JKR/SPJ/1988

Standard Specifications For Roadworks

7.0m

5.0m

Roads Branch Public Works Department Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Kuala Lumpur

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

KERAJAAN MALAYSIA JABATAN KERJA RAYA MALAYSIA

STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROAD WORKS

CAWANGAN JALAN IBU PEJABAT JABATAN KERJARAYA MALAYSIA JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDDIN, 50582 KUALA LUMPUR.

KETUA PENGARAH KERJARAYA JABATAN KERJARAYA MALAYSIA JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDDIN 50582 KUALA LUMPUR

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 1
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’ 1. Table 4.8 - Gradation Limit For Asphaltic Concrete Clause 4.2.4.2, page S4 – 21 should read as follows :

Mix Type Mix Designation B.S Sieve 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 3.35 mm 1.18 mm 425 um 150 um 75 um

Wearing Course ACW 20

Binder Course ACB 28

% Passing by weight 100 100 76 - 100 64 - 89 56 - 81 46 - 71 32 - 58 20 - 42 12 - 28 6 - 16 4 - 8 80 - 100 72 - 93 58 - 82 50 - 75 36 - 58 30 - 52 18 - 38 11 - 25 5 - 14 3 - 8

2. Table 4.9- Design Bitumen Contents Clause 4.2.4.3, page S4 - 23 should read as follows :

ACW 20 - Wearing Course ACW 28 - Binder Course

4.5 - 6.5 % 4.0 - 6.0

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 2
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’ 6.2.5.5 Sign Faces Sign faces for permanent traffic sign shall be as shown on the Drawing and shall comply with the Malaysian Standard Specification for Reflective Sign Faces Materials (MS 1216). All retro-reflective sheeting shall be fixed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., sign faces shall be formed from a single piece of retro-reflective sheeting. Where, with the aggrement of the S.O., more than one retro-reflective sheeting is used, the number of sheets shall be kept to a minimum. All faces up to 1 m in size shall be produced with a single sheet and no joint will be accepted. Only vertical and horizontal joint shall be permitted and all join in retro-reflective shetting shall be overlapped by not less than 6 mm. The overlap in the horizontal joint shall be from the top and the vertical joint shall be from the left; but joints will be only be accepted for prismatic retro-reflective sheeting. Retro-reflective sheeting shall be applied evenly over the whole surface of the sign plate and shall adhere fully. it shall be free from twists, cracks, folds or cuts, air bubbles and other blemishes. All retro-reflective sheeting used on the same sign shall be carefully matched for colour to produce a uniform appearance both by day and by night. Non-uniform shades of colour on any one sign will not be accepted. The edges of all the retro-reflective sheeting shall be properly fitted to ensure no delimination of the sheeting from the base substrate. where shetting is applied to the extruded section by pressure roller, it shall extend over the top and bottom edges of this sections by not less than 3 mm. Any cut-outlet letters, numerals, symbols and borders shall be of material compatible with the sheeting to which they are applied. They shall be applied in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer’s instruction. The finish of all sign faces shall be capable of passing the tests described in MS 1216, and and standard of fabrication and workmanship shall be such that under normal conditions of service and proper maintenance, the sign faces shall last not less than 5 years without any seriousblemishes or defects for Engineering Grade retro-reflective sheeting and 8 years for High Intensity and prismatic retro-reflective sheeting. The Contractor shall furnish to the S.O. a letter of warranty for the specified period for all sign faces from the manufacturer of the sheeting or the sign fabricator. The retro-reflective sheeting manufacturer shall furnish the S.O. written warranty that the fluorescent colours shall be durable for a minimum 3 years for temporary signs.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 3
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’

6.2.6.1

FLUORESCENT ORANGE WIDE ANGLE PRISMATIC RETROREFLECTIVE SHEETING FOR THE WORK ZONE
Description 6.2.6.1.2 i) Requirements

6.2.6.1.1

The flurescent orange wide angle prismatic retro-reflective sheeting is specifically designed for use on rigid substrade work zone signs to provide high visual impact under nighttime and daytimedriving condition, including low visibility periods such as dawn, dusk, and overcast days. The sheeting shall consist of prismatic lenses formed in a transparent flurescent orange synthetic resin, sealed, and baked with and aggressive presure sensitive adhesive protected by a removable liner. The sheeting shall have a smooth surface with a distinctive interlocking diamond seal pattern and orrientation marks visible from the face.

Photometric - Coefficient of Retroreflection RA when the sheeting applied on aluminium test panels is measured in accordance wth ASTM E 810, it shall have minimum coefficient of retro-reflective value as shown in Table I. The rotation angle shall be *90° , the observation angles shall be 0.2° and 0.5°, the entrance angles and +50°, and the entrance angle (component ß1) shall be - 4°, +30°, and +50°, and the entrance angle component ß2 = 0°.

TABLE I

Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA (Candelas per footcandle per square foot) (90° Rotation Angle*)

Observation Angle ( ° ) 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.5 0.5 0.5

Entrance Angle ( ° ) -4 +30 +50 -4 +30 +50

Orange 200 120 50 80 50 20

* The datum mark (arrow) imprinted on the face of the sheeting shall be the datum mark for test purposes. For the specified 90° rotation angle, the sheeting shall be positioned on the goniometer so that the direction of this datum mark is perpendicular to the observation plane (this geometry is equivalent to a 90° orientation angle with a presentation angle of 0° in the measurement geometry described in Fed. Test Method Standard 370).

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

i)

Daytime Color Color shall conform to the reqiurement of Table II. Daytime color and maximum spectral radiance factor (peak reflectance) of sheeting mounted on aluminium test panels shall be determined instrumentally in accordance with ASTM E 991. The value shall be determined on a HunterLab Labscan 6000 0/45 spectrocolorimeter with option CMR 559 [or approved equal 0/45 (45/0) instrument withcircumferential viewing (illumination)]. Computation shall be done in accordance with ASTM E 308 for the 2° observer.

TABLE II Color Specification Limit ** (Daytime)
Color
X

1
Y .416 X .523

2
Y .397 X .560

3
Y .360 X .631

4
Y .369

Reflectance Limit Y (%)
Min. 30 Max. -

Orange (New) Orange (Weathered)

.583

.583

.416

.523

.397

.560

.360

.631

.369

20

45

Maximum spectral radiance factor, new : 110%, min. weathered : 60%, min.

** The four pairs of chromaticity coordinates determine the acceptable color in terms of the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system measured with standard illuminatant D65. iii) Nighttime Color. Nighttime color of the sheeting applied to alumium test panel shall be determined instrumentally in accordance with ASTM E 881 and calculated in the u’, v’ coordinate system in accordance with ASTM E 308. Sheeting shall be measured at 0.33° observation and - 4° entrance at 90° rotation. Color shall conform to the requirements of Table III.
TABLE II Color Specification Limit ** (Nighttime)
Color
u’

1
v’ .540 u’ .475

2
v’ .529 u’ .448

3
v’ .522 u’ .372

4
v’ .534

Orange (New and Weathered)

.400

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works vi) Resistance to Heat. The retroreflective sheeting, applied to a test panel as in E., above and conditioned for 24 hours, shall be measured in accordance with paragraph. A. at 0.2° observation and - 4° entrance angles at 90° rotation and exposed to 170 + 5°F (77 + 3°C) for 24 hours in an air circulating oven. After heat exposure the sheeting shall retain a minimum of 70% of the original coefficient of retroreflection.

iv) Resistance to Accelerated Weathering. The retro-reflective surface of the sheeting shall be weather resistant and show no appreciable cracking, blistering, crazing, or dimensional change after 1 year’s unprotected outdoor exposure in south Florida, south-facing and inclined 45° from the vertical, or after 1500 hours’ exposure in a xenon arc weatherometer in accordance with ASTM G 26, Type B, Method A. Following exposure, panels shall be washed in a 5% HCL solution for 45 seconds, rinsed throughly with clean water, blotted with a soft clean cloth and brought to equilibrium at standard conditions. After cleaning, the coefficient of retroreflection shall be not less than 100 when measured as in D.2, below, and the color is expected conform to the requirements of Table II and III for weathered sheeting. The sample shall : a) Show no appreciable evidence of cracking, scaling, pitting, blistering, edge lifting or curling or more than 1/32 inch (0.08 cm) shrinkage or expansion. b) Be measured only at angles of 0.2° observation, - 4° entrance and 90° rotation. Where more than one panel of a color is measure, the coefficient or retroreflection shall be the averange of all determinations.

vii) Field Performance Retroreflective sheeting processed and applied to sign blank materials in accodance with the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations, is expected to perform effectively for a minimum of 3 years. the retroreflective sheeting will be considered unsatisfactory if it has deteriorated due to natural causes to the extent that : (1) the sign is ineffective for its intended purposed when viewed from a moving vehicle under normal day and night driving conditions; or (2) the coefficient of retroreflection is less than 100 when measured at 0.2° observation and - 4° entrance at 90° rotation. All measurements shall be made after sign cleaning according to the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations.

v) Impact Resistance. The retroreflective sheeting applied according to the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations to a test panel of alloy 6061-T6, 0.040” (0.10 cn) by 3” (7.6 cm) by 5” (12.7 cm) and conditioned for 24 hours, shall show no cracking outside the impact of 100 inch-pounds (11.3Nm) using a weight with a 5/8 in. (15.8 mm) diameter rounded tip dropped from a height necessary to generate an impact of 100 inch-pounds, at test temperatures of both 32° F (0° C) and 72° F (22° C).
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS WORKS

CONTENT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 General Earthworks Drainage Works Flexible Pavement Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Road Funiture Street Lighting Traffic Signals Concrete Piling Works

PAGE S1-11 to S1-31 S2-1 to S2-20 S3-1 to S3-31 S4-1 to S4-55 S5-1 to S5-21 S6-1 to S6-22 S7-1 to S7-19 S8-1 to S8-33 S9-1 to S9-39 S10-1 to S10-35

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 1 GENERAL

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 1 - GENERAL
Page 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.20.1 1.20.2 1.20.3 1.20.4 1.20.5 1.21 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT SCOPE OF WORKS NOTES, ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Notes Abbreviations Units of Measurement PROGRAMME OF WORKS LIMITATION OF SITE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS MATERIALS OF MALAYSIAN ORIGIN SETTING OUT DIMENSIONS AND LEVELS PROTECTION OF WORKS DESIGN OF TEMPORARY WORKS BY THE CONTRACTOR CONTRACTOR'S SUPERINTENDENCE INSPECTION AND TESTS COVERING UP OF WORK OFFICE ACCOMMODATION FOR S.O. AND HIS STAFF VEHICLES FOR THE S.O.'S STAFF CONTRACTOR'S OFFICE AND ACCOMODATION MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY AND STAFF PROVISION FOR SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND CHAINMEN MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING ROADS AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC Maintenance of Existing Roads, Bridges, Culverts, etc. Temporary Diversions Half-width Construction and Traffic Control Temporary Traffic Signs Temporary Works LOCATION, TEMPORARY PROTECTION AND TEMPORARY DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY INSTALLATIONS AND OTHER SERVICES WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY PROJECT SIGNBOARD PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WORKS AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND MICROFILMING CLEARING UP OF SITE OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-12 S1-12 S1-12 S1-12 S1-13 S1-13 S1-13 S1-13 S1-14 S1-14 S1-14 S1-14 S1-16 S1-16 S1-16 S1-17 S1-17 S1-17 S1-17 S1-18 S1-19 S1-19

1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27

S1-19 S1-20 S1-20 S1-20 S1-21 S1-21 S1-21

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Standard Specification For Road Works

Page

APPENDIX 1A APPENDIX 1B APPENDIX 1C APPENDIX 1D (a) (b) (c)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SCOPE OF WORKS VEHICLES FOR S.O. AND HIS STAFF LIST OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

S1-22 S1-23 S1-24

Soil Testing Equipment Concrete Testing Equipment Flexible Pavement Testing Equipment SURVEY EQUIPMENT APERTURE CARD FOR MICROFILM

S1-25 S1-27 S1-27 S1-30 S1-31

APPENDIX 1E FIGURE 1-1

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Standard Specification For Road Works iv) The terms "Engineer" and "Superintending Officer" shall be synonymous.

SECTION 1 - GENERAL
1.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

1.3.2 Abbreviations The general description of the project is as given in Appendix 1A. 1.2 SCOPE OF WORKS a) M.S. means Malaysian Standards published by the Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM). b) B.S. means British Standards published by the British Standard Institution. c) A.A.S.H.T.O. means The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. d) A.S.T.M. means The American Society for Testing and Materials. e) M.D.D. means Maximum Dry Density. f) O.M.C. means Optimum Moisture Content. g) C.B.R. means California Bearing Ratio. h) S.O. means Superintending Officer. i) B.Q. means Bill of Quantities.

The Works covered in this Contract comprise the provision by the Contractor at his own risk and cost of all materials, tools, plants, labour, transport and everything else necessary for the construction and completion of the Works as given in Appendix 1B all to the approval of the S.O. 1.3 NOTES, ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

1.3.1 Notes i) Any clause in this Specification which relates to work or materials not included in the Works shall be deemed not applicable.

ii) Unless stated to the contrary, any dimension of material described means the finished or fully compacted dimension. iii) All Standards and Codes of Practice referred to in this Specification shall be deemed to be the editions current at the time of Tender. If the Malaysian Standard exists, which the S.O. deems to be equivalent to the British or other Standard specified, then the Malaysian Standard shall be followed. In the event of any discrepancy between the provision of this Specification and the provision within the relevant Standards or Codes of Practice as mentioned in this Specification, then the provision of this Specification shall take precedence.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

1.3.3 Units of Measurement All units of measurement used in this Specification and in the Bill of Quantities shall be in accordance with the metric system unless otherwise stated. Where British Imperial units are shown or stated the following conversions shall apply :-

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Standard Specification For Road Works Should the Contractor require additional land outside the Site for his workyards, stores, offices, temporary haul roads or any other temporary structures, he shall, on his own, purchase or rent any additional area he may need. Areas or area to be rendered as part of the Site shall be subject to the S.O.'s approval. 1.6 SUPPLY OF MATERIALS The Contractor shall place orders for specified materials at such times as will enable him to execute the Works in accordance with his approved programme. If the Contractor's failure to supply any material causes any interruption or delay in the progress of the Works, the Government may supply any portion or all of the materials and the cost borne by the Contractor shall be either that as calculated at the current market rates or the actual cost to the Government at the date of supply, including overheads or any other charges, whichever is the greater. Any costs incurred under this Section shall be deducted from the Contract Sum. No claim for loss of profit under the conditions of this Contract shall be deemed to have arisen. No action taken under this Section shall in any way affect or modify the right of the Government to claim for damages in the event of the Contractor's failure to complete the Works by the agreed date. 1.7 MATERIALS OF MALAYSIAN ORIGIN Materials of Malaysian origin where available must be used by the Contractor to the exclusion of imported materials and this requirement shall be allowed for in his tender.
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1 inch 1 foot 1 lb 1 gallon 1 lb/sq.in

= = = = =

25.40 millimetres 0.3048 metres 0.4536 kilograms 4.5461 litres 6.895 x 10-3 N/sq.mm

1.4

PROGRAMME OF WORKS Within thirty (30) days after the receipt of the Letter of Acceptance of Tender, the Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his approval a programme showing the order of work activities and time schedule in which the Contractor proposes to carry out the Works and shall, whenever required by the S.O. or the S.O.'s representative, furnish in writing, particulars of the Contractor's arrangement for carrying out such works and of the construction plants and temporary works, if any, which the Contractor intends to supply, use or construct as the case may be. The submission to and approval by the S.O. or the S.O.'s representative of such a programme or the furnishing of such particulars shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his duties or responsibilities under the Contract. If at any time it should appear to the S.O. that the actual progress of the Works does not conform to the approved programme referred to herein before, the Contractor shall submit for approval, a revised programme showing the modifications to the previously approved programme necessary to ensure the completion of the whole Works within the time set for completion.

1.5

LIMITATION OF SITE The Contractor shall ensure that all his plants, materials, temporary workshops, stores and offices are kept within the Site at locations approved by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Before the Works or any part thereof are commenced, the Contractor shall verify the levels of the existing ground surface within areas where earthworks are to be performed and the locations and bed levels of water-courses. These may differ from the locations and levels shown on the Drawings owing to changes which could have taken place during the interval between the original survey and construction. The levels and dimensions taken by the Contractor jointly with the S.O. shall form the basis of measurement of the relevant work quantities.

Under no circumstances shall the Contractor be permitted to use imported materials unless he can prove to the satisfaction of the S.O. that the materials are not available locally, or if available are not of an acceptable standard.

1.8

SETTING OUT Before commencing the Works at any location, the Contractor shall provide and install precast concrete reference beacons on both sides of the road centre-line at a spacing of 300 metres. The beacons shall be firmly sited at right angles to the centre-line at a distance from the centre-line of 15 metres or such other distance as directed by the S.O. The beacons shall be not less than 75 mm square in plan and shall project at least 600 mm above the surrounding ground. Each beacon shall be clearly marked with its chainage and elevation above datum. The Contractor shall take all practicable steps to safeguard the beacons including fencing and concreting-in where necessary in the opinion of the S.O. and shall immediately replace any damaged beacons. The Contractor shall give the S.O. not less than 24 hours notice of his intention to set out or give levels for any part of the Works in order that arrangements may be made for checking.

