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Indicators of technological progress
Technological progress Technological progress is a process that leads to: – – – creation of new or improved methods of production that provide savings. introduction of new and improved products and services. Technological progress can be observed globally and /or partially. improvement of organization and production management. .
. environmental protection. organization management. human resources. investment.Technological progress At company level we consider 10 basic components of technological progress: – – – – – – – – – – product equipment. R & D. energy. materials.
Product Global productivity Bp.labor costs Tos.gross production Tr.costs of fixed and working assets Gp = Bp / ( Tr + Tos ) .
Value of fixed assets N.Number of employees. .Equipment Technical equipment per employee Tor = Vos/N Vos.
as a result of improved capacity utilization .interest that would be received on borrowed funds Q.number of employees Po.production increase.Equipment Factor of technological level of equipment Pi – ( Zi · po + Ki · ko + Q ) Fi/o = ____________________ Po – ( Zo · po + Ko ·ko ) P.invested funds k.the average annual fees for employees K.net product Z.
number of employees .Energy Electricity consumption per employee Pe = Pe / N Pe.overall electricity consumption N .
R&D Indicator of R & D ratio of income and expenses for R&D p = P / TIR P .total income TIR total costs for R&D activities .
Investments Intensity of investments L = IS / N IS.total number of employees .overall investments N.
Human resources Level of qualifications and qualification structure n.number of employees at appropriate level of expertise N.total number of employees Qn= n/N 100 [%] .
Production function Production function is a model that shows a maximum level of output that could be achieved with specific input Global production function Particular production function .
capital production factor A – factor in proportion to production growth and depended on technological progress α – elasticity of production volume in relation to labor production factor β .labor production factor K – capital input .total production (the monetary value of all goods produced in a year) L – labor input .Cobb-Douglas Cobb-Douglas form of production function is widely used to represent the relationship of an output to inputs Q=ALα Kβ – – – – – – Q .elasticity of production volume in relation to capital production factor .
Rate of technological progress A = emt o o o e – constant t – time m – rate of technological progress Q= emtLα Kβ lnQ = mt + αlnL + βlnK ∆Q/Q = m + α ∆L/L + β ∆K/K m = ∆Q/Q .β ∆K/K .α ∆L/L .
Rate of technological progress Ratio of factor L to production growth Ratio of factor K to production growth Ratio of factor m to production growth ∆L α L ∆Q Q ∆K β K ∆Q Q m ∆Q Q .