EpiphytiCity

Another Future of China’s Cities

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

Beijing: A Parasitic City

Surrounding City

Surrounding City

200
tourist attraction

Largest
international Airport in Asia

9

Surrounding City

Metro line

Most
world cultural heritage

top 500 global enterprises

21

Top 15
city of shopping

Beijing
151
museums GDP per capita in China

Olympic
2008

Center
Railway network

60%
Film production

No.3 Largest
National Museum

Surrounding City

Surrounding City

798

Largest
Art Community

Best
university in China

CCTV

Surrounding City

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

Historical Context of Beijing as A Parasitic City

Beijing thrived for its great military importance when Jin was invading Song.

Beijing became the capital of Yuan and lived on resource from south.

Beijing was maintain as Capital of Ming to keep national security from northern mongolian invasion. Huge amount of resource transported to Beijing to maintian its prosperity and imperial governance

Beijing continued to be the capital of Qing for the sake of national stability and was still supported by the south.

Song Dynasty 1141

Yuan Dynasty 1294

Ming Dynasty 1410

Qing Dynasty 1892

HANGZHOU

HANGZHOU

HANGZHOU

The Grand Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou for transporting resources from south to north.

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

Today’s Beijing: Water Scarcity
water usage 2009
agriculture agriculture living living

2008

industry

environment

industry

environment

water supply 2009
south water surface water

2008
south water surface water

underground water

recycle water

recycle water

Beijing Water Footprint

underground water

precipitation
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 15

surface water resources
8

reservoir storage
2008
25

groundwater resources
35

total water resources
2.5

water from south
2009

2008

30

6

25

15

2009
6

15

2009
10

4

20

2009

3

1.0

1.5

9

5

2009

2009

2.0

12

20

2008

2008

7

2008

2

10

2008

1

5

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

0.0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

3

5

South-to-North Water Diversion Project

water volume
200

150

100

50

0

Eastern

Central

Western

Route Length
1500 1200

900

600

300

0

Eastern

Central

Western

Beijing
Shijiazhuang Western Route Tianjian

Water Distribution of Central Route (First Phase)
Tianjin

Beijing Hebei

Central Route

Eastern Route
nanjing

Henan

Three Gorges Dam

wuhan

shanghai

Migration per year
20

chongqing

15

10

5

0

South-North

Three Gorges Dam

Cost
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

South-North

Three Gorges Dam

Desertification

Dryland Coverage
17.6%

Shelter forest

160 km

Beijing

Beijing

Expasion of Gobi Desert 1990-2000

Mongolia

Gobi Desert
Beijing

population

Beijing
25 20 15 10 5 0 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Birth Rate

1978

2008

Population

1978

2008

Extreme China

(over)population
1.34 billion

urbanization
46.6%

farmland
14.2%

water resource
2743.4billion m3

forest cover
20.36%

farmer population
0.8 billion

urban population 0.66 billion

farmland per capita

water per capita

forest per capita

(over)population
0.3 billion

urbanization
80.0%

farmland
19.5%

water resource
2780billion m 3

forest cover
33%

farmer population
0.006 billion

urban population 0.24 billion

farmland per capita

water per capita

forest per capita

Ur

an b

ion t za i

e erag v st co fore

Agriculture Production

1950

1996

2008

Transforming Beijing

Overpopulation

High Density

Parasitic

land shortage

Symbiotic

Vertical urbanization Water Balance Vertical Farming Aerial Landscape

Epiphytic

Water Scarcity Deforestation Farmland shortage

epiphyte: An epiphyte (or air plant) is a plant that grows upon another plant (such as a tree)non-parasitically or sometimes upon some other object (such as a building or a telegraph wire), derives its moisture and nutrients from the air and rain and sometimes from debris accumulating around it, and is found in the temperate zone. - wikipedia

EpiphytiCity: An epiphytiCity is a city that symbiotically grows upon another city derives its energy from its own self-supplied system and can ecologically benefit its host city as a part of greater ecosystem.

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

Tank Bromeliad

provide nutrients and inhabitance for other species

water catchment

photosynthesis

CO2

O2

Roots that function structurally and biogically

Sarang Semut
Anthill

photosynthesis

CO2

O2

Roots that function structurally and biogically

Ant Nest Bark Humus Twig
prefer more humidity

very sensitive to drought most tolerant to adverse moisture conditions

Project Amazonia: Characterization - Biotic - Epiphytes http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2006/ nal/characterization/biotic_epiphytes.htm

ecological performace

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

2

2

2

2
2

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

ROOT

TREE BRANCH

EpiphytiCity

The Kunsthaus in Graz, Austria Peter Cook and Colin Fournier.

Spiraling Skyscraper Pod City CHIMERA

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

Epiphyte: Water Blance

root section

stele

cortex

velamen

stele cortex valeman

Responsive Skin

pneumathodes

adaptive openings

water sponge

watet cells

cellular grid

fully closed

partially opened

fully opened

EpiphytiCity

Annie Chan, Yikai Lin, Ant Urbanism, MArch, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 2009.

Auto-Hive Hye Yun Oh, YunWei Xu New Zealand Evolo

Bo Cao Thesis March

Swarm intelligence
Separation

“like any other population composed of a large number of smaller discrete elements, such as colonies of ants, ocks of birds, networks of neurons or even the global economy, it displays a bottom-up collective intelligence that is more sophisticated than the behaviour of its parts. In short, the city operates through a form of ‘swarm intelligence’ .” - Neil Leach

Finding the shortest path

Alignment Pheromone Food source

Cohesion

Pheromone

Alignment

Separation

Resource

Cohesion

Aggregation of Epiphytic Agents

Responsive Urban Model

local affector individual global affector local connection individual connection

culturally productive

Adaptive

Evolutionary
urban verticality

Responsive

EpiphytiCity

Emergent urbanism

Natural re-aestheticization

Self-Sustain

Ecological urbanism

Bo Cao Thesis March Nataly Gattegno|Extreme Environment

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