1.10 PROTECTION OF WORKS From the commencement of the Works to the date the Works are taken over by the Government, the Contractor shall take full responsibility for the care there of together with all temporary works and in case any damage, loss or injury shall happen to the Works or to any part thereof or to any temporary works from any cause whatsoever, he shall at his own cost repair and make good the same so that at completion, the Works shall be in good order and condition and in conformity in every respect with the requirements of the Contract and the S.O.'s instructions. The Contractor shall also be liable for any damage to the Works occasioned by him in the course of any operations carried out during the Defects Liability Period. 1.11 DESIGN OF TEMPORARY WORKS BY THE CONTRACTOR Unless otherwise provided in the Drawings, the Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his approval, 2 copies of all working or shop drawings produced by him including all drawings made by his approved sub-contractors for all temporary works.
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1.9

DIMENSIONS AND LEVELS All temporary benchmarks, reference markers and levels as shown on the Drawings shall be checked on the Site by the Contractor at his own expense and be confirmed by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall provide the necessary attendance whenever required by the S.O. or his representative. Notwithstanding any tests which may have been carried out off the Site, the S.O. shall be empowered to order further tests of any materials or goods to be made on the Site and to reject such materials or goods should they fail to pass such tests on Site. When required by the S.O., the Contractor shall submit a copy of the result of any quality control test carried out by the Contractor on his own during the progress of the Works. 1.14 COVERING UP OF WORK Before any part of the Works is permanently covered up, the Contractor shall give due notice to the S.O. for the inspection and measurement of dimensions. The S.O. shall attend without unreasonable delay for the purpose of examination and measurement unless he considers it unnecessary and advises the Contractor accordingly. 1.15 OFFICE ACCOMMODATION FOR S.O. AND HIS STAFF The Contractor shall provide and maintain a site office for the use of the S.O. and his supervisory staff, all in accordance with the relevant Drawings inclusive of all furniture and fittings as shown on the Drawings. The Contractor is permitted to provide a relocatable site office as an alternative to the JKR designed type shown on the Drawings.

Such submission shall be made at least two weeks before the temporary work is scheduled to commence. Notwithstanding the approval by the S.O., the Contractor is solely responsible for the adequacy and safety of his work and for any necessary modification or addition whenever found necessary by the S.O.

1.12 CONTRACTOR'S SUPERINTENDENCE The Contractor shall provide all necessary superintendence during the execution of the Works and as long thereafter as the S.O. may consider necessary for the proper fulfillment of the Contractor's obligations under the Contract. A competent Site Agent, whose appointment shall be approved by the S.O., shall be employed by the Contractor for management on Site. The Site Agent shall have the authority to receive instructions from the S.O. and to act on behalf of the Contractor. The Site Agent shall be stationed on Site for the whole duration of the Contract and shall not be replaced without the approval of the S.O. If the Site Agent needs to be absent from Site for more than three (3) consecutive days, he shall give prior notice to the S.O. who may require the Contractor to temporarily appoint another Site Agent. 1.13 INSPECTION AND TESTS The S.O. or his representative may at any stage of the Works carry out inspection, measurement and tests on any part of the Works to ensure compliance with the requirements of this Specification and of the Drawings.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Sanitary facilities with disposal to septic tanks located not nearer than 5 m from the building shall be provided. The office shall be illuminated by fluorescent fittings giving a general level of illumination of at least 2 lumens/ sq.m. Additional lighting in the form of wall or deck lamps shall be provided where required by the S.O. Lighting to toilets and corridors may be by tungsten filament bulbs. Thermostatically controlled airconditioners capable of maintaining a temperature below 23°C in the office shall be provided. The Contractor shall arrange for the installation of a telephone with a separate connection to the telephone exchange for the exclusive use of the S.O. at all times. The telephone shall also be be fitted with 4 extensions unless not required by the S.O. The Contractor shall be responsible for the connection to such exchange and the payment of rental for the telephone services but the Government shall reimburse the Contractor for the cost of making calls. Where a telephone exchange is not within practical distance, an automatic mobile telephone such as the ATUR (Automatic Telephone Using Radio) service shall be provided. The Contractor shall keep the offices accessible at all times and in every way habitable for working purposes throughout the duration of the Contract. The Contractor shall also provide such labour and cleaning materials as are required to maintain the site office in a thoroughly clean and sanitary condition.

The quality of such a relocatable site office shall be of equivalent standard but not inferior to the JKR designed type and shall be equipped with similar furniture and fittings as indicated in the JKR designed site office. Where a relocatable site office is to be provided, the Contractor shall submit details of the relocatable site office together with his tender. Such details should include the name of the manufacturer, floor area and layout, list of furniture and fittings and brochures if available. The Contractor shall also indicate whether the proposed site office is new or otherwise. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the site office is to be sited, constructed and positioned as approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall make proper arrangements for and pay all charges in connection with conservancy. The site office shall comply with local building by-laws. It shall be erected or provided by the Contractor within four (4) weeks from the date of possession of Site. On completion of the Works, the Contractor shall further maintain the site office till the end of the Defects Liability Period unless otherwise directed by the S.O. and thereafter remove from the Site the site office with all furniture and fittings which become the property of the Contractor. Where electricity and piped water are available from public utility authorities, the Contractor shall arrange for the site office to be connected to the electricity and water supplies.Otherwise, the Contractor shall supply the site office with electric power from generators and shall provide an adequate supply of water for washing and potable filtered water for drinking purposes.
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Standard Specification For Road Works When instructed by the S.O., the Contractor shall remove all such buildings and appurtenant works from the Site, clean up the area and restore it to its original condition. The Contractor shall provide adequate first aid facilities appropriate to the size and composition of his staff and labour force. The Contractor shall afford the S.O.'s site staff full use of the services and facilities as and when required. 1.18 MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY AND STAFF The Contractor shall provide and maintain a laboratory at the Site throughout the duration of the Contract. Earthworks and pavement construction will not be permitted to commence until the laboratory and necessary equipment have been provided. The said laboratory shall be in accordance with the Drawings and shall be equipped as indicated in Appendix 1D. It shall be maintained in a clean and tidy condition to the satisfaction of the S.O. The laboratory shall be adequately supplied with water and electricity. The laboratory shall be used exclusively by the S.O. and his staff. However the Contractor shall provide helpers to assist the S.O. as and when requested. All laboratory equipment shall become the property of the Contractor on completion of the Works. On completion of the Works, the building shall be removed from the Site and the Site left in a neat and tidy condition.

1.16 VEHICLES FOR THE S.O.'S STAFF The Contractor shall provide new vehicles as listed in the B.Q. and Appendix 1C for the sole use of the S.O. and his staff at all times. All necessary fuel, oil and lubricants, general maintenance, comprehensive insurances and roadtax shall be provided by the Contractor together with a licensed and competent driver for every vehicle. Replacement vehicles shall be provided when normal vehicles are not available such as during periods of servicing, maintenance or repair. The vehicles will revert to the Contractor at the completion of the Contract unless otherwise stated in the B.Q. 1.17 CONTRACTOR'S OFFICE AND ACCOMODATION The Contractor shall provide and maintain a suitable office for himself and his staff in a position or positions to be approved by the S.O. In addition, the Contractor shall provide and maintain temporary accomodation and living facilities, stores, workshops, etc., including all necessary services for water supply, drainage and lighting for his staff. Before any work can commence the Contractor shall submit to the S.O. details of the proposed buildings and services and shall obtain the S.O.'s approval together with any necessary approval in writing from the relevant statutory authority. The Contractor shall be responsible for all fees and other charges or expenses incurred in connection with such office and housing and shall keep the whole area in a clean, tidy and well drained condition.

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Standard Specification For Road Works He shall also be responsible for maintaining the free flow of traffic on these sections of existing road. The Contractor shall arrange for the conveyance of materials and plants so as to cause minimum damage to existing roads and installations and minimum inconvenience to the public. He shall not deposit any earth, rubbish or materials upon any road, street, pavement or footway to cause hindrance or obstruction of vehicles or pedestrians. The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage caused by any work carried out by him or by construction traffic to any existing roads or installations from whatsoever cause arising thereof and shall repair, maintain and reinstate the same to their original condition to the satisfaction of the S.O. The Contractor shall also keep such roads clear of slurry, boulders and loose earth which may be dropped in the course of transportation. Upon failure on the part of the Contractor to fulfill his obligations under this Section, the S.O. may take whatever action and any means necessary to satisfy the requirements and all costs incurred by the S.O. shall be deducted from any monies due or to become due to the Contractor under this Contract. 1.20.2 Temporary Diversions Temporary diversions shall be constructed wherever the Site is intersected by existing roads, footpaths, cycle tracks, access to properties, etc. Such diversion ways shall be of a standard of construction at least equivalent to that of the original road, path, track or access.

1.19 PROVISION FOR SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND CHAINMEN The Contractor shall provide for the sole use of the S.O. and his staff all such instruments, equipment and chainmen as the S.O. may require to enable him to check the accuracy of the Contractor's setting out and any measurements taken. The chainmen shall have knowledge of Bahasa Malaysia or English and as far as possible the same men shall be provided throughout the Contract period. The instruments and equipment to be provided are as listed in Appendix 1E. The Contractor shall be responsible throughout the Contract period for all such instruments, equipment and chainmen and shall ensure that the instruments and equipment are at all times in good working condition and adjustment. All instruments and equipment shall remain the property of the Contractor on completion of the Works.

1.20 MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING ROADS AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC 1.20.1 Maintenance of Existing Roads, Bridges, Culverts, etc. The Contractor shall maintain all sections of existing roads and all bridges, drains and culverts included therein within the Site to the conditions at the time of possession of Site for the full duration of the Contract. Such maintenance shall include routine activities such as grass cutting, clearing of drains, patching of potholes, etc.

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Standard Specification For Road Works If the Contractor fails to maintain and/or reinstate these temporary diversion ways to the satisfaction of the S.O., the S.O. shall have the right to carry out these works himself and all costs incurred shall be deducted from the Contract Sum. Where, in the opinion of the S.O., a detour is not feasible, construction on existing public roads shall be undertaken only over half of the full width of the roadway at any time. The lengths of such half-width construction shall be kept as short as is practicable. For all temporary diversions, the Contractor shall provide, install and maintain adequate temporary construction signs in accordance with Sub-Section 1.20.4. 1.20.3 Half-width Construction and Traffic Control Where half-width construction is necessary, work on culverts shall be completed and the embankment adjacent to them must be reinstated so that at least half the full width shall be available for use by the public at all times. In the event of the operation of single-way traffic becoming necessary and when approved by the S.O. on any particular length of the Works or on the Works or on the approaches to the Works, the Contractor shall maintain through traffic routes by providing a width of at least 3 metres for single-way traffic. He shall also provide approved electrically operated signals for traffic control on each of the affected lengths and any additional traffic signs as may be directed.

They shall be constructed in advance of the closure of the existing ways and regularly maintained, for as long as required, in a satisfactory condition. On completion of the work, the original ways shall be reinstated to their original condition to the approval of the S.O. At least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of any proposed temporary diversions of traffic shall be given to the S.O. for his approval. Where access roads are to be permanently closed by the construction of the Works, as shown on the Drawings, diversion ways shall not be required. Such closures shall not be effected until any specified alternative access has been provided and only with the written approval of the S.O. The Contractor shall maintain reasonable access to all properties adjoining the Works where such access exists during construction, and shall ensure that all the necessary fences, planking and gangways are adequately lit to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where the Contractor proposes to use existing local streets as temporary diversion ways, he shall give at least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of his proposal to the S.O. for his approval. The Contractor shall maintain and/or reinstate these temporary diversion ways to their original condition throughout the entire duration of the temporary diversion, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Construction and excavation shall be sign posted and, during periods of darkness, shall be lit to the approval of the S.O. Temporary traffic signals shall comply with the requirements of the ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85 published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Kuala Lumpur and shall be reflectorised and kept clean and legible at all times. The Contractor shall position, cover or remove these signs as may be directed by the S.O. 1.20.5 Temporary Works The Contractor shall provide, maintain and remove on completion of the Works all temporary works including diversion ways, tracks, staging, bridging, etc., and shall make them safe and suitable in every respect for carrying all plants and materials and for all purposes related to the Works. 1.21 LOCATION, TEMPORARY PROTECTION AND TEMPORARY DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY INSTALLATIONS AND OTHER SERVICES The Contractor shall be responsible for locating the positions of all public utility installations, including water mains, overhead and underground cables, pipes, sewers and drains and all service connections to buildings, and where necessary, shall adopt such methods of excavation as may be required by the appropriate authorities or owners to ensure that no damage is caused to them.

The electrical signal lights shall be automatic in operation, but the S.O. may, at any time, require them to be hand operated by a competent operator. The Contractor shall make suitable arrangements for emergency servicing of the electrically operated traffic signals to be available at all times. Manually operated "Stop/Go" signs shall only be used with the prior approval of the S.O.; and shall, if so approved, be of the size, colour and type as shown on the Drawings and complying with the requirements of the ARAHAN TEKNIK(JALAN) 2C/85 (Manual on Traffic Control Devices for Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control), published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Kuala Lumpur. At least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of any proposed single-way traffic system shall be given to the S.O. for his approval before such a system can be implemented. 1.20.4 Temporary Traffic Signs The Contractor shall at all times take full and sufficient precautions to ensure the safety of all traffic through and around the Work Site and of traffic that is diverted owing to the Works. To this end the Contractor shall erect and maintain on the Site and at prescribed points on the approaches to the Site, all traffic signs, signals and warning lights necessary for the direction and control of traffic. The sizes of all such signs and the lettering and wording thereon shall be as shown on the Drawings and approved by the S.O. before erection.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 1.22 WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY The Contractor shall provide at his own risk and cost all water, lighting and electric power where required for use in the Works and shall pay all costs, fees and charges and comply with all safety regulations and statutes in connection therewith. The Contractor shall also provide and maintain temporary water storage together with any distribution piping which may be necessary.

The Contractor shall make good, at his own expense, any damage caused by him to the existing services to the approval of and in accordance with the instruction of the appropriate authority or owner concerned, and shall keep the Government indemnified at all times from all claims, costs and expenses which may arise on account of any damage (whether permanent, temporary or recurring) to the said services. All such installations which are encountered in the course of the Works shall be adequately supported, slung-up, strutted or otherwise protected from injury to the satisfaction of the respective authority. The temporary diversion or relocation of any service within or outside the Works to permit the construction of the Works shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. Where a service is required to be interrupted or relocated the Contractor shall inform and obtain the approval of the S.O. who shall notify the appropriate authority or owner of the required removal and/or relocation. Temporary diversion shall mean works involved in the diversion of services that will be reinstated to their original position and condition on completion of the works in the affected areas. In planning his work for the diversion or relocation of services, the Contractor shall make reasonable allowance for the time necessary to obtain the S.O.'s approval for the work and for the appropriate authorities or owners to authorise the work, obtain the necessary materials and carry out the work. The Contractor shall not be entitled to any extension of time due to his failure to allow for a reasonble period of time necessary for obtaining approval and completing the work.

1.23 PROJECT SIGNBOARD The Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain signboards at locations to be decided by the S.O. and pay all charges in connection with this, including obtaining permission, licences and fees, etc. Each sign board shall comply with the design and specification as shown on the Drawings. On completion of the project, the Contractor shall dismantle and clear away the signboards as directed by the S.O. 1.24 PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WORKS The Contractor shall provide a camera of reasonable quality for the purpose of taking record photographs and slides of the Works as and when directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall bear the costs of providing the film, development of film, printing two (2) copies of each exposure in 3R size and documenting the photographs in suitable albums. The negatives of the photographs shall be the property of the Government and no prints from these negatives may be supplied to any person or persons except with the approval of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works On completion of the Works, the Contractor shall remove all rubbish, debris and surplus materials from the Site and leave the whole Site in a neat and tidy condition to the satisfaction of the S.O.

A suitably typed caption shall be affixed to the reverse side of each photograph describing the subject and the time at which it was taken. One copy of each photograph shall be signed by the Contractor and the S.O.

1.25 AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND MICROFILMING Drawings for recording as-built construction details of the Works shall be prepared by the Contractor and shall be certified by the S.O. or his representative. The originals, in good quality transparencies, and two (2) printed copies of all as-built drawings shall be supplied by the Contractor to the S.O. progressively as sections of the Works become completed. All drawings shall be completed within one month after the completion of the respective section. As-built drawings shall be A1 size (838 mm x 584 mm) unless otherwise approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall also microfilm the as-built drawings using 35.0 mm film with the aperture card format as shown in Figure 1-1 and submit the same to the S.O.

1.27 OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS The Contractor shall, when required by the S.O., afford all reasonable opportunity to any other Contractors employed by the Government and their workmen and to the workmen of the Government and of any other duly constituted authorities who may be employed in the execution on or near the Site of any work not included in the Contract.

1.26 CLEARING UP OF SITE The Contractor shall make every effort to keep the Site in a reasonably clean and tidy condition for the duration of the Works. He shall, in addition, from time to time on the completion of any area of the Works or where directed by the S.O., remove rubbish, surplus materials, or any other construction debris from such areas as may be attributable to his work under this Contract and generally leave them in a satisfatory condition, to the approval of the S.O.
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APPENDIX 1A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

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APPENDIX 1B SCOPE OF WORKS

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APPENDIX 1C VEHICLES FOR S.O. AND HIS STAFF

All vehicles shall be NEW and of the types listed below :Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E - 2000 c.c. four-door, air-conditioned saloon car; - 1600 c.c. five-door, air-conditioned estate car; - 1500 c.c. four-door, air-conditioned Proton Saga; - 2000 c.c. four-wheel-drive, air-conditioned Trooper or equivalent with hard top; - 2250 c.c. four-wheel-drive, air-conditioned long-wheel- base Land Rover or equivalent with hard top.

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APPENDIX 1D LIST OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

The Contractor shall provide and maintain the following testing laboratory equipment which shall become the property of the Contractor at the end of the Contract :No. (a) Soil Testing Equipment (1) Moisture content tins - 76 mm x 25 mm with lids. 25

(2) Electric balance of 1 kg capacity, accurate to 0.1 g with a tare correction of not less than 100 g. (3) Electric forced draught oven, capacity of 0.08 cu.m. (4) Atterberg limit machine calibrated with a grooving device as specified in B.S. 1377. (5) Glass plates - 457 mm x 609 mm x 6 mm. (6) Linear shrinkage moulds - 254 mm. (7) Spatulas - 152 mm. (8) 203 mm diameter B.S. sieves - 75 mm, 63 mm, 50 mm, 37.5 mm, 28 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm, 14 mm, 12.5 mm, 10 mm, 9.5 mm, 6.3 mm, 5 mm, 4.75 mm, 3.35 mm, 2.36 mm, 2 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 um, 425 um, 300 um, 212 um, 150 um, 75 um. Lid and pan together with vibrating machine. (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) 203 mm diameter B.S. sieves - 75 um, 425 um. Wash sieves - 75 um. Sample splitter - 50 mm. Sample splitter - 12 mm. Balance of 10 kg capacity, accurate to 1 g. Standard compaction hammer, electric motor operated, as specified in B.S. 1377.

