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Airport Design

OVERVIEW
The principal airfield design issue addressed in this chapter is the deviation from FAA Airport Design standards for the runway, runway safety areas, and other required clear areas at Kneeland Airport. This issue is arguably the key issue in this Master Plan Update; it was the central topic of the previous master plan (1993).

Airport Property
Currently, the County of Humboldt owns about 14 acres and controls another 16 acres through avigation easements. The Airport consists of a single runway and a small parking apron containing 6 tiedown spaces.

Airfield Design Factors
Several factors influence the development of the runway/taxiway system design. The primary influences are the activity forecasts and other underlying determinants of demand. Next is an assessment of the specific facilities which would be necessary to accommodate the demand. Lastly, the conditions which create constraints on potential development must be brought into the design process. This section examines these basic design factors.

Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005)

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In basic terms. twinengine airplanes. a Beech Bonanza can be considered the airport’s critical aircraft. There is occasional use by single-engine turboprops and light. is dependent upon various physical and operational factors as indicated in Chapter 2.000 annual operations over the 20-year planning period. As Kneeland Airport does not have instrument approach 3–2 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) .CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Demand Determinants In general terms. Beech Bonanza Needs Assessment For the purposes of airfield design. Aircraft Activity Volume – The Master Plan activity forecasts indicate that Kneeland Airport has a potential to reach a total activity level of 7. airfield operational demand characteristics are defined by the airport role and projected activity levels as addressed in the preceding chapter. No instrument approaches are planned for the airport. This usage is not forecast to change significantly. Based upon the FAA’s capacity model. particularly annual capacity.. Calculation of airfield capacity. This level is well above currently foreseeable activity levels.g. the airfield capacity at Kneeland Airport is rated at 230. Peakperiod capacity totals indicate that Runway 15-33 can accommodate approximately 98 VFR operations per hour. For design purposes. That is. Peak activity periods will continue to coincide with local weather patterns (e. clouds).000 annual operations. pilots will use Kneeland Airport to wait out the weather. fog. these demand factors can be summarized as follows: Design Aircraft – The majority of aircraft operating at Kneeland Airport are single-engine piston aircraft. the above operational demands must be translated into facility needs. Runway Approach Type – Kneeland Airport is a VFR airport with only visual approach procedures. when the Humboldt Bay area airports are below VFR or IFR visibility minimums. these needs can be assessed with respect to the following four factors: Operational Capacity – An airport’s airfield capacity is generally measured in terms of the number of aircraft operations the runway and taxiway system can accommodate in an hour or over a year. In the more specific context of airfield facility design issues.

Wind Coverage – Strong winds at an airport can represent an additional airfield design concern. Specific length requirements for Kneeland Airport’s runways are analyzed in subsequent sections of this chapter. The FAA has established formulas indicating the desirable runway length for various classes of aircraft. FAA guidelines establish that the orientation of an airport’s runway or runways should enable the airport to be usable. Airport Classification/Design Standards – Another basic airfield design requirement which must be assessed is the capability of the facilities to safely accommodate the types of aircraft which seek to operate at the airport. wingspan. Runway Length – The length of runway required to accommodate the most demanding airplanes anticipated to use an airport is a fundamental airfield design factor. but other facility dimensions ― such as pavement widths. no IFR capacity exists. and The existing or planned runway approach type and visibility minimums. with crosswinds of an acceptable velocity. Operational capacity is not a constraint at Kneeland Airport. in many cases. safety area requirements. If a particular aircraft is especially key to an airport’s role. Airports with lower annual wind coverage qualify for FAA funding for a crosswind runway.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 capability. during at least 95% of the year. and the lateral clearances from the runway to adjacent taxiways and structures ― also are important. FAA design standards for these features are set in accordance with the Airport Reference Code (ARC) applicable to the airport as a whole or. The criteria for an acceptable crosswind Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-3 . The primary determinants of ARC classifications are: The approach speed. Runway length is a key component of this assessment. this data is available in performance charts provided by aircraft manufacturers. and weight of the most demanding types of aircraft a runway or taxiway is intended to serve. to individual runways or taxiways. Table 3A summarizes the FAA design standards associated with several ARC classifications potentially applicable to Kneeland Airport. Runway length requirements for specific aircraft are dependent upon airfield elevation and design temperature (the average high temperature for the hottest month).

500 Visual or ≥¾ mile 60 ft. 500 ft. 240 ft. 120 ft. 150 ft. B-I <121 kts <49 ft. >12. 25 ft. 40 ft. 500 ft.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Item Airport Reference Code Aircraft Approach Speed Aircraft Wingspan Aircraft Weight Group (lbs) Approach Visibility Minimums Runway Design Width Blast Pad Width Length beyond Runway End Safety Area Width Length beyond Runway End Obstacle Free Zone2 Shape3 Width (W) Vertical Height (H) 4.000 ft. 80 ft. 125 ft. 1. 500 ft. 125 ft. 45 ft. A 400 ft. 495 ft.000 lbs) Taxiway Design Width Safety Area Width Taxiway and Taxilane Setbacks From Taxiway Centerline to: Parallel Taxiway/Taxilane9 Fixed or Movable Object From Taxilane Centerline to: Fixed or Movable Object Runway Protection Zone10 Width at Inner End Width at Outer End Length FAA Airport Design Standards1 A-I and B-I (small) <121 kts <49 ft. 300 ft. ≤12. 120 ft. 49 ft.500 Visual or ≥¾ mile 60 ft.000 ft. 2.10 450 ft. 200 ft. 225 ft.0% 700 ft. 45 ft. 240 ft. 80 ft. 69 ft. 370 ft.5 Slope 5 Object Free Area Width Length beyond Runway End Gradient (maximum) Runway Setbacks From Runway Centerline to: Parallel Runway Centerline7 Hold Line Parallel Taxiway Aircraft Parking Line Building Restriction Line8 Helipad for: Small Helicopters (≤6. 700 ft 200 ft. 25 ft. 1.0% 400 ft.000 lbs) Heavy Helicopters (≥12. Table 3A Airport Design Standards Kneeland Airport 3-4 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) .10 700 ft. 700 ft. 2. 250 ft. 240 ft. 60 ft. 49 ft. A 250 ft. 500 ft. 40 ft.000 lbs) Medium Helicopters (≤12. 240 ft. 100 ft. 700 ft. 250 ft. 69 ft.

510 feet width at outer end. Assumes same size airplane uses both taxiway and adjacent taxiway/taxilane. Indicated dimensions for runways with approach visibility minimums <¾ mile are for Category I instrument runways. Runway Obstacle Free Zone cross-section shapes: Height increases 3 feet per 1. 1. Change 8. Maximum of 0.656]. The FAA no longer has fixed-distance standards for the Building Restriction Line location. Table 3A. continued Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-5 . runway protection zone dimensions are 1. but less than 1 mile. additional length required for runways with approach systems. Distance can be reduced if 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 For runways with approach visibility minimums of ¾ mile or more.700 feet.8% in first and last quarters of runway. Criteria for Category II and Category III runways are more restrictive. [FAA Order 7110. secondary taxiway/taxilane is limited to use only by smaller airplanes. The indicated setback distances are based on providing 7:1 transitional slope clearance over a 35-foot building situated at the same base elevation as the adjacent runway and can be adjusted in accordance with local conditions. Indicated runway separation is for planning purposes. Airport Design (September 2004).000 feet width at inner end. Object Free Zone normally extends 200 feet beyond end of runway. and a length of 1.000 feet of airport elevation. FAA air traffic control criteria permit simultaneous operations by light.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 Notes: 1 Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13. single-engine propeller airplanes with runways as close as 300 feet apart and by twin-engine propeller airplanes with runway separation of 500 feet.

The only known population is scattered within an area on and immediately adjacent to the airport. The helitac base limits the airport’s ability to satisfy lateral runway clearance requirements to the west. The designated critical habitat precludes modification of the airfield. Endangered Species – The Kneeland Prairie pennycress is a perennial herb found in the coastal uplands of Humboldt County. and California Department of Forestry helitac base. This section evaluates the three primary constraints on development for Kneeland Airport. Over the past 30 years. with the construction of the airport. the Kneeland Prairie pennycress was placed on the California Endangered Species list. Terrain drops off immediately beyond the ends of the runway. In February 2000. Topography and Soils – Kneeland Airport is situated on top of an isolated ridge surrounded by mountainous open space. Information on wind data collected at the Kneeland Airport indicates that the airport’s runway is usable 99% of the year. county road. This environmental constraint is the most significant factor restricting future expansion of airport facilities. no crosswind runway is needed. Kneeland Prairie pennycress habitat CDF helitac base 3–6 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . Based on a geotechnical study conducted in 2001.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN velocity are tied to the runway’s airport reference code and thus to the type of aircraft using the runway. High terrain located lateral to the runway restricts the airport’s ability to satisfy FAA runway setback requirements. The Kneeland Prairie pennycress population is bisected by the airport’s runway into two colonies. the Kneeland Prairie habitat for the pennycress has been reduced. Constraints The airport’s ability to provide facilities needed to accommodate anticipated demand is based on the overall development potential of the airport site. CDF Base – The California Department of Forestry base is located immediately west of the airfield. topographic and geologic conditions surrounding the facility severely limit the expansion potential of the runway. This meets the FAA criteria.

thereby reducing the overall runway length from the previous 2. 885 feet shorter than the runway length required to accommodate the lowest category calculated (75% of the fleet). The results of the study indicate that four slides have occurred along the perimeter of the runway over the past several years. Hence. These aircraft are in Airport Reference Code (ARC) A-I (small aircraft only). the FAA’s program calculates the following runway length requirements: 75% of these aircraft 95% of these aircraft 100% of these aircraft 3.235 feet.235 feet. Thus.e. these aircraft are anticipated to account for less than 500 annual operations throughout the 20year planning period.830 feet 4.300 feet Beech Bonanza The published runway length at Kneeland Airport is 2. they weigh no more than 12.120 feet 3.500 pounds. a geotechnical analysis was conducted at Kneeland Airport.g.. For small airplanes with less than 10 passenger seats. Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-7 . In 2001.270 feet to the current 2. Each threshold is displaced 55 feet from the runway end. Runway Length The runway length required to accommodate aircraft in ARC A-I (small) was evaluated using the FAA’s runway length analysis program. Kneeland Airport is designed to accommodate ARC A-I (small) aircraft such as the Beech Bonanza. more than 500 annual operations) are single-engine piston aircraft.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 RUNWAY 15-33 Classification The most demanding types of aircraft that regularly use Kneeland Airport (i. The most significant of these slides is located at the end of Runway 33. Displaced thresholds are used to mark the start of the usable portion of the runway during landings. and approach speeds of less than 91 knots. small-package cargo airplanes). have wingspans of less than 49 feet. the full runway length is not available for landings at Kneeland Airport. Although Kneeland Airport occasionally sees use by larger aircraft (e.. This slide has encroached into the runway pavement by 35 feet.

The status of the plant and its designated habitat is judged to make an extension infeasible. This Master Plan Update examined the possibility of stabilizing and constructing an embankment at the south end of Runway 33 to restore the runway to its original length of 2. 3–8 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . The most important of which is the Kneeland Prairie pennycress. This design weight continues to be appropriate to accommodate existing and anticipated users. Therefore. The most significant impact of a proposed extension and realignment of the roadway would be on the Kneeland Prairie pennycress population or habitat. It is therefore recommended that the existing runway width be retained.270 feet. The current length has proven adequate for the single-engine aircraft it was designed to accommodate. embankments adjacent to the runway (on both sides) penetrate the object free area (OFA). further adding to the cost.235 feet. However. the immediate environs surrounding the runway have been identified as habitat for three plants considered rare or of special concern. Pavement Strength and Condition The runway pavement at Kneeland Airport has a load-bearing capacity to accommodate aircraft weighing up to 13. Clearing the OFA and widening the runway to the recommended 60 feet would be costly. This is ten feet narrower than the FAA's recommended design standard of 60 feet. Significant environmental mitigation would likely be required for this development to occur.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Based on the geotechnical study. Runway Width The existing runway is 50 feet wide. perhaps prohibitively so.000 pounds with main landing gear in a single-wheel configuration. topographic and geologic conditions surrounding the facility severely limit the expansion potential of the runway. Any potential southward runway extension is complicated by Mountain View Road and the associated geotechnical and cost considerations inherent to a road realignment. It would be physically possible to widen the runway. given the topographic and geologic constraints. Furthermore. The only known population of this species occur adjacent to the airport runway. this Master Plan Update recommends stabilizing the end of Runway 33 and retaining the current runway length of 2. Widening the runway would encourage aircraft to come closer to these obstructions.

A visual inspection of the pavement conditions revealed that the airfield pavement is in poor condition. This Master Plan Update recommends rehabilitating and repairing this pavement. The combination is judged to be insurmountable. Runway Safety Area (RSA) FAA design standards for an ARC A-I (small) runway specify that the runway safety area be 120 feet wide and extend 240 feet beyond the end of the runway. Pavement distress includes agerelated weathering and block cracking and isolated load failures. the costs increase exponentially with RSA length due to increasing fill. As indicated previously. There are cliffs immediately beyond the runway ends. In more general terms. Providing a full-length RSA on the southern end would require relocation of Mountain View Road. particularly for the “south” slide where the RSA improvements will overlap the unstable ground. and importation of fill materials. The previous ALP (1993) was approved with nonstandard safety area dimensions. drainage modifications. embankment. Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-9 . providing a standard RSA is judged to be infeasible. the most significant of these slides occurred at the end of Runway 33. and stabilization requirements. The preliminary design report questioned the feasibility of optimizing the RSA given the significant terrain constraints. Other slides have also contributed to the overall reduction in the runway safety area. A recent geotechnical analysis revealed that earth movements have compromised the runway safety area.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 The pavement at Kneeland Airport is nearly 40 years old. As with a runway extension. There is a cliff beyond each end of the runway. drainage control improvements. The Runway 33 end is constrained by the Kneeland Prairie pennycress and its designated critical habitat. This slide has steadily diminished the safety area over the past several decades. The additional earthwork. the width of the runway safety area varies from 53 feet to 89 feet and the runway safety area length is only 10 feet beyond either end of the runway. Expansion over this landslide will require a substantial repair effort involving extensive earthwork. The roadway realignment would further impact this environmental plant. and stabilization controls required to extend the RSA would impact both the population centers and potential habitat areas of the Kneeland Prairie pennycress.

If this were done.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Additionally. The design aircraft for Runway 15-33 is a small. In addition.500 pounds. Maintaining the displaced threshold locations at both runway ends would provide some of the operational safety margin that safety areas are meant to provide. Object Free Areas (OFA) Object Free Areas for A-I (small) runways are defined in FAA standards as 250 feet wide and extending 240 feet beyond the runway ends. it is recommended that the displaced thresholds be retained. Shortening the runway would reduce the utility and safety of the Airport. because of the additional safety benefits that they provide. the resultant runway length would be significantly shorter. Kneeland Airport’s OFA dimensions are nonstandard: terrain and transient aircraft tiedowns penetrate the sides of the 3–10 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . Kneeland Airport’s respective OFZ dimensions do not meet current standards due to surrounding terrain penetrations. Currently. the OFA permits placement of objects for air navigation or aircraft ground maneuvering purposes. no trees or structures penetrate the Part 77 approach surfaces. The OFZ dimensions for this type of runway are 250 feet wide and 200 feet beyond the runway end. unlike the OFZ. Obstacle Free Zones (OFZ) The OFZ encompasses the most critical airspace adjacent to a runway. It would be technically feasible to eliminate the existing displaced thresholds. FAA standards dictate that no fixed objects penetrate the OFZ except for runway lights and certain navigational aids which must be located near the runway (any such equipment must be on frangible mounts). However. and to taxi and hold aircraft. this Master Plan Update does not recommend relocating the runway thresholds to provide the recommended length for the runway safety area. no part of a taxiing or parked airplane should extend into the OFZ while another airplane is using the runway. The dimensions of obstacle free zones vary depending upon the size of aircraft served and the visibility minimums of any associated instrument approach. Clearing the OFZ area to bring the airport into conformance with FAA standards is judged to be infeasible because it would be harmful to the Kneeland Prairie pennycress population and habitat. The OFA clearing standard requires that the OFA be clear of above ground objects. general aviation aircraft under 12. However.

most critical among the FAR Part 77 surfaces are the approach surfaces. As Runway 15-33 is designed to serve small aircraft and currently has only visual approach Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-11 . OTHER AIRFIELD DESIGN ELEMENTS FAR Part 77 Imaginary Surfaces Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 77. Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace. terrain and the existing aircraft tiedown apron will continue to infringe upon the runway OFA. from. For each category of runway. and around airports. The Kneeland Prairie pennycress makes this option environmentally infeasible. The Airport Reference Code (ARC) and approach visibility minimums for a runway determine the size of the associated Runway Protection Zone (RPZ). This Master Plan Update explored the option of building a new aircraft tiedown apron to increase aircraft parking capacity as well as resolve aircraft and terrain penetration issues. Runway 15-33 has only visual approaches. The two principal purposes are to protect runway approaches by minimizing development and enhancing safety by limiting the concentration of people in these areas. The dimensions of the approach surface are as follows: 250 feet wide at the inner end 5. Generally. The FAA recommends that the land within the RPZ be under control of the airport operator. Runway Protection Zone (RPZ) A runway protection zone (RPZ) is a trapezoidal area which begins 200 feet beyond the runway end and is centered on the extended runway centerline. The dimensions and slopes of these surfaces depend on the configuration and approach categories of each airport=s runway system. identify the airspace necessary to ensure the safe operation of aircraft to. the FAA specifies the dimension of runway protection zones.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 OFA.250 feet wide at the outer end 20:1 slope The approach paths are clear in both directions due to the terrain drop-off. Therefore.000 feet long centered on the extended runway centerline 1. Several trees remain just below the 20:1 approach surface for Runway 33.

RPZ areas required for clear line-of-sight. However. the APL at Kneeland Airport is set to follow the airport property boundary in all areas except at the existing aircraft tiedown apron where it is set at a nonstandard distance of 70 feet from the runway centerline. Rather. the runway protection zones have the following dimensions: 250 feet wide at inner end 1. For an ARC A-I (small) facility. the airport controls the areas underlying the RPZs through avigation easements. except facilities required by their function to be located near runways and taxiways. the FAA recommends that the BRL encompass the runway OFA. one on the west side of the runway and one on the east side. the nose of the aircraft is only about 70 feet from the runway centerline. The critical aircraft for Runway 15-33 have wingspans of less than 49 feet. and navigational aid critical areas. The appropriate setback from runways to fixed or movable objects is based primarily upon the wingspans of the most demanding aircraft intended to use the facility. There is no way to modify the existing apron to meet the 125-foot standard. Sloping terrain restricts expansion of the existing parking apron. A new parking apron would be the only way of resolving the nonstandard design of the existing apron. Building Restriction Line The building restriction line (BRL) defines the limits of development of all on-airport structures. If a typical single-engine aircraft is tied down on the existing parking apron. Therefore. Aircraft Parking Limit Aircraft parking limit (APL) lines are established to define where it is appropriate to park aircraft. the APLs are set 125 feet from the centerline of the runway.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN procedures. the presence of endangered habitat for the Kneeland Prairie pennycress eliminates any possibility of expanding or constructing a new aircraft tiedown apron. Although FAA offers only limited guidance on defining the 3–12 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . Both alternatives would satisfy the 125-foot APL setback standard.000 feet long centered on the extended runway centerline 450 feet wide at outer end Currently. The FAA Airport Design Advisory Circular no longer establishes standard setback distances for BRLs. There are two potential sites.

The turnarounds would provide more maneuvering space for aircraft. a wind cone and segmented circle are located approximately midfield on the east side of Runway 15-33. The runway centerline markings are standard. The buildings associated with California Department of Forestry are located west of the airport and clear the FAR Part 77 transitional surface. To provide FAR Part 77 clearance over structures of up to 18 feet in height.000-square-foot area at each end of the runway would greatly impact the Kneeland Prairie pennycress by reducing their critical habitat. Aircraft must taxi on the runway for both departure and landing operations. paving a 4. In this location. the BRL would extend well beyond the airport’s property boundary. To address various terrain limitations. off airport property. Therefore. the only structures located on the airport include a portable toilet and a public telephone. The dimensions for each turnaround would be 40 feet deep and 100 feet long. To ensure that this endangered species and its habitat is preserved. Currently. the BRL at Kneeland Airport is set to follow the airport property line in the areas lateral to the runway and encompasses the RPZs and avigation easement areas off the ends of the runway. this Master Plan Update does not recommend construction of the aircraft turnarounds. the turnarounds would be located on the west side of each runway end. Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-13 . However. the BRL would need to be established 250 feet from the centerline of Runway 15-33. Runway 15-33 is not lighted and has visual markings in fair condition. Wind Indicators and Segmented Circle Currently. thereby improving access to the full length of the runway. Marking and Lighting Kneeland Airport is a day-use only facility with a visual approach runway. This Master Plan Update investigated the option of constructing a small turnaround at each end of the runway. many airports use FAR Part 77 imaginary surfaces.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 appropriate location for BRLs. Turnarounds Kneeland Airport is a single runway facility with no parallel taxiway.

The various types of aircraft that will use the airport in the future are not expected to differ significantly from the types of aircraft currently using the airport — that is. All of the existing airport-related facilities are located west of the airfield. 2005. This sign was installed as a safety feature since the runway is shorter than the runway length recommended by the FAA to accommodate ARC A-1 (small) aircraft. Currently. The following restrictions and setbacks are established at Kneeland Airport: Building Restriction Line (BRL) is set to follow the airport property boundary. BUILDING AREA DESIGN FACTORS Many factors influence the planning and. A sign has been placed midfield to mark the halfway point of the runway. Setback Distances – The interior boundary of the airport building area is determined in large part by the necessary setback distances from the runway. personal/ recreational aircraft and small-package cargo aircraft. The apron is asphalt paved and was reconstructed in July. Currently. topography and environmentally sensitive habitat on and off airport are the controlling factors limiting future airport development. there is not much room for future development at the airport. In the case of Kneeland Airport. the airport has informational signs indicating that aircraft must taxi on the runway. the demand for additional transient parking is forecast to increase from the current (2001) 6 spaces to 10 spaces by the year 2021. the development decisions associated with Kneeland Airport’s principal building area. there is one small aircraft parking apron located directly adjacent to Runway 15-33. 3–14 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . later. Most of these factors can be grouped under five basic headings: Demand – As documented in Chapter 2. No future buildings will be permitted on airport.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Signing Kneeland Airport is a small facility with a single runway and no parallel taxiway. Existing Facilities – As the airport is constrained by topography. which contains 6 tiedown positions.

Terrain issues are also a factor restricting expansion of the aircraft apron. is cost-effective. Due to existing terrain and environmental constraints on future airport development. FAA standard for the APL is 125 feet from the runway centerline. no hangars are proposed. the existing parking apron is accessed by taxiing on the runway. This setback extends off the airport property in most areas.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 A nonstandard distance of 70 feet is provided from the centerline of Runway 15-33 to the existing aircraft parking positions. Direct public access to the existing transient apron is provided via Mountain View Road. Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-15 . As Kneeland Airport has no taxiways. PRINCIPAL BUILDING AREA FACILITIES Aircraft Storage and Parking The forecasts and demand/capacity analyses prepared as part of the Master Plan Update indicate that peak transient aircraft parking demand is expected to increase from 6 spaces to 10 spaces over the 20-year forecast period. all of the additional future demand for transient parking is expected to continue to be informally accommodated within the existing tiedown apron. Development Staging – Another important factor in the preparation of a building area plan is the timing of future development. Sometimes. As there are no based aircraft anticipated. Existing circumstances will continue to permit regular use by aircraft with wingspans of up to 49 feet. provided that the pilots of larger aircraft exercise appropriate care while maneuvering on the apron areas. Occasional use by aircraft with greater wingspans should be acceptable. Therefore. the APL is set to follow the airport property line. Accessibility – An important design consideration is the ease of access to individual portions of the building area from both the runway/taxiway system and public roads. the best location for facilities in the short-term may conflict with the optimum long-range plan. The objective is to have a plan that is flexible enough to adapt to changes in type and pace of facility demands. and also makes sense at each stage of development.

3–16 Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) . the existing apron is inadequately sized to accommodate peak demand. The apron contains 6 aircraft tiedown positions.CHAPTER 3 AIRPORT DESIGN Aircraft Tiedowns The existing tiedown apron is located directly west to the runway about midfield. the apron and aircraft parking positions penetrate the runway safety area and object free area. However. the parking apron would be located west of Runway 15-33 and north of the existing parking apron. Therefore. A 25-foot wide taxiway would connect the new apron to the existing tiedown apron. Additionally. Infill requirements for a new tiedown apron would substantially impact this specie’s critical habitat. the fill requirements are much more extensive for this alternative. To accommodate future transient demand and to satisfy FAA setback requirements. In this alternative. Its habitat was drastically reduced with the construction of the airport. Two locations were examined. vehicles and pedestrians would be forced to cross the active runway to access the new apron. The presence of the Kneeland Prairie pennycress in the immediate airport environs precludes a future aircraft apron in either location. The apron would be setback 130 feet from the runway centerline. Alternative B – The second option is to locate the aircraft apron east of Runway 15-33 about midfield. This position would allow parked aircraft to remain clear of the runway safety area and object free area. and the California Department of Forestry. Currently. Additionally. This alternative has less fill requirements and provides convenient vehicle and pedestrian access. this Master Plan Update recommends retaining and utilizing the existing tiedown apron to meet future aircraft parking demand. this Master Plan Update explored the option of constructing a new parking apron with 10 aircraft tiedowns. the county road. Alternative A – In this alternative. FAA setbacks would also be satisfied. The Kneeland Prairie Pennycress was added to the California Endangered Species list in February 2000.

Principal access to the active airfield is through a gate located adjacent to the existing aircraft apron.AIRPORT DESIGN CHAPTER 3 SUPPORTING FACILITIES Airfield Security The perimeter of Kneeland Airport is entirely enclosed with cattle fence to prevent inadvertent entry of vehicles and pedestrians onto the airfield. respectively. located directly west of the airport. No new development is proposed. The main gate connects this parking lot to the existing aircraft tiedown apron. Kneeland Airport Master Plan Update (September 2005) 3-17 . This two-lane road leads to a vehicle parking area. Two other gates are located west and east of Runway 15. These gates are part of a cattle crossing easement and are seldom used. Access Road and Parking Mountain View Road provides the sole vehicle access to Kneeland Airport.

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