries of health from Ethiopia, Mali, Nepal, Senegal, and Sierra Leone, the Call to Action debuted in June at the annual conference of the Global Health Council. The Ministerial Leadership Initiative sponsored multiple discussions at the conference, including a panel on how country leadership has advanced health outcomes on the ground. Read the Call to Action and learn more at
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Michael Brands

The Soviet Union. Japan. China. Nixon. These were just a few of the topics touched on by former National Security Advisor and Aspen Strategy Group Co-Chair Brent Scowcroft, former Secretary of State and Institute trustee condoleezza Rice, Harvard Professor and Aspen Strategy Group Co-Chair Joseph nye, and veteran diplomat and ASG Director nicholas Burns in a wide-ranging discussion of US foreign policy at the Institute’s 18th annual Summer Celebration on August 6. The candid conversation in the Greenwald Pavilion was followed by the Institute’s annual summer benefit dinner, where Scowcroft received the Institute’s Public Service Award and guests watched a special film tribute to late Institute trustee Sidney Harman . Institute trustee michael Eisner and his wife, Jane Eisner, chaired the dinner, with trustee Jane Harman and her son, Brian Frank, serving as honorary co-chairs. Video of the disRice presents Scowcroft with cussion is available at www. the institute’s Public Service

Middle East Pen Pals
the aspen Writers’ Foundation and the Global nomads Group, a nonprofit organization that creates interactive educational programs about international issues, collaborated in september on story swap, a dialogue between students from an Israeli Jewish high school in haifa and an Israeli arab high school in nazareth. Partner-participants swap important stories from their lives that in some way represent who they are. they then retell their partner’s story and write it as if it were their own. students also create digital stories to showcase the project before a larger audience—all with the aim of generating understanding across cultures. the program is funded by the Bezos Family Foundation and melinda Goldrich. to learn more, visit
christie summer-celebration-2011.



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elizabeth Pantaleo

New Jersey Governor chris christie held court during a wide-ranging and lively conversation with the Institute CEO Walter isaacson in an event hosted by the Justice and Society Program on September 19. Christie took questions from the audience and spoke on “Tough Calls: Making Smart and Fair Cuts in an Era of Fiscal Austerity.” In his outspoken style, Christie addressed his contentious relationship with public unions, cuts to New Jersey’s public services during the Great Recession, and his differences with the Obama administration’s economic policies. Roger Meltzer, chair of the Justice and Society Program Advisory Committee and global chair of corporate and finance practice at DLA Piper, introduced Christie to a packed auditorium at New York City’s historic Roosevelt House. To learn more, go to


Malek Butto


A Jewish boy and an Arab boy swap stories.

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Project Takes Aim at Legacy of Agent Orange
the Institute’s agent orange in Vietnam Program recently released its first annual report, which

RATION DECLA nd a n f actio plan o
tnam U.S. – Vie Dialog ent p on Ag ue Grou 19 2010 - 20



rt ar Repo First Ye 11 • July 20

i d Hano gton an Washin

details some exciting progress: the beginnings of convergence on cleaning up the three worst dioxin hotspots along with collaboration on programs offering job training, health care, and reproductive health services for people with disabilities living near the hotspots. a public-private partnership to expand services for children with disabilities in da nang is also being developed. For more information, visit www.aspeninstitute. org/agentorangeprogram.

WHAT WiLL FinAnciAL REFoRm mEAn FoR yoU?
Senators Jack Reed and carl Levin joined the Institute’s Initiative on Financial Security on July 21 to talk about the ongoing reform of America’s financial sector. Moderated by David Wessel, economics editor of The Wall Street Journal, the event featured a panel of financial regulatory policy experts, including michael Barr, former assistant secretary for financial institutions at the US Treasury; Alex Pollock, a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute; and Damon Silvers , policy director and special counsel at the AFL-CIO. Panelists analyzed key regulatory changes of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the new law’s impact on US households as well as the broader economy. To learn more, visit

reProduCtIVe heaLth:

What single investment saves women’s lives, improves family wellbeing, and promotes economic prosperity? Reproductive health. On May 18, the Institute’s Global Health and Development program partnered with the World Health Organization’s Reproductive Health Division to launch a five-year, global, peerlearning series for health policymakers. The inaugural Geneva Policy Dialogue Series on Reproductive Health brought together leaders to brainstorm how to accelerate progress in reproductive health policy, financing, and access. Hosted by Ambassador Betty E. King, US permanent representative to the United Nations, the event featured Ethiopian Minister of Health Tedros Adhanom Ghebreysus and UN Population Fund Executive Director Babatunde osotimehin. US Surgeon General Regina Benjamin announced the creation of the Resolve Award to honor countries that respond effectively to the need for reproductive health services, which will be presented by the Global Health and Development program at future events in the series. Award applications can be submitted to
courtesy of the uS Mission to the un

an InVestMent In WoMen




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Steve Johnson

The World Health organization’s mike mbizvo and the institute’s Peggy clark greet Surgeon General Regina Benjamin.


nora feller

American painter, sculptor, and Harman-Eisner 2011 Artist-in-Residence Eric Fischl spoke with Arts Program Director Damian Woetzel about the role of the arts in society at this year’s Aspen Ideas Festival. Artists have an obligation to chronicle their time, said Fischl, because art “deals with issues of what it’s like to be a human on the most compelling and highest level.” Conductor, composer, pianist, and teacher Robert Spano, another 2011 Harman-Eisner artist-inresidence and the artistic Spano director-designate for the Aspen Music School and Festival, spoke at the Ideas Festival about a conductor’s engagement with the audience and a composer’s interaction with concert-hall acoustics. He also joined the Institute’s Society of Fellows in July for an evening discussion and reception. To learn more about the HarmanEisner Artist-in-Residence Program and the Institute’s Arts Program events, contact Zlato Fagundes at zlato.


Aspen’s Best RAnch VAlue

dan Bayer

pARAdise mesA

In June, the Institute’s Council of Grybauskaite and clinton ˙ Women World Leaders helped host “Women Enhancing Democracy: Best Practices,” a day-long meeting in Vilnius, Lithuania. Speakers, including Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite and US Secretary ˙ of State Hillary clinton, discussed women’s economic independence, human trafficking, domestic violence, and women in conflict zones and examined strategies for increasing women’s participation in the public sphere. Held during the ministerial conference of the Community of Democracies, it was presented in partnership with the European Institute of Gender Equality, the International Republican Institute’s Women’s Democracy Network, the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, Vital Voices Global Partnership, and the US State Department’s Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues melanne verveer.
WINTER 2011/2012

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Movers and shakers from Google,, GE Energy, Unilever, FedEx Express, and MasterCard Worldwide were among the 19 professionals chosen for the 2011 class of First Movers Fellows, which met Seth marbin from Google and Regula Schegg from Hilti corporation in Aspen in late July. The program selects people who clearly integrate social and environmental issues into their companies’ core strategic priorities and brings them together for seminars that emphasize innovation, leadership, and self-reflection to benefit the greater good. The Fellows will meet again in November at Aspen’s Wye River campus in Maryland. To learn more, visit
nancy McGraw


the Planet at

education for Parent and Child

Ascend, the Institute’s Family Economic Security Program, held the second in a series of roundtable discussions in October on strategies to move parents—especially women—and their children beyond poverty. Co-hosted with the Foundation for Child Development and the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, the event brought together researchers, on-the-ground innovators, and philanthropists to discuss linking postsecondary education for parents and early-childhood education for their kids. Future roundtables will focus on applying international lessons in the United States— like investing in women, identifying market-based solutions to poverty, and engaging the media as a partner in achieving economic security. To learn more, visit

7 Billion
With the global population set to reach seven billion in October and nine billion by mid-century, the fourth annual Aspen Environment Forum, held May 30–June 2 in Aspen, posed a question: Can the Earth’s finite resources sustain this kind of growth? That query drove three days of vibrant discussion on the impact we all—corporations, governments, and individuals alike—have on our environment. Speakers included The Long Now Foundation President Stewart Brand, Heinz Center Biodiversity Chair Tom Lovejoy, Ambassador Jan Eliasson, former South African Deputy President Phumzile mlambongcuka, Duke Energy CEO Jim Rogers, and Founder Bill mcKibben. Next summer’s forum, its fifth anniversary, is scheduled for June 22–26, 2012, in Aspen. The Aspen Environment Forum is produced in partnership with National Geographic. For more, visit www.
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Cultural Diplomacy Forum Heads to Japan
“the Art of Peace Building and reconciliation” will be the theme for the 2012 Aspen cultural diplomacy forum, which will be held at tokyo’s International christian university, a school that emphasizes world peace and social justice. the event runs from october 22–24, 2012, and brings together 100 distinguished international policymakers, scholars, business executives, religious and cultural leaders, artists, and media professionals for a candid dialogue—particularly about the cultural ramifications of a changing Asia and the potential for regional cultural seminars. the forum will also recognize excellence and innovation by presenting two cultural diplomacy stewardship awards. for more information, visit



Michael Brands


Kagan joins Justice and Society Seminar participants for a hike.

For more than 30 years, the Justice and society seminar has explored what justice means and how a just society ought to function. this year’s seminar sessions—moderated by Judge michael Baylson and Professor vicki Jackson of harvard and Judge Richard Tallman and Professor Akhil Amar of yale—examined issues of religion in us law, human rights, and the future of democracy in Muslimmajority countries. the 40 participants came from five continents and included a chief judge from nigeria, a retired air Force four-star general, and the chair of a women’s legal-education program in saudi arabia. Continuing a tradition that dates back to the late supreme Court Justice and longtime seminar moderator Harry Blackmun, participants took their conversations outdoors while whitewater rafting and hiking in the rockies. they were also joined this year by a special guest: supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan. to learn more, visit www.aspen
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Looks at Education and Race

Education reform was the topic of an Institute conversation with Wendy Kopp, founder of Teach for America, moderated by education reporter John merrow in the early summer. Then, in October, Institute trustee Henry Louis Gates Jr., the Alphonse Fletcher university professor and director of the W.E.B. Dubois Institute for African and African American Research at Harvard University, joined mark Whitaker, CNN executive vice president and managing editor, for a conversation about race and leadership in the United States. Both events are part of “The Aspen Leadership Series: Kopp and merrow Conversations with Great Leaders in Memory of Preston Robert Tisch,” an ongoing Institute program in New York City that engages diverse leaders from American civil society in public conversation to share their experiences, passions, and philosophies. To learn more or to watch video of the discussion, visit www.aspeninstitute. org/events/tisch.

Laurence Genon

What do We Mean by “Justice”?

US Trade Representative Ron Kirk talked candidly about pending trade agreements, American exports, job creation, and the US economy at a roundtable at the Institute’s Washington, DC, headquarters in June. It was part of an ongoing conversation on the role of innovation in sustaining and building US competitiveness in the global economy, underwritten by Intel Corporation and presented in partnership Kirk and Warner with “PBS NewsHour.” Moderated by “PBS NewsHour” senior correspondent margaret Warner, the roundtable included Alan Greenspan, former chairman of the Fed; clive crook, a Financial Times commentator and a senior editor of The Atlantic; and a number of leaders from US industries. For more information on the series, visit

trade and the Innovation economy



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sustainable MBa Programs
In september, the Business and society Program’s aspen Center for Business education released Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2011–2012, its eighth biennial global MBa ranking and the only report that assesses the extent to which MBa programs are preparing graduates for social and environmental stewardship. the new research survey includes data from 149 schools in 22 countries. an extensive online database of more than 10,000 MBa courses, extracurricular activities, and faculty research at participating schools provides insights for prospective MBa students and offers faculty members and administrators benchmarks for their own programs. to view the rankings, see the data, and read reports on developments in MBa education over time, visit www.Beyond

At the tIppIng poInt

Last June, the Aspen Writers’ Foundation presented the 35th annual Aspen Summer Words Writing Retreat and Literary Festival, a six-day celebration of words and ideas. This year, the festival honored the literature of the modern Middle East and offered a panoramic view of the region’s literary landscape. “It is almost a spiritual experience to be immersed in a community of writers, thinkers, and activists,” said Reza Aslan, author of No god, but God, about his experience in Aspen, “all huddled together among the titanic trees, the majestic hills and valleys of Aspen, talking about the power of words.” Other presenters included Khaled Hosseini, author of The Kite Runner; Firoozeh Dumas, author of Funny in Farsi; poet Peter cole; journalist mona Eltahawy; artist Rabih Alameddine; writer Daniyal mueenuddin; and novelist Assaf Gavron. To learn more about the Aspen Writer’s Foundation, visit
Gavron, Alameddine, Hosseini, Eltahawy, and Aslan


MARCH 12 - 13, 2012 The Ritz-Carlton Golf Resort NAples, FloRidA
dan Bayer

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WINTER 2011/2012


Public Forum Probes Threats at Home, Wars Abroad

Government officials, journalists, diplomats, military leaders, and terrorism and intelligence experts met for four days in late July at the second annual Aspen Security Forum. The sessions covered topics ranging from nuclear security and cyber-war to counterterrorism strategy and the role of Special Forces. Admiral Eric olson, former head of US Special Operations Command, discussed the successful hunt for Osama bin Laden. Department of Homeland Security Secretary Janet napolitano and her predecessor, michael chertoff, evaluated the department’s progress since 9/11 and assessed remaining challenges. Former Director of National Intelligence Admiral Dennis Blair advocated an end to unilateral US drone strikes in Pakistan, while retired General Douglas Lute, who oversees Afghanistan and Pakistan strategy at the National Security Council, called for “a knockout blow” to Al Qaeda’s senior leadership in Pakistan. A sharply divided group of panelists—including former Attorney General and White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales, former Deputy Assistant Attorney General John yoo, former Los Angeles Police Chief and New York City Police Commissioner Bill Bratton, ACLU Executive Director Anthony Romero, and Georgetown Law Professor David cole—debated issues of terrorism, law, and torture. The Forum was presented in partnership with The New York Times and sponsored by IBM, AGT International, i2, and Mission Essential Personnel. For video, visit

dan Bayer

LeadershIP 101
the aspen Meadows resort and the Institute are offering two-hour, half-day, and full-day Leadership Fundamentals seminar packages, drawing on the Institute’s 60-year history of expertise. Grounded in the classic aspen seminar approach of text-based dialogue, the packages allow corporations and other organizations holding meetings at the Meadows to explore the practical applications of values to management and leadership. “Many organizations and individuals use the Meadows but don’t really understand the work of the Institute or how they might benefit from it,” said director of seminars Todd Breyfogle. “this program offers an introduction to our signature approach to leadership development while enjoying the spectacular Meadows campus and all that aspen has to offer.” to learn more, contact Breyfogle at todd.breyfogle@aspen



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Michael Brands

on the evening of november 30, the Institute will present tennis great Billie Jean King with the second annual tisch award in Civic Leadership in new york City. King will talk about tennis, leadership, and social change with christine Brennan, USA Today sports columnist and on-air sports commentator for aBC news and esPn. the award recognizes a leader who embodies the spirit and values of businessman and philanthropist Preston robert tisch. to attend, contact Linda Lehrer, linda.

Mandate Coaching Education?
at the invitation of the us olympic Committee, esPn correspondent Tom Farrey, who directs the Institute’s sports and society Program, spoke in June at the national Coaching Conference in Colorado springs. he moderated a group Farrey discussion on whether education should be mandated for coaches in youth sports, particularly in the face of research that says children who play for trained coaches are far less likely to drop out of sports. Former olympic swimmer nancy Hogsheadmakar, a program advisory board member, also joined the discussion. to learn more, visit

Grade teachers for

In July, senior officials from four urban school districts and two high-performing charter networks gathered to tackle one of the most pressing challenges in public education reform: how to design fair and effective evaluation systems for teachers and other school professionals. convened by the Institute’s education and Society Program, the group included Joanne Weiss, chief-of-staff to uS Secretary of education Arne duncan and an Aspen/newSchools Venture fund fellow; Anthony Bryk, president of the carnegie foundation for the Advancement of teaching; and other leaders from the educational research field and the entrepreneurial nonprofit sector. to learn more, visit

Better schools

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seminar explores racial dynamics
The Institute’s Roundtable on Community Change convened its signature program, the Racial Equity Leadership Seminar, in September in Aspen. Three experts in racial equity and social justice moderated the dialogue: Patricia Williams, professor of law at Columbia University; Ted Shaw, professor of law at Columbia University and former president of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund; and Alice o’connor, professor of history at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Designed for executives in leadership positions in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors, the seminars focus on the institutionalization of racial dynamics. Participants examine the ways in which history, policies, practices, and contemporary culture contribute to racial inequalities and then develop language, strategies, and tools for addressing race issues in their own workplaces. After the seminar, Roundtable staff provided ongoing support to alumni through its Peer Learning Forum. For information, contact

Tom Tomberlin, an analyst with charlottemecklenburg Schools

columbia Law School

Greater Expectations
the Institute’s education and society Program hosted a workshop in aspen this summer to help leaders from three urban school districts and the KIPP charter-school network develop plans for implementing new Common Core state standards in K–12 english language arts and mathematics. the standards have already been adopted by 46 states to better prepare young people for college, careers, and citizenship. supported by a grant from the Calaway education Fund, the workshop provided participants with an opportunity to confront several seminal challenges—such as introducing more rigorous standards into the nation’s neediest classrooms, organizing school and district systems to ensure all students receive effective instruction, and improving the quality of the teaching workforce more broadly. to learn more, visit www.aspen

CoMMunIty CoLLeGe


Director Josh Wyner


Steve Johnson

In April, the College Excellence program launched the Aspen prize for Community College Excellence with the help of dr. Jill Biden, secretary of Education and Institute henry Crown Fellow Arne Duncan, and former secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, who co-chairs the prize jury with former michigan governor John Engler. More than 100 eligible community colleges applied for the $1 million prize, which is based on student success in learning, improvement in degrees awarded, and equity in populations served. In September, ten finalists were announced. Riley with the institute’s college for details, visit www. Excellence Program


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nancy Pelz-Paget

n E TW oR KS A n D c iTi z E nSHi P
Former Secretary of State madeleine Albright and more than 40 other participants, including PBS President Paula Kerger and White House Internet policy advisor Daniel Weitzner, gathered in
Gore and Firestone

Aspen at the 2011 Forum on Communications and Society, run by the Institute’s Communications and Society Program Executive Director charlie Firestone. Participants focused on the need for governance in an age of information abundance, discussing how best to foster an engaged citizenry in a digital world. “We are more connected than ever,” said michael maness, vice president for media innovation and journalism at the Knight Foundation. “The challenge is for local leaders to harness that technology and the innovations in social media to better inform and engage communities.” The three-day event also featured a guest appearance from former Vice President Al Gore. For video, visit

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erin Silliman

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carstens, volcker, meirelles, and crook


Prominent representatives of the Spanish business and financial sectors gathered in May in Madrid for a panel discussion, “Building a New Global Financial Framework,” presented by Aspen Institute España. Moderated by Financial Times commentator clive crook, it featured former US Federal Reserve Chairman Paul volcker, Brazil’s former Central Bank President Henrique meirelles, and Governor of the Bank of Mexico Agustín carstens in a timely and at points heated discussion of topics like the debt crises in Europe—such as those in Greece, Portugal, and Ireland—and their impact on other European and global economies. Attendees included Bank for International Settlements Chairman Jaime caruana, Governor of Banco de España miguel Ángel Fernández ordoñez, and former Spanish Minister of Finance Pedro Solbes.


What’s next

for the internet?
In 1992, when the World Wide Web was just emerging, the Institute’s Communications and society Program held its first roundtable on Information technology in aspen; this august, the group held its 20th, exploring “the Future of the Internet.” Participants discussed the Internet’s architecture as a platform for continued innovation and projected the ways it might change people’s lives over the next 20 years. they predicted continued economic and business disruptions, security and privacy challenges, a growing role in the expansion of global markets, and the empowerment of people fighting for freedom. the group included twitter Co-Founder Evan Williams, tunisian anti-censorship activist and blogger Sami Ben Gharbia, Microsoft visionary craig mundie, aspen trustee and McKinsey Global Institute Codirector James manyika, nobel physicist murray Gell-mann, and egyptian human rights activist and blogger Wael Abbas. to learn more, visit www.aspen

Water crisis Spurs Flood of ideas
In May 2011, the Institute’s Energy and Environment Program hosted a diverse group of experts in Washington, DC, to consider the critical and complex issues surrounding one of our most basic human needs: water. Co-chaired by Ambassador Harriet Babbitt, co-chair of the Global Water Challenge, and malcolm morris, chairman of the Millennium Water Alliance, the convening focused on the policy implications of urgent and growing global needs for access to clean water, hygiene, and sanitation. The forum—which also featured a keynote address by Congressman Earl Blumenauer—followed up on a 2005 forum and report, “A Silent Tsunami.” The 2011 session, which was presented with the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University, yielded a second report, “A Silent Tsunami Revisited,” with new analysis and updated recommendations for Congress and other decision-makers. To learn more, visit



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dan Bayer

And the Business School oscar Goes to …
The Business and Society Program selected three outstanding business school faculty members to receive 2011 Faculty Pioneer Awards. Described by Financial Times as “the Oscars of the business school world,” these biennial awards celebrate educators who have demonstrated leadership in integrating social and environmental issues into their teaching and research. This year’s lifetime achievement award winner is Lynn Sharp Paine, John G. McLean professor of business administration, senior associate dean, and director of faculty development at Harvard Business School. Other award winners are David Levy, who chairs the department of management and marketing at the University of Massachusetts at Boston, and John BeckerBlease, an assistant professor of finance at Oregon State University. To learn more, visit www.

The Royal opera House muscat

Arts in motion in muscat
royal opera house Muscat and the Institute’s Global Initiative on Culture and society are collaborating in november on the first aspen Creative arts World summit, a joint undertaking to be held biennially in Muscat, the capital of oman. the theme of this year’s summit is “arts in Motion.” sessions will be devoted to shifting trends in the consumption of diverse artistic and cultural expressions in an interconnected world, the impact of social technologies, the emergence of new cultural markets, and the contribution of the arts to socioeconomic development and social change. similar in approach to the aspen Ideas Festival, this new global event will feature debates, roundtable discussions, leadership awards, and opportunities for conversation with prominent thinkers and practitioners in the fields of media, arts, culture, public policy, philanthropy, business, and academia. to learn more, visit cultureandsociety.

Aspen Romania

Ramps Up

Founded in 2006, Aspen Institute Romania boasts an ever-growing portfolio of policy programs and seminars. In June, it sponsored a policy roundtable in Bucharest on “Global Economic Governance after the Great Recession: A US-EU Dialogue,” covering the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, the US economic outlook, and global economic risks. The Institute Romania will hold its second Aspen Seminar in December 2011 in the Carpathian MounBreyfogle trains Aspen Seminar tains. And it also recently orgamoderators in Europe. nized the first pan-European Aspen Moderators Training Seminar to prepare moderators from Spain to the Ukraine to lead Aspen seminars in Europe. The training seminar was run by the US Institute’s Director of Seminars Todd Breyfogle. To learn more, visit www.aspen

WINTER 2011/2012


Aspen’s Global Reach Expands

The institute’s footprint continues to grow—with Fellows from the Aspen Global Leadership network, seminars, public events, and programming spanning dozens of countries along with our seven international partner institutes— and we’re just getting started.

JusTicE PrEvAils
President Obama’s nominee for an open seat on the Liu Ninth Circuit US Court of Appeals, Berkeley School of Law Professor Goodwin Liu, withdrew his name from consideration in the face of a Senate filibuster. The Institute’s Justice and Society Program Director meryl chertoff thought he might enjoy some down time in the mountains for the program’s Summer Seminar, an opportunity to reflect on broad legal and philosophical concerns. “Little did I suspect that, between his acceptance of an invitation to attend the Seminar and his arrival in Aspen,” says Chertoff, “he would be nominated to yet another judicial spot”—this time as associate justice of the California Supreme Court. Liu was confirmed two weeks after the Seminar concluded. “Having now reentered ordinary life, I am even more grateful for the open and honest dialogue on fundamental issues that Aspen facilitates,” says Justice Liu. To learn more, go to

Second chance for middle East Fellows
The institute’s second class of Middle East leadership initiative Fellows was ready to launch in February 2011—then Tahrir square erupted. With five Egyptians (of 21 Fellows) in the class—and uprisings spreading across the region—the start was postponed. Good news: The long-awaited launch happened in september 2011 in Jordan. The new class includes the Aspen Global leadership Network’s first space traveler, Anousheh Ansari, co-founder of the Ansari X Prize and for ten days a resident on the international space station.


Meryl chertoff


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A Song of Success
claudia cruz—a Fellow in the Central America Leadership Initiative from El Salva-

michelle obama visits with students from Superate! in El Salvador.

dor—was once terribly shy. But singing as a child in church, then later in the college choir, helped her move past it. When considering the leadership project the Fellowship requires, she took inspiration from the hit TV show “Glee,” founding a glee club to help Salvadoran high school students build the confidence and discipline to stay out of the country’s rampant gang culture and to succeed in school. Cruz partnered with another Salvadoran CALI Fellow, Diego de Sola, whose own project, Glasswing, provides volunteers to their country’s underserved schools. Seventy students have joined the first club, attending rehearsals three times a week. Cruz plans to expand to six clubs this year through the partnership with Glasswing and support from USAID and HanesBrands.
Salvadoran high school students perform in glee club.

hope for At-risk Kids
Central America Leadership Initiative founding supporter Ricardo Sagrera and his son, CALI Fellow Arturo Sagrera, wanted to do something about the generation of children being lost to gangs and violence in El Salvador. So, using their family foundation, Fundacion Sagrera Palomo, they started Superate! (Excel!), an ambitious initiative that gives underprivileged teens essential skills for upward mobility. The kids—aged 13 to 18—participate in a three-year program on top of their normal public school curricula that prepares them to transition to higher education or professional careers. Through the CALI network, the program has been franchised to include eight centers (seven in El Salvador and one in Panama) reaching more than 1,000 students. So far, more than 370 have graduated, with the majority now in college or employed. Support from CALI board members and Fellows—Sagrera, Harry Strachan, Stanley motta, and Alejandro Poma—has been critical.

the human spirit on Film
Filmmakers and Henry Crown Fellows Tiffany Shlain (2007) and Jim Whitaker (2004) have announced the release of their latest films. Whitaker’s Rebirth chronicles the lives of five individuals affected by 9/11 and how the human spirit copes with trauma and healing. The movie also uses time-lapse photography to track the rebirth of Ground Zero in New York City. Shlain’s documentary, Connected: An Autoblography about Love, Death, and Technology, explores what it means to be connected in the 21st century and aired at the Aspen Ideas Festival this summer. For more information, go to and

To learn more about the Aspen Global Leadership Network, visit
WINTER 2011/2012 ThE AspEN IdEA


society of fellows

The SMArT SeASon
A Summer of foreign Affairs, Art, Science, economics, and the good life


his summer’s symposia, created especially for the Institute’s Society of Fellows donor group, ranged from timely policy questions to timeless philosophical ones. In July, “The Future of Democracy in the Arab World” featured a prescient program by Vali nasr, Tufts University professor, and randa Slim, Lebanese consultant. In both July and August, “In Tune with Shakespeare” was a special three-day collaboration with the Aspen Music Festival and School that featured Ken adelman, director of the Institute’s Arts and Ideas program; Tom Buesch, Colorado Mountain College professor; alan Fletcher, president of the Music Festival and School; and David ivers, artistic director of the Utah Shakespeare Festival. In August, Fellows convened for the timely “US-China Economic Relations: Do They Own Us?” with Asia Society expert Orville Schell, Yonsei University Professor John Delury, and New York Times foreign correspondent Edward Wong. The symposium series finished later in August with “Creating the Good Life: The Quest for Meaning.” This thoughtful examination was led by Aspen Seminar moderators Todd Breyfogle and Jay Marshall. In addition to the symposia, the Society of Fellows 2011 summer programming included a rich array of luncheons and discussion receptions, featuring speakers from a diversity of backgrounds and fields of expertise. Justice inumidun akande discussed human rights in Nigeria. Economist David Stockman shared his perspective on the US debt crisis. Scientist Steven Finkbeiner of the Gladstone Institute
the Aspen ideA


addressed recent breakthroughs in stem-cell research. Damian Woetzel, new director of the Harman-Eisner Program in the Arts, and the Institute’s new Artist-in-Residence robert Spano discussed the role of arts in America. James Wilburn discussed President Reagan’s legacy. Jeremy Ben-ami , founder of J Street, spoke with robert Wexler on possibilities for peace in the Middle East. Finally, Scott neeson, director of the Cambodian Children’s Fund, shared his powerful narrative of transforming the lives of the neediest populations in Cambodia.

The Institute’s key donor group, the

Society of fellows is comprised
of supporters who share the Institute’s interest in global dialogue and who play a key role in sustaining the Institute’s mission, expanding its programs, and ensuring its future. Benefits include exclusive events and priority access to the Institute’s seminars, symposia, and other events in Aspen, new York, Wye, and Washington, dC. To learn more, contact Patrick Kelly at or (970) 544-7924. Or visit www.

February 20–23, 2012, Aspen, cO March 19–22, 2012, Aspen, cO


Winter 2011/2012

larry Gellman

Nora Feller

institute Executive Vice President Elliot Gerson talks with Ben-ami and Wexler about the Middle East.

At Mission EssEntiAl PErsonnEl, wE Envision A sAfE And sEcurE world in which frEEdoM And ProsPErity ArE not just A Possibility, but A cErtAinty. with MorE thAn 8,200 ProfEssionAls worldwidE, MEP ProvidEs custoMizEd huMAn-cAPitAl solutions to our cliEnts’ Most PrEssing sEcurity chAllEngEs At hoME or AbroAd. whEthEr on thE front linEs of currEnt conflict, on thE frontiErs of intErnAtionAl dEvEloPMEnt, or At AMEricA’s front door – wE EMPowEr PEoPlE. wE Enrich livEs. wE dElivEr cErtAinty.





trAining & tEchnicAl



Aspen Italia and Transatlantic Values
wenty-six high-level leaders attended the Aspen Italia seminar on “The Enlightenment and the Transatlantic Link: Common Roots and Today’s Challenges,” held in June 2011 in Spoleto, Italy. This seminar attracted distinguished leaders from seven different countries and three continents, including prominent Italian business leaders and sitting members of the Italian Parliament, the British House of Lords, three former ambassadors, and other distinguished friends of Aspen, including invited alumni of the classic
aspen italia seminar participants tour Spoleto Piazza del Duomo.


Higher Education in a Flat World

Francesco Leopardi, program manager at aspen italia, and Hanmin Liu, founder of the Wildflowers institute

nEW! alumni Seminar
Slated for spring 2012, the Aspen Alumni Seminar on leadership, values, and character will build on the Aspen Seminar’s central question—What is the good society? “Using Aspen’s unique approach of dialogue grounded in classic and contemporary texts, this seminar is a fitting sequel to the formative Aspen Seminar experience,” says Todd Breyfogle, director of seminars at the Institute.

Aspen Seminar. The seminar assessed the continued relevance of transatlantic values in an era of shifting economic and political power. “This Aspen Italia seminar encourages a fruitful debate on the challenges facing the world today,” remarked Carlo Scognamiglio Pasini, honorary chairman of Aspen Italia and a former president of the Italian Senate and former Italian minister of defense. The seminar also offers “an appreciation for the fundamental values of human civilization among those leaders … who will be shaping decisions for years to come.”

his summer’s Wye Faculty Program—attended by more than 60 college and university faculty and deans from public and private educational institutions across the country— explored “Citizenship and the American and Global Polity” during three seminars that examined the future of education in a global environment. Seminars challenged faculty to cross disciplinary boundaries, create values-based curricula, and reflect on liberal education and responsible citizenship. “The seminar was an intellectual retreat that reinvigorated us as faculty,” says Elizabeth Matteo , who— along with colleagues and fellow seminarians Victoria Williams and MaryEllen Wells —developed a teacher-student program at Alvernia University in Reading, Pennsylvania, inspired by the Wye seminar. “Recreating a similar experience for students and teachers allows us to stay engaged with the dialogue we began at the seminar and to further it with an even more far-reaching impact.” Started in 1983 and cosponsored with the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Wye Faculty Program has attracted more than 1,350 faculty members from over 300 institutions.

Todd Breyfogle

2012 SEMinar
The aspen Seminar
By invitation/nomination only. Visit to learn more or contact Todd Breyfogle at May 19–25, Aspen, cO August 11–17, Aspen, cO June 16–22, Wye, Md August 18–24, Aspen, cO June 23–29, Wye, Md September 15–21, Aspen, cO July 28–August 3, Wye, Md October 6–12, Wye, Md


Todd Breyfogle

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Winter 2011/2012

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socrates program

Socrates Celebrates 15 Years
“What came first, the Twitter or the egg? What came first, the political event or the tweeting about it? Would the Egyptian revolution have happened or the Tunisian revolution have happened without Facebook?” asked Jonathan Zittrain, professor at Harvard Law School, as part of the conversation program, “The Digital Disconnect: The Impact of Technology on International Relations.” The event was part of the Socrates Program’s 15th Anniversary Dinner held in Aspen on June 25th. Moderator Thomas Friedman, The New York Times Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist, spoke with Sonal Shah, former director of the White House Office of Innovation, and Zittrain about the impact of Wikileaks, the role of social media in the Arab Spring uprisings, and more. The dinner, chaired by Socrates co-founders Laura and Gary Lauder, honored longtime Institute and Socrates supporters Samia and a. Huda Farouki, and raised over $200,000 for the Socrates Program. For video of the conversation, visit
Zittrain, Friedman, and Shah

A World of


n June, more than 100 emerging leaders from ten different countries participated in five Socrates seminars. Clive Crook of The Atlantic and Financial Times led a discussion on capitalism; David Leonhardt, Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist for The New York Times, on innovation, education, and skills-building; Geneva Overholser of the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School of Journalism on trends in 21st-century media; Philip Zelikow, professor of history at the University of Virginia, on world politics and shifting regional dynamics; and the
november 4–5, 2011 Socrates Salon in New York: “The Emergence of an Impact Economy.” Bart Houlahan, B Lab, and Brian Trelstad, Acumen Fund
Michael Brands

Can Government Fix the Economy?
In october, congressional staffers and other dC-based participants explored the government’s role in the economy at the Institute’s Wye river campus. Bradley Belt, senior managing director of the Milken Institute, and Jared Bernstein, senior fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and former economic advisor to Vice President Joe Biden, co-moderated the seminar.

Socrates participants Bryan Parker and Kathia Flemens with moderator David Leonhardt

Join Socrates!
To participate in a Socrates seminar, contact Melissa Ingber, director of the Socrates Program at melissa.ingber@ or visit www.

Department of State’s Catherine Brown and Harvard’s Jonathan Zittrain on cyber security.
February 17–20, 2012 Winter Socrates Seminars in Aspen: “New Leadership in the Middle East and North Africa.” Mona Eltahawy, columnist on Arab and Muslim issues

“The Future of Energy.” Mark Brownstein, Environmental Defense Fund “Social Media and Society.” Stephen Balkam, Family Online Safety Institute april 19–22, 2012 Socrates International in Spain


the Aspen ideA

Winter 2011/2012

Todd Patrick



leading voices

Speaking of …

By Catherine Lutz

DOnna BraZiLe
Veteran Democratic political strategist Donna Brazile dished on the current status of politics in Washington and the 2012 presidential race.

The McCloskey Speaker Series brought a diverse mix of high-

level leaders and thinkers to Aspen this summer. Audiences filled the house for discussions on everything from complex physics to national security—with a liberal (and conservative) dose of political talk as well. Find links to videos from these events at www.aspeninstitute. org/events/mccloskeyspeaker2011.

Brian Greene
Theoretical physicist and professor Brian Greene discussed his groundbreaking research on parallel universes and string theory. he also discussed why physics matter.


“It’s something that gives you a sense of connection to a wider universe. … We are in love with trying to understand reality, and that journey has taken us into ever more abstract ideas. We are driven by our attempt to understand truth.”

A panel of speakers—former Secretary of State and Institute trustee Madeleine Albright, consultant and former public servant Zoë Baird Budinger, George W. Bush National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley, and 9/11 Commission Executive Director Philip Zelikow—reflected on the decade since the attacks of September 11, 2001.

“I thought the Republicans got a really good deal with President Obama, because his theology is not to play by the Democratic book and the Democratic book only. … The Republicans have been missing in action, in large part because the Republican base has said, No, we will not sit down with you; we will not negotiate.”

MaDeLeine aLBriGHT

Nora Feller

“I believe 9/11 changed a great deal about America. What has affected the American psyche is our vulnerability: We were convinced that we were safe, and we were not. And all the things that have happened since 9/11 are part of this loss of confidence as the invulnerable nation. … This 9/11 anniversary Albright is a time to look at the character of the American people and not be ruled by the fear factor. We have to look at what’s best in us and understand that we need the rest of the world in order to be the best.” 42

STepHen HaDLey

“The real trick is how do we and our allies strengthen the capacities of governments to make them more responsive, less corrupt, provide a better life for their people, to address this gap between the rich and poor. That is the real challenge. We have spent sixty years developing a terrific military; we have not made a similar investment in the kind of civilian capabilities we need to be able to help countries deal with the kind of challenges they Hadley face today.”

Michael Brands


WINTER 2011/2012

Michael Brands

Steve Mundinger

leading voices
An Institute special event brought together a panel of five Republican governors—Nikki Haley of South Carolina, Susana Martinez of New Mexico, Bob McDonnell of Virginia, Rick Perry of Texas, and Scott Walker of Wisconsin— who roundly criticized President Obama’s record and the federal government more broadly, declaring that states do a better job of governing.

eriC OLSOn
In a joint McCloskey speaker series-Aspen security Forum event, Admiral Eric Olson, former Us special Operations commander, talked about the role of special operations forces since 9/11 and their most highprofile mission: killing Osama bin Laden.

riCK perry

Riccardo Savi


“If I was going to advise the folks in Washington, and they don’t call us as often as we’d like, I’d say, ‘Look to the states.’ And it’s not just Republican governors—a number of Democratic governors are taking the same tack that we have: You have to make long-term structural changes for budgetbalancing. It’s time more than ever that we fix the problems and not push them off to the next generation. We need politicians in Washington who are going to think about the next generation more than the next election.”

Riccardo Savi

“We jabbed away at Al Qaeda for several years and got them winded and bloody but still fighting. I think the Arab Spring was a roundhouse that just knocked the wind out of them; it took away the ideological message that you need violence to overthrow a government. They lost steam as a result of the Arab Spring. And the death of bin Laden was an uppercut to the jaw and just knocked them on their heels.”

eLena KaGan
supreme Court Associate Justice Elena Kagan gave an insider’s perspective on America’s highest court and how it functions.


Riccardo Savi

“I thought the [California] video-games case was the toughest case I decided all year. It’s the case where I struggled the most and thought most often that maybe I’m on the wrong side. The question was whether the state could prohibit the sale of [violent video] games to minors if an adult was not with them. You can see why the government would want to do this; it seems kind of reasonable. But I couldn’t figure out a way to square that with our First Amendment precedents.”

Dan Bayer

“Our federal government is engaged in way too many things they shouldn’t be involved with. The Founding Fathers knew they wanted to have a few powers for the federal government and leave the rest to the states. I’m an unapologetic social conservative; I’m pro-life, pro-traditional marriage. And our friends in New York passed a statute that said marriage can be between two people of the same sex. That’s New York, that’s their business, and that’s fine with me! If you believe in the 10th Amendment, stay out of their business if you live in some other state—or particularly if you’re part of the federal government.”

WINTER 2011/2012



Rice, Scowcroft, Burns, and Nye

Crisis of Confidence
Top foReigN poliCy expeRTS diSCuSS whaT may Be The gReaTeST ThReaT To ameRiCaNS: ouR owN feaRS.
The year’s 18th annual Summer Celebration honored Brent Scowcroft, co-chair of the Aspen Strategy Group and national security advisor to Presidents Gerald Ford and George H.W. Bush, with the Institute’s Public Service Award. A public forum featured Scowcroft in a conversation with Condoleezza Rice, former secretary of state and Institute trustee, and Joseph Nye, co-founder of the Aspen Strategy Group and Harvard professor, moderated by Nicholas Burns, director of the Aspen Strategy Group. The foursome discussed the psychic effects of partisan politics at home and fears of a rising China.

Burns: We have just witnessed over

the last months the most sorry example of a lack of good governance and lack of strategy and foresight and frankly courage in my working lifetime. But my sense is the differences between the two parties on foreign policy are more narrow than on domestic policy. Do you all agree with that?

Scowcroft: I think on the surface, it’s correct. I’m not sure how deeply it goes, because most of the controversial issues have been on domestic policy. It’s also because many of the foreign policy adventures—our presence in Afghanistan and Pakistan—were heavily supported by Republicans and now they have a Democratic president, so that gives them a natural ally there. But
Winter 2011/2012


the Aspen ideA

Michael Brands

there’s been a pretty nasty debate about the War Powers Act. So I think it remains to be seen. to lead. And, while I am very uncomfortable with the idea of deep defense cuts, $550 billion defense budgets are not sustainable in the United States. And people who say defense is off the table, are making a mistake. China that could help to solve some of the problems in the international system—as frankly they, from time to time, helped us to do with North Korea.

Nye: We’re not as badly divided on foreign policy as we have been on some domestic issues. There isn’t a single foreign policy position within the Tea Party. Ironically, that might help, because it might mean that, instead of having a very powerful group of freshmen Republican House members tugging traditional centrist Republicans to the right, there may be more room for the center of the Republican Party and the center of the Democratic Party to pull together. That might happen on foreign policy. But, frankly, we haven’t been tested yet.

Burns: How do we deal with China,

keep the peace with China, keep us out of conflict with China in the future? most very clear that the United States is a Pacific power and intends to remain a Pacific power. Secondly, we want to strengthen and make certain that our alliances in Asia are strong. Third, I

Rice: We want to make first and fore-

“This magnification of China, which creates fear in the US and hubris in China, is the biggest danger we face.”
If this new congressional commission doesn’t reach an agreement and fails over something like revenues, and you have to do these deep cuts in defense spending, that might be the test. have to say, it’s a little hard to swallow the Chinese going on and on about how we better get our economic house in order. And, when I talk to Chinese leaders, they speak in a very different tone of voice, because they recognize that they have huge problems at home. This has been the most rapid economic and social transformation in human history, and they’ve done it with a 1.3 billion people. It’s a miracle. … They know that they are still a developing society. They know they have to pay attention to their inward harmony, as they would call it. One thing that we can do is not buy into the myth of a China that is so ascendant that it will simply fly right past us. If the United States does the things that we need to do—get our own internal house in order, strengthen our alliances in Asia, and make certain that our military capabilities are appropriate for the time—then I think we will be just fine in managing the rise of China. We could even welcome a

Nye: The greatest danger we have is overestimating China and China overestimating itself. There are a number of people who are saying that the story of the 21st century is going to be the rise of the power of China and the fear it creates in the US. It’s a bad analysis, because China is nowhere close to the United States. There was a Pew poll saying that half the American people think that China is ahead. This is nonsense. If you look at the World Economic Forum ranking of economies, in competitiveness, the US is number four—behind Switzerland, Sweden, and Singapore. China is number twenty-seven. So this magnification of China, which creates fear in the US and hubris in China, is the biggest danger we face. All we have to realize is that China is going to be difficult to manage over a couple of decades, but I think the US will stay ahead. If we keep our own values intact and keep ourselves open to the rest of the world, I don’t think China is going to pass us. Scowcroft: I would say that the most successful US foreign policy of the past 40 years has been China policy, because, since Richard Nixon went to China, every president—Republican and Democrat, some of whom started out with very strong views about China—have come to the conclusion that broadening and deepening our relationship with China is in our fundamental interest. And we need to do it from a standpoint of maturity. The Chinese are going through a revolution. They’ve had an enormously successful economic program. The political system hasn’t really kept up with it. And we need to be mature. We need to stand for what we think is right but be prepared not to react sharply to every kind of little thing that the Chinese may do in a fit of pique. A
the Aspen ideA

Rice: First of all, it has been an ugly

spectacle over the last month. But we have to remember, our politics has always been a little rough in the United States. That said, I’m actually more concerned about something else: that we’re losing our sense of confidence, the sense that the American ideal still works at home. If we lose that sense of confidence at home, then we’re not going to be prepared to defend those ideals abroad. And we’re going to leave a vacuum. And a vacuum in international politics will be a very dangerous thing, because either nobody will fill it, in which case there will just be chaos, or somebody will fill it whose values are not like our own. My concern is that we get our domestic house in order so that we have a good basis from which

Winter 2011/2012



time to get that done. There are limits on how rapidly government can work. There are also limits on what government can do when one party decides to do nothing. Let me say it again, to do nothing. What have they proposed to stimulate economic growth? The same exact things that [supposedly] “liberated the economy before”: Get rid of DoddFrank, let Wall Street go back to its old ways, increase tax cuts for the wealthy. That has not worked. So it’s very difficult in an environment where one team says, Not only are we not going to compromise on moving it forward, we just think the old method that got us here works.
Riccardo Savi

on the gop:

Home Economics
ViCe pReSideNT Joe BideN TalkS JoBS, The eCoNomy, aNd why “we Need a STRoNg RepuBliCaN paRTy.”
The Institute and The Atlantic magazine hosted the third annual Washington Ideas Forum at the Newseum in Washington, DC—a two-day convening of leaders and newsmakers from around the country and around the world. Biden sat down with NBC’s David Gregory, host of “Meet the Press,” to discuss the jobs bill, partisanship, and the state of the middle class.

I think the president does have a partner in the bulk of the Republican leadership, but they are seriously hamstrung. I think John Boehner would tell you, I think Eric Cantor would tell you, we had a much bigger proposal that I was personally negotiating with them as to how to deal with the debt crisis. And they could not sell it. I truly believe, if Eric Cantor, Joe Biden, Barack Obama, and John Boehner were allowed to settle a deal in the room, we would have had a deal. My view is that their party is not the Republican Party that we all know. … In my view, we need a strong Republican Party. We need a Republican Party that’s united.

on the wall Street protests:

on the jobs bill:

The vast majority of independent validators say it would create between 1.7 and 2 million jobs. It would increase the growth of the GDP by up to a couple percentage points. … I don’t know any Republican in the past who has been against cutting the payroll tax for businesses as well as for employees. I don’t know any Republican who has taken the position that we shouldn’t be improving the infrastructure. I don’t know any Republican out there who has taken the position that it doesn’t make sense for us 46
the Aspen ideA

to figure out a way to get those six million people who are paying 6 percent on their mortgages to pay 4 percent on their mortgages. I don’t know what they’re against! But they say it’s dead on arrival.

on gridlock and the economy:

There are limits as to how fast government can make up for eight years of profligate spending, no oversight, putting two wars on a credit card, a health care bill on a credit card, the prescription-drug bill with a tax cut of several trillion dollars on a credit card. It takes

What is the core of that protest and why is it increasing in terms of the people it’s attracting? The core is the bargain has been breached with the American people. The core is the American people who do not think the system is fair or on the level. There’s a lot in common with the Tea Party. The Tea Party started why? TARP. They thought it was unfair that we were bailing out the big guys. What if the people up there on the other end of the political spectrum are saying the same thing [as the protestors]? The bargain is not on the level anymore in the minds of the vast majority of the American people. The middle class is getting screwed. A
Winter 2011/2012


Senate is in Session
RepuBliCaN paRTy RiSiNg STaR maRCo RuBio oN eNTiTlemeNTS, immigRaTioN, aNd The ViCe pReSideNCy.
The Washington Ideas Forum also welcomed Florida Senator Marco Rubio. The senator talked to National Journal congressional correspondent Elliott Garrett about the future of Social Security, the complexities of immigration, and the satisfaction of being a senator.

to be the pro-legal immigration party. We have to be a party that advocates for a legal immigration system that honors our tradition both as a nation of immigrants and as a nation of laws. It’s essential for our economic future. On the one hand, Americans think, if you’re here in violation of the laws, you shouldn’t benefit from programs like in-state tuition. Here’s where it gets tricky: There’s a kid who’s now 18, but he arrived when he was two; his parents brought him. He didn’t come; his parents brought him. This kid has grown up here his entire life, and he can’t go to college. Now, here’s the rub: If that kid is 6-foot-7 and can dunk a basketball or throw a 95-mile-an-hour fast pitch, we’re going to find a way to keep him. But, if the kid has 4.0 GPA, you’re going to deport him? You’re going to send him back to Nicaragua or Honduras, and he doesn’t even speak Spanish? As the years go on and the immigration issue remains unresolved, the ability to carve out narrow exceptions for folks like that has gotten harder and harder. That will remain the case until the federal government gets serious about bringing the illegal immigration problem under control and creating a legal immigration process that works.

Riccardo Savi

on the vice-presidential ticket in 2012:

on entitlement programs:

Americans have dual aspirations. On the one hand, we want to be prosperous, and on the other hand, we want to be compassionate. The big problem, however, is that these programs were created without any thought toward how we were going to afford them in the future. This is the richest, most prosperous economy in the history of the world, a GDP of over $15 trillion, and yet we have a government that not even we can afford. One of the great issues of our time is
Winter 2011/2012

going to be whether or not my generation, people who are decades away from retirement, are willing to accept that one of the contributions we’re going to be asked to make for America’s future is to accept that government programs like Social Security and Medicare will exist, but they will look different for us than they did for our parents.

on immigration:

The Republican Party cannot be the anti-illegal immigration party; we have

I didn’t run for the Senate as an opportunity to have a launching pad for some other job. I lament that people have come to the conclusion that United States senator is not enough. The US Senate is still a very important institution, where if you dedicate the time and you’re serious about learning the process, you can accomplish significant public policy. Throughout the history of American politics and policymaking, the United States Senate has provided the genesis for some of the greatest things that this country has ever done. I have a chance to be a part of that. I’m not going to be the vice presidential nominee. A
the Aspen ideA




“In 50 years, we will look back on modern chemotherapy, and we will say, I cannot believe that we did that to people.”

Tour de Lance
foR CyCliST laNCe aRmSTRoNg, iT’S NoT all aBouT The Bike.
This summer, seven-time Tour de France winner and part-time Aspen resident lance armstrong sat down with Institute CEO walter isaacson to discuss cycling, doping charges, cancer, and all those yellow wristbands.

started was the yellow band. When Nike came to us and said, We love this idea of Livestrong and what it means to people. We are going to put it on yellow bands, and we are going to help you raise some money. I thought, great. So Nike says, We’ll take $1 million, and we are going to make five million yellow wristbands. And you can sell them for a dollar. And I thought, these people are nuts. You can’t sell five million of anything in this world. But Nike put these wristbands on all their athletes, and then I won that sixth Tour. The wristbands went through five million just after the Tour. Then they gave all the athletes at the Olympic games in Athens the yellow wristband—from all countries, all religions, all sports—and we were at 10 or 15 million. And it just kept going and going. And now, I think we’ve sold 82 million of them.

on creating livestrong: armstrong: What really got us

Steve Mundinger

on cancer: armstrong: Livestrong can mean a

on slower times at this year’s Tour: armstrong: Cycling is not a perfect science. It’s not the 100-meter dash, it’s not

the 100-meter freestyle in the pool, it’s not a sporting event where you can really measure. There are a lot of things that go into performances. But, before we look at the times—it’s not exactly fair, because tactics change every day, the conditions change every day, whether it’s hot or whether it’s cold, or whether the race was aggressive, whether the race was fast in the beginning or fast at the end. It’s just not one of those sports where you can pinpoint and say, Look how clean it is because it’s slow. What happens if next year somebody rides 38 minutes on Alpe d’Huez. Are we are all going to say, Oh! They’re dirty again. It’s crazy to sit there and make such a bold statement based on times up a mountain, which really vary.

lot of things to a lot of people. For me, it was really about the quality of life, about the way that the people are able to come back from this disease, and they’re ultimately—regardless of their situation early on, or the treatment they received, or all of the stuff that they went through—able to find a high quality of life. In 50 years, we will look back on modern chemotherapy, and we will say, I cannot believe that we did that to people. Ultimately, we will say that. And as far as I’m concerned, the sooner we get there the better. It has a real effect on people—whether it’s fertility, or their job, or relationships they have, or whether it’s on the fact that they want to get back on a bike again and win the Tour de France. It affects those things. And so, ultimately, we will get past that, and we will look at cancer and go, Oh my god, remember that, that was nuts. A
Winter 2011/2012


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Securing our today. Safeguarding our tomorrow.
AGT International, unlocking the potential of the world.

A Feast of
people from across the globe came together to exchange ideas, talk, think, learn, and debate at the 2011 Aspen Ideas Festival. Labels were put aside as civil discourse carried the day—and the evening: Conversations started in Festival sessions were often continued in late-night exchanges around town. The 2011 Aspen Ideas Festival brought together hundreds of dynamic leaders, thinkers, and scholars for stimulating discussions over the course of seven days—with special emphasis on topics like “Ten Years After: Our Post-9/11 World,” “What is Happiness?” “Music on the Edge,” and “The Learning Landscape.” “ ‘Festival’ comes from the word ‘feast,’ ” said Institute CEO Walter Isaacson at the opening ceremony, “and what we need is a feast of ideas. Ideas can bring joy, they can bring excitement, they can bring people together. When we learn from each other, we realize that we share some common values—and that is what we do here at Ideas Festival.” On the pages that follow are just a few highlights of an incredible range of voices from the Festival. Wynton Marsalis mesmerized. The “Arab Spring” was redefined as an “Arab Awakening.” Kadima Party head Tzipi Livni described what Israel might look like if she were prime minister. Two urban mayors took on public education. Cancer was revealed to be interconnected with the world. And a monk taught everyone the secrets of true happiness. But that is just a start.
Michael Brands

For seven riveting days, business leaders, artists, heads of state, academics, journalists, and


For complete coverage of the Ideas Festival, including audio, video, photographs, and blogs, visit, or find us on Facebook (, Twitter (, or YouTube ( com/aspeninstitute). This feature was compiled by Catherine Lutz and Sacha Z. Scoblic.



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From top left, clockwise: Ideas Festival attendees were coaxed into an improptu session of yoga in the Music Tent, CNBC’s Maria Bartiromo, TIME magazine’s Joel Klein and Rock the Casbah author Robin Wright, Harvard Professors Lawrence Lessig and Jonathan Zittrain, Allstate’s Michele Mayes, The Atlantic’s Hanna Rosin, and The New Republic’s Leon Wieseltier.

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“ The secret to this Court is: Over a long period of time, people gradually became educated to accept an institution that is not a monarchy, is not elected, is not democratic, making decisions that are sometimes unpopular and may be wrong.”
—US Supreme Court Associate Justice Stephen Breyer

“ This will not be a normal Republican nomination. I knew this election would be unique when Romney and Hunstman were talking about dividing up the Mormon folks.”
—Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour
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“ We are in a world that has officially moved from a G7 to a G20 world. But the way I describe it is a G-Zero world, because on all these issues—monetary and fiscal policy, exchange rates, energy and food security, global climate change, and trade—there are more disagreements, more conflicts. There is no cooperation, and we need that cooperation to deal with these global problems.”
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—Nouriel Roubini, co-founder and chairman of Roubini Global Economics and professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business 52

Riccardo Savi


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Dawnin the

arab worlD

Fahmy, Burns, Mogahed, and Muasher
Michael Brands

In the wake of the incredible changes across the Arab world, Nicholas Burns, director of the Aspen Strategy Group, moderated a vibrant discussion with Marwan Muasher, vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment and former prime minister of Jordan; Dahlia Mogahed, executive director at the Gallup Center for Muslim Studies; and Nabil Fahmy, founding dean of the School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the American University in Cairo.
Burns: The American press and the Aspen Institute say “Arab Spring.” But is it really a spring? Mogahed: I call it the “Arab uprising.”

I prefer not to call it the Arab Spring because it sounds too easy. This movement, this phenomena, has been incredibly difficult. It has been bloody in many

cases, mostly civilians getting killed by security forces. And it almost trivializes how difficult it is, and it makes us impatient because spring is a very short season. And this is going to take a very long time.
Muasher: I’d like to call it “Arab awakening.” We are the only region of the

world that has not had any significant progress on governments in the last 30 or 40 years. Every other region of the world made some significant strides there. But something has happened that is irreversible: The feeling of powerlessness, which has permeated across the region for decades, is no longer there. People now feel empowered, feel that they can effect

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change peacefully—something that truly has not been the case throughout many, many decades in the Arab world, where people felt powerless over decisions. It will take decades to unfold, but in the end will result in a much healthier and better Arab world.
Fahmy: One should not underestimate what’s actually happening here. There is a revolutionary change occurring. We have not yet reached the goal that we’re trying to achieve, but the change is extremely significant. And it’s not about activists alone; it’s about all of society, the relationship between those being ruled and the ruler. So I’ve used “revolutionary.” I very frequently will use “empowerment.” This is all about Arab empowerment. Arabs want to have a say about their future. They want to participate in it. Everybody in Egypt now

Burns: How do you see the prospects for reform in Egypt? Fahmy: A quarter of the Middle East lives in Egypt; 83 million live in Egypt out of 300 million. Half of them are 25 years or younger. It’s approximately the same ratio throughout the Middle East. So, if this is a major trend, it will pick up because the demographics are similar. But it will pick up in different ways and different forms. Now, whether we’re going to succeed or not, I think we will. The main test will be if we have the same kind of participation by society as we’ve been having over the last couple of months. You cannot turn on a television station, you can’t go into a coffee shop, go to a dinner party, without talking politics today in Egypt. Everybody’s engaged. In the past, we’d have single-digit or 10 percent participa-

tem, where people compete, then they have a chance to choose among different alternatives and then the Islamists will get their fair chance. I have always argued in response to the conventional wisdom that, if you open up the system up, the Islamists will come in. Really the opposite is true: If you don’t open up the system, the Islamists will come in. The principle of political pluralism: One cannot use democracy to come to power and then deny the right of others to organize, but any political party should employ peaceful means and peaceful means alone. If these principles are enshrined in constitutions and are practiced in societies, then one should not really be afraid of the Islamists or any other political force in society. I don’t think that, after January, people are going to replace secular autocrats with the religious autocrats, no matter where they come from.
Mogahed: I’m not afraid of Islamists

“i’m not afraid of islamists taking over. the government will have to reflect the people’s values, because people are fearless now and empowered.”
is demonstrating, whether it’s about politics, economics, social change, women’s rights—you have a problem, you go out and demonstrate. Also, I don’t use “Arab Spring,” because we don’t have spring in the Middle East.
Burns: Is there a regional awaken-

ing and reform effort for all the Arab people?

Mogahed: Yes, there is desire for change.

tion on a referendum. We had 44 percent participation in the first referendum after the revolution. Frankly, if we get 55 to 60 percent participation in the next elections, you will see a result that represents Tahrir Square. … If they continue to participate, we’ll come out of this successfully, whether we do it by January or we do it by June. We’re 7,000 years old; four or five more months are not going to kill anybody.
Burns: Will there be attempts in some

taking over. The government will have to reflect the people’s values, because people are fearless now and empowered. We shouldn’t be afraid. We asked the Egyptians if there was a country that they would model a future Egypt on—a political ideal. Less than 1 percent of Egyptians said Iran. This is not a country that is trying to become a theocracy.

Burns: I mean how do you assess the role of the US government so far in these six months? Muasher: There cannot be a onepolicy-fits-all, because the Arab world is not monolithic. You cannot expect the United States to behave the same way in Libya as in Bahrain. Another important issue for the United States is the Arab-Israeli peace process. People still behave here as if the Arab uprising is not there when it comes to the peace process. The United States will not be able to maintain a policy where it tells the people of the region, “If you’re Egyptians yearning for freedom, we are with you; if you’re Libyans yearning for freedom, we support you; and if you’re Palestinians yearning for freedom, it’s complicated.” A
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We found that people across the region aspire to what we all hold dear: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and a government that represents the aspirations of its people that can be held accountable. These aspirations that were always there, and yet the reality looked very different. Finally, we’re seeing an equilibrium. We’re seeing that force taking shape on the ground.

countries by Islamic groups to take power through the barrel of a gun?

Muasher: The Islamists need to be included. They’re a very important part of society. In Egypt, they command 15 percent of the population. This is not insignificant, but by no stretch is it a majority. When you have an open sys-



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“I felt the people around me wrote my lyrics. I would hear them talk and watch them. They were music. They were poetry. They were American literature. They were the living examples of what happens in our society that gets swept under the rug. I felt like I had an opportunity to bring light to that through music.”
—Nasir “Nas” bin Olu Dara Jones, rapper and activist


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the art of School
Wynton Marsalis blew away the Festival audience with his “The Ballad of the American Arts,” a mixture of music and spoken words. Below is an edited excerpt for just a glimpse of the magic.
Coming from New Orleans, I knew I was a part of Louis Armstrong’s legacy, still [I had] no real understanding of who he was and what he meant. I didn’t understand what it took for Winslow Homer to paint black people with dignity in the 19th century. I had never heard of him. And I definitely didn’t understand why any of this could be important to me. After all, it was old. I was cited as a “star” product of the American public education system—and was still ignorant to the riches of my artistic heritage as an American. We all were. I didn’t understand how tough the victories of American culture were. The best of the American arts and the way they’ve been sung and swung provided human meaning to the questions posed by the Founding Fathers more than 150 years earlier. Through swing, the most flexible rhythm ever played, it told you how to balance your individuality with the desires of the group. It told you we have a history, a depth, a tradition that requires skill and study but demands you apply those skills to search the frontiers of your soul. We all yearn for a new American mythology. And the answer is not more education, but more substantive and more culturally rooted education. The primary justification for the value of education is not some competition with other countries for technological jobs, or to win the so-called science race, or to beat anyone. Our arts demand and deserve that we recognize the life we live and have lived together. As we fight for excellence in education, let us rebuild our dismantled arts education piece by piece. In responding to the lack of culture and integrity we see in our way of life, let us teach our kids how to be free. A

Wynton Marsalis is artistic director of jazz at Lincoln Center.

Dan Bayer

“we’re GettinG the School SyStemS we DeServe.”
Booker, Villaraigosa, and Bennet

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and Newark Mayor Cory Booker sit down with James Bennet, editor of The Atlantic, to discuss the realities of urban education.
Bennet: What are the points of leverage

for you as mayors? How can you find ways to effect change? What other tools do you have?

Booker: I watched Mayor Villaraigosa very closely, because he was one of those courageous mayors who stepped
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up and said, “I’m going to risk political capital, and I’m going to fight for centralized control.” Imagine running a city police department with a committee of people? Imagine running your transportation system with a committee of people? And where real change and innovation is happening is when may-

ors step up to say, “I’m going to take responsibility.”
Villaraigosa: I went to a high school where 75 percent of the kids were dropping out. What you hear so often from the apologists for public education in our urban areas is, “Mr. Villaraigosa,

Dan Bayer


you don’t understand. These kids are poor. These kids are on school-lunch program. They’re English-language learners. They are foster kids.” I tell people, “Take look at me. I grew up in that kind of a setting. I can read and write. I wound up at UCLA and law school after that.” These kids can learn. And we can be the change agents that really set a higher bar. There are too many apologists for the lack of success. There’s a 50 percent drop-out rate in L.A, in some of our schools, about 65 percent; 80 percent of the kids are scoring at the bottom 20th percentile. This is what we’re looking at in urban schools.
Booker: The biggest threat to our democracy by far is our inability to educate children in America. And I know the reality: Only about 22 to 25 percent of my kids could pass the minimumcompetency test for graduation. The head of my community college tells me their honor students have to take remedial classes; they’re not college-ready. We will not be able to compete. In about 50 years, the majority of our workforce will be the populations that are in New York and Los Angeles. The majority of our workforce, our very economy, our national wellbeing, will be dependent upon the people who are not being educated in our schools. Yet, every child, no matter what their background, can learn. There are schools in Newark, in L.A., in New York that are showing it can work. It’s not a matter anymore of: Can we? Do we have the capacity? What we’re lacking in America is a sense of urgency and national will to deal with this problem. As we talk about cutting government spending on education, we’re paying for it in such dramatic ways: The California prison system costs billions and billions of dollars. The same with New Jersey. Because a black or Latino child in this economy who does not graduate from high school, the chances of him going to prison, the chances of him being dependent upon the state for resources, is dramatic. Education is a sector that we’ve allowed to languish back to the agrarian age, where we have not brought in innovation. We’ve allowed everybody’s

“in districts all over the United States of america, people are getting tenure for just breathing.”
interests but the child’s to be served first. We’ve allowed perverse realities to exist, where our children go to school for a number of hours that is nowhere near commensurate with our competitor economies abroad. There’s no entity, business, entertainment, you name it, that would structure themselves the way we structure public education in the United States. So the only way I sought to break through that as the mayor of Newark was to leverage authority and control.
Bennet: Can you talk more about the

partnership for L.A. schools and how it has worked as an instrument to improve education?

Villaraigosa: L.A. is now 47th to 48th in per-pupil spending. We’re at the bottom of virtually every index, whether it’s technology in our classroom, librarians, counselors, nurses—at the bottom, right there with Mississippi. A great city-state like ours has to be anchored by great public schools. So, as soon as I got elected, I went to the legislature and I asked for a partnership with the school district. By our constitution and our city charter, they bifurcate those entities. I got legislation signed by Democrats and Republicans. I barely got it passed by one vote because of the power of the teachers’ union. It was a battle. They sued. We lost on appeal. I had to take on the teachers’ union. I worked for them for eight years. I’m not anti-union. I believe in collectivebargaining, but, when it’s just putting forward the interest of adults and not kids, I can’t be for it. So I had to raise a lot of money, about $7 million—the most expensive school-board races in US history—to elect a reform board. In the six years I’ve been mayor, we’ve doubled

the number of charters. We have more kids in charter schools—about 75,000— than any other school district. I created partnership schools and took on the lowest-performing schools, the most violent middle school in Los Angeles. It was a school where 120 kids had been arrested on campus in middle school. In the first two years, partnership for L.A. schools have outperformed the school district and the state. The problem in schools today is that seniority drives assignments, transfers, and lay-offs. Performance isn’t taken into account at all. So we also said, “You ought to be able to earn some tenure; either eliminate it or earn it. And then you have to re-earn it.” This idea that you have a job for life, no matter what your performance is like, just isn’t working.
Booker: How can we be in 2011 and not have moral outrage that, in districts all over the United States of America, people are getting tenure for just breathing? This is what we’re facing in this country, and honestly, we’re getting the school systems that we deserve, because most of our nation is checked out of these issues. We really have a disconnect between the consciousness of our country and the carnage of human potential that’s happening within our public school systems. We tolerate a level of failure in this country that is shockingly appalling to me. I’ve lived in public-housing projects for eight years. And what angers me most about America is our property problem. It’s not poverty in terms of material poverty—there will be that for a long time—but the poverty in America that angers me is our poverty of compassion, our poverty of love, and our poverty of action. A
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“Art has a responsibility for authenticity. One of the great themes of Western culture is the liberation narrative, and that’s where you find authenticity, whether it’s cultural struggle, gender struggle, or racial struggle, to get at some self-defining moment. These are things we look for to honor and be inspired by.”
—Eric Fischl, painter, sculptor, and an Institute Harman-Eisner artist-in-residence


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“Every 30 to 35 years a generation is born, a generation dies, and a generation comes to power. And, with every generation that dies, so do its prejudices.”
—Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf, founder and chairman of the Cordoba Initiative


“Debt and deficit issues are important, but the single most important issue facing the country is that we grow. We’re going to grow our way out of this.”
—Austan Goolsbee, former chairman of the president’s Council of Economic Advisors


Michael Brands

“ The president has drawn a line in the sand and said, by 2020, we need to lead the world again in college education. That’s what I want to be held accountable for.”
—US Secretary of Education and Henry Crown Fellow Arne Duncan

Dan Bayer Dan Bayer



Jackson: It is certainly doable. But I don’t want anyone to leave here saying EPA is going to get that 17 percent by itself, because it’s absolutely impossible. Now, where EPA can make really wonderful improvements is on the cars. We’ll soon be proposing a miles-pergallon standard for cars for 2017 to 2025. There are also standards expressed in grams of CO2 emitted per mile. So, as we move toward 2030, you will see enormous reductions in energy usage. … We still have work to do. But 2010 was the year when many Americans who weren’t living and breathing energy went, “Oh, there is an electric car,” “Oh, GM makes it,” “Oh, there was a commercial during the Super Bowl.” I remember the “Thank You GM” commercial. I loved that commercial. It was our icon of American industry saying, “We can do this.” EPA still fights with them and we will— that’s the way the world goes. But, when we set the next set of standards, we’re saying to the planet that this country is moving more aggressively to make our cars efficient. And we can do it and still have cool cars. Norris: What are the harbingers of

NPR’s Michele Norris talks with EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson about environmental success, the future of cars, and why she’s excited about chief sustainability officers.
Norris: There is discussion that the administration would prefer that some of your goals be achieved through congressional action. Jackson: If you have followed the climate law and the debates, something I never agreed with was this idea that EPA was a bludgeon—either pass the climate law or EPA is going to get you!—because it makes people go, “Maybe this Clean Water Act is the problem.” That’s not a good thing. The Clean Air Act, for example, is the most cost-effective environmental statute the American people have passed for themselves. It’s our law. It will have saved, by peer-reviewed estimates, $2 trillion in health care costs—$2 trillion with a “T”—by 2020. That’s real money, but those are also lives. That’s a child with asthma. That’s premature deaths avoided, because one of the absolute causal links to premature heart attacks and death is fine particles in the air we breathe. The Clean Air Act is part of what it means to be American. We demand that our industries operate in a way that gives us healthy air. Norris: President Obama made a pledge at the Copenhagen International Climate Talks to cut US greenhouse-gas emissions by 17 percent by 2020. Is that a realistic goal?
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Michael Brands

change, where you see people are thinking about this in a very different way?

Jackson: Here’s a harbinger: Something like 60 percent of Fortune 250 or Fortune 500 companies have chief sustainability officers—a title that didn’t exist before. They make the company money by saving on energy. So, your profit goes up, because your costs are lower. One of things we have to do is to help those chief sustainability officers be a force in their companies. … Right now, EPA’s work is all about stopping bad things from happening. It’s a risk-assessment model. What if our standards were based on accelerating the good things? What if? A


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“The future does not bode well for us, unless we are seen as being more inclusive and unless we recognize the natural demographic shifts that are going on in our country.”
—Melody Barnes, White House domestic policy advisor

Dan Bayer

neGotiator in chief

Michael Brands


Opposition leader and Chairwoman for Israel’s Kadima Party Tzipi Livni talked with Institute CEO Walter Isaacson about the national aspirations for both Israelis and Palestinians, why she isn’t in a coalition with Benjamin Netanyahu, and why peace talks cannot be delayed.
Isaacson: Prime Minister Netanyahu is

saying that Israel should be recognized as a Jewish state as the beginning of negotiations. Is he right to insist on that?

Livni: No. The raison d’être of the state of Israel is to be homeland of the Jewish people. When the United Nations, in 1947, decided to embrace the idea of two states for two peoples, the deciWINTER 2011/2012

sion was to establish a Jewish state and an Arab state. During the negotiations with the Palestinians, I was the one who raised this issue of a Jewish state, not because I want them to say that Israel is a Jewish state. With all due respect, I don’t need them to say what Israel is, but because the idea of two states for two peoples means that Israel is homeland of the Jewish people. And the Palestinian state is the answer to the national aspira-

tion of the Palestinians. It gives an answer to the Palestinians— those who live in the territories, those who live in refugee camps—that Israel is not going to be the option. Also this is the national answer to the Israeli-Palestinians who are equal-rights citizens, because Israel is democracy and equal rights are also in accordance with our Jewish values. But they cannot demand more from Israel as a Jewish state. This was all part

Michael Brands


of a concept I raised in the past, and the reason that we, with Bush administration, phrased what was later called “The Bush letter to Israel,” saying that the establishment of the Palestinian state is the answer to the refugees. Now, the problem is that the things that need to be discussed during the negotiations are becoming the very obstacles of why not to negotiate. This is something that we cannot afford: In order to keep Israel as homeland of the Jewish people, we need enter the negotiations room.
Isaacson: What are the most difficult issues to overcome? Livni: There are issues that are very sen-

“i’m convinced the price of having an agreement is cheaper than the price of not having an agreement.”
Basin. I think the borders are easier to solve, because it is clear to everybody that it’s not going to be the exact ’67 line. The Palestinians know that and in the negotiations room accepted the idea of adjustment to this line. This is also the US policy for three administrations. It’s not important what you think about settlement activities—whether it is part of the Jewish people coming back to the homeland of our forefathers, or whether this is a historical mistake against the international law. In the end, after 40 years, we have settlements. The good news is that the blocks of settlements where most Israelis live outside of the ’67 line is a small percentage of the West Bank, so it’s solvable.
Isaacson: Do you think it was useful for

Netanyahu to be so public in lecturing the president of the United States?

Livni: The responsibility of our leaders

sitive for both peoples. Nothing is easy, because, in the end, Israelis are going to take security risks. … And of course Jerusalem. And the refugees. Basically, the only reason for me to accept the idea of two states for two peoples is to end the conflict. With Jerusalem, the most sensitive issue is what we call the Holy

is not to think about their own domestic policy but to think about what is best for the future of the state of Israel. I believe that giving public lectures to the president of the United States doesn’t help the interest of Israel in the long run. Relations with United States are crucial for the future of Israel: It’s existential, it’s part of Israel’s deterrence against extremists. They know that our strength



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is not only our really great soldiers, but in our relations with the United States. So we need to work together in order to define the mutual interests of Israel and the United States, and unfortunately this isn’t happening right now.
Isaacson: Would you be willing to go into a coalition right now if it was to help the negotiations? Livni: I entered political life in Israel

because of the need to solve the conflict. I believe that I know how to do it, and I think for now it’s feasible, it’s achievable. I offered to form a different coalition with Netanyahu in order to do so. Now, unfortunately we’re focusing on September, how to re-launch negotiations, how to have a dialogue. This is not enough to have a dialogue. I need to know that I’m part of a coalition that can support the endgame. There needs to be a balanced coalition, not just a fig leaf of a government that is not willing to make real steps. So I offered Netanyahu, and he refused.

Being united is needed, especially when we face difficult times. But it’s not enough to be united against those that are against us. We need to decide what we are united for—internally in Israel, about the future constitution, about the values of Israel. We need to be united in how to end the conflict, how to address these threats—not just by saying that the world is against us, we should sit together and do nothing, but to act, to initiate, because Zionism was never passive. So am I going to join a coalition? My next question is: For what? If it is just to be there, no thanks.
Isaacson: Should Israel wait and see whether the Arab Spring is going to lead to Islamist or democratic governments before it makes a decision on what to do? Livni: No. The basic intuition is to wait.

But I think that will be a historical mistake, because we can’t shape the future outcome of elections in the Arab world. But solving the [Arab-Israeli] conflict with the Palestinians is connected to the

extremists in the region. Iran abuses the conflict. Even if we solve the conflict tomorrow, Iran is not going to change its ideology, nor the Muslim Brotherhood, Hezbollah, or Hamas. But they are going to abuse this conflict in order to get more support from radical elements. So the sooner we can solve it, the better. I don’t want the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to be part of the agenda in future elections in Egypt. In the end, the choice for Israel is one of two options. One is for accepting, adopting, promoting, and implementing two nation-states in order to keep and preserve the wellness of Israel as the homeland of the Jewish people and a democracy. The other is to not make these decisions, which will lead to one state between the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea. It’s not going to be a Jewish State. It’s going to be an Arab state. These are realities. I’m convinced the price of having an agreement is cheaper than the price of not having an agreement. Maybe this is the basic difference between Netanyahu and myself. A

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“The debt-ceiling problem is synthetic and self-administered; the debt problem is a very serious issue. It’s helpful to think in terms of the real resources necessary to meet the obligations of the United States government. We are promising more than can physically be delivered.”
—Alan Greenspan, former chairman of the Federal Reserve

Michael Brands


interpreter of

Agus: Who is the target audience for

David Agus of the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine asks Siddhartha Mukherjee about his latest book, the Pulitzer Prize–winning The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer.
the book? the future? Absolutely. It already has. Will it allow us to develop drugs in the future? Absolutely. It already has. Can I take a stem cell and use that stem cell in some way to cure cancer? I’m much more circumspect about that. There are certain kinds of cancers, leukemias—which respond to chemotherapy; you can wipe out the body with chemotherapy and replace Mukherjee it with certain kinds of stem cells. Those applications are vastly more limited, compared with the deeper biological underpinnings. I think there cancer. The balkanization of body parts is a lot of meat in that idea. has reached a place where it’s beginning to do more harm than good. Agus: What do you think about the trend of people pushing for philanAgus: How are things going to change thropy for a disease that affected their going forward? loved one? Mukherjee: We’ve gotten to the organiMukherjee: Everyone has their favorite zational phase. What I’m interested in cancer-advocacy program, right? Here’s is the disruptive phase. Why is it that the question: If you spend a dollar on the National Cancer Institute budget prostrate cancer, do you take a dollar still is threatened? The National Cancer away from leukemia? This world of canInstitute budget is $5 billion. Now, you cer is fundamentally interconnected, might think that is a large amount of and we are actually discovering those money. We spent $900 billion on the interconnections. If you lift up the war in Afghanistan, right? There will be genetic sheets, you’ll find that sarcomas hundreds of thousands of preventable are related to leukemias and may or deaths from cancer from technology that may not be related to breast cancer. So is available today. So the idea that the we are undergoing a vast reorganizaNational Cancer Institute is over-funded tion in terms of what is happening in is absurd. Our job is to disrupt, to create the genetic anatomy of cancer. This a sophisticated national conversation on reorganization will force us to rethink cancer such that this disproportion of the way we imagine the categories of resources doesn’t exist anymore. A

Mukherjee: Everyone. Let’s talk about

cancer, and let’s bring everyone to a level of conversation around cancer up to the biology of the laboratories today. Let’s talk about stem cells in cancer, let’s talk about genomes in cancer, but let’s introduce all these words so that we can have a real conversation. There is a lot of talk about how to tackle the problems of environmental carcinogenesis. We are ignoring the elephant in the room. The huge problem of environmental carcinogenesis is that it can be summarized by five major environmental carcinogens: tobacco, tobacco, tobacco, tobacco, tobacco—and then some other ones. Tobacco is a major problem. We need to find new strategies to battle tobacco if we are really going to move cancer in the future.

Agus: Will stem cells be one of our

therapies of the future?

Mukherjee: Stem cells will teach us—and have taught us already—an enormous amount about the biology of cancer. Why? Because they happen to share an important characteristic: regeneration. The capacity to infinitely regenerate yourself happens to be shared between this population of cells and cancer cells. And there are other resemblances. So will the biology of stem cells affect the way we think about cancer in
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Dan Bayer


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“We’re not products of our environment; we’re products of our expectations.”
—Wes Moore, author of The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates


Michael Brands

“china iS a hUGe anomaly.”
The New York Times’ Thomas Friedman sits down with former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson to talk about China’s place in the world.
which was extraordinarily effective, they had their banking system—which had been defunct ten years earlier—working on restructuring their state-owned banks. Their banking system really became the engine, and they had massive government-mandated bank lending. That was very effective and very necessary. It was good for them and the world. Now, they were able to do this because—while the rest of the world was leveraging up, adding more debt— China was de-leveraging. But, when you do that, there are going to be unattractive side effects—one of the most being inflation. But it was still a very attractive program that helped them overall.
Friedman: America owned the 20th century. Will China own the 21st century? Paulson: I look at what China is trying

Paulson and Friedman

Friedman: What should someone

going to China for the first time know?

Paulson: I’m not going to defend a lot

that goes on in China, but I will tell you one thing you need to recognize: This is a country where there is incredible change. Never in the history of man have we had any country transform itself so dramatically so quickly. And this change is relentless; it’s going on as we speak and, if anything, the pace is accelerating and the Chinese people’s expectations are growing. Managing all this change is incredibly difficult for them—as they develop their legal system, as they develop their regulatory system, as they come up with ways to enforce the law. And, while all this is going on, their whole political system is in the process of transformation.

That question really gets to sort of a bigger question: Do you think the Chinese economy is going to keep going up forever? Of course not. There is no economic system in the world that’s going to keep doing that. There’s going to be bumps on the road; there’s going to be downturns. That’s the law of economic gravity. China is a huge anomaly. Never before have you had a developing country that’s an economic superpower; never before have we had a communist country with a market-driven economy. But this economy is now so big, so complex, and so integrated into the global economy, they’re going to need to speed up reforms. There is a real estate bubble in China today, and it’s perfectly natural that there would be, because they don’t have effective, efficient, capital markets with great investment products.
Friedman: Compare how China invested its stimulus with how we invested ours? Paulson: I’m not going to comment on

Dan Bayer

China today?

Friedman: Would you buy real estate in

Paulson: No, I wouldn’t buy real estate.
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this administration. But what China did,

to accomplish. It’s extraordinarily important and difficult, and we all should hope they succeed. We all should hope they succeed big-time. In the United States, we’ve got some very significant problems. But clearly, China has more significant problems. Our problems are our own making—not China’s making. And our problems would be easier to solve by far if the Chinese economy is growing and stable. I’m for the United States being strong in Asia—economically, militarily, being strong in terms of our trade and economic relationships, being strong diplomatically. But our ability to succeed or not succeed is not going to be determined by China; it’s going to be determined by us. The next century will only belong to China if we have an extreme failure of leadership here. A


conScioUS contact
Matthieu Ricard, onetime molecular geneticist and now a Buddhist monk, co-author of The Monk and the Philosopher, and director of the Karuna-Shechen foundation in Nepal, talks with The Atlantic’s Hanna Rosin about why the pursuit of happiness won’t be fulfilling and how a contemplative life is scientific.
Rosin: You’ve been called the happiest

friend or our worst enemy. It can make us miserable. But how many times does a change of perception completely change our inner state of mind? If our mind can be free from hostility, craving, jealousy, arrogance, then that freedom gives you a good strength, great peace, great confidence.
Rosin: When you were going to work at

person in the world.

Ricard: No amount of disclaimers work. I had to apologize to my scientist friends for this appellation. Of course, it doesn’t work like that. Happiness is not just a fleeting moment of a pleasant sensation that we then try endlessly to renew and pursue. That cannot work, and, in the end, this will not really bring a sense of flourishing and fulfillment.

Sensations—there’s nothing wrong with a very beautiful morning walking in the mountains or meeting with a dear friend—but they depend so much upon circumstances, which you could experience very selfishly. This is not what creates a way of being, a way of relating to the world, of experiencing the world. What we really need is something that is linked with our mind to translate outer conditions into either wellbeing or misery. The mind can be our best

the lab of a Nobel Prize-winner, what was missing?


Ricard: I didn’t want a meaningless life where you don’t feel full of enthusiasm every day. But I didn’t know exactly what would fulfill that aspiration. I was not in angst and anguish; I was quite happy at the Pasteur Institute. When I then saw some documentaries about those great Tibetan teachers, I thought, here are 20 people who look like Socrates alive or St. Francis of Assisi alive. I have to go there. I was wonderfully inspired. They were great scholars on top of being great contemplatives, but that was not the point. As human being, I really wanted to become something like that, because there was this presence of wisdom, kindness, strength, peace, and solidity, but it was not imposing, it was very sort of easy. Like the Dalai Lama, there is a quality of human being that you say, I don’t care what he knows, but I would like to be like he is. For me, it’s all still science, because science is a rigorous approach to reality. Instead of studying bacteria, I’m studying happiness and suffering. I’m trying to apply it to my life. Goethe wrote that three days of uninterrupted happiness will be unbearable, because they will always be the same. A
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Michael Brands

Aspen IdeAs FesTIvAl

“To have the joy of feeling my knees bend in a natural gait, to walk heel to toe, to strike my foot on the ground, step after step, there’s a lot of power in that and it’s not just bionic power: It’s the power of the human spirit.”
—Amanda Boxtel, eLEGS ambassador and the first paraplegic woman in the world to test-pilot the Exoskeleton Lower Extremity Gait System

Announcing the


of the

June 22-26 in Aspen, CO


Presented in partnership by the Aspen Institute and National Geographic For more information, please visit us at

Dan Bayer



Social (change) neTwork
By Abigail Golden-Vazquez

when she boarded the first of four planes in Lagos, Nigeria, for the 30-hour journey to Aspen, Colorado, in July. A pediatrician and Fellow of the Africa Leadership Initiative/West Africa, she was headed for the biennial convening, known as “ACT II,” of the Aspen Global Leadership Network. First held in 2007, the gathering was designed as a venue for the leaders from across the Institute’s Network to connect meaningfully with one another and—perhaps most important—turn shared wisdom, personal experience, and lessons learned into action when they return to their communities. Built gradually since 1997, the Aspen Global Leadership Network now includes 13 distinct programs comprising nearly 1,400 Fellows from 43 countries. Inspired by the Institute’s Henry Crown Fellowship, the Network engages accomplished leaders from six continents in life-changing programs designed to help them move “from success to significance.” (For more details on the Network, see page 12.) The convening’s title, ACT II, is a nod to its emphasis on inspiring the Fellows to build upon what they have done even after they have completed their formal Fellowship program and to work with other Fellows to do still more.
ThE AspEN IdEA WINTER 2011/2012

Orode Doherty had no idea what to expect

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India Leadership Initiative Fellow Tejpreet Chopra, founder, president, and CEO of Bharat Light & Power, a clean-power generation company

“as i walked out of the room after the workshop, i felt like i had won some grand prize. i not only put my project to the test, but won a new group of supporters to guide and help me.”
— Central America Leadership Fellow Hildegard Vasquez

Dan Bayer

Liberty Fellow Carolyn Wong Simpkins, founding medical director of the Barrier Islands Free Medical Clinic of Johns and Wadmalaw Islands, South Carolina

Dan Bayer

Henry Crown Fellows Mark Hoplamazian, CEO of Hyatt Hotels Corporation, and Kathleen Gan, CFO for HSBC Hong Kong

Institute trustee Margot Pritzker talks about the power of the Global Network.
Dan Bayer

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Peter Reiling, Institute executive vice president for leadership programs and seminars; Central America Leadership Initiative Fellow Sylvia Gereda, director and vice president of El Periodico, a prominent Guatemalan newspaper; and Henry Crown Fellow Bill Browder, founder and CEO of Hermitage Capital Management
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Middle East Leadership Initiative Fellow Deema Bibi, CEO of Injaz, the leading youth NGO in Jordan

Jetlag and thin mountain air notwithstanding, Doherty jumped right in, joining the 300 attendees—more than 200 alumni of the Network, representing all 13 of the Network’s initiatives and 27 countries, as well as Institute trustees and special guests—for an opening session of “Speed Networking” designed to break the ice and get the Fellows connecting quickly. Paired several different times, the Fellows gave each other ultra-brief summaries of their leadership projects— a key component of their Fellowships— and asked their partners’ advice on their toughest problems. Instantly, Doherty knew her long trip had been worth it. That very first exercise “challenged me in a way I have never been challenged before,” she recalls. “I near-perfected the elevator-pitch for my project before the end of the session! And I was put on the spot to come up with suggestions for the challenges others were facing. It got us talking about serious issues in a very short time. The next time we saw each other, we were speaking as though we had been friends for years.” Over the course of the three days that followed, Fellows were featured in plenary sessions and panel discussions, were spotlighted in and led project workshops, kicked off conversations in roundtable sessions, and moderated intensive Aspen-style mini-seminars. There were also musical performances and screenings of films created by or about Fellows. “It was critical that it be an event by and for the Fellows,” says Institute Executive Vice President Peter Reiling, who oversees the Network. “They were the sub74

“it was critical that it be an event by and for the Fellows. They were the substance of every facet of it, truly learning from each other, and, we hope, building relationships that will help them in the future.”
—Peter Reiling, Institute executive vice president

Dan Bayer

stance of every facet of it, truly learning from each other, and, we hope, building relationships that will help them in the future.” The eight workshops—where Fellows presented groups of their peers with a significant challenge they were facing with their project—proved especially powerful. Henry Crown Fellows Tim Noonan and Scott Bush, for example, had created GiveBack10, a nonprofit corporation designed to connect every American with an opportunity to give back to wounded warriors. They are now merging with The Mission Continues,

a leading social-services organization for wounded and disabled veterans. So they asked their peers for input on how to manage the new joint effort effectively and efficiently. India Leadership Initiative Fellow Roopa Purushothaman started Avasara Academy in India to address the shortage of quality education for girls (she is working with Africa Leadership Initiative Fellow Fred Swaniker, founder of the Africa Leadership Academy, to develop the curriculum). She used the workshop to consider how best to use two separate boards (one in India and one in the United States). Central America Leadership Initiative Fellow and architect Hildegard Vasquez’s project, which gives poor urban women in Panama City the skills for jobs in the tourism industry, questioned how to grow her project. “As I walked out of the Continued on page 77.
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Each ACT II has a theme. ACT II 2011’s theme was “Stepping Up.” Throughout
the gathering, Fellows talked formally and informally about ways in which they had “stepped up”: taking on daunting challenges in education, health care, judicial reform, and much more. On the first evening, a panel of Fellows told stories of stepping up to do what they felt was right when it was extremely difficult or involved great personal risk. In the days that followed, other Fellows were highlighted for their own stories of stepping up. Here are a few of them:
Michelle Odayan STEPPED UP by leaving her home and job to run a major initiative to strengthen the South African court system. Steve Benjamin STEPPED UP to become the first African American mayor of Columbia, South Carolina.



Leticia Teleguario STEPPED UP to serve as the voice of the indigenous populations of Guatemala and bridge the divide between them and the government.
Kavuma Teleguario

Govindraj Ethiraj quit his job and STEPPED UP to increase transparency in the delivery of government services by joining the Universal Identity Project to create the first ever identification system for all Indians.
Dan Bayer

Dan Bayer

Paul Kavuma STEPPED UP to create Catalyst Principal Partners, the largest private-equity fund by and for East Africans.




Alan Becker

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John Deasy STEPPED UP to serve as the superintendent of Los Angeles Unified School District, the second-largest public school district in the United States.

Desmond Shum STEPPED UP to launch The Family Heritage Center at Tsinghua University, helping wealthy families in China to think strategically about how to use their resources for the greater benefit of society.

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Dan Bayer

John P. McNulty Prize Finalists Gilbert, Kassoy, Marquez, Lamont, and Olojede with Anne Welsh McNulty (far left)

Five Visionary leaders, one Mcnulty Prize winner
Institute trustee Anne Welsh McNulty and her son Kevin announced the five projects selected as finalists for the 2011 John P. McNulty Prize during ACT II, the biennial convening of Fellows from the Aspen Global Leadership Network. The annual $100,000 prize honors the memory of John P. McNulty by recognizing the visionary work of a leadership project executed as part of the Network’s program. In November, a panel of judges—including former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Indian parliamentarian and diplomat Shashi Tharoor, and Ugandan statesman Olara Otunnu—selected this year’s winner: Dele Olojede. The remaining finalists will each get $10,000 for their projects. Below are the five finalists’ projects, including Olojede’s.

B Lab. Jay Coen Gilbert and Andrew
Kassoy are building systems where none exist to legitimize, support, and reward businesses that uphold the highest ethical, social, and environmental standards.

Leadership and Innovation Network for Collaboration in the Children’s Sector (LINC).
Ann Lamont has created a powerful coalition to provide care to an unprecedented number of orphans and vulnerable children whose families have been ravaged by South Africa’s AIDS epidemic.

NEXT. Dele Olojede is supporting
democracy and integrity through highquality, uncompromised journalism. He is holding leaders accountable to the people through his media outlets, which are not afraid to speak truth to power in Nigeria and across Africa.

Denver Scholarship Foundation. Timothy Marquez founded the
foundation to ensure that no Denver public school students would be unable to go to college because of lack of finances, and he committed to helping them graduate, too.

Libras de Amor. Alejandro Poma
is implementing programs to eradicate infant and maternal malnutrition in El Salvador.
Last year’s John P. McNulty Prize winner John Danner, CEO of Rocketship Education WINTER 2011/2012



Central America Leadership Initiative Fellow Juan Carlos Paiz, presidential commissioner for competitiveness and investment in Guatemala, talks to Rodel Fellow Ryan Coonerty, mayor of Santa Cruz, California.
Dan Bayer Dan Bayer

Liberty Fellow John Few, chief judge of the South Carolina Court of Appeals, and Africa Leadership Initiative—East Africa Fellow Patrick Obath, who runs a Kenyan consulting firm specializing in energy

“it is about becoming connected in a very personal way to peers with whom you share a little bit of your thoughts, ideas, and aspirations.”
room after the workshop, I felt like I had won some grand prize,” says Vasquez. “I had not only put my project to the test, but had also won a new group of supporters who are able to guide me and help me.” In addition to the workshops, smallgroup roundtables on vexing moral, philosophical, and topical issues—such as maintaining your moral compass in corrupt environments, leadership lessons from the military, making lonely decisions, and the next big trends to watch—ACT II offered participants a chance to have meaningful conversations on personal and professional experiences. Henry Crown Fellow Stace Lindsay moderated one such discussion on the topic: “Forgiveness.” Three Fellows shared personal stories about the power of forgiveness in their own personal lives, including several painful personal tragedies. “The session was remarkable,” says Lindsay. “It began with poignant, often heart-wrenching stories—the genocide in Rwanda, the death of a child through malpractice in India, painful divorces, or a life dramatically changed by a shooting accident—
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but it became about the incredible impact that these Fellows were able to realize by following a process of forgiveness. Each of the participants was ultimately able to build something positive out of their personal tragedies. Instead of “forgive and forget,” the pattern that emerged was “forgive and build.” Another important element of the gathering was the opportunity for Fellows to create their own agenda. Each morning, time was allotted for them to come up with their own topics and gather other Fellows to discuss them. The results were often surprising. Liberty Fellow Doris Paez recalls a Fellowinitiated breakfast session that combined two topics: community uses of databases and technology, and training for greenbusiness and clean-technology entrepreneurs. “While these topics seemed different,” she says, they led to “a timely discussion of the role of technology for social entrepreneurship and community connectivity.” Some Fellows left ACT II with renewed energy and fresh ideas for tackling their existing projects and the broader challenges they face at home.

Others left inspired to take on new projects and challenges. A number even left with concrete plans to collaborate with their newfound comrades to increase the impact of their work. Mukti Data, Eve Blossom, and Leticia Teleguario, for example, discovered that they were all working on projects involving women weavers—in India, Thailand, and Guatemala respectively. As they began sharing stories, they realized there was a lot that they could learn from each other, which they could then pass along to the women with whom they work. So the trio committed to work together to strengthen these women’s access and appeal to global markets. This collaboration is exactly the kind of action the gathering—and indeed, the Network as a whole—was intended to spark. Which, says Vasquez, wouldn’t be possible without the profound relationships the Network initiates and fosters. “It is about becoming connected in a very personal way to peers with whom you share a little bit of your thoughts, ideas, and aspirations,” she says. “I returned home not rested, but exhilarated.” A


By ClArk kent er vin

Department of Insecurity
Why the United States is still vulnerable a decade after 9/11.
en years have passed since 9/11. There is some comfort in knowing that the mastermind of those attacks—Osama bin Laden—has been found and killed. But was “getting” bin Laden a strategic victory in the so-called “war on terrorism” or merely a tactical one? In other words, does his death mark the beginning of the end of the threat of terrorism as a first-order national security concern, or is it merely the end of the beginning of the initial phase in a multi-decade struggle?
On the one hand, there is no question that “al Qaeda Central,” the core organization bin Laden founded, has been knocked on its heels— and not just by bin Laden’s death. Drone strikes along the Pakistani/afghan border and special Forces operations in other hot spots around the globe have decimated its ranks. Communication networks have been disrupted and funding streams have been cut off. The peaceful toppling of despotic rulers in Tunisia, egypt, and Libya by democratic and secular popular movements has given the lie to al Qaeda’s claim that autocrats can be displaced only by force of arms and replaced only by medieval Islamic theocracies. On the other hand, there is tremendous pressure on al Qaeda’s new leader, bin Laden’s longtime deputy, ayman al-Zawahiri, to avenge bin Laden’s death and to prove al Qaeda’s continued viability and relevance by carrying out another 9/11-scale attack in the United states. Meanwhile, al Qaeda affiliates around the world—especially in yemen (anwar al-awlaki’s killing, notwithstanding) and somalia—are increasingly menacing. and added to the mix now is the apparently growing threat of “homegrown” terrorist attacks by foreign radicals living in the United states or even native-born americans converted to radicalism. If anything, then, the terrorist threat today is even greater and more multifaceted than ever. In the same way that foreign policy strategists now sometimes yearn for the relative stability and simplicity of the Cold War—with only one main enemy that was easy to identify and deter— homeland security/counterterrorism strategists may come to yearn for the relative simplicity and stability of the bin Laden years. as the threat of terrorism has remained and intensified since 9/11, our vulnerability to terrorism, meanwhile, has been only marginally reduced.


To be sure, considerable progress has been made in the aviation sector. Cockpit doors have been hardened. some pilots and other crew members are now armed and trained to defend themselves and their passengers. The number of air marshals to guard flights is significantly higher post-9/11. and airport screeners are much better trained, paid, and motivated. But a congressional investigation earlier this year found that there have been 25,000 security breaches at airports since 9/11 (roughly seven each day), including 14,000 instances of unauthorized people accessing sensitive areas of the airport, and 6,000 instances of people and baggage making it past the checkpoint without proper screening. Government investigators and undercover journalists can still routinely sneak guns, knives, and bombs past screeners. Only alert passengers prevented tragedy when the socalled “underwear bomber” attempted to blow up an airplane on Christmas Day two years ago, and only a tip from saudi intelligence prevented tragedy last year when terrorists attempted to sneak bombs into air cargo.
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Dan Bayer

as troubling as these vulnerabilities in the aviation sector are, even more troubling are vulnerabilities in other sectors where little, if anything, has been done to plug security holes. some 11–12 million cargo containers sail into Us seaports every year. To guard against the prospect of a hidden nuclear device, american officials are now beginning to scan these containers for radiation. But, in the decade since 9/11, we still have trouble distinguishing between the deadly kind of radiation that can indicate the presence of a nuclear weapon and the harmless kind that naturally occurs in products like bananas, kitty litter, and ceramic tiles. and yet, after spending about $1 billion, the Department of Homeland security has pulled the plug on the latest effort to develop next-generation technology to solve the problem.

ment the Border Patrol with sensors, cameras, and other technology has failed, at a cost of $1 billion. Concerns remain that terrorists can slip into the country among the throngs of illegal aliens who still manage to sneak through our defenses.

Critical infrastructure
at the same time, certain privately-owned or operated sectors—food and water; telecommunications; oil, gas, and electricity; and financial networks, to name a few—are deemed “critical” infrastructure, because an attack on any of them could have a devastating effect on the national economy as a whole, and, thus, our national security. and yet, corporate chieftains have done little to harden these assets on their own, and, but for the chemical industry, the government has been reluctant to use its legislative and regulatory power to force them to.


Mass transit
We know from sad experience abroad (Madrid, London, Mumbai, and Moscow, for example) and foiled plots here at home (the Herald square plot in Manhattan in 2004 and the nazibullah Zazi plot in Manhattan in 2009) that terrorists find mass transit to be an appealing target. a rush-hour attack in a major city like new york or Washington, DC, could easily equal or even exceed the death toll on 9/11. We know from the trove of materials taken from bin Laden’s hideout that among his plans were ones to attack mass transit in the United states. Despite this, we have focused little attention on mass transit since 9/11. While spending $9 per every airline passenger to secure the aviation sector, we have spent only 4 cents per mass transit passenger. While we cannot—and should not try to—replicate the security protocols in airports for the mass transit environment, we can, and should, institutionalize the steps that we are taking in big cities when there are mass transit terror scares: the greater deployment of police officers to patrol stations, technology and dogs to detect explosives, the wider use of surveillance cameras, and continual “see something/say something” citizen awareness campaigns. all of these tools can reduce threats and increase public confidence. But these measures are costly, and we have largely left it up to already cashstrapped states and localities to foot the bill.

Cyber Security
It seems that every day brings news of another cyber-attack on a sensitive government agency or key private-sector business. no less an authority than former Director of national Intelligence and former Director of the national security agency admiral Mike McConnell has said that, if there were a cyber-war, the United states would lose. It is likely only a matter of time before terrorists attempt a cyber-attack with the virtual impact of 9/11, and certain virtual attacks can have devastating physical consequences as well.

As the threat of terrorism has remained and intensified since 9/11, our vulnerability to terrorism has been only marginally reduced.


Bureaucracy vs. Priorities
If 9/11 was largely an intelligence failure to “connect the dots,” it can be argued that the Department of Homeland security’s most important task should be to collate and synthesize all intelligence from across the entire intelligence community concerning threats to the homeland, and to consolidate and maintain an accurate and up-to-date list of known and suspected terrorists. But both of these key tasks were essentially taken away from the department months after its creation and given to the CIa and FBI, respectively. Ten years after 9/11, and nearly ten years after the creation of the Department of Homeland security, the organization is still largely a passive consumer of others’ intelligence, and one in search of a value-added intelligence mission. The department does, uniquely, disseminate threat information to state and local governments and to private-sector owners and operators of critical infrastructure. But complaints persist that the intelligence the department passes on is too little and too late to be of much use.

the Borders
Meanwhile, gaps along america’s borders that terrorists can exploit remain—even though the number of Border Patrol agents is significantly higher than on 9/11. The latest effort to suppleWINTER 2011/2012


The Department of Homeland security, then, is very much still a work in progress. a key part of the problem is that the term “homeland security” means different things to different people depending on what they think the nation most needs to be secure from. If one believes, as I do, that the overriding threat to the nation is that of a terrorist attack, and that preventing terrorist attacks is the department’s raison d’être, it is, at best, not helpful and, at worst, counterproductive that much of what the department does—trying to prevent illegal aliens, drugs, counterfeit goods, and other contraband from crossing our borders while facilitating legitimate trade and travel; providing green cards and other citizenship-related services to legal immigrants; helping mariners in distress; coordinating response and recovery efforts after natural disas-

ters; and preparing for an outbreak of contagions like the H1-n1 virus—has nothing to do with counterterrorism. Conversely, other agencies—notably, the Defense Department, the CIa, and the FBI— have at least as great a counterterrorism role as the Department of Homeland security and, arguably, an even greater one. Given the political dysfunction in Washington, and the dire budget crisis, there is no realistic hope anytime soon of redesigning the Department of Homeland security to put its security mission front and center. Failing that, it will be up to policymakers to make the most of the limited authorities and resources the department presently has to guard the nation against the ever more complex and menacing terrorism threat of the post-bin Laden era. A

Top-Tier Group to Advise on Homeland Security

In lIght of the nation’s ongoing security needs, the Institute’s homeland Security Program has just launched the new Aspen homeland Security group. Modeled on the longstanding, foreign policy-focused Aspen Strategy group, it is a bipartisan assembly of former government officials and policy experts in homeland security and counterterrorism. Co-chaired by former homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff and former Congresswoman Jane Harman, the group’s purpose is to give advice and counsel to the secretary of homeland security and other relevant leaders, as well as to serve as a sounding board and force multiplier for leaders’ policy ideas and initiatives. the program will periodically convene in Washington, DC, and


at the Institute’s Aspen campus to discuss issues—like border security, cyber threats, and the proliferation risks of weapons of mass destruction—in depth and make recommendations to policymakers. “now that the first decade since 9/11 has passed and osama bin laden and other key Al Qaeda leaders have been killed, it is the perfect time to form such a group of ‘wise men [and women]’ to help policymakers think through the counterterrorism challenges and opportunities of the decades ahead,” says Clark Kent ervin, director of the Institute’s homeland Security Program. the full membership list of the Aspen Security group is at


Dan Bayer (2)


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By JoSePh nye

The Cyber Revolution Is Here
What the lessons of the nuclear era can teach us about security threats in cyberspace today.
DenTIFyInG “revolutions in military affairs” is somewhat arbitrary, but some inflection points in technological change are larger than others: For example, the gunpowder revolution in early modern europe, the industrial revolution of the 19th century, the second industrial revolution of the early 20th century, and the nuclear revolution in the middle of the last century. In this century, we can add the information revolution that has produced today’s extremely rapid growth of cyberspace.
Technology is a two-edged sword. It eventually spreads and becomes available to adversaries who may have primitive capabilities but also are less vulnerable to dependence on advanced technologies. Four decades ago, the Pentagon created the Internet, and today, by most accounts, the Us remains the leading country in both its military and societal use. at the same time, because of greater dependence on networked computers and communication, the Us is more vulnerable to attack than many other countries, and the cyber domain has become a major source of insecurity that can be used by america’s enemies. Political leaders and analysts are only beginning to come to terms with this transformative technology. Until now, the issue of cyber security has largely been the domain of computer experts and specialists. (as former CIa Director General Michael Hayden says, “rarely has something been so important and so talked about with less clarity and less apparent understanding.”) The cyber domain includes the Internet of networked computers, but also intranets, cellular technologies, fiberoptic cables, and space-based communications. Cyberspace has a physical infrastructure, but it also has a virtual layer. attacks from the informational realm, where costs are low, can be launched against the physical domain, where resources are scarce and expensive. Conversely, control of the physical layer can have both territorial and extraterritorial effects on the informational layer. Cyber power can produce preferred outcomes within cyberspace or in other domains outside cyberspace. In contrast to traditional forms of warfare, which require the expensive construction of armies, navies, and the like, the barriers to entry in the cyber domain are so low that non-state actors and small states can play significant roles. In fact, while countries like the United states, russia, Britain, France, and China have greater resources, they also have greater vulnerabilities, and at this stage in the development of the technology, offense dominates defense in cyberspace. If anything, dependence on complex cyber systems for support of military and economic activities creates new vulnerabilities in large states that can be exploited by non-state actors. If one treats “hacktivism” as mostly a disruptive nuisance, there are four major categories of cyber threats to national security: cyber war and economic espionage are largely associated with states, and cyber crime and cyber terrorism are mostly associated with non-state actors. For the United states, at the present time, the highest costs come from espionage and crime,



Michael Brands

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Dependence on complex cyber systems for support of military and economic activities creates new vulnerabilities in large states.


but over the next decade or so, war and terrorism may become greater threats than they are today. as that happens, we will need a framework for understanding cyber issues. But at the moment, analysts are still not clear about the meaning of offense, defense, deterrence, escalation, norms, arms control, or how they fit together into a national strategy. Here, the nuclear revolution may hold some lessons. admittedly the difference between nuclear bombs and logic bombs is great—unlike nuclear, for one thing, cyber does not pose an existential threat. It would be a mistake, however, to neglect the past so long as we remember that metaphors and analogies are always imperfect. Historian ernest May liked to quote Mark Twain’s aphorism that history never repeats itself, but sometimes it rhymes. There are some important nuclear-cyber strategic rhymes— such as the superiority of offense over defense, the potential use of weapons for tactical and strategic purposes, the possibility of first and second use scenarios, the possibility of creating automated responses when time is short, the likelihood of unintended consequences and cascading effects when a technology is new and poorly understood, and the belief that new weapons are “equalizers” that allow smaller actors to compete directly but asymmetrically with a larger state. Going forward, we can draw a number of general lessons from the nuclear era to form a national approach to cyber threats: 1. expect continuing technological change to complicate early efforts at strategy. at the beginning of the nuclear era, military strategist Bernard Brodie and others concluded that superiority in numbers would not guarantee strategic superiority, deterrence of war was the only rational military policy, and ensuring survival of the retaliatory arsenal was crucial. But the development of hydrogen bombs—and the missiles that could carry them across the ocean in minutes—changed that, producing great concern about the vulnerability of limited arsenals, an enormous increase in the number of weapons, diminished prospects for active defenses, and the development of elaborate counterforce warfighting strategies. Looking at today’s cyber domain, interdependence and vulnerability are twin facts that are likely to persist, but we should expect further technological change to complicate early

defensive strategies like improving code, instituting computer hygiene, addressing issues of attribution, and maintaining air gaps for the most sensitive systems. These steps remain important components of a strategy, but with the development of mobility, cloud computing, and the importance of a limited number of large providers, the issues of vulnerability may change again. Today’s solutions may not suffice tomorrow. 2. strategy for a new technology will lack adequate empirical content. since nagasaki, no one has seen a nuclear weapon used in war. as alain enthoven, one of robert Mcnamara’s “whiz kids” of the early 1960s, retorted during a Pentagon argument about war plans, “General, I have fought just as many nuclear wars as you have.” With little empirical grounding, it was difficult to set limits or test strategic formulations. as a result, elaborate constructs and prevailing political fashion led to expensive conclusions based on abstract formulas and relatively little evidence. Cyber has the advantage that with widespread attacks by hackers, criminals, and spies, there is more cumulative evidence of a variety of attack mechanisms and of the strengths and weaknesses of various responses to such attacks. Denial of service attacks in estonia and Georgia, and industrial sabotage—such as the stuxnet virus in Iran—give some inklings of the auxiliary use of cyber attacks, but they do not test the full set of actions and reactions in a cyber war between states. The problems of unintended consequences and cascading effects have not been experienced, and the problems of escalation as well as the implications for the important doctrines of discrimination and proportionality remain unknown. 3. new technologies raise new issues in civilmilitary relations. at the beginning of the nuclear era, political leaders developed institutions to maintain civilian control over the new technology, but gaps still developed in the relationship between civilians and the military. Operational control of deployed nuclear weapons came under the strategic air Command, which had its own traditions, standard operating procedures, and a strong leader, Curtis LeMay, whose stance was often more aggressive than that of his civilian counterparts.
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While Cyber Command is still new and has very different leadership from the old strategic air Command, cyber security does present some similar problems of relating civilian control to military operations. Time is even shorter. rather than the 30 minutes of nuclear warning and possible launch under attack, today there would be 300 milliseconds between a computer detecting that it was about to be attacked by hostile malware and a preemptive response to disarm the attack. Obviously, there is no time to go up the chain of command, much less convene a deputies meeting at the White House. For active defense to be effective, authority will have to be delegated under carefully thought-out rules of engagement developed in advance. Moreover, there are important questions about when active defense shades into retaliation or offense. 4. Civilian uses will complicate effective national security strategies. nuclear energy was first harnessed for military purposes, but it was quickly seen as having important civilian uses, which the government actively promoted. The net effect was to create a powerful domestic and transnational lobby for nuclear energy that helped provide India with the materials needed for its nuclear explosion in 1974, and justified the French sale of a reprocessing plant to Pakistan and a German sale of enrichment technology to Brazil in the mid-1970s. What’s more, the institutions created to assure civilian control of nuclear technology became examples of regulatory capture by powerful commercial interests— more interested in promotion than regulation and security. The civilian sector plays an even larger role in the cyber domain and this enormously complicates the problem of developing a national security strategy. The Internet has become a much more significant contributor to GDP than nuclear energy ever was. Most of the Internet and its infrastructure belong to the private sector, and the government has only modest levers to use. Proposals to create a central agency in the executive branch and a Joint Committee on Cyber security in Congress might be useful, but one should be alert to the dangers of regulatory capture and the development of a cyber “iron triangle” of executive branch, congressional, and industry partners.
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Historical analogies are always dangerous if taken too literally, and the differences between nuclear and cyber technologies are great. nevertheless, it may help to put the problems of designing a strategy for cyber security into perspective, particularly the aspect of cooperation among states, if we realize how long and difficult it was to develop a nuclear strategy, much less international nuclear cooperation. nuclear learning was slow, halting, and incomplete. The United states and the soviet Union independently realized that a nuclear war must never be fought long before they were able to formally cooperate through arms-control agreements. and it sometimes took near catastrophe, like the Cuban Missile Crisis, to catalyze cooperation. ernest May once described Us defense policy and the development of nuclear strategy in the first half-decade following World War II as “chaotic.” He would likely apply the same term to cyberspace today. The good news is that the intensity of the ideological and political competition in the Us –soviet relationship was much greater than that between the Us and russia or the Us and China today. There were far fewer positive strands of interdependence in the relationship. yet the intensity of the zero-sum game did not prevent the development of rules of the road and cooperative agreements that helped to preserve the concurrent positive-sum game. The bad news is that cyber technology gives much more power to non-state actors than does nuclear technology, and the threats such actors pose are likely to increase. The transnational, multi-actor games of the cyber domain pose a new set of questions about the meaning of national security. some of the most important security responses must be national and unilateral, focused on hygiene, redundancy, and resilience. It is likely, however, that major governments will gradually discover that cooperation against the insecurity created by non-state actors will require greater attention. The world is a long distance from such a response at this stage in the development of cyber technology. But such responses did not occur until we approached the third decade of the nuclear era. With the World Wide Web only two decades old, may we be approaching an analogous point in the political trajectory of cyber security? A Joseph Nye’s latest book is The FuTure oF Power, from which many of the ideas in this article are drawn.


The bad news is that cyber technology gives much more power to non-state actors than does nuclear technology.




international Aspen
Aspen InstItute
Fundación Aspen Institute España Gran Vía 28 28013 Madrid, Spain

spen Institute España was incorporated as a Foundation in December 2010. The Institute aims to promote social responsibility and contribute to the strengthening of civil society, providing a neutral forum for public dialogue and reflection through conferences, seminars, and roundtable discussions. In this pursuit, the Institute


takes on the values, features, and goals of the Aspen model, adjusting them to the realities of the Spanish context; a context that incorporates Spain’s close ties with other regions in Europe, Latin America, and the Mediterranean. Aspen Institute España is chaired by Javier Solana and is headquartered in Madrid.

InstItut Aspen


Institut Aspen France 84 rue de Lille 75007 Paris, France


nstitut Aspen France was founded in 1983 as a nonpartisan, nonprofit, international center for discussion and dialogue. Based in Paris, Aspen France has two goals: to help leaders identify the challenges they face and seek solutions to contemporary problems and to facilitate informal meetings of leaders from different geographical, cultural, and professional worlds.

Aspen France organizes policy programs and leadership seminars to address the major economic, social, and political issues of the day. Recently, Aspen France set up two discussion clubs—in Paris and in Lyon. These clubs of roughly 20 young leaders spend time discussing what the future will look like in ten years’ time with leading experts on a variety of topics.

Aspen InstItute

spen Institute Germany, founded in 1974 for the study and advancement of ideas related to major contemporary issues, is the oldest international Aspen center. In the heart of the new European capital, the Berlin facility, located on the island of Schwanenwerder, overlooks the city’s picturesque Wannsee Lake. Aspen Institute Germany is especially active in promoting transatlantic and regional 84
the Aspen ideA

Aspen Institute Germany Friedrichstrasse 60, 10117 Berlin, Germany


relations through dialogue about prevalent political, economic, and ethical issues. Convening a diverse network of representatives from all sectors for discussion, Aspen Institute Germany seeks to address the challenges of the 21st century in areas such as global economic change, technological advancement, international security, and emerging leaders.
Winter 2011/2012

Aspen InstItute

spen Institute India promotes values-based leadership, open dialogue, and cross-sector outreach by engaging business, governments, nonprofits, and other stakeholders on issues related to India’s development. Focusing on India’s challenges, Aspen Institute India invites industrial, economic, financial, political, social, and cultural leaders to discuss these issues in settings that encourage frank and open dialogue. The Aspen Institute India organizes five types of programs:

Aspen Institute India 2P, Sector 31, Gurgaon, Haryana India 122001


(1.) Outreach Seminars to promote a deeper understanding of India’s complexities; (2.) Policy Programs that seek to improve public- and private-sector policymaking; (3.) Leadership Seminars that bring together small groups to explore fundamental truths through the Socratic method; (4.) Ideas India in New Delhi, which brings together diverse sections of society to discuss issues of crucial importance to India; and (5.) Strategic Dialogues to help bring India closer to other parts of the world.

Aspen InstItute

spen Institute Italia is a leader in promoting enlightened dialogue in Europe and across the Atlantic, organizing a number of conferences, seminars, and roundtables each year on economics, business, politics, and security. Its quarterly journal, Aspenia, is read in Italy and abroad, and has been judged one of the best foreign affairs journals in the world. Aspen Italia conferences gather prominent figures in every field thanks to its more

Aspen Institute Italia Piazza dei SS. Apostoli, 49 00187 Rome, Italy 0039.06.9784511


than 300 international board members. Aspen Italia focuses on the most important problems and challenges facing society in settings that encourage frank and open debate. The aim is not to reach unanimous agreement or to crank out reassuring conclusions, but to bring to light the complexity of our world. Aspen Italia is composed of a community of Sustaining Members, Ordinary Members, Friends of Aspen, and Aspen Junior Fellows.

Aspen InstItute

spen Institute Japan is a nonprofit organization committed to enhancing values-based leadership in contemporary society. Evolved from the Tokyo liaison office of the Aspen Institute and Aspen Institute Japan Council, AIJ was formally established in 1998. Its flagship program has been the Nippon Aspen Executive Seminars. The Institute offers three seminars annually, providing the leaders and future leaders of Japan with
Winter 2011/2012

Aspen Institute Japan Harks Roppongi Bldg, 2 Fl. 6-15-2, Roppongi 6-chome, Minato-City, Tokyo, Japan 106-0032


reflective experiences through moderator-led dialogue based on extensive readings of texts from both classic and contemporary authors and from the Western and non-Western world. In addition to the seminars, the Institute offers other executive seminars tailored to the needs of national and local government officials and young business executives. It also organizes periodic lecture programs for the alumni of the seminars.
the Aspen ideA


international Aspen
InstItutuL Aspen
Aspen Institute Romania 50, Plantelor Street (Mosilor area) Sector 2, Bucharest, Romania Phone: +4021 316 4279 Fax: +4021 317 3443

spen Institute Romania launched in Bucharest in 2006, which coincided with the completion of Romania’s transition to a democratic and modern society and formal entry into the European Union. The Institutul focuses


on the development of leadership networks and the promotion of democratic values, the rule of law, and economic efficiency. It hosts Executive Seminars, policy programs, and a Young Leaders Program.

The Aspen Institute’s international partners—in Bucharest, Romania; Rome, Italy; Berlin, Germany; Lyon, France; Madrid, Spain; New Delhi, India; and Tokyo, Japan—conduct independently developed and supported programs, conferences, and seminars on region-specific issues, global challenges, and leadership development. Each partner works closely with the Institute to develop unique programming but also to stay true to a mission of values-based leadership and enlightened dialogue.

global reach

To learn more about the Institute’s international partners and programming, visit about/global-partners.

Thoughts on the

Good Life...

r to a LIVE r ato LOVE r ato LEARN ato LEAD r r to LEAVE A LEGACY
Including a bequest to the Aspen Institute in your will or trust is an easy and important way to leave a lasting legacy that will benefit the future of the Aspen Institute. Please contact Kristen Loden at (970) 544-7974 or kristen.loden@ for more information on leaving a bequest and the benefits of membership in The Heritage Society of the Aspen Institute.

The 2011 Aspen Ideas Festival
Behind the scenes at the Institute’s seventh annual feast of ideas.


Former President Bill Clinton and Jane Harman, CEO of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

MSNBC’s Chris Matthews, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, and seventime Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong before a hike.

Jazz at Lincoln Center’s Wynton Marsalis and rap musician Nasir “Nas” bin Olu Dara Jones
 George Washington University Law Professor Jeff Rosen with retired Supreme Court Justice and Institute lifetime trustee Sandra Day O’Connor and Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer

Michael Brands

Dan Bayer


NPR’s Michel Martin

Institute trustee and Henry Crown Fellow Arjun Gupta with Sunanda Pushkar

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu

Dan Bayer

Dan Bayer

WINTER 2011/2012


Riccardo Savi

Dan Bayer


Authors and veterans Wes Moore and Rye Barcott

Michael Brands (2) 

Twitter co-founders Biz Stone and Evan Williams
Michael Brands

Dan Bayer

Dahlia Mogahed, executive director of the Gallup Center for Muslim Studies
 

Dan Bayer

The New York Times’ David Brooks
Dan Bayer

Former Director of the 9/11 Commission Philip Zelikow signs a copy of The 9/11 Commission Report

Secretary of Education and Henry Crown Fellow Arne Duncan with his son, Ryan

Program in the Arts Director Damian Woetzel does a TV interview from the Festival.


Michael Brands


WINTER 2011/2012

The TK 2011 Aspen Security Forum

Tk years after 9/11, experts came together to discuss homeland security. Ten
Photography by Dan Bayer


Retired Admiral Dennis Blair, former director of national intelligence, with Leslie Stahl, correspondent for CBS News’ “60 Minutes”

Admiral Eric Olson, commander of US Special Operations Command, with ABC’s Martha Raddatz

IBM Vice President and homeland security expert Dan Prieto

Juan Carlos Zarate, former deputy national security advisor for combating terrorism, and Peter Bergen, CNN national security analyst

Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano and former Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff

Georgetown Law Professor David Cole, former Deputy Assistant Attorney General John Yoo, ACLU Executive Director Anthony Romero, former US Attorney General and White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales, and Slate’s Dahlia Lithwick

WINTER 2011/2012




Socratic Celebration
The Socrates Program hosts a special dinner for its 15th anniversary.
Photography by Todd Patrick Institute trustee Alma Gildenhorn, Institute senior mentor Bonnie McElveen-Hunter, and Mary Mochary

Socrates Program founders Laura and Gary Lauder with Zoë Baird Budinger and Institute trustee Bill Budinger, for whom a new Socrates Program scholarship was named

Institute Henry Crown Fellow Sonal Shah, former head of the White House Office of Social Innovation, was a featured speaker at the dinner.

Laura Lauder (center) with dinner honorees Samia and Huda Farouki

Socrates Program seminarians Ann Kim and Mitul Desai

Aspen Strategy Group Co-Chair Joseph Nye

Socrates Program participants Eric Henderson and Blair Glencorse



WINTER 2011/2012

Our 18th Annual Summer Dinner TK Board of Trustees and guests came together to mark the end of the The Institute’s
summer season and to honor Brent Scowcroft, co-chair of the Aspen Strategy Group.
Photography by Michael Brands


Institute trustee Henry Catto chats with Joan Harris.

Institute lifetime trustee Lester Crown and Brent Scowcroft

Institute trustees Jacqueline Novogratz (also a Henry Crown Fellow) and Lynda Resnick with Brent Scowcroft

Institute trustees and former secretaries of state Condoleezza Rice and Madeleine Albright

Institute trustees James Manyika and Anna Deavere Smith

Jackie Weld Drake and actor Robert Wagner

WINTER 2011/2012



1–2 Communications and Society Program: International Digital Economy Accords Fourth Plenary Meeting
Washington, DC

ASPeN IDeAS FeStIvAl: JuNe 27–JulY 3, 2012
The Aspen Ideas Festival returns to the Institute’s Aspen Meadows campus for its eighth year. For more information on next year’s Festival, as well as links to audio and video clips from the 2011 Festival, visit www.

3–4 Board of Trustees Fall Meeting
New York, NY

3 Board of Trustees’ 28th Annual Awards Dinner
New York, NY

4–5 Socrates Program: New York Salon
New York, NY

8 Alma and Joseph Gildenhorn Book Series: Daniel Yergin, The Quest: The Global Race for Energy, Security, and Power
Washington, DC

13–15 Communications and Society Program: Institute Roundtable on Spectrum Policy
Wye, MD

18–20 Aspen Seminars for Leaders
Florence, Italy

30–December 2 Energy and Environment Program: The New Nuclear Challenge Forum
Prague, Czech Republic

21 Program in the Arts: Does Culture Make Us Who We Are?
New York, NY

2–4 Justice and Society Program: US State Courts: Learning from Other Jurisdictions
New York, NY

14 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Aeschylus, Agamemnon)
Aspen, CO

28–30 Global Initiative on Arts, Culture, and Society: Creative Arts World Summit and Grand Opening of the Royal Opera House Muscat
Muscat, Oman

15 Program on Philanthropy and Social Innovation: National Conference on Nonprofit Leadership
Washington, DC

28–December 3 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Central America Leadership Initiative
Antigua, Guatemala

2–4 Aspen Mediterranean Initiative in collaboration with Aspen Institute España
Palermo, Italy

15–18 Business and Society Program: First Movers Fellowship Seminar II
Wye, MD

29–December 2 Global Leaders for Reproductive Health: International Family Planning Conference
Dakar, Senegal

15–20 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Leading in an Era of Globalization
Stellenbosch, South Africa

4 Global Leaders for Reproductive Health: Healthy Women, Healthy Planet: Women’s Empowerment, Reproductive Health, and Climate Change
Durban, South Africa

29–December 4 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Leading in an Era of Globalization
San Ramon, Costa Rica

16–19 Program in the Arts: US-China Forum on Arts and Literature
Beijing, China

12 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Aeschylus, The Libation Bearers)
Aspen, CO


the Aspen ideA

Winter 2011/2012

Dan Bayer

The Washington Post’s Joel Achenbach at the 2011 Aspen environment Forum


19–22 Socrates Program: International Seminars

Michael Brands

Join the Institute along with National Geographic and scientists, educators, media, activists, and government officials to explore key issues about the climate crisis and our energy future on the Aspen Meadows campus. For more information, visit

Aspen Environment Forum: June 22–26, 2012

23–29 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Central America Leadership Initiative
Alajuela, Costa Rica

24–27 Business and Society Program: First Movers Fellowship Seminar
New York, NY

17–18 Partners for a New Beginning: US-Maghreb Entrepreneurship Conference
Marakesh, Morocco

27 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Sophocles, Oedipus Rex)
Aspen, CO

25–29 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Africa Leadership Initiative/East Africa

16–20 Aspen Global Leadership Network: India Leadership Initiative

17–22 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Leading in an Era of Globalization
Kovalam, India

28–March 4 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Leading in an Era of Globalization
Charleston, SC

19 Alma and Joseph Gildenhorn Book Series: Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs
Washington, DC

15–20 Aspen Global Leadership Network: 2013 Liberty Fellowship Program
Pawleys Island, SC

17–22 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Africa Leadership Initiative/South Africa
Stellenbosch, South Africa

23 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Aeschylus, The Eumenides)
Aspen, CO

23–25 Economic Opportunities Program: Sector Skills Academy
San Francisco, CA

19 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus)
Aspen, CO

21 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Euripides, The Bacchae)
Aspen, CO

21–23 Economic Opportunities Program: Sector Skills Academy

8–12 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Aspen-NewSchools: Entrepreneurial Leaders for Public Education
Aspen, CO

25–31 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Catto Environmental Fellowship

25–29 Aspen Global Leadership Network: Africa Leadership Initiative/South Africa
Stellenbosch, South Africa

16 Aspen Community Programs: Greek and Epic Tragedy: Foundations of Western Culture (Sophocles, Antigone)
Aspen, CO

31–June 4 Aspen Global Leadership Network: 2012 Liberty Fellowship Program
Spartanburg, SC

17–20 Socrates Program: 2012 Winter Seminars
Aspen, CO

For updates and additions to the Institute’s ever-growing schedule of events, visit events.

17–22 Aspen Global Leadership Network: China Behind the Curtain
Beijing, China

Winter 2011/2012

the Aspen ideA


contact us
To sign up, please call Charlene Costello, (410) 820-5374 or

To learn more, contact Azalea Millan, or

Henry Crown Fellowship Program Managing Director and Vice President Eric Motley, (202) 736-2900 or

Programming Director Patrick Kelly (970) 544-7924 or; or

Please contact Special Projects and Development Associate Leah Bitounis at (202) 736-2289 or

Vice President of Communications and Public Affairs Jim Spiegelman, (202) 736-3849 or

Deputy Director of Leadership Initiatives and Vice President Abigail Golden-Vazquez, (202) 736-2537 or

To learn more about planned giving opportunities, please call Patrick Kelly, (970) 544-7924, or visit

Community Outreach Director Cristal Logan, (970) 544-7929 or

Headquarters, The Aspen Institute Suite 700, One Dupont Circle, NW Washington, DC 20036-1133 (202) 736-5800 Aspen Campus, The Aspen Institute 1000 North Third Street Aspen, CO 81611 (970) 925-7010 Wye River Campus, The Aspen Institute 2010 Carmichael Road, P.O. Box 222 Queenstown, MD 21658 (410) 827-7168 New York Offices, The Aspen Institute 477 Madison Avenue, Suite 730 New York, NY 10022 (212) 895-8000
Winter 2011/2012

Director of Public Programs and Vice President Kitty Boone, (970) 544-7926 or; or

Program Director, Policy Programs Peggy Clark, (202) 736-1081 or


the Aspen ideA

July 25-28, 2012 • Aspen, Colorado

presented by:

The forum will bring together top-level government officials, industry leaders, leading thinkers, noted journalists, and concerned citizens for three days of in-depth discussions on homeland security and counterterrorism at our Aspen Meadows campus in Aspen, Colorado.
Special thanks to our 2011 sponsors:


For more information: A GT INTERNATIONAL Contact: Josh Diamonstein,

last words
Young people don’t see politics as a way to impact the public good. And that is a

I have never done Twitter, I have never done Facebook, and I have never smoked a cigarette.

big problem in a democracy.

—Arianna Huffington, editor-in-chief of The Huffington Post, at the Aspen Ideas Festival

And my plan is to die saying all three of those things.

—Thomas Friedman, New York Times columnist, at the Socrates Program’s 15th Anniversary Dinner

The problem we’re dealing with is that we’re taking the world that we’ve known for quite a while and changing it in for another world that operates very differently— that has more energy in the system, that takes us out of the Holocene and into the Anthropocene.

possible as long as they can find the right strategy for playing.
—Katie Salen, executive director of The Institute of

As a game designer, I traffic in the space of possibility. We try to create spaces and experiences where players believe that anything is

And that’s the world where all bets are off. —Bill McKibben, founder of,
at the Aspen Environment Forum

Play, at the Aspen Ideas Festival

That if your point of view is different than my point of view then you’re fundamentally not patriotic.
—David Axelrod, former senior White House advisor, 2011 Aspen Ideas Festival

We have to get away from this notion that if we disagree on policy, I’m going to discredit you as an American.

People named ‘Dennis’ are disproportionately likely to become dentists. People named ‘Lawrence’ are disproportionately likely to become lawyers, because unconsciously we bias towards things that are familiar—

which is why my daughter is named ‘President of the United States Brooks.’

—David Brooks, New York Times columnist, at the Aspen Ideas Festival
Photo Credits: Thomas Friedman by Todd Patrick, Arianna Huffington by Riccardo Savi, Bill McKibben by Michael Brands, Katie Salen by Katie Salen, David Axelrod by Dan Bayer, David Brooks by Dan Bayer



WINTER 2011/2012

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