1 1 1 2 5 2

1 of each 2 of each 2 2 2 1 1

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Standard Specification For Road Works No.

(15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22)

Standard compaction mould as specified in B.S. 1377. Compaction mould extruder as specified in B.S. 1377. Steel scoop. Rubber mallet. Measuring flasks - 1000 c.c. Vernier calipers - 152 mm. Steel rule - 305 mm. Compression machine suitable for laboratory and field C.B.R.'s with all fittings necessary for field and laboratory operation as specified in B.S. 1377. C.B.R. moulds fitted with collars and base plates for compaction and soaking and tripods for small measurement fitted with dial gauges having 0.01 mm divisions and 25 mm travel as specified in B.S. 1377. 2.26 kg surcharge weights - ring type. 2.26 kg surcharge weights - horseshoe type. Complete field density kit, sand replacement type suitable for volume measurement of 0.005 cu.m to an accuracy of not less than 0.0001 cu.m as specified in B.S. 1377. Hand auger suitable for boring to depths of 3 m and supplied with 100 mm diameter heads suitable for boring in cohesive and cohesionless soils. Crowbar, pick and spade. Drying pans - 406 mm x 406 mm x 76 mm. British Standard 1377 - "Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes", latest edition.

1 1 1 1 2 1 1

1

(23)

10 6 9

(24) (25) (26)

2

(27)

1 1 of each 6

(28) (29) (30)

1

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(b) Concrete Testing Equipment No. (1) 152 mm x 152 mm x 152 mm standard concrete test cube steel moulds as specified in B.S. 1881. (2) Slump cones with tamping rods as specified in B.S. 1881. (3) Compacting factor apparatus as specified in B.S. 1881. (4) Tank for curing of concrete specimens to accomodate 50 Nos. x 152 mm cubes in layers not more than 50 mm deep.

6 2 1

1

(c) Flexible Pavement Testing Equipment (1) Metal tray, 0.6 m square or similar suitable for measuring spray rates of bituminous materials and spread rates of cover aggregate for surface dressing. (2) Metal thickness gauge (or set of slotted sleeves) as specified in M.S. 30 for determination of aggregate flakiness index. Additional items required for asphaltic concrete and/or bituminous Macadam :-

4

1

(3) Balance of 2 kg capacity, accurate to 0.1 g suitable for weighing samples suspended in liquid. (4) Steel moulds for Marshall test specimens (100 mm diameter) with base, extension collar, extraction collar and extraction plate as specified in B.S. 598. (5) Extractor for removing Marshall test specimens from moulds without distortion or shock as specified in B.S. 598. (6) Compaction hammer and automatic compactor for Marshall test specimens as specified in B.S. 598.

1

6

1

1 of each

(7) Compaction pedestal and mould holder for Marshall test as specified in B.S. 598. (8) Thermostatically controlled hot plate.

1 of each 1

(9) Thermometers for use in laboratory and in asphaltic mixes for Marshall test as specified in B.S. 598. 2 of each

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No. (10) (11) (12) (13) Rubber and heat resistant gloves. Filter papers - 100 mm diameter. Containers for heating aggregates and bituminous materials. Pavement coring machine of the thin-walled diamond bit type for obtaining 100 mm diameter samples of bituminous surfacings. 100 mm diameter thin-walled diamond bits for use with pavement coring machine. Tools for cutting and trimming pavement cores. Metal bottles of suitable capacity for bitumen extraction by direct determination as specified in B.S. 598. Machine to rotate the bottles about their longitudinal axes at a speed of between 10 rev/min to 30 rev/min as specified in B.S. 598. Volumetric flasks of suitable capacity. Centrifuge capable of developing an acceleration of 25,000 m/sq. second as specified in B.S. 598. Filtration apparatus for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B.S. 598. Recovery apparatus for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B.S. 598. Pressure filter of appropriate size, air pump and funnel for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B.S. 598. 2 pairs of each As needed As needed

1

(14)

As needed As needed

(15) (15)

As needed

(16)

1 As needed

(18) (19)

1

(20)

1

(21)

(22)

1 of each

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No. Further items required for asphaltic concrete :-

(23)

Wire basket of 6.5 mm or smaller mesh with wire hanger as specified in M.S. 30, for determination of specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates. Airtight container of similar capacity as wire basket above. Gas jar - 1.5 litre. Pyconometer - 1 litre. Warm air blower. Mechanical mixer of 2 kg capacity, for preparation of asphaltic concrete mixtures. Thermostatically controlled water bath for Marshall test specimens as specified in B.S. 598. Steel Marshall testing head as specified in B.S. 598. Compression testing machine with proving ring, capable of applying loads of up to at least 22 kN at a constant rate of strain of 50 mm + 3 mm per minute and recording the maximum load achieved as specified in B.S. 598. Dial gauge and mounting assembly for measuring Marshall test flows of up to 10 mm with accuracy of + 0.1 mm as specified in B.S. 598.

1 1 1 1 1 1

(24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29)

1 1

(30) (30)

1

(31)

1

Testing which is specifically required in the Contract and any test defined in quoted British Standard Specifications which are required to ensure compliance with the Contract but cannot be done in the Site testing laboratory shall be carried out at approved laboratories off the Site. These tests shall be carried out as directed by the S.O. The cost incurred by the Contractor shall be deemed to have been included in the tendered rates.

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APPENDIX 1E SURVEY EQUIPMENT

The Contractor shall provide and maintain the following instruments and equipment for the purpose of measurements and setting out. These shall become the property of the Contractor at the end of the Contract :-

1 No. Theodolite of direct read out accurate to 1 second. 2 No. Automatic levels - Wild NA2 or Koni 007 or equivalent. 2 No. Levelling staves - 5 m aluminium. 1 No. 50 m x 5 mm steel measuring band divided throughout and numbered at 5 m intervals. Divided over first 30 m at 1 m intervals. Divided over first 5 m at 50 mm intervals. 1 No. Repair set for the same. 2 No. 30 m steel box tapes, white face. 2 No. 30 m fibreglass box tapes. 10 No. 2.5 m ranging rods. 2 No. 1 m spirit level, steel or aluminium. 2 No. Survey umbrellas. Templates, straightedges, canvas bags, pegs, hammers, parangs, etc.

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Figure 1.1 APPERTURE CARD FOR MICROFILM

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SECTION 2 EARTHWORKS

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SECTION 2 - EARTHWORKS
Page 2.1 CLEARING, GRUBBING AND STRIPPING TOPSOIL Description Clearing Grubbing Stripping Topsoil Construction Methods Areas To Be Cleared Areas To Be Cleared, Grubbed and Stripped Of Topsoil Topsoil Timber Structures Disposal Of Material S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-36 S2-36 S2-36 S2-37 S2-37 S2-38 S2-38 S2-39 S2-39 S2-39 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-41 S2-42 S2-42 S2-42 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-44 S2-45

2.1.1 2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.1.3 2.1.2 2.1.2.1 2.1.2.2 2.1.2.3 2.1.2.4 2.1.2.5 2.1.2.6 2.2

EARTHWORKS Definitions General Requirements Roadway Excavation Dimensional Tolerances Separation and Stockpiling of Suitable Material Removal of Excavated Material From Site Removal of Unsuitable Material Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Widening Cuts Excavation of Rock Storage and Handling of Explosives Blasting Safety Measures Insecure Material Earth Embankment Material Borrow Pits Placement of Fill Material Compaction Rock fill Embankment

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.3.3 2.2.3.4 2.2.3.5 2.2.3.6 2.2.3.7 2.2.3.8 2.2.3.9 2.2.3.10 2.2.3.11 2.2.4 2.2.4.1 2.2.4.2 2.2.4.3 2.2.4.4 2.2.5

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Page

2.2.6 2.2.6.1 2.2.6.2 2.2.6.3 2.2.6.4 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.8.1 2.2.8.2 2.2.8.3

Embankment Over Soft Ground Foundation Treatment Surcharge and Staged Construction Settlement Markers Settlement Records Subgrade Protective Vegetation for Erosion Control Topsoil Turfing Seeding

S2-46 S2-46 S2-46 S2-46 S2-47 S2-47 S2-48 S2-48 S2-48 S2-48

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Standard Specification For Road Works Clearing shall also include the levelling of obsolete dikes, terraces, ditches, etc., unless otherwise directed by the S.O. 2.1.1.2 Grubbing Grubbing shall consist of the removal and disposal of surface vegetation, the bases of stumps, roots, the underground parts of structures, and other obstructions to a depth of at least 0.50 metre below ground level, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 2.1.1.3 Stripping Topsoil Stripping topsoil shall consist of the removal of topsoil to an average depth of at least 100 mm below ground level, and its stockpiling for use in the Works, and/or its disposal, as directed by the S.O. 2.1.2 Construction Methods Areas To Be Cleared The entire road reserve area shall be cleared as described above, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O. Clearing shall be carried out to the extents deemed necessary and approved or directed by the S.O. in areas outside the road reserve where channel excavation or other work is required. In areas which are to be cleared only, and in which grubbing and stripping topsoil are not required, the methods of work shall be such as will not unduly damage the surface vegetation and topsoil, and care shall be taken
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SECTION 2 - EARTHWORKS
2.1 CLEARING, GRUBBING AND STRIPPING TOPSOIL Description This work shall consist of clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil in the areas designated hereunder and/or shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O., and of clearing only in other areas designated here under and/or shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O., all as specified herein and as required by the S.O. The work shall also include the demolition and disposal of structures in said areas, except where otherwise provided for in the Contract, as specified herein and as required by the S.O. 2.1.1.1 Clearing Clearing shall consist of the cutting and/or taking down, removal and disposal of everything above ground level, including objects overhanging the areas to be cleared such as tree branches, except such trees, vegetation, structures or parts of structures, and other things which are designated in the Contract to remain, or be removed by others, or which the S.O. directs are to be left undisturbed. The material to be cleared shall include but not necessarily be limited to trees, stumps (parts above ground), logs, brush, undergrowth, long grasses, crops, loose vegetable matter and structures (except those structures whose removal or clearance is otherwise provided for in the Contract).

2.1.1

2.1.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works This work shall be considered incidental to the work of clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil, and shall not be measured for payment. 2.1.2.3 Topsoil Topsoil to be stockpiled for the Works shall be sufficiently fertile to promote and support the growth of vegetation, and shall be taken from such areas where clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil is required as approved or directed by the S.O. Before stockpiling, topsoil shall be separated from objectionable materials, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The Contractor shall arrange for stockpile sites either within or outside the road reserve, at his own expense, and all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Otherwise, topsoil removed during grubbing and stripping operations shall be separated from objectionable materials and spread within the road reserve or borrow areas, or otherwise disposed of, as approved or directed by the S.O. 2.1.2.4 Timber The ownership of timber is vested in the Government. Saleable timber shall be trimmed and stacked in accordance with the requirements of the appropriate Government agency, in accessible places within the road reserve as approved or directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall have the right to use unsaleable timber (or saleable timber when permission is granted in writing by the
Page 36

not to disturb the topsoil and the root systems of grasses and other surface vegetation. No topsoil shall be removed from such areas, except as directed by the S.O., and any topsoil, grasses and other surface vegetation other wise removed or disturbed shall be replaced and made good at the Contractor's own expense, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 2.1.2.2 Areas To Be Cleared,Grubbed and Stripped Of Topsoil Except as otherwise shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O., clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be carried out in all areas of roadway excavation and in all areas where embankment is to be constructed, except that grubbing and stripping topsoil shall not be carried out in those areas where :i) embankment is to be constructed on earth designated as swamp or soft ground; ii) embankment is to be constructed to a height at the centre-line of 1.50 metres or more on ground with a cross-slope of not more than 1 (vertical) to 30 (horizontal). Clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be carried out to the extents deemed necessary and approved or directed by the S.O. in areas both inside and outside the road reserve where channel excavation or other work is required. Except where further excavation is required, holes and cavities in the ground surface after clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be filled with materials similar to the adjacent ground, and such fill shall be compacted to a dry density similar to that of the surrounding material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.
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Standard Specification For Road Works Combustible material including all timber (except timber to be salvaged or used), all brush, stumps, roots, vegetation and other combustible refuse may be piled up within the road reserve and burned, where burning is allowed. All burning shall be subject to the prior approval of the relevant Government authorities, and shall be carried out in conformance with all pertinent regulations. Burning shall also be carried out at such places and at such times and in such a manner as to prevent fire from damaging vegetation and property within the road reserve designated to be preserved, and from spreading to areas adjoining the road reserve and damaging vegetation and property therein. Should the clearing, grubbing and stripping of topsoil be carried out at a time when burning is not permitted, the Contractor may pile up combustible materials within the road reserve outside the limits of the road works, and burn it at a time when burning is permitted. Where burning is not permitted at any time, or the Contractor elects not to burn unwanted material, combustible material shall be disposed of together with incombustible material.

appropriate Government agency or authority) for his own purposes in connection with the Contract, always provided that he shall comply with the requirements of the S.O. agency or authority) for his own purposes in connection with the Contract, always provided that he shall comply with the requirements of the S.O. 2.1.2.5 Structures Major structures are those which cannot practicably be cleared by bulldozer and/or hydraulic excavator, whose demolition requires pneumatic tools, explosives and/or other specialised equipment. A brief description of each major structure (if any) and depth to which extent it shall be demolished is given in the Bill of Quantities. All fences, buildings, structures, and encumbrances of any character within the limits of the road reserve, except those to be removed by others or designated to remain, shall be demolished and removed by the Contractor. Materials designated in the Contract or directed by the S.O. to be salvaged, shall be carefully removed and stored, and shall be the property of the Government. 2.1.2.6 Disposal Of Material Unwanted material from clearing, grubbing and stripping topsoil (including the demolition of structures) shall be disposed of as approved or directed by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works ii) any material - consisting of highly organic clay and silt; - which is clay having a liquid limit exceeding 80% and/or a plasticity index exceeding 55%; - which is susceptible to spontaneous combustion; - which has a loss of weight greater than 2.5% on ignition; - containing large amounts of roots, grass and other vegetable matter. Materials that are soft or unstable merely because they are too wet or too dry for effective compaction are not to be classified as unsuitable, unless otherwise classified by the S.O. (e) Suitable Materials Suitable materials shall mean those materials other than the unsuitable materials defined in Sub-Section 2.2.1 (d) above. (f) Rock

Incombustible material, including where appropriate the remains of burning, shall be disposed of in a safe and tidy manner at solid waste dumps outside the Site, unless otherwise approved or directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall be solely responsible for making the necessary agreements, and paying expenses and claims arising from the use of such solid waste dumps whether on Government or private land.

2.2

EARTHWORKS Definitions (a) Formation Level Formation level means the top surface of the subgrade. (b) Subgrade Subgrade means that part of the embankment or existing ground in cutting which is immediately below the subbase or lower subbase of the road pavement and shoulders. (c) Common Excavation Common excavation shall mean excavation in any materials which are not rock or artificial hard materials as defined in Sub-Sections 2.2.1 (f) and (g). (d) Unsuitable Materials Unsuitable materials shall include :i) running silt, peat, logs, stumps, perishable or toxic material, slurry or mud, or

2.2.1

Rock shall mean material found in ledges or masses in its original position which would normally have to be loosened either by blasting or by pneumatic tools or, if excavated by hand, by wedges and sledge hammers. It shall not include material which can be loosened with a track-type tractor with mounted and drawn ripper of the following descriptions :-

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Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall provide where necessary temporary water courses, ditches, drains, pumping or other means of maintaining the earthworks free from water. Such provision shall include carrying out the work of forming the cuttings and embankments in such a manner that their surfaces have at all times a sufficient gradient to enable them to shed water and prevent ponding. In pumping out excavations and in the lowering of water tables the Contractor shall pay due regard to the stability of all structures. Adequate means for trapping silt shall be provided on all temporary drainage systems. Similar arrangements shall be made for all earthworks including excavations whether for pile trenches, foundations or cuttings. Should the surface of completed areas be damaged by erosion or by any other cause the Contractor shall at his own cost make good such areas to the satisfaction of the S.O. The Contractor shall exercise care in preventing wastage of suitable material needed for embankment or fill construction. 2.2.3 Roadway Excavation Dimensional Tolerances Slopes in cutting shall be trimmed mechanically to neat and even surfaces which shall have gradients not steeper than that shown on the Drawings. Widths of excavations shall not exceed the dimensions shown on the Drawings by more than 300 mm, unless otherwise approved by the S.O.

i) Tractor Unit : Equipment with a minimum weight of 20 tonnes and nett horse power rating of 200 brake horse power or more. The tractor unit is to be in good condition and operated by experienced personnel skilled in the use of ripping equipment; ii) Ripping Unit : The ripper to be attached to the tractor shall be the most efficient parallelogram type recommended by the tractor or ripper manufacturer. The ripper shall have a single shank in good working condition with sharpened cutting point. Boulders or detached pieces shall only be regarded as rock if they individually exceed 0.5 cubic metre. (g) Artificial Hard Material This shall mean any hard artificial material which would require the use of blasting or approved pneumatic tools for its removal but shall exclude individual masses less than 0.5 cubic metre. 2.2.2 General Requirements The work shall include the excavation of all types of material, backfilling, compaction, forming embankments and slopes, etc., as is necessary for the completion of the Works up to the formation levels, in accordance with the lines, grades, dimensions, shapes and typical cross- sections shown on the Drawings and to the approval of the S.O.

2.2.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 2.2.3.4 Removal of Unsuitable Material Unsuitable material shall be excavated to such depth and over such area as directed by the S.O. and be transported and disposed of in an approved manner. Unless approval of the S.O. to dump and spread the unsuitable materials within the Site is obtained, the Contractor shall be responsible for providing his own dump site for such unsuitable materials. The Contractor shall comply with statutory requirements such as payment of royalties, environmental protection, etc. Voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled with suitable material compacted to a dry density not less than that of the surrounding material or that specified for the respective part of the earthworks or as directed by the S.O. 2.2.3.5 Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Where it is decided by the S.O. that replacement of unsuitable material shall be done under standing water, voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled with hard clean crushed rock, natural gravel or sand having grading within the respective limits specified in Table 2.1. 2.2.3.6 Widening Cuts The S.O. may instruct the Contractor or the Contractor himself may elect to obtain material for the Works by widening cuts. In the latter case, the Contractor shall first request permission in writing from the S.O.

2.2.3.2

Separation and Stockpiling of Suitable Material Where excavation reveals a combination of suitable and unsuitable materials, the Contractor shall, wherever the S.O. considers it practicable, carry out the excavation in such a manner that the suitable materials are excavated separately for use in the Works without contamination by the unsuitable materials. The Contractor shall stockpile separately material for subgrade as specified in SubSection 2.2.7.

2.2.3.3

Removal of Excavated Material From Site No excavated material shall be removed from the Site except on the direction or with the approval of the S.O. Should the Contractor be permitted to remove suitable materials from the Site to suit his operational procedure, then he shall make good any consequent deficit of fill material arising there from, at his own expense. Unless designated dump sites have been shown on the Drawings, the Contractor shall dispose of surplus suitable material at his own dump areas outside the Site as approved by the S.O. In doing so, the Contractor shall comply with statutory requirements such as payment of royalties, environ mental protection, etc.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Where the rock is of satisfactory quality, the Contractor may elect to crush and screen it to produce aggregates required for concrete, roadbase, subbase, or other purposes. Excavated rock needed for earth work construction which the Contractor elects so to use for producing select materials shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense by borrow of satisfactory quality approved by the S.O. Otherwise, excavated rock shall be used in the construction of embankment and fill, to the fullest practical extent, in either of the two following ways :-

TABLE 2.1 -

GRADING LIMITS OF MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF UNSUITABLE MATERIAL

B.S. Sieve Size

% Passing By Weight

Crushed Rock or Gravel 63.0 mm 37.5 mm 20.0 mm 10.0 mm Sand 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 1.18 mm 300 um 150 um 100 90 - 100 45 - 80 10 - 30 2 - 10 100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0-5

i) excavated rock shall be broken down to a maximum particle size of 400 mm and used as rock fill as described in Sub-Section 2.2.5; ii) excavated rock shall be broken down to a maximum particle size of 150 mm, blended with suitable earth fill material in a proportion not exceeding 1 rock to 1 earth, and used as common fill. The Contractor may only waste excavated rock with the approval of the S.O. Excavated rock needed for earthwork construction which the Contractor elects to waste shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense by borrow of satisfactory quality approved by the S.O.

2.2.3.7

Excavation of Rock Rock excavation shall be carried out by methods appropriate to Site requirements as approved by the S.O. Where explosives shall be used, the relevant security regulations dealing with purchase, transport, handling, storage and usage of explosives shall be complied with. All material from rock excavations shall be used as far as is practicable in the Works.

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Standard Specification For Road Works All necessary precautions shall be taken to preserve in the soundest possible condition the materials below and beyond the lines of all excavations. Delayed blasting to reduce shock waves shall be used to avoid damage to concrete and other works already completed. As the excavation approaches its final lines, blasting shall be carried out by means of parallel drill holes perpendicular to the toe of the excavation and parallel to the finally required face. 2.2.3.10 Safety Measures When blasting is carried out close to properties or roads, appropriate safety rules shall be strictly adhered to. Where necessary or as directed by the S.O., the use of heavy mesh blasting mats shall be used to ensure that no damage is caused to persons or property on or off Site. Special care shall be taken in wet ground to ensure that individual explosions are reduced to such size as to preclude damage to any buildings or structures. Plaster shooting will not be permitted within 400 metres of any building or structure. If traffic on any road or railway has to be interrupted for blasting operations, the Contractor shall obtain approval of his schedule for such interruption from the appropriate authorities and shall prove to the S.O. that he has obtained it, prior to the interruption.

2.2.3.8

Storage and Handling of Explosives Proper buildings or magazines, with separate compartments for detonators, in suitable positions for the storage of explosives in manner and quantities to be approved shall be provided. The prevention of any unauthorised issue or improper use of any explosive brought on the Works shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and only experienced and responsible men shall be employed to handle explosives for the purpose of the Works.

2.2.3.9

Blasting Explosives shall be used in the quantities and manner recommended by the manufacturers. Blasting shall be restricted to such periods as the S.O. may prescribe. If, in the opinion of the S.O., blasting would be dangerous to persons or property or to any finished work, or is being carried on in a reckless manner, he may prohibit it, and order the rock to be excavated by other means. The use of explosives in large blasts, i.e. exceeding 9 kg of explosive, as in seams, drifts, shafts, pits, or large holes, is prohibited unless authorised in writing by the S.O. Such authorisation shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his liabilities under the Conditions of Contract.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 2.2.4.2 Borrow Pits The Contractor shall be responsible for locating borrow pits. Designated borrow pits shown on the Drawings only indicate to the Contractor potential areas for borrow. Whether the Contractor obtains materials from the designated or his own borrow pit, it shall be his responsibility to ascertain the suitability of the pit with respect to the quantity and quality of the materials, which shall be subject to the approval of the S.O. The Contractor shall pay all necessary fees, taxes or royalties to the appropriate authorities and observe all relevant regulations. The Contractor shall keep the borrow pits free from ponding water and the excavation neat and tidy and shall carry out necessary erosion protection measures as instructed by the S.O. 2.2.4.3 Placement of Fill Material All fill materials shall be deposited in layers. The loose depth for each layer of fill shall be determined from the trial compaction. Each layer shall extend over the full width of the fill area and shall be compacted in accordance with the requirements of SubSection 2.2.4.4. Each compacted layer shall be maintained at all times with a sufficiently even surface in order to drain away the sur face water.

2.2.3.11 Insecure Material The slopes of cuttings shall be cleared of all rock fragments which move when prised with a crow-bar. Where, in the slopes of cuttings, layers of rock and soft material alternate and the S.O. considers that the slope, immediately after dressing, will not permanently withstand the effect of weather, the Contractor shall excavate any insecure material to an approved depth and build up the resulting spaces with grade 15P/20 concrete or masonry using rock similar to the adjoining natural rock so as to ensure a solid face. 2.2.4 Earth Embankment 2.2.4.1 Material Fill materials for use in forming embankments shall be the suitable material obtained from excavation in cuttings. Where the quantity of such materials is inadequate, the Contractor shall obtain suitable materials from the designated borrow pits or from his own borrow pits which have been approved by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Compaction shall be undertaken to the requirements of this Section by plant approved by the S.O. All compaction requirements shall be controlled by means of field density measurement. For compaction of embankment slope, the Contractor may either extend each compacted layer beyond the design slope surface by at least 600 mm and then trim back to the required slope angle, or he may employ a tow type roller to compact the sloping surface. (b) Compaction Trials The B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) shall be used in determining the moisture versus density relation of soil. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his approval the proposed method of compaction for each main type of material to be used in the embankment. This shall include the type of compaction plant for each type of material and the number of passes in relation to the loose depth of material to achieve desired compaction. The maximum compacted thickness for fill shall be limited to 300 mm unless otherwise approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall carry out field compaction trials, supplemented by any necessary laboratory investigations, as required by the S.O.

Where embankment is to be constructed on ground with a cross-slope flatter than 1 (vertical) to 10 (horizontal) but steeper than 1 (vertical) to 30 (horizontal), the foundation material, except where this is rock, shall be scarified to a depth of 100 mm, blended with embankment fill material and compacted as described in SubSection 2.2.4.4. Where embankment is to be constructed against existing embankment or on ground with a cross-slope of 1 or more (vertical) to 10 (horizontal), the foundation shall be excavated in all materials (including hard rock) to form benches with horizontal and vertical faces from which con struction of the embankment shall proceed. The benches shall be contiguous beneath the full width of the embankment, and shall be of a suitable width to accomodate construction equipment such as motor-graders, trucks, rollers, etc. Scarifying of the horizontal and vertical faces of the benches shall not normally be required, and the material excavated in forming the benches may normally be used as fill in the embankment as approved by the S.O. 2.2.4.4 Compaction (a) General All materials used in embankments and as fill elsewhere shall be compacted as soon as practicable after being placed and spread.

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Standard Specification For Road Works moisture content at which each soil type shall be compacted. Water shall be added, or the material aerated and dried to adjust the soil to the proper moisture content to obtain the required density. A satisfactory method and sufficient equipment as approved by the S.O. shall be used for the furnishing and handling of water. If the natural water content of suitable materials is too high for the proper compaction to be carried out, the Contractor can either bring down the moisture content by aeration or drying or alternatively replace it with suitable materials of compactable moisture range at his own cost. 2.2.5 Rock fill Embankment Rock used in rock fill embankments shall be of maximum particle size of 400 mm so that it can be deposited in horizontal layers, each not exceeding 500 mm in compacted depth and extending over the full width of the embankment except for any specified external cover to slopes or new formation level. The materials shall be spread and levelled by a crawler tractor weighing not less than 15 tonnes. Each layer shall consist of reasonably well graded rock and all large voids shall be filled with broken fragments before the next layer is placed. The top surface and side slopes of embankments so formed shall be thoroughly blinded with approved fine graded material to seal the surface.

This shall be done by using the procedures proposed by the Contractor for earthworks and shall satisfy the S.O. that all the specified requirements regarding compaction can be achieved. Compaction trials with the main types of material likely to be encountered shall be completed before the works with the corresponding materials will be allowed to commence. Each trial area shall be not smaller than 8 m x 15 m. (c) Degree of Compaction The whole of the embankment below the top 300 mm of the subgrade shall be compacted to not less than 90% (for cohesive material) or 95% (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). (d) Field Density Testing Field density tests on each layer of compacted earth fill shall be carried out using the sand replacement method in accordance with B.S. 1377 or by using other means of testing of comparable accuracy approved by the S.O. (e) Moisture Control Each layer of earth fill shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material, suitable for compaction. The optimum moisture content as determined by the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) shall be used as a guide in determining the proper
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Standard Specification For Road Works 2.2.6.2 Surcharge and Staged Construction Where indicated in the Contract or directed by the S.O., the embankment shall be built to different heights in stages with or without surcharge with allowance for consolidation time periods in between stages, all in accordance with the Contract. Where sur charge is specified, the Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of surcharge material and the removal and disposal of excess material on completion of consolidation or when directed by the S.O. 2.2.6.3 Settlement Markers Markers shall be provided and installed by the Contractor in the positions indicated on the Drawings for the purpose of measuring settlements taking place under the embankments during and after the construction period. The design of markers shall be as shown on the Drawings and the Contractor shall be responsible for supplying and installing such markers and for extending the markers as the work proceeds. Adjustments to the height of markers shall be made when required by the S.O. Each marker shall be identified by painting on it the chainage of its position. The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to protect markers from damage by plant and vehicles at all times and shall repair any such damage to the satisfaction of the S.O. Readily visible barriers shall be installed around each marker.

There shall be a transition layer between rock fill and earth fill or the top 300 mm of subgrade of at least 300 mm compacted thickness. This shall consist of uniformly graded crushed rock between 6 mm and 150 mm as approved by the S.O. Each layer of rock used as rock fill in embankments shall be systematically compacted by at least 12 passes of a vibrating roller with a static load per 25 mm width of roll of at least 45 kg or a grid roller with load per 25 mm width of roll of at least 200 kg or other approved plant. 2.2.6 Embankment Over Soft Ground 2.2.6.1 Foundation Treatment Prior to forming embankment over soft ground, the soil over which fill material shall be placed shall be given strength improvement treatment as specified and to the details as shown on the Drawings or as directed or approved by the S.O. Treatment by means of replacement of unsuitable material shall be as specified in Sub-Sections 2.2.3.4 and 2.2.3.5. The first layer or layers of fill materials shall be deposited over the full width of the embankment and berms in thicknesses and compacted as approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall provide compaction plant suitable for working over soft ground.

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Standard Specification For Road Works (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). If the S.O. is fully satisfied that the subgrade in its natural state possesses a density exceeding the requirements, then the surface of the subgrade shall be trimmed and rolled to obtain a smooth finish. Where the material in cut area is found to be unsuitable for use in the top 300 mm of subgrade it shall be removed and replaced with suitable material which shall be compacted as indicated above. The subgrade shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner, and the widths of embankments and cuts shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centreline. The top surface of the subgrade shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades and shall be finished everywhere to with in + 10 mm and minus 30 mm of the required level. i) Where rock surface extends over the whole width of the formation :The rock surface shall be trimmed to a free draining profile, at or below formation levels. No high spot shall protrude above the formation levels. Any voids or cavities more than 0.5 metre below the formation level shall be filled up with approved lean concrete having 7-day cube strength greater than 7 N/sq.mm. The rock surface shall then be brought up to the formation levels with approved
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2.2.6.4

Settlement Records Joint measurement of settlement shall be taken weekly while fill is being placed in the vicinity of the markers. Thereafter, readings shall be taken fortnightly for a period as directed by the S.O. The readings shall be submitted on an approved printed form to be supplied by the Contractor. For the measurement of the volume that has settled below the original level of the foundation of the embankment, the measured settlement of each marker shall be used for volume computation following the method shown on the Drawings.

2.2.7

Subgrade Material for the top 300 mm of subgrade shall have a minimum California Bearing Ratio (CBR) as shown on the Drawings when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) under 4 days soaked condition. Throughout the top 300 mm of subgrade, the material shall be compacted to not less than 95% (for cohesive material) or 100% (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). In cut area, the top 300 mm of the subgrade shall be scarified and recompacted to 95% (for cohesive material) or 100%

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Standard Specification For Road Works Turf sods shall be stacked and watered when they cannot be laid immediately after cutting. The surfaces to be turfed shall be trimmed and thoroughly wetted. The turf shall then be carefully laid to form a complete and uniform cover as shown on the Drawings. Turf laid on slopes steeper than 1 (vertical) and 3 (horizontal) shall be pegged down with bamboo stakes approximately 250 mm in length. Approved fertiliser shall be applied after placing of turf at suitable times and at rates of application approved by the S.O. All turf shall be regularly watered and fertilised to the satisfaction of the S.O. until the vegetation is satisfactorily established. Any dead turf shall be replaced with new turf at the Contractor's own expense.

crushed rock or gravel, regulated and blinded. ii) Where rock outcrop occurs over part of the formation only:The rock outcrop shall be cut down to a level not less than 300 mm below the formation level. The surface shall then be brought up to level with suitable subgrade material. 2.2.8 Protective Vegetation for Erosion Control 2.2.8.1 Topsoil Topsoil stockpiled for the Works in accordance with Sub- Sections 2.1.1.3 and 2.1.2.3 shall be spread and lightly compacted to an even thickness of 50 mm as directed by the S.O. in areas to be turfed and/or seeded, or used as the S.O. shall otherwise direct for tree planting and other purposes. 2.2.8.2 Turfing 2.2.8.3 Turfing shall be carried out as soon as practicable on all earth slopes and other areas as shown on the Drawings and/or where directed by the S.O. The type of turf shall be as indicated on the Drawings or other alternative type as approved by the S.O. and shall be free of lallang and essentially free of weeds. Turf shall be obtained in unbroken sods with a substantial amount of topsoil and shall be approximately 250 mm x 250 mm in size and 100 mm thick, from an approved source, and shall be placed in position as soon as practicable after cutting.

Seeding Seeding or hydroseeding shall be carried out as soon as practicable on slopes and other areas as shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his consideration and approval, at least four (4) weeks in advance of the proposed work, full details of his proposed method of seeding or hydroseeding. The information submitted shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, a full description of the following aspects of the work :-

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Standard Specification For Road Works xii) the cultivation and after-care of the seeded areas, including rates and frequencies of watering, fertilising, grass cutting and general maintenance for at least 1 year after seeding; the time after seeding required for establishing permanent, dense growth of grasses, which will require minimal maintenance; guarantees of the success of the seeding work.

i) the preparation of the areas to be seeded or hydroseeded, including if appropriate the amount of top soil to be used and its method of application; ii) the details and results of investigations to determine which types of grass and legume are compatible with the soil in the areas to be seeded; iii) the types of grass and legume (if any) and strains of seed to be used, and the function, root and growth characteristics of each type; iv) the rates of application of the grass and legume seeds; v) the composition of fertiliser to be used at the time of seeding and its rate of application; vi) the composition of fertiliser to be used after seeding, the times of application after seeding, and the rates of application; vii) the type of mulch to be used and its method and rate of application; viii) the amounts of lime or other chemicals (if any) to be applied to improve the soil before, during and/or after seeding; ix) the type and amounts of binding agent to be applied with the seeds, mulch, fertiliser, etc., as appropriate. x) the proportions and methods of preparation of the seeding mix; xi) the equipment and methods to be used in preparing and placing the seeding mix and other materials;
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

xiii)

xiv)

All grass shall be regularly watered until the vegetation is satisfactorily established to the satisfaction of the S.O. Any dead grass shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 3 DRAINAGE WORKS

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 3 - DRAINAGE WORKS
Page 3.1 3.2 GENERAL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING FOR DRAINAGE WORKS Description S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-55 S3-55 S3-56

3.2.1

3.2.2 Materials 3.2.2.1 Excavation 3.2.2.2 Granular Bedding Material 3.2.2.3 Concrete Bedding 3.2.2.4 Ordinary Backfill Material 3.2.2.5 Granular Backfill Material 3.2.2.6 Concrete Backfill 3.2.3 3.2.4 Excavation Backfilling with Ordinary or Granular Backfill Material

3.3

CHANNEL EXCAVATION Description Materials Construction Methods

S3-57 S3-57 S3-57 S3-58

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3

3.4

SURFACE DRAINAGE Surface Drainage Types Surface Drain Construction Unlined Drains Cast In Situ Concrete Drains Precast Concrete Drain Sections

S3-58 S3-58 S3-58 S3-58 S3-59 S3-59

3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.2.1 3.4.2.2 3.4.2.3

3.5

STONE PITCHING Description Materials Stone Cement Mortar

S3-60 S3-60 S3-60 S3-60 S3-60

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.2.1 3.5.2.2

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3.5.3 Construction Methods 3.5.3.1 Grouted Stone Pitching 3.5.3.2 Ungrouted Stone Pitching 3.6 GABIONS Description Materials Wire Mesh Gabions Polyvinyl Chloride Coating Stone Construction Methods

S3-60 S3-60 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-62 S3-62 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-65 S3-65 S3-65 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66

3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.2.1 3.6.2.2 3.6.2.3 3.6.3 3.7

BRICKWORK Description Materials Common Bricks Cement Mortar Construction Methods Brick Laying Plastering Brickwork

3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.2.1 3.7.2.2 3.7.3 3.7.3.1 3.7.3.2 3.8

SUBSOIL DRAINS

3.8.1 Description 3.8.2 Materials 3.8.2.1 Pipes 3.8.2.2 Filter Material 3.8.2.3 Filter Cloth 3.8.2.4 Cement Mortar 3.8.3 Construction Methods 3.9 R.C. PIPE CULVERTS Description Materials Pipes Cement Mortar Bedding Material

3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.2.1 3.9.2.2 3.9.2.3

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Standard Specification For Road Works Page

3.9.3 Excavation and Backfilling for R.C. Pipe Culverts 3.9.3.1 Excavation 3.9.3.2 Backfilling 3.9.4 Installation of R.C. Pipe Culverts 3.9.4.1 General 3.9.4.2 Butt Ended Pipe Culverts with Precast Concrete Collars 3.9.4.3 Rebated Pipe Culverts 3.9.4.4 Spigot and Socket Pipe Culverts 3.10 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE CULVERTS 3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.2.1 3.10.2.2 3.10.2.3 3.10.2.4 3.10.2.5 3.10.3 Description Materials Pipes Bitumen Coating Bolts and Nuts Cement Mortar Bedding Material Excavation and Backfilling for Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts

S3-67 S3-67 S3-68 S3-68 S3-68 S3-68 S3-69 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-71 S3-71 S3-71 S3-71 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-73 S3-73 S3-73 S3-73 S3-74 S3-74 S3-74

3.10.4 Installation of Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts 3.10.4.1 General 3.10.4.2 Mortar Lining 3.11 3.11.1 3.11.2 3.11.2.1 3.11.2.2 3.11.2.3 3.11.3 3.11.3.1 3.11.3.2 3.11.4 3.12 PRECAST BOX CULVERTS Description Materials Precast Box Culverts Cement Mortar Bedding Material Excavation and Backfilling Excavation for Precast Box Culverts Backfilling Installation of Precast Box Culverts

EXTENSION OF CULVERTS

3.12.1 Extension of Pipe Culverts 3.12.2 Extension of Box Culverts

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.2.2 Materials Excavation Material excavated shall be classified as common excavation or rock as defined in Section 2 of this Specification. 3.2.2.2 Granular Bedding Material Granular bedding material for the foundations of structures shall be suitably graded broken rubble, crushed stone, crushed gravel, sand or other material as specified on the Drawings or as required by the S.O. 3.2.2.3 Concrete Bedding Concrete bedding or blinding for the foundations of structures shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification for the class of concrete specified on the Drawings or required by the S.O. 3.2.2.4 Ordinary Backfill Material Ordinary backfill material shall be suitable material as defined in Section 2 of this Specification. The maximum particle size of the backfill material shall be 50 mm. 3.2.2.5 Granular Backfill Material Granular backfill material shall be sand, crushed stone, crushed gravel or a mixture of crushed and natural aggregates, shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter and clay, and shall not contain lateritic or concretionary materials.

SECTION 3 - DRAINAGE WORKS

3.2.2.1 3.1 GENERAL This work shall consist of the construction of surface drains, subsoil drains, pipe culverts, box culverts, sumps and other drainage structures in accordance with this Specification or as directed by the S.O. Drainage works shall be constructed to the lines, levels, grades and cross-sections shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

3.2

EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING FOR DRAINAGE WORKS Description This work shall consist of excavation for the construction of surface drains, subsoil drains, cast in site box culverts, and other drainage structures, except pipe culverts, not otherwise provided for in this Specification, and shall include furnishing, placing, compacting and shaping foundation bedding materials, backfilling excavations against completed structures with suitable material or granular backfill where specified, and the removal and disposal of all excess excavated material, in accordance with this Specification and as shown on the Drawings and as required by the S.O. Excavation and backfill for pipe culverts and precast box culverts shall be in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 3.9.

3.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.2.2.6 Concrete Backfill Concrete backfill where specified shall be of the grade as shown on the Drawings and shall con form to Section 9 of this Specification. 3.2.3 Excavation The Contractor shall notify the S.O. sufficiently in advance of the beginning of any excavation so that cross-section elevations and measurements may be taken of the undisturbed ground. The natural ground adjacent to the structure shall not be disturbed without permission of the S.O. Trenches and foundation pits for structures and structure footings and underdrains shall be excavated to the lines, grades and elevations shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Excavations must be kept free from water and temporary drains, sumps and pumps shall be provided when necessary. The rate of excavation and backfill shall be approved by the S.O. The elevations of the bottoms of footings shown on the Drawings are approximate only and the S.O. may order in writing such changes in the dimensions or elevations of footings as may be deemed necessary to secure a satis factory foundation. Boulders, logs and other objectionable materials encountered in excavation shall be removed. After each excavation is completed the Contractor shall notify the S.O. to that effect and no footing, bedding material or structure shall be placed until the S.O.

The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the fines shall be non-plastic; ii) sand shall have a gradation conforming to the envelope shown in Table 3.1;
TABLE 3.1 - GRADING LIMITS FOR SAND BACKFILL

B.S. Sieve Size 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 1.18 mm 300 um 150 um

% Passing By Weight 100 90 - 100 45 - 80 10 - 30 2 - 10

iii) material other than sand shall have a gradation conforming to one of the envelopes shown in Table 3.2.
TABLE 3.2 - GRADING LIMITS FOR GRANULAR BACKFILL OTHER THAN SAND

B.S. Sieve Size 37.5mm 28.0mm 20.0mm 10.0mm 5.0mm 2.0mm 425um 75um

% Passing By Weight A B 100 70 –100 60 – 90 45 – 75 30 – 60 20 – 50 10 – 30 0–2 100 70 - 100 45 - 75 35 - 65 25 - 50 10 - 30 0–2

C 100 45 – 75 30 – 60 15 – 35 0–2

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Standard Specification For Road Works All excavated material, so far as suitable, shall be utilized as backfill or embankment. The surplus material, whether or not temporarily allowed to be placed within a stream area, shall be finally disposed of in such a manner as not to obstruct the stream nor otherwise impair the efficiency or appearance of the works, nor is it to endanger the partly finished structure. Excavated material suitable for use as backfill may be deposited by the Contractor in storage piles at points convenient for rehandling of the material during the backfilling operation. Excavated material shall be deposited in such places and in such a manner as not to cause damage to highway, services or property either within or outside the road reserve, and so as to cause no impediment to the drainage of the Site or surrounding area. 3.2.4 Backfilling with Ordinary or Granular Backfill Material All spaces excavated under this Specification and not occupied by a permanent structure shall be backfilled. Backfill material shall be free from large lumps, wood and other extraneous material. Backfill not within the embankment areas shall be placed in layers not more than 250 mm in depth (compacted measurement) and shall be compacted to a density comparable with the adjacent undisturbed material.

to that effect and no footing, bedding material or structure shall be placed until the S.O. has approved the depth of excavation and the character of the foundation material. Rock and other hard foundation material shall be cleared of all loose material and cut to a firm surface, either level or stepped or serrated, as specified or shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. All seams and crevices shall be cleared out and grouted with Portland cement grout at the time the footing is placed. All loose and disintegrated rock and thin strata shall be removed. When the footing is to rest on material other than rock, special care shall be taken not to disturb the bottom of the excavation, and excavation to final grade shall be deferred until just before the footing is to be placed. When, in the opinion of the S.O., the foundation material is soft or mucky or otherwise unsuitable, the Contractor shall remove the unsuitable material and insert foundation fill material or concrete as specified or shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. If foundation fill material is required it shall be placed and compacted in layers not more than 150 mm thick or as directed by the S.O. The degree of compaction shall be equivalent to that of the surrounding foundations. All excavation surfaces and surfaces of backfill material against which concrete is to be placed shall be even and firm and true to line and level.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Special care shall be taken to prevent any unduly high pressures against the structures. The placing of embankment and the benching of slopes shall continue in such a manner that at all times there will be a horizontal berm of thoroughly compacted material for a distance at least equal to the height of the abutment or wall to be back filled. 3.3 CHANNEL EXCAVATION 3.3.1 Description This work shall consist of excavation for waterway channels both inside and outside the road reserve as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O., and shall include all required excavation for widening, training or permanently diverting rivers, streams and irrigation and drainage channels other than drains and ditches appurtenant to the roadway, except excavation of top soil for use in the Works and excavation required for clearing and grubbing. This work shall also include the backfilling of old channels, haulage to their points of utilization in the Works or the removal and disposal of all excavated materials, the construction of appurtenant bunds, dikes and berms, and the shaping and finishing of all earthworks involved in the construction of channels in accor dance with the required lines, levels, grades and cross-sections. 3.3.2 Materials Channel excavation shall be classified as common excavation or rock as specified in Section 2 of this Specification.

Backfill within the embankment areas shall be made with approved material placed in uniform layers not to exceed 150 mm in depth (compacted measurement) and each layer shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2 of this Specification except that mechanical tampers may be used for compaction. Each layer of backfill shall be wetted uniformly as necessary and compacted to the same requirements as the adjacent earthwork as specified in Section 2 of this Specification. Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., hand tamping will not be accepted. In placing backfill and embankment, the material shall be placed insofar as possible to approximately the same height on both sides of the structure. If conditions require backfilling appreciably higher on one side, the additional material on the higher side shall not be placed until permission is given by the S.O. or until the S.O. is satisfied that the structure has enough strength to withstand any pressure created. Backfill for embankment shall not be placed behind the walls of box culverts until the top slab is placed for the required time and not less than three days. Backfill and embankment behind abutments held at the top by superstructure shall be carried up simultaneously behind opposite abutments and side walls. No backfilling shall be placed against any structure until permission shall have been given by the S.O. Jetting of fill or other hydraulic methods involving, or likely to involve, liquid or semi-liquid pressure shall be prohibited.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Sections of channel abandoned owing to diversions shall be back filled as directed by the S.O.

3.3.3 Construction Methods All suitable materials removed from channel excavations shall be used for backfilling waterways to be abandoned and constructing bunds, dikes and other earth appurtenances as required. Surplus suitable materials shall be used as far as is practicable in constructing the roadway. The Contractor shall provide borrow of satisfactory q quality and approved by the S.O. should this be necessary to complete the work. Borrow which is required to replace suitable excavated materials needed for construction which the Contractor elects to waste shall not be paid for. Excavated unsuitable material, suitable material surplus to that needed for construction and suitable material that the Contractor elects to waste, shall be disposed of at designated areas in such a manner as to present a neat appearance and not obstruct flow in any channels, ditches or drains, nor cause damage to highway works or property, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. During construction, channel excavations shall be kept drained as far as is practicable and the work shall be carried out in a neat and workmanlike manner. All channels and appurtenances shall be excavated and constructed to the lines, levels, grades and crosssections shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Excavation beyond the limits required shall not be paid for and shall be backfilled at the Contractor's expense as directed by the S.O. should he deem it necessary.

3.4

SURFACE DRAINAGE Surface Drainage Types Surface drains of the types shown on the Drawings shall be constructed to the lines, levels, grades and crosssections as specified or as directed by the S.O. Surface drains shall include interceptor drains, roadside drains, embankment toe drains, shoulder drains, bench drains, berm drains, median drains, outfall drains, cascade drains, etc. Any of the above drains may be constructed either unlined or lined using cast in situ concrete, precast or porous concrete drain sections, or stone pitching.

3.4.1

3.4.2

Surface Drain Construction Unlined Drains Excavation for unlined drains shall be trimmed to form a smooth, firm surface to the required lines, levels, grades and cross-sections as shown on the Drawings or as required by the S.O. Any areas of over excavation shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O., all at the Contractor's expense.

3.4.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Ready made precast concrete drain sections may be used subject to the approval of the S.O. Samples of ready made drain sections shall be submitted to the S.O. for his approval before placing of orders. Notwithstanding any approval given by the S.O., any defective or broken drain section shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense before or after laying in position. Precast concrete drain sections shall be laid on concrete bedding in trenches excavated to the lines and levels as specified and jointed to produce a neat even alignment and gradient. The joint shall be grouted with 1:3 cement mortar complying with SubSection 3.5.2.2 and weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Porous concrete shall comply with the requirements of porous concrete for pipes as described in M.S. 525. Cement and aggregates used in the manufacture of the porous concrete drain sections shall con form to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Mass concrete for bases shall be of grade 10/25 concrete or as specified and to the dimensions and thicknesses as shown on the Drawings.

3.4.2.2

Cast In Situ Concrete Drains Excavation shall be carried out to the lines and levels as specified and as shown on the Drawings. Templates which may be of timber or steel shall then be provided to ensure the thickness and shape of the concrete drains. The concrete shall be poured in sections not exceeding 2 m in length and shall be carried out between end forms in alternate bays. Construction joints shall not be formed in the inverts. All concrete shall be grade 20/20 concrete unless otherwise specified and shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Weep holes shall be cast in situ as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

3.4.2.3

Precast Concrete Drain Sections Precast concrete block inverts shall be of the shapes and dimensions as shown on the Drawings and shall be of grade 20/20 concrete conforming to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification or of porous concrete unless otherwise specified. The precast concrete drain sections shall be manufactured using good quality moulds and the finished product shall be round and have smooth inside surfaces all to the approval of the S.O. Ready made precast concrete drain sections may be used subject to the approval of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.5.2.2 Cement Mortar Cement mortar, unless otherwise specified, shall contain 1 part ordinary Portland cement to 3 parts fine aggregate by volume. Water shall be added to the mix to produce a suitable consistency for the intended use, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The constituent materials of the mortar shall comply with the appropriate requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. The ingredients for mortar shall be measured in proper gauge boxes and mixed on a clean boarded platform or in an approved mechanical batch mixer. All mortar shall be used within 30 minutes of mixing and no reworking of mortar shall be permitted thereafter. 3.5.3 Construction Methods Grouted Stone Pitching Prior to constructing grouted stone pitching, the surfaces against which it is to be placed shall have been finished in accordance with the appropriate provisions of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of these finished surfaces, any damage to or deterioration of them shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before grouted stone pitching is placed.

3.5

STONE PITCHING Description This work shall consist of the construction of all structures or parts of structures to be composed of stone pitching either grouted or ungrouted as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. including erosion protection pavements and aprons, drain linings, culvert inlets and outlets, etc. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and to the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as required by the S.O.

3.5.1

3.5.2

Materials Stone Stone shall be clean rough quarry stone, or pit or river cobbles, or a mixture of any of these materials, and shall be essentially free from dust, clay, vegetative matter and other deleterious materials. Individual pieces of stone shall be approximately cubical or spherical and shall have least dimensions in the range 100 to 150 mm and a maximum dimension of 250 mm, maximum, unless otherwise specified. The stone shall be hard, tough, durable and dense, resistant to the action of air and water, and suitable in all respects for the purpose intended.

3.5.2.1

3.5.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works building up the structure to full thickness is commenced on any section of the work, as the con struction advances. The work shall be carried out and finished all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.5.3.2 Ungrouted Stone Pitching Where shown on the Drawings, ungrouted stone pitching shall be hand set to provide maximum interlocking effect. The stones, the largest of which shall be used at the bottom, shall be well bedded on a 75 mm layer of gravel or aggregate rammed to an even surface. The whole work shall be finished to the satisfaction of the S.O 3.6 GABIONS Description This work shall consist of the construction of miscellaneous erosion protection and retaining structures to be composed of stone filled wire mesh gabions. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and as shown on the Drawings and/or as approved by the S.O. 3.6.2 Materials Wire Mesh Gabions Gabions shall be rectangular baskets of the required dimensions as shown on the Drawings or ordered by the S.O. Unless otherwise specified, they shall be of the following standard dimensions :-

Construction of grouted stone pitching shall commence at the lowest part of each structure or section of a structure and continue progressively upward. Long structures such as drain linings and slope protection pavements shall be constructed in sections of practicable length, to the satisfaction of the S.O. The surface against which the work is to be placed shall be moistened with clean water a little in advance of construction, and covered with a layer of cement mortar about 50 mm thick. Stones shall then be firmly set by hand into the mortar, densely packed against adjacent stones and built up to form a stone structure of more or less uniform thickness which shall nowhere be less than 150 mm (measured per pendicularly to the surface covered). All the while that stones are being placed, all voids in the structure shall be packed solidly with mortar and stone spalls; however the surfaces of stones in the exposed faces and edges shall not be covered with mortar. The exposed surfaces and edges of the structure shall be constructed such that they have as large a proportion as practicable composed of stone faces. Weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Mortar which has been mixed for more than 30 minutes shall not be used in the works. Nor shall mortar be laid against the supporting surface more than 2 minutes before pitching stone and

3.6.1

3.6.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Gabion mesh shall be triple twisted and shall have a uniform hexagonal pattern with openings of 100 x 120 mm or less. The mesh shall be securely tied to selvage wires to form rectangular panels which shall be securely wired together to form the completed gabion baskets. The ties and connections for each gabion basket shall comprise not less than 8% of its total weight, and the fabrication shall be all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.6.2.2 Polyvinyl Chloride Coating When specified on the Drawings, all wire used in the fabrication of gabions and in the wiring operation during construction shall, after galvanising, have extruded on to it a coating of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The PVC coating, not inclusive of galvanising, shall nowhere be less than 0.55 mm in thickness. 3.6.2.3 Stone Stone fill for gabions shall be clean rough quarry stone, or pit or river cobbles, or a mixture of any of these materials, and shall be essentially free from dust, clay, vegetative matter and other deleterious materials. Individual pieces of stone shall have least dimensions not less than 20 mm larger than the gabion mesh openings and greatest dimensions not more than 250 mm. The stone shall be hard, tough, durable and dense, resistant to the action of air and water, and suitable in all aspects for the purpose intended. The material shall be approved by the S.O.

i) width - 1.00 metre; ii) length - 1.00, 2.00 or 3.00 metres; iii) height - 0.50 or 1.00 metre. Gabions longer than 1.00 m shall be divided into compartments of equal length not exceeding 1.00 m by wire mesh diaphragms securely tied along all edges. Each gabion or compartment of a gabion shall be provided with at least 4 cross-connecting wires if its height is 0.50 m or less, and with at least 8 cross-connecting wires if its height is in the range 0.50 to 1.00 metre. Gabions shall be fabricated from steel wire manufactured in accordance with B.S. 1052 and galvanised in accordance with M.S. 407, or such similar standards as the S.O. shall approve. The galvanised wire sizes used shall be in accordance with Table 3.3.
TABLE 3.3 - GALVANISED WIRE SIZES FOR GABIONS

Type of Wire

Minimum Diameter

Selvage (perimeter) wire Mesh wire Tying and connecting wire

3.50 mm 2.70 mm 2.20 mm

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.7 BRICKWORK Description This work shall include the laying of brickwork to the lines, levels and grades shown on the Drawings and/or as directed by the S.O. 3.7.2 Materials Common Bricks Common bricks shall be sound, hard, well burnt, of proper size and clean and shall give a clear ring when struck. They shall be Class 3 standard format complying with the requirements of M.S. 76. Bricks shall be obtained from manufacturers approved by the S.O. 3.7.2.2 Cement Mortar Cement mortar for brickwork shall comply with the requirements of Sub-Section 3.5.2.2. 3.7.3 Construction Methods Brick Laying Brickwork shall be executed with cement mortar and shall be of the thickness and bonds as shown on the Drawings. Bricks shall be kept damp until used and shall be laid on a full bed of mortar. The brickwork shall be true to line and plumb, and courses shall be kept truly level. The thickness of mortar joints shall not exceed 10 mm and shall be such that 4 courses of brickwork forms a height of 300 mm.

3.6.3

Construction Methods Prior to placing gabions, the surface on and against which they are to be constructed shall have been prepared and finished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of these finished surfaces, any damage to or deterioration of them shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before gabions are placed. Each gabion basket shall be put in place in its turn, completely fabricated except for the fastening down of the lid, stretched to the correct shape and dimensions, and fastened securely to all contiguous baskets along each edge with tying wire. The basket shall then be tightly packed with approved stone by hand in such a manner that voids are kept to a practicable minimum and are uniformly distributed in the stone mass. Finally, the lid of the basket shall be securely fastened down with tying wire along all hitherto unfastened edges, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. In no case shall the weight of the finished gabion be less than 1300 kg per cubic metre. As a gabion structure is built up, backfilling against finished gabions shall be carried out as necessary for proper progressive construction, all in accordance with the relevant provisions of the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Unless otherwise specified, vertical joints between gabions shall be staggered in gabion structures in a pattern similar to the joints in running bond brickwork.

3.7.1

3.7.2.1

3.7.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.8 SUBSOIL DRAINS Description This work shall include the supply and installation of subsoil drains constructed in accordance with this Specification at the locations and in accordance with the lines, levels and grades as shown on the Drawings and/or as directed by the S.O. 3.8.2 Materials Pipes Porous concrete pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with M.S. 525. Clay pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with B.S. 1196. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with Australian Standard Specification 2439 or B.S. 3656. 3.8.2.2 Filter Material Filter material used in the construction of subsoil drains shall consist of hard, clean sand conforming to the grading limits given in Table 3.4. The material passing the 425 um sieve shall be non-plastic when tested in accordance with B.S. 1377.
TABLE 3.4 - GRADING LIMITS FOR FILTER MATERIAL
B.S. Sieve Size 10.0mm 5.0mm 2.36mm 1.18mm 600um 300um 150um % Passing By Weight 100 90 - 100 75 - 100 55 - 90 35 - 59 8 - 30 0 - 10

Newly laid brickwork shall be protected from the harmful effects of sunshine, rain, running and surface water and shocks. Any brickwork that is damaged shall be taken down and rebuilt and the joints raked out and pointed as directed by the S.O. Any such remedial work shall be at the Contractor's own expense. 3.7.3.2 Plastering Brickwork All exposed brickwork surfaces shall be plastered. The plaster shall be applied in 2 coats generally to a total thickness of 20 mm and shall be finished with a steel trowel for internal surfaces and with a wooden float for external surfaces. Plain plaster shall consist of 1 part masonry cement complying with M.S. 794 to 3 parts of sand by volume. where ordinary portland cement is used, plasticiser of a type approved by the S.O. may be added to the mix in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Ordinary Portland cement and water shall comply with the appropriate requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

3.8.1

3.8.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Filtration Requirement Equivalent opening size of the filter cloth determined by sieving as described in ASTM D422 shall be less than the eighty-five percentage size of the adjacent soil. (d) Permeability Requirement

3.8.2.3

Filter Cloth The synthetic filter cloth shall be a non-woven type of approved manufacture having the following properties :(a) Chemical Composition Requirements Fibres used in the manufacture of the engineering fabric shall consist of a long chain synthetic polymer, composed of at least 85% by weight of polypropylene, -ethylene, esteramide or -vinylidene chloride and shall contain stabilisers and/or inhibitors added to the base plastic (as necessary) to make the fabric resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet and heat exposure. (b) Physical Property Requirements The physical properties of the filter cloth shall comply with Table 3.5.

The equivalent Darcy Permeability of the filter cloth shall be greater than 10 times the Darcy Permeability of the soil to be drained. 3.8.2.4 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for use in pipe joints shall comply with SubSection 3.5.2.2. 3.8.3 Construction Methods Excavation for subsoil drains shall be carried out all in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SubSection 3.2. Filter material as described in SubSection 3.8.2.2 above shall be placed and uniformly compacted by a suitable method approved by the S.O. to form a firm, even bedding for the pipe drain as shown on the Drawings. The pipe sections shall be set firmly against the filter material bedding with the flow lines in the design position. For pipes with mating joints, the receiving ends shall be upgrade, and the pipe joints shall be fully mated. For butt jointed pipes with collars, the pipe sections shall be fully contiguous, and the collars properly centred over the joints.

TABLE 3.5 - PHYSICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS FOR FILTER CLOTH

Grab Strength (ASTM D1682) Puncture Strength (ASTM D3787 - 80a) Burst Strength (ASTM D3786 - 80a)

0.9 kN

0.4 kN

2100 kN/sq.m

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.9.2 Materials Pipes Reinforced concrete pipes shall conform to the requirements of M.S. 881 and shall be supplied by manufacturers approved by the S.O. Rebated pipes of diameter 600 mm and above shall be internally rebated. Collars shall be precast with grade 25 concrete and shall be suitably reinforced all in accordance with Section 9 of this Specification. The width of the collar shall be not less than 150 mm and the minimum thickness shall be 50 mm. Rubber rings for spigot and socket pipes shall comply with the requirements of Type 2 as specified in B.S. 2494. 3.9.2.2 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for jointing of reinforced concrete pipes shall conform to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.5.2.2. 3.9.2.3 Bedding Material Type A bedding shall consist of grade 20/20 concrete complying with Section 9 of this Specification. Type B bedding shall consist of clean, natural sand or gravelly sand of suitable gradation and quality, approved by the S.O. The material shall have a maximum particle size of not more than 12 mm.

Joints shall be spot mortared as necessary to hold the pipe sections correctly centred and aligned, but not so as to unduly restrict the infiltration of water through the joints. Slotted or perforated pipes shall be tightly wrapped in filter cloth such that the entire length of the mortared pipe is covered by at least 2 layers of cloth. All joints in both layers shall have an overlap of at least 100 mm and joints in the outer layer shall be offset by at least 300 mm from joints in the inner layer, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. After pipe laying and, if appropriate, wrapping has been approved by the S.O., the remainder of the filter material shall be placed and uniformly compacted by a suitable method approved by the S.O. to form a dense, even surround to the pipe as shown on the Drawings. Care shall be taken that the pipe is neither damaged nor displaced. Backfill shall then be placed and compacted in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SubSection 3.2.4. 3.9 R.C. PIPE CULVERTS Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of reinforced concrete pipe culverts, inclusive of excavation, backfilling, jointing, bedding, construction of headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and sumps and channel protection works, all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings.

3.9.2.1

3.9.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Where rock or other hard unyielding foundation material is encountered in the trench, it shall be excavated to a depth below the bottom of pipe design levels of at least 300 mm or 12.5 mm per 300 mm of fill to be placed over the top of the pipe, whichever is greater, up to a maximum of 75% of the internal diameter of the pipe. The hard material so excavated shall be replaced with suitable material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (c) Open Ground Method Where existing ground levels are above top of bedding material design levels and firm foundation materials are encountered, excavation and foundation preparation shall be similar to that described in the trench method above. Otherwise a firm foundation plane shall be prepared, which shall be essentially free draining along the line of the culvert, by trimming the existing ground, or such fill as it is necessary to place and compact, over a width sufficient to permit satisfactory construction of the pipe bedding, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Hard materials shall be excavated from the pipe foundation over a width equal to the outside diameter of the pipe to the same depth as specified in the trench method, and shall be replaced with suitable
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3.9.3

Excavation and Backfilling for R.C. Pipe Culverts Excavation (a) General Unless otherwise directed by the S.O., prior to construction of a pipe culvert, the earth works at the required location shall have been constructed to a level at least 600 mm above the top of culvert design levels or to the top of subgrade levels, whichever is lower. Pipe culverts specified to be constructed in trench conditions shall be excavated in accordance with SubSection 3.9.3.1 (b) below. Where drainage conditions or other circumstances so require, the S.O. may direct the Contractor to construct the pipe culvert without first constructing the earthworks to the level specified above, in which case excavation and foundation preparation shall be in accordance with SubSection 3.9.3.1 (c) below. (b) Trench Method The trench to receive a culvert pipe shall be of sufficient width and depth to enable the placing of bedding material and construction of pipe joints in accordance with this Specification, and the bottom of the trench shall be trimmed to a suitably smooth plane surface which shall be kept free from water, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

3.9.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Heavy plant and equipment shall not operate within 1.5 m of any pipe culvert until backfilling and, where appropriate, pavement construction has advanced to a stage which provides at least 600 mm of cover to the culvert. Subject to the approval of the S.O., light compaction equipment may be operated above pipe culverts after a minimum of 300 mm of cover has been placed and compacted. 3.9.4 Installation of R.C. Pipe Culverts General The type, size and class of pipe to be installed at each location shall be as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Culverts shall not be installed at any location until the type of pipe, the exact location, the lines, levels and grades, the length of pipe and details of inlet and outlet structures have been confirmed by the S.O. In addition, special requirements recommended by the manufacturer with respect to assembly and installation shall be complied with. Especially where elliptically reinforced pipe sections are used, care shall be taken to ensure that the loading axes are positioned exactly vertically. 3.9.4.2 Butt Ended Pipe Culverts with Precast Concrete Collars The pipes shall be laid on Type A bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Before placing any concrete bedding, the pipes shall be assembled complete with precast concrete collars to the

material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where soft or unstable soil is encountered in the foundation, it shall be excavated over a width of at least 1.5 times the outside diameter of the pipe on each side of the culvert centre-line to the depth directed by the S.O., and replaced with suitable material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.9.3.2 Backfilling Backfilling against reinforced concrete pipe culverts and their appurtenant structures shall be carried out in accordance with the construction methods described in Sub-Section 3.2.4, using material conforming to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.2.2.5. Special care shall be taken to properly compact backfill against the undersides of culvert pipes without disturbing or damaging the pipes and joints. Backfill shall be built up evenly on both sides of each pipe culvert along its entire length.

3.9.4.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Following pipe assembly and mortaring up as above, the remainder of the cradle shall be cast monolithically, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where vertical construction joints in the concrete cradle are unavoidable due to circumstances on Site, transfer bars shall be provided to the satisfaction of the S.O. Special care shall be taken when placing the concrete cradle to avoid the entrapment of air underneath the pipe. To eliminate this possibility, concrete shall be placed to one side of the pipe only until such time as the level of the concrete surface rises above the underside of the pipe on the side remote from that on which concrete is being placed. The concrete shall then be brought up at the same level on both sides of the pipe. 3.9.4.3 Rebated Pipe Culverts The pipes shall be laid on Type A bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. The method of construction shall follow that described in SubSection 3.9.4.2 for butt ended pipe culverts except for the exclusion of precast concrete collars. The rebated joint shall be internally flush and fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

correct levels and grades on precast concrete spacing blocks of the same class of concrete as the bedding material and of sufficient size to eliminate any risk of settlement of the pipes before or during concreting. All joints shall be fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar before concreting of the cradle, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The concrete cradle shall be cast as one monolithic unit. Alternatively, part of the concrete cradle below the underside of the pipe may be constructed monolithically at least 24 hours before the assembly and mortaring up of the pipe sections and collars, on condition that shear connectors are provided across horizontal construction joints to the satisfaction of the S.O. During installation, the ends of the pipes shall be butted and the collar centred about the joint using wedges or other approved means. The annular shall be completely filled with 1:3 cement mortar with only sufficient water added to ensure adequate workability and the wedges removed before finally fairing the joint. Special care shall be taken to ensure that excess cement mortar is neatly cleaned off. For pipes over 900 mm in diameter the jointing space shall be filled from inside the pipe after completion of embankment construction using 1:3 cement mortar. When installed, the clearance between the outer diameter of pipe and the inner diameter of collar shall be at least 20 mm.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Care shall be taken to see that the rubber ring is adequately compressed to seal the joint. All pipes shall be laid to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.10 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE CULVERTS 3.10.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of bolted, corrugated metal pipe culverts inclusive of excavation, backfilling, jointing, bedding, construction of headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and sumps and channel protection works, all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings. 3.10.2 Materials 3.10.2.1 Pipes The pipe sections shall be fabricated from zinc-coated (galvanised) steel sheets conforming to AASHTO M218 or from structural plates conforming to AASHTO M167 depending on the pipe size requirements. The dimensions of the pipes shall conform to AASHTO M36. All pipes shall be clearly identified by marking on each section the following information :i) name of manufacturer; ii) diameter of pipe; iii) gauge number; iv) date of manufacture. The above markings shall have been marked by the manufacturer.

3.9.4.4

Spigot and Socket Pipe Culverts The pipes shall be laid on Type B bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. The bedding material shall be accurately shaped by a template to fit the lower part of the pipe exterior for a height of at least 10% of the outside diameter of the pipe. Gaps shall be left in the bedding material and recesses dug in the earth foundation of sufficient width and depth to accomodate the socket without it resting on the bottom of the recess. The widths of the recesses in the foundation and the bedding shall both exceed the width of the socket by more than 50 mm. Jointing of the pipes shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's recom mendations, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Concrete pipes as specified above shall be laid true to line and level, each pipe being separately boned between sight rails. Pipes shall be laid in an upstream direction with the sockets towards the inlet and shall rest on even foundations for the full length of the barrel. Rubber ring joints shall be installed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Prior to jointing, rubber rings and jointing surfaces shall be cleaned of all contaminants except for specified lubricants. The spigot of each pipe shall be inserted concentrically in the socket of the one previously laid, and the pipe then adjusted and fixed in its correct position with the spigot correctly entered in the socket.

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Standard Specification For Road Works For pipe material conforming to AASHTO M218 (corrugation 68 mm pitch x 13 mm depth) with diameters of 1500 mm or smaller, 12 mm diameter bolts shall be used. Bolt holes along circumferential seams shall have spacings of not more than 314 mm. For pipe material conforming to AASHTO M167 (corrugation 150 mm pitch x 50 mm depth) with diameters of 1500 mm or larger, 19 mm diameter bolts shall be used. Four bolt holes per 300 mm of longitudinal seam shall be provided and these shall be staggered in rows 51 mm a apart with holes in one row in the trough and holes in the other row in the crest of the corrugation. Bolt holes in the circumferential seams shall have spacings of not more than 254 mm. Notwithstanding the above, the Contractor shall satisfy the S.O. as to the adequacy of all bolted connections. 3.10.2.4 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar shall comply with the requirements of SubSection 3.5.2.2. 3.10.2.5 Bedding Material

The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. the material test certificates from the manufacturer showing the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the base metal and the amount of zinc coating for every lot of pipes supplied. The S.O. may order further tests in the sections supplied to Site at the rate of not more than 1 in 100. All costs on such tests shall be borne by the Contractor. 3.10.2.2 Bitumen Coating Where specified, the pipe sections or plates shall be coated with an approved bitumen coating at the factory by the hotdip process for Type A as specified in AASHTO M190. Before coating, any damage to the galvanising shall be made good in a manner approved by the S.O. 3.10.2.3 Bolts and Nuts All bolts and nuts shall be of high strength carbonated steel meeting the provisions of ASTM A449 and ASTM A563 Grade `C' respectively. The galvanising on bolts and nuts must meet the requirements of ASTM A153. Diameters of bolt holes in the longitudinal seams, except those at the plate corners, shall not exceed the bolt diameter by more than 3 mm. The bolt holes in the circumferential seams, including those at the plate corners, shall not exceed the bolt diameter by more than 6 mm. The minimum distance from the centre of a hole to the edge of a plate shall be 1.75 times the diameter of the bolt.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Corrugated metal pipe culverts shall be bedded on Type B bedding as specified in SubSection 3.9.2.3.

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Standard Specification For Road Works placed along the entire length of the culvert. The lining shall be constructed after completion of earthworks and wingwalls. 3.11 PRECAST BOX CULVERTS 3.11.1 Description

3.10.3

Excavation and Backfilling for Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts Unless otherwise directed and/or approved by the S.O., the pipe culvert shall be laid in a trench excavated in accordance with Sub-Section 3.9.3.1 (b). Where the open ground method is approved, the work shall comply with Sub-Section 3.9.3.1 (c).

3.10.4

Installation of Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts

3.10.4.1 General The culvert sections shall be assembled, strutted, and protected during construction in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Special attention shall be given to the sequence of tightening bolts and the specified torque to be applied during assembly. After assembly the bitumen coating shall, where damaged, be repaired and made good with further application of the bitumen coating.

This work shall comprise the supply and installation of precast box culverts inclusive of excavation, backfilling, jointing, bedding, construction of headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and sumps and channel protection works, all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings. 3.11.2 Materials 3.11.2.1 Precast Box Culverts Precast box culverts shall be of approved manufacture complying with Australian Standard Specification 1597 Part 1, or any equivalent alternative standard acceptable and approved by the S.O. 3.11.2.2 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for jointing of precast box culvert sections shall conform to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.5.2.2. 3.11.2.3 Bedding Material Precast box culverts shall be bedded on Type B bedding as specified in Sub-Section 3.9.2.3.

3.10.4.2 Mortar Lining For corrugated metal pipe culverts of 1800 mm diameter or more, or where directed by the S.O. for pipes of smaller diameters, a 1:3 cement mortar lining shall cover the inverts of the pipes to a thickness of 25 mm above the crest of the corrugations over a minimum of one third of the circumference centrally

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Standard Specification For Road Works Backfill shall be built up evenly on both sides of each box culvert along its entire length. Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., heavy plant and equipment shall not operate within 2.0 m of any precast box culvert until backfilling and, where appropriate, pavement construction has advanced to a stage which provides at least 300 mm of cover to the culvert. 3.11.4 Installation of Precast Box Culverts The type and size of precast box culvert to be installed at each location shall be as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Precast box culverts shall not be installed at any location until the exact location, the lines, levels and grades, the length of culvert and details of inlet and outlet structures have been con firmed by the S.O. In addition, special requirements recommended by the manufacturer shall be complied with. Precast box culverts shall be laid on Type B bedding as specified in Sub-Section 3.9.4 in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Where specified on the Drawings or directed by the S.O., Type B bedding shall be laid on a layer of crushed aggregate of maximum particle size not exceeding 50 mm.

3.11.3

Excavation and Backfilling

3.11.3.1 Excavation for Precast Box Culverts Unless otherwise directed by the S.O., prior to construction of a precast box culvert, the earthworks at the required location shall have been first constructed to a level at least 600 mm above the top of the culvert design levels or to the top of subgrade levels, whichever is lower, and the precast box culvert shall then be constructed in a trench excavated in accordance with Sub-Section 3.9.3.1 (b). Where drainage conditions or other circumstances so require, the S.O. may direct the Contractor to construct the precast box culvert without first constructing the earthworks to the level specified above, in which case excavation and foundation preparation shall be in accordance with SubSection 3.9.3.1 (c). 3.11.3.2 Backfilling Backfilling against precast box culverts and their appurtenant structures shall be carried out in accordance with the construction methods described in SubSection 3.2.4, using material conforming to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.2.2.5. Special care shall be taken to properly compact backfill without disturbing or damaging the precast box culvert sections.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.12.2 Extension of Box Culverts The existing wingwalls, aprons and concrete bedding shall be demolished wherever indicated on the Drawings to expose the existing box culvert on the side(s) to be extended. The end of the existing box culvert to be extended shall then be wirebrushed or some other means employed to give a clean sur face.Extension joints shall be formed as shown on the Drawings by injecting Thioflex 600 - Gun Grade (manufactured by Expandite) or its equivalent to a thickness of not less than 25 mm in the 15 mm wide gap between the existing box culvert and the new box culvert section. The remaining space in the gap shall then be filled with Flexcell Expansion Filler. Bakau piles shall be installed as shown on the Drawings, unless otherwise directed by the S.O.

All joints shall be fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. In addition, a 3 mm layer of 1:3 cement mortar shall be spread on top of the legs of the invert in order to ensure uniform bearing between the invert and lid. Lifting holes shall be filled with 1:3 cement mortar.

3.12 EXTENSION OF CULVERTS

3.12.1 Extension of Pipe Culverts The existing wingwalls, aprons and concrete bedding shall be demolished wherever indicated on the Drawings to expose the existing pipe culvert on the side(s) to be extended. The end of the existing pipe culvert to be extended shall then be wire-brushed or some other means employed to give a clean pipe end. Extension joints shall be formed as shown on the Drawings by injecting Thioflex 600 - Gun Grade (manufactured by Expandite) or its equivalent to a thickness of not less than 25 mm in the 15 mm wide gap between the existing pipe and the new pipe. The remaining space in the gap shall then be filled with Flexcell Expansion Filler. Bakau piles shall be installed as shown on the Drawings, unless otherwise directed by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 4 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 4 - FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
Page 4.1 UNBOUND PAVEMENT COURSES S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-79 S4-79 S4-79 S4-80 S4-81 S4-81 S4-82 S4-83 S4-83 S4-83 S4-84 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-87 S4-88 S4-88 S4-88 S4-88 S4-89 S4-90 S4-90 S4-90 S4-91 S4-93

4.1.1 Lower Subbase 4.1.1.1 Description 4.1.1.2 Materials 4.1.1.3 Construction Methods 4.1.2 4.1.2.1 4.1.2.2 4.1.2.3 4.1.3 4.1.3.2 4.1.3.3 4.1.4 4.1.4.1 4.1.4.2 4.1.4.3 4.2 Subbase Description Materials Construction Methods Gravel Surfacing Materials Construction Methods Crushed Aggregate Roadbase Description Materials Construction Methods

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT COURSES

4.2.1 Bitumen Prime Coat 4.2.1.1 Description 4.2.1.2 Materials 4.2.1.3 Equipment 4.2.1.4 Construction Methods 4.2.2 Bituminous Tack Coat 4.2.2.1 Description 4.2.2.2 Materials 4.2.2.3 Equipment 4.2.2.4 Construction Methods 4.2.3 Bituminous Surface Dressing 4.2.3.1 Description 4.2.3.2 Materials 4.2.3.3 Equipment 4.2.3.4 Construction Methods

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Standard Specification For Road Works Page

4.2.4 Asphaltic Concrete 4.2.4.1 Description 4.2.4.2 Materials 4.2.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design 4.2.4.4 Equipment 4.2.4.5 Construction Methods 4.2.5 Bituminous Macadam 4.2.5.1 Description 4.2.5.2 Materials 4.2.5.3 Equipment 4.2.5.4 Construction Methods 4.3 SHOULDERS Description Materials Earth Shoulders Gravel Shoulders Construction Methods

S4-99 S4-99 S4-99 S4-102 S4-105 S4-110 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119

4.3.1

4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 4.3.3 4.4

HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT, SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY OF PAVEMENT COURSES Horizontal Alignment Surface Levels of Pavement Courses Surface Regularity

S4-120 S4-120 S4-120 S4-121

4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3

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Standard Specification For Road Works accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 2.2.7. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade, any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before lower subbase is constructed. Lower subbase shall be placed over the full width of the formation to the required thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness. Each layer of lower subbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction, and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the roadbed, and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the crown on each side in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

SECTION 4 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
4.1 UNBOUND PAVEMENT COURSES

4.1.1

Lower Subbase Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, compacting and shaping lower subbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O.

4.1.1.1

4.1.1.2

Materials Lower subbase material shall be inorganic soil, sand, gravel, weathered or fragmented rock, or a mixture of any of these materials, essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter and expansive clay minerals. It shall have a maximum particle size of 75 mm or less, and shall have a CBR value not less than that shown on the Drawings when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.5 kg.

4.1.1.3

Construction Methods Prior to placing any lower subbase material, the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) shall have been shaped and compacted in

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Standard Specification For Road Works i) the liquid limit shall be not more than 25%; ii) the plasticity index shall be not more than 6; iii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 35; iv) unless otherwise specified on the Drawings or directed by the S.O., the material shall have a CBR value of 30 or more when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.5 kg; v) the gradation shall conform to one of the envelopes shown in Table 4.1 with the fraction passing the B.S. 75 um sieve not greater than 2/3 of the fraction passing the B.S. 425 um sieve.

The lower subbase shall be finished in a neat and workman like manner, and shall have an average thickness over any 100 metre length not less than the required thickness. The top surface of the lower subbase shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in SubSection 4.4. 4.1.2 Subbase 4.1.2.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, compacting and shaping subbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.1.2.2 Materials Subbase material shall be a natural or prepared aggregate comprising crushed rock, weathered or fragmented rock, gravel or crushed gravel, sand, or a mixture of any of these materials. It shall have a small proportion of plastic or non-plastic fines and shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter, expansive clay minerals and lumps of clay. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :-

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 4.1 - GRADATION LIMITS FOR SUBBASE MATERIAL

B.S. Sieve Size 50.0 mm 25.0 mm 9.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.00 mm 425 um 75 um
4.1.2.3

% Passing By Weight A 100 30-65 25-55 15-40 8-20 2-8 B 100 79-95 40-75 30-60 20-45 15-30 5-20 C 100 50-85 35-65 25-50 15-30 5-20 D 100 60-100 50-85 40-70 25-45 5-20 E 100 55-100 40-100 20-50 6-20 F 100 70-100 55-100 30-70 8-25

Construction Methods Prior to placing any subbase material, the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) or lower subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 2.2.7 or Sub-Section 4.1.1.3 as appropriate. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase, any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before subbase is constructed. Subbase shall be placed with equipment approved by the S.O. over the full width of the formation to the required thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness. Each layer of subbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material

suitable for compaction, and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway, and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side, except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Throughout the placing, adjustment of moisture content and compaction of subbase material, care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 4.1.3.2 Materials Gravel surfacing material shall be a natural or prepared soilaggregate mixture comprising gravel and sand size particles together with a small proportion of plastic fines, and shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter, expansive clay minerals and lumps of clay. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :i) the liquid limit shall be not more than 35%; ii) the plasticity index shall be in the range 4 to 10; iii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 35; iv) the gradation shall conform to one of the envelopes shown in Table 4.2 with the fraction passing the B.S. 75 um sieve not greater than 2/3 of the fraction passing the B.S. 425 um sieve.

The subbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. The top surface of the subbase shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in SubSection 4.4. 4.1.3 Gravel Surfacing Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, compacting and shaping gravel surfacing material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O.

4.1.3.1

TABLE 4.2 - GRADATION LIMITS FOR GRAVEL SURFACING

% Passing By Weight B.S. Sieve Size A 100 45 - 75 30 - 60 20 - 45 15 - 30 8 - 20 B 100 55 - 85 35 - 65 25 - 50 15 - 30 8 - 20 C 100 60 - 100 50 - 85 40 - 70 25 - 45 8 - 20 D 100 55 - 90 40 - 70 20 - 50 8 - 25

37.5 mm 12.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.00 mm 425 um 75 um

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Standard Specification For Road Works uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction, and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway, and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side, except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Throughout the placing, adjustment of moisture content and compaction of gravel surfacing material, care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The gravel surfacing shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness and its minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 20 mm.

Material with a maximum particle size of 37.5 mm, while otherwise not conforming to the gradation specification but satisfying the other requirements, shall be acceptable provided that it shall have a CBR value of 30 or more when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.5 kg. 4.1.3.3 Construction Methods Prior to placing any gravel surfacing material, the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) or lower subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of SubSection 2.2.7 or Sub-Section 4.1.1.3 as appropriate. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase, any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before gravel surfacing is constructed. Gravel surfacing shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness. Each layer of gravel surfacing shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a
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Standard Specification For Road Works iv) not less than 80% of particles retained on the B.S. 4.75 mm sieve shall have at least one fractured face; v) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%; vi) the material shall have a CBR value of not less than 80 when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.5 kg; vii)the gradation shall comply with the envelope shown in Table 4.3 for the type specified.

The top surface of the gravel surfacing shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within 10 mm of the required plane or such higher, approximately parallel plane, as the S.O. shall approve. 4.1.4 Crushed Aggregate Roadbase Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, compacting and shaping crushed aggregate roadbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase or subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.1.4.2 Materials Crushed aggregate roadbase material shall be crushed rock, or crushed gravel, or a mixture of crushed and natural aggregates, which is hard, durable, clean and essentially free from clay and other deleterious materials. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the plasticity index shall be not more than 6; ii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 30; iii) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 30;
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

4.1.4.1

TABLE 4.3 - GRADATION LIMITS FOR CRUSHED AGGREGATE ROADBASE

B.S. Sieve Size

% Passing By Weight Type I Type II 100 85 - 100 70 - 100 60 - 90 40 - 65 30 - 55 20 - 40 10 - 25 2 - 10

50.0 mm 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 20.0 mm 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 2.36 mm 2.00 mm 600 um 425 um 75 um

100 95 - 100 60 - 80 40 - 60 25 - 40 15 - 30 8 – 22 0–8

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Standard Specification For Road Works of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway, and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side, except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Throughout the placing, adjustment of moisture content and compaction of crushed aggregate roadbase material, care shall be taken to maintain a uni form gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The crushed aggregate roadbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. The top surface of the crushed aggregate roadbase shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4.4.2.

4.1.4.3

Construction Methods Prior to placing any crushed aggregate roadbase material, the underlying subgrade or lower subbase or subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate Section of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase or subbase, any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase or subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before crushed aggregate roadbase is constructed. Crushed aggregate roadbase shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness. Spreading shall be done by a mechanical spreader approved by the S.O. or, if approved by the S.O., by motor grader. Prior to spreading, crushed aggregate roadbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction. Spread material shall be maintained at the correct moisture content for proper compaction by sprinkling with water or drying as may be necessary, and shall be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O. to not less than 95%

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Power Broom The power broom shall be a rotary type specifically designed for sweeping road surfaces, and shall be approved by the S.O. (b) Compressed Air Blower The compressed air blower shall comprise a portable air compressor of 3 cu.m/min. in capacity at 0.7 N/sq.mm delivery pressure with a suitable hose and nozzle for blowing clean a road surface after power brooming, and shall be approved by the S.O. (c) Pressure Distributor for Bituminous Material The distributor shall be a purpose built model of recognised manufacture and shall be approved by the S.O. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. The distributor shall have a suitable capacity and shall be equipped with a gas or oil fired heating system capable of heating a full charge of bituminous material to l80°C. The heating system shall be such that overheating of the bituminous material will not occur and shall be of a type in which flames from the burner do not come into direct contact with the casing of the tank containing the bituminous material. The tank shall be insulated in such a manner that when filled with bituminous material at l80°C and not heated,
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4.2

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT COURSES Bitumen Prime Coat Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted crushed aggregate roadbase, and the furnishing and application to the cleaned roadbase surface of a bituminous priming material, all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.2.1.2 Materials The bituminous priming material shall be either cut-back bitumen or bitumen emulsion as stated in the Bill of Quantities. Cut-back bitumen shall be grade RC-70 or MC-70 conforming to the requirements of M.S. 159. Bitumen emulsion shall be slow setting, grade SS-1 or SS-1K, conforming to the requirements of M.S. 161, as appropriate to the type of roadbase material to be primed and approved by the S.O. 4.2.1.3 Equipment The equipment used by the Contractor shall include a power broom, a compressed air blower, a self-propelled pressure distributor for bituminous material, and as necessary, equipment for storing and heating bituminous material.

4.2.1

4.2.1.1

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works 0.25 to 8.0 litres/sq.m at normal distributor operating speeds, such that deviation from the prescribed rate of application shall not exceed 10%. The distributor shall be equipped with a hand spraying system. The meters for the `fifth wheel' tachometer system and the bituminous material pumping flow rate, pumping pressure and temperature shall be located in such a manner that the vehicle driver can easily read them while operating the distributor. The spray bar shall be controlled by a second operator riding at the rear of the vehicle in such a position that all the discharge sprays are in his good view. All measuring equipment on the distributor shall have been recently calibrated, and accurate and satisfactory records of the calibrations shall be submitted to the S.O. If in the course of the work the rates of application of bituminous material are found to be inaccurate, the distributor shall be withdrawn from the Works and recalibrated to the satisfaction of the S.O. before being returned to service. The S.O. may require such performance tests as he considers necessary to check that the distributor is operating satisfactorily. As directed by the S.O., the Contractor shall make the distributor and its equipment available for such tests and shall supply all necessary assistance, materials, tools, testing apparatus, etc., all at the Contractor's own expense.

the drop in temperature shall be less than 3°C per hour. A thermometer shall be provided to measure continuously the temperature of the bituminous material in the tank and shall be so arranged that the highest temperature in the tank is measured. The tank shall be fitted with an accurately calibrated dipstick or contents gauge, and the pipe for filling the tank shall be fitted with an easily replaceable filter. The distributor shall run on pneumatic tyred wheels of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface when the vehicle is fully charged shall not exceed l2 kg/mm of tyre width. The vehicle shall be equipped with a `fifth wheel' tacheometer system to accurately measure its forward speed during spraying operations. The distributor shall be equipped with a full circulation type spray bar with nozzles from which the bituminous material is sprayed on to the road surface uniformly over the full spraying width. The spraying width shall be variable in increments of not more than 100 mm up to a maximum of 5.0 metres. The spraying pump shall be driven by a separate power unit and shall be equipped with an accurate pressure gauge and an accurate flow rate gauge or meter. On the suction side the pump shall be fitted with an easily replaceable filter. The spray bar and pump shall be so designed that bituminous material at even temperature and uniform pressure may be sprayed uni formly over the spraying width at controlled rates in the range
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished crushed aggregate roadbase, any damage to or deterioration of the roadbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before prime coat is applied. Immediately prior to applying the bituminous material, the full width of the surface to be treated shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and, if necessary, scraped using hand tools to remove all dirt, dust and other objectionable material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous priming material shall be sprayed on to the cleaned roadbase surface by means of a pressure distributor. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.O. based on the results of test applications, but shall usually be in the range 0.5 to 1.0 litre/sq.m. The temperature of cut-back bitumen shall be maintained in the range 50°C to 70°C during spraying operations. For bitumen emulsions, the spraying temperature shall be in the range 25°C to 45°C.

(d) Storage and Heating Facilities for Bituminous Material Tanks for storage of bituminous material shall have a capacity suited to the proposed rate of utilisation of the material and the method and frequency of its delivery to the Works, all to the satis faction of the S.O. The tanks and, where necessary, barrel decanters shall be equipped with heating systems which provide for effective and positive control of the temperature of the bituminous material at all times up to the temperature required for utilisation. The method of heating shall be such that neither flames nor the products of combustion shall come into direct contact with the bituminous material or the casing of its immediate container, and such that no portion of the bituminous material shall be subject to overheating. 4.2.1.4 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bitumen prime coat work shall only be carried out in dry, warm weather when the surface to be treated is essentially dry. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to applying the prime coat, the crushed aggregate roadbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 4.1.4.3.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall maintain the prime coat, all to the satisfaction of the S.O., until the overlying pavement course is constructed, which shall not be within 24 hours after the application of the bituminous priming material nor within such longer period as is required, in the opinion of the S.O., for the prime coat to achieve maximum penetration of the roadbase and become fully cured. 4.2.2 Bituminous Tack Coat Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course, and the furnishing and application to the cleaned surface of a bituminous tack coat prior to the construction of an overlying bituminous pavement course, all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.2.2.2 Materials Bituminous tack coat material shall be rapid setting bitumen emulsion of grade RS-1 or RS1K conforming to the requirements of M.S. 161. 4.2.2.3 Equipment The equipment shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.1.3.

If necessary, in order to prevent the bituminous material from flowing on the sprayed surface, the pre scribed prime coat shall be applied in two separate spraying operations. Where the condition of the treated surface indicates that it is necessary, bituminous material additional to that prescribed shall be applied as the S.O. shall direct. Prime coat shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking; the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed. Areas with insufficient bituminous material shall be resprayed as necessary to make up the deficiency, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The surfaces of structures, road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains, gutters, etc. (d) Curing and Opening to Traffic Prime coat shall normally be left undisturbed for at least 24 hours after application and shall not be opened to traffic until, in the opinion of the S.O., it has penetrated the roadbase and cured sufficiently so that it will not be picked up by the wheels of vehicles.

4.2.2.1

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous tack coat shall be sprayed on to the cleaned bituminous or bitumen primed surface by means of a pressure distributor. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.O. based on the results of test applications, but shall usually be in the range 0.25 to 0.55 litres/sq.m. The temperature of the bituminous material shall be maintained in the range 25°C to 45°C during spraying operations. Tack coat shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking; the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed. Areas with bituminous material in excess of these limits shall have the excess removed at the Contractor's expense, and areas with insufficient bituminous material shall be resprayed as necessary to make up the deficiency, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The surfaces of structures, road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains, gutters, etc.
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4.2.2.4

Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bituminous tack coat shall only be applied to a clean, dry, bituminous or bitumen primed surface. Bituminous tack coat shall only be applied as far in advance of the construction of the overlying bituminous pavement course as is necessary to achieve a satis factory degree of tackiness before the overlying material is placed, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to applying bituminous tack coat, the surface to be treated shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface, any damage to it or deterioration of it shall be made good before tack coat is applied. Immediately prior to applying bituminous tack coat, the full width of the surface to be treated shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower, and if necessary, scraped using hand tools, to remove all dirt, dust and other objectionable material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Penetration graded bitumen shall be 80-100 grade con forming to M.S. 124. Cut-back bitumen shall be grade RC-70 or MC-70 conforming to M.S. 159. Bitumen emulsion shall be rapid setting of grade RS1, RS-1K, RS-2, RS-2K or RS-3K conforming to M.S. 161. The grade of emulsion selected shall be anionic or cationic as appropriate to the type of rock from which the cover aggregate is derived, and shall be approved by the S.O. (b) Additives for Bituminous Material An adhesion and antistripping agent shall be added to the bituminous material if the S.O. shall so direct or approve. The additive shall be of a type approved by the S.O. and the required quantity of additive shall be thoroughly mixed with the bituminous material in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or as directed by the S.O. for such time as is necessary to produce a homogenous mixture. (c) Aggregates for Bituminous Surface Dressing For single bituminous surface dressing the cover aggregate shall be nominal 20 mm, 14 mm, 10 mm or 6 mm size chippings as shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O.
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Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at all times, and the Contractor shall maintain the tack coat, all to the satisfaction of the S.O., until the overlying pavement course is constructed. 4.2.3 Bituminous Surface Dressing Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course, and the furnishing and placing on the cleaned surface of one or two applications of bituminous material and cover aggregate, all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. When one application of bituminous material and cover aggregate is placed the term `single bituminous surface dressing' (SBSD) shall apply, and when two applications of bituminous material and cover aggregate are placed, the term `double bituminous surface dressing' (DBSD) shall apply. 4.2.3.2 Materials (a) Bituminous Material Bituminous binder for bituminous surface dressing shall be penetration graded bitumen, or cut-back bitumen, or bitumen emulsion as shown on the Drawings or otherwise specified.

4.2.3.1

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works iii) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%; iv) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 25; v) the polished stone value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not less than 40; vi) the gradation shall con form to the appropriate envelope shown in Table 4.4. 4.2.3.3 Equipment The Contractor shall provide all the plant and equipment necessary for executing the work in accordance with this Specification, and shall furnish the S.O. with such details of particular items of equipment, e.g. manufacturer, model type, capacity, weight, etc., as the S.O. shall require. The equipment shall include a power broom, a compressed air blower, a self-propelled pressure distributor for bituminous material, all necessary equipment for storing and heating bituminous material, aggregate spreading equipment, a suitable number of tip-trucks and a selfpropelled pneumatic tyred roller.

For double bituminous surface dressing the cover aggregate for the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be nominal 20 mm size chippings, and the cover aggregate for the second application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be nominal 10 mm size chippings. Cover aggregates shall be screened, crushed stone and shall comprise clean, dry, hard, tough, sound, angular and cubical chippings free from vegetative and other organic matter, clay and other deleterious substances, and containing few, if any, flaky or elongated particles. Dusty chippings shall be washed clean, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Cover agregates shall conform to the following physical and mechanical requirements :i) using the type of bituminous material to be used in the Works, treated with additive if so required, the coated area in the coating and stripping test for bitumen aggregate mixtures, AASHTO Test Method T 182, shall not be less than 95%; ii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 30;

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 4.4 - GRADATION LIMITS FOR BITUMINOUS SURFACE DRESSING

% Passing By Weight B.S. Sieve Size Nominal 20 mm Chippings 100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0-5 0-2 Nominal 14 mm Chippings 100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0-5 0-2 Nominal 10 mm Chippings 100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0 - 10 0-2 Nominal 6 mm Chippings 100 85 - 100 0 - 25 0 - 10

25.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 10.0 mm 6.3 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm

(a) Power Broom The power broom shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.1.3(a). (b) Compressed Air Blower The compressed air blower shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.1.3 (b). (c) Pressure Distributor for Bituminous Material The distributor shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.1.3(c). (d) Storage and Heating Facilities for Bituminous Material Storage and heating facilities for bituminous material shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.1.3 (d).

(e) Aggregate Spreading Equipment Aggregates shall be placed using mechanical spreaders of a type approved by the S.O. The spreaders shall be capable of applying aggregate uniformly over the full width of the area being treated and shall have controls to regulate the rate of spread as required by this Specification, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (f) Tip-Trucks The Contractor shall provide a suitable number of tip-trucks of a type approved by the S.O., capable of spreading aggregate in accordance with this Specification.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works In operation, the ballasted weight and the tyre inflation pressure shall be adjusted to meet the requirements of each particular operation. Each tyre shall be kept inflated at the specified pressure such that the pressure difference between any two tyres shall not exceed 0.04 N/sq.mm. Means shall be provided for checking and adjusting tyre pressures at all times at the place of the works. The Contractor shall provide the S.O. with a calibration chart for the roller showing the relationship between the quantity or depth of ballast and total weight, and also a chart showing the relationship between wheel load, tyre inflation pressure and contact pressure. 4.2.3.4 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bituminous surface dressing shall only be carried out in dry, warm weather when the surface to be treated is dry. Work shall be discontinued when rain appears imminent and during periods of strong wind. The S.O. may order the discontinuation of work on account of adverse weather, unsatisfactory condition of materials, equipment or

(g) Pneumatic Tyred Roller The pneumatic tyred roller shall be of recognised manufcature and shall be approved by the S.O. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be self-propelled and capable of being reversed without backlash; it shall be equipped with power steering and dual controls allowing operation from either the left or right side. The roller shall have nine wheels equipped with smooth treaded tyres all of the same size and construction, and capable of operating at inflation pressures of up to 0.9 N/sq.mm. Five wheels shall be on the driven axle and four on the steering axle, all equally spaced on both axles and arranged so that the tyres on the steering axle track midway between those on the driven axle with a small overlap. The roller shall be equipped with water tanks, sprinkler systems and pads of coconut matting to keep all tyres evenly wetted during operation. The roller shall be equipped with means of adjusting its total weight by ballasting so that the load per wheel can be varied in the range 1.0 to 2.0 tonnes.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous material for a single bituminous surface dressing or for each application of bituminous material and cover aggregate of a double bituminous surface dressing, shall be sprayed on to the cleaned surface to be treated by means of a pressure distributor. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.O. based on the results of laboratory tests and/or test applications but for penetration graded bitumen shall usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4.5.

surface to be treated, or such other conditions as he shall consider detrimental to the work. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to constructing a bituminous surface dressing, the surface to be treated shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification.Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface, any damage to or deterioration of it shall be made good before surface dressing is commenced. Immediately prior to commencing surface dressing, the full width of the surface to be treated, together with an additional 300 mm width on each side, shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and, if necessary, scraped using hand tools to remove all loose particles, dirt, dust and other objectionable material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. In double bituminous surface dressing construction, the surface of the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be similarly made good and cleaned, immediately prior to commencing the second application.

TABLE 4.5 RATES OF APPLICATION OF PENETRATION GRADED BITUMEN

Nominal Size of Aggregate

Rate of Application of Penetration Graded Bitumen

20 mm 14 mm 10 mm 6 mm

2.0 - 3.0 litre/sq.m 1.5 - 2.2 litre/sq.m 1.0 - 1.5 litre/sq.m 0.7 - 1.0 litre/sq.m

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works The spraying of bituminous material over any portion of the surface to be treated shall not be carried out more than two minutes in advance of placing the cover aggregate on that portion at the specified rate; an the progress of spraying the bituminous material shall be restricted as necessary to comply with this requirement.
TABLE 4.6 - SPRAYING TEMPERATURE FOR BITUMINOUS

The rates of application for cut-back bitumens and bitumen emulsions shall be commensurately higher depending on their residual bitumen contents. The temperature of the bituminous material shall be maintained during spraying operations within the appropriate range given in Table 4.6. The bituminous material shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking; the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed. The rate of application shall be checked for each spraying run by measuring the volume of bituminous material in the distributor before and after spraying and the area treated. Adjustments shall be made as necessary to ensure that the prescribed rate of application is maintained in subsequent runs. Spraying shall be discontinued immediately if any defect develops in the distributor, and it shall not be resumed until the fault has been rectified to the satisfaction of the S.O.

Bituminous Material Spraying Temperature 150 oC to 165 oC 50 oC to 65 oC 25oC to 45 oC

80-100 penetration grade bitumen Cut-back bitumen grade RC-70 or MC-70 Bitumen emulsions

Bituminous materials Bituminous materials shall not be heated to spraying temperatures too soon in advance of requirements. Any bituminous material which has been heated to spraying temperature for more than ten hours or which has been overheated shall be rejected.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Provision shall be made for a volume of bituminous material of at least 10% of the capacity of the distributor, or such other quantity as the S.O. shall direct, to remain in the distributor tank at the completion of each spraying run, in order to avoid air entrapment within the bitumen spraying system. The surfaces of structures, road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains, gutters, etc. (d) Application of Cover Aggregate Before each spraying run of bituminous material commences, sufficient aggregate to provide full cover at the prescribed rate of application over the entire area to be sprayed shall have been loaded in trucks at the Site of the Works in readiness for spreading. Immediately following the application of the bituminous material, the clean, dry cover aggregate shall be uniformly spread over the bituminous material using mechanical spreaders approved by the S.O.

In cases where the bituminous material is applied in lanes there shall be a small overlap of bituminous material at the joints between lanes equal in width to the edge strip of the sprayed area which does not receive the full rate of application of bituminous material. For double bituminous surface dressing, joints in the second application of bituminous material shall be offset from those in the first application by 150 300 mm for longitudinal joints and by at least 1.0 metre, where possible, for transverse joints. Each spraying run shall commence and terminate on lengths of building paper placed across the full spraying width immediately before and after the section to be sprayed. Sufficient building paper shall be placed so that the distributor may be started and stopped with the spray bar over paper, and so that the correct distributor road speed and rate of spraying can be maintained over the entire length of the section to be sprayed, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Immediately after use and before application of cover aggregate, the building paper shall be removed and disposed of in a manner approved by the S.O.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works The rate of application shall be checked for each spraying run from measurements of the quantities of aggregate in the trucks and the area treated, or by sampling and measuring the aggregate spread on the road. Any bare or insufficiently covered areas shall be made good by hand spreading as quickly as possible. Aggregate in excess of the rate prescribed shall be evenly distributed over the surface or removed as quickly as possible, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. In cases where the surface dressing is constructed in lanes, the edge of the aggregate spread adjacent to an untreated lane shall coincide with the edge of the sprayed area which receives the full rate of application of the bituminous material. This will leave a narrow strip of bituminous material of partial thickness which shall be overlapped by the bituminous material spray and aggregate spread of the adjacent lane. Immediately following the spreading of the aggregate to the satisfaction of the S.O., the aggregate shall be rolled with a pneumatic tyred roller approved by the S.O. to embed the aggregate in the bituminous material. Rolling shall commence as quickly as practicable after the application of the bituminous material and aggregate on all parts of the area to be covered, and for no portion of the surface to be treated shall there be a delay of more
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The aggregate shall be placed as quickly as practicable after the application of bituminous material on all parts of the area to be covered, and for no portion of the surface to be treated shall there be a delay of more than two minutes between the application of the bituminous material and the spreading of the aggregate. The trucks feeding the aggregate to the mechanical spreaders shall operate backward during aggregate spreading in order that the wheels of the spreaders and trucks shall not run on uncovered bituminous material. The rate of application of cover aggregate shall be as directed by the S.O. based on the results of laboratory tests and/or tests applications, but shall usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4.7
TABLE 4.7 - RATES OF APPLICATION OF COVER AGGREGATE

Nominal Size

Rate of Application of Aggregate

20 mm 14 mm 10 mm 6 mm

17 – 27 kg/sq.m 12 – 18 kg/sq.m 8 – 12 kg/sq.m 5 – 8 kg/sq.m

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works shall then proceed as soon as is practicable. (e) Opening to Traffic Bituminous surface dressing shall normally not be opened to traffic until such time as, in the opinion of the S.O., the surfacing shall have developed sufficient strength to withstand normal traffic forces without dislodgement of the aggregate. This will usually be not less than 24 hours after the completion of rolling. Where it is necessary to allow earlier use of the finished surface to facilitate the movement of traffic, vehicles may be allowed to run on the work after rolling has been completed, provided that speeds are restricted to 30 km per hour or less and sharp turning movements are prohibited. The finished surface shall subsequently have to be closed temporarily to enable the loose aggregate to be swept off and disposed of as described in Sub-Section 4.2.3.4 (d). Ideally, the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate of a double bituminous surface dressing should not be opened to traffic before construction of the second application. However, where it is necessary to facilitate the movement of traffic, the first application may be opened to traffic prior to construction of the second application. Nevertheless, traffic movement on the completed
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than 3 minutes between the application of the bituminous material and the commencement of rolling. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be ballasted to an operating weight of 9 - 10 tonnes and its tyre inflation pressure shall be 0.53 N/sq.mm for surface dressing work. Rolling shall be continued for as long as is necessary to thoroughly embed the aggregate in the bituminous material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Rolling shall generally begin at the outer edge of surface dressing and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side, except on super elevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge. Consecutive roller passes shall generally overlap by about one half of the roller's width. When, in the opinion of the S.O., the bituminous material has hardened sufficiently to prevent the dislodgement of embedded aggregate by the action of the power broom, all loose aggregate shall be swept from the treated surface using the power broom and compressed air blower and disposed of to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where the dressing so prepared is the first application of a double bituminous surface dressing, construction of the second application of bituminous material and cover aggregate
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Standard Specification For Road Works organic matter, and other deleterious substances. They shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :i) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 30; ii) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%; iii) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 30; iv) the water absorption when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 2%; v) the polished stone value when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not less than 40 (only applicable to aggregates for wearing course). Fine aggregates shall be clean natural sands, screened quarry fines, or mining sand. Mining sand shall be thoroughly washed before use. Other types of fine aggregate may be used subject to the approval of the S.O. Fine aggregates shall be nonplastic and free from clay, loam, aggregations of material, vegetative and other organic matter, and other deleterious substances.
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first application shall be kept to a practicable minimum and the second application shall be constructed as soon as is practicable after the completion of the first.

4.2.4 Asphaltic Concrete 4.2.4.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, shaping and compacting asphaltic concrete binder course and/or wearing course on a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course, and shall include the careful and thorough cleaning of surfaces which are to be covered without receiving a bituminous tack coat. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.2.4.2 Materials (a) Aggregates Aggregate for asphaltic concrete shall be a mixture of coarse and fine aggregates and, if necessary, mineral filler. The individual aggregates shall be of sizes suitable for blending to produce the required gradation of the combined aggregate, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Coarse aggregates shall be screened crushed hard rock, angular in shape and free from dust, clay, vegetative and other
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Standard Specification For Road Works Notwithstanding compliance with the requirements of this Specification, limestone aggregates shall not be permitted for use in wearing course. The gradation of the combined coarse and fine aggregates, together with ordinary Portland cement added as an adhesion and anti-stripping agent and, if necessary, any other mineral filler, shall conform to the appropriate envelope shown in Table 4.8

They shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%; ii) the water absorption when tested in accordance with M.S. 30 shall be not more than 2%.

TABLE 4.8 - GRADATION LIMITS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

Mix Type Mix Designation B.S. Sieve 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 3.35 mm 1.18 mm 425 um 150 um 75 um

Wearing Course ACW 20

Binder Course ACB 28

% Passing by weight 100 100 76 - 100 64 - 89 56 - 81 46 - 71 32 - 58 20 - 42 12 - 28 6 - 16 4-8 80 - 100 72 - 93 58 - 82 50 - 75 36 - 58 30 - 52 18 - 38 11 - 25 5 - 14 3-8

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Standard Specification For Road Works adhesion and anti-stripping agent. The amount of cement added for this purpose shall be 2% by weight of the combined aggregate. (Additional cement may also be added, if necessary, to serve as filler.) Ordinary Portland cