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# Joel Malissa My Pythagorean Triples Research a2 + b2 = c2: The Pythagorean theorem was discovered roughly 2,500 years ago, and

its integer solutions, Pythagorean triples, date all the way back to stone structures built in 2500 BC. A simple curiosity quickly developed into one goal: three formulas (one each for a, b and c) that generate all primitive Pythagorean triples. From a list of primitive triples, the differences between c and b appear limited to a rather small list, starting 1, 2, 8, 9… The famous Greek philosopher Plato, used these formulas for finding triples: a = 2n b = n2 – 1 c = n2 + 1 I wrote programs in TI-BASIC to find all possible c - b values less than 1,000. This sequence, which I refer to as the Pythagorean differences, yields many intriguing patterns. Starting with the individual differences, the most obvious pattern is that all odd perfect squares are Pythagorean differences. Furthermore, two raised to any odd integer exponent also generates a Pythagorean difference. In fact, all other Pythagorean differences, other than the case in which c - b = 1, are products of these two sets of numbers. Consequently, all Pythagorean differences can be represented by where m is either zero or a positive odd integer, and n is an odd integer. This statement is my first significant, and certainly most elegant, finding from all my research. Looking at all the Pythagorean differences collectively also yields notable patterns. To start, graphing these differences reveals a very strong quadratic trend:

1000 800 600 c-b 400 200 0 y = 0.6813x2 + 0.1589x - 0.7541 R² = 0.9991

Clearly, Pythagorean differences follow a parabolic curve. Looking back at the data, there seemed to be a pattern in the changing of the c - b values, so I graphed that too:

infinitely many primitive Pythagorean triples occur for each Pythagorean difference. in Pythagorean differences.90 80 70 60 Δ(c . Extending beyond the Pythagorean differences themselves. and the pronounced height of this spike relative to its neighboring points highly suggests. almost conclusively.b) values can be modeled to an extent by a sine wave with a period of repetition of 32/14.) Fourier transform of Δ(c . this time using Java. to formulate and test all of the equations and triples presented here.b) 50 40 30 20 10 0 There seems to be some sort of predictability to the fluctuating nature of this graph. (I wrote another program. that there must exist a well-defined pattern in the plot of Δ(c . (Only the first half of the symmetrical graph is shown.b) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Frequency (Hz) The evident spike at 14 Hz indicates that the Δ(c .b).b) and by extension. so I generated a Fourier transform for the first 32 values of Δ(c .) The simplest set of triples occurs with c – b = 1: a1 = 2n + 1 b1 = 2n2 + 2n c1 = 2n2 + 2n + 1 .

13) (7. else add zero. For this instance. . all of these triples form the large majority of a special category known as twin Pythagorean triples. uniquely accounted for the desired outcomes.) Notice that a utilizes a linear equation. With a little luck and much work. I am able to equate endless primitive triples to Pythagorean differences that generate either constantly or alternating primitive triples. I moved on to calculating b9. 12. Since the goal is to discover all primitive triples. these trends will hopefully yield general conclusions concerning all primitive Pythagorean triples both collectively and elegantly. I like to call them mathematical logical operators: MATHEMATICAL LOGICAL OPERATORS Even (1+(-1) )/2 input (n) even odd n Odd (1-(-1)n)/2 output 0 1 1 even 0 odd output input (n) Using the odd operator. Eventually. for the difference between b and c is set by the Pythagorean difference. one for odd n values and the other for even. 40. and find hidden patterns within these answers. 12. starting with n = 1: (3. an expression arose for a9 that resembled 9n + {3. which can be simplified by dividing by 9 to achieve (5. n will always represent any positive integer in these “equation trios”. In the future. The following equations create an infinite number of triples: a9 = 6n + 27 b9 = 2n2 + 18n + 36 c9 = 2n2 + 18n + 45 However. 25) (9. 108. 24. Lastly. Consider the instance c – b = 9. I hope to discover additional and more efficient methods to seek primitive Pythagorean triples. 0} + 21. where “+ {3. while b and c are quadratic. c was the easiest to determine. but not necessarily primitive ones. All Pythagorean differences share this simplicity in generating triples. 117). my goal is to be able to generate all of the solutions to every Pythagorean difference. 13). 0}” meant add three if n is odd. Two crucial findings (that I realized on a school bus) led me to generating only the desired triples. Using a similar technique. Finally. two intertwined quadratics. After filling in all the analogous cases. 5) (5. triples involving at least two consecutive integers.Throughout. setting n equal to 3 generates the triple (45. 41) … (As a side note. I searched for more exclusive solutions. the following primitive triples are generated. 4.

3 (-9 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 4 n^2 + 36 n + 65 c 2 n^2 + 2 n + 1 4 n^2 + 8 n + 5 4 n^2 + 12 n + 13 (1/4) (131 .51 (-1)^n) .87 (-1)^n) .27 (-1)^n/2 + 81 n .b Factorization Triple 1 (1) 3 4 5 2 2 8 15 17 8 9 18 25 32 49 50 72 81 98 121 128 162 169 200 225 242 288 289 338 361 392 441 450 512 529 578 625 648 722 729 800 841 882 961 968 5 3 nth Primitive Triple a 2n+1 4n+4 8 n + 12 (3/2)(15 -(-1)^n +6 n) 3 (9 .(-1)^n + 6 n) 16 n + 72 b 2 n^2 + 2 n 4 n^2 + 8 n + 3 4 n^2 + 12 n + 5 (1/4) (95 .87 (-1)^n) .3 (-51 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 (1/2) (1589 .3 (-87 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 (1/4) (6863 + 129 (-1)^n + 6 (129 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) (1/2) (4433 .39 (-1)^n .51 (-1)^n) .3 (-9 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 4 n^2 + 36 n + 97 23 32 2*32 52 25 20 33 48 65 21 56 55 72 29 65 73 97 88 105 137 72 119 120 169 2*52 140 171 221 23*32 204 253 325 34 207 224 305 2*72 252 275 373 112 297 304 425 27 336 377 505 2*34 396 403 565 132 429 460 629 2 *52 540 629 829 32*52 555 572 797 2*112 616 663 905 25*32 696 697 985 172 731 780 1069 2*132 832 855 1193 192 893 924 1285 2 *72 1036 1173 1565 32*72 1113 1184 1625 2*32*52 1140 1219 1669 29 1248 1265 1777 232 1311 1360 1889 2*172 1428 1475 2053 54 1525 1548 2173 2 *34 1692 1885 2533 2*192 1748 1755 2477 36 1809 1880 2609 (27/2) (129 + (-1)^n + 6 n) 2 *52 1960 2001 2801 292 2059 2100 2941 2*3 *72 2184 2263 3145 312 2325 2332 3293 23*112 2508 2765 3733 2 3 3 6 (27 .6 (-15 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) (1/2) (23 .6 (-39 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) 32 n + 304 9 (39 + (-1)^n + 6 n) 4 n^2 + 76 n + 297 (1/2) (599 + 39 (-1)^n) + 3 (39 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 4 n^2 + 76 n + 425 (13/2) (71 + 3 (-1)^n) + 3 (39 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 12 (51 .3 (-87 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 (1/4) (9779 + 129 (-1)^n + 6 (129 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) .Prime First Primitive c .15 (-1)^n .15 (-1)^n .(-1)^n + 6 n) (9/2) (39 .(-1)^n + 6 n) (1/2) (3137 .39 (-1)^n .6 (-39 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) 437/2 .3 (-1)^n n + 9 n^2 (1/4) (923 .27 (-1)^n/2 + 81 n .3 (-51 + (-1)^n) n + 9 n^2 64 n + 1184 4 n^2 + 148 n + 1113 4 n^2 + 148 n + 1625 18 (87 .(-1)^n + 6 n) 293/2 .6 (-15 + (-1)^n) n + 18 n^2) (1/2) (59 .3 (-1)^n n + 9 n^2 (1/4) (599 .9 (-1)^n) .9 (-1)^n) .(-1)^n + 6 n) (1/2) (1013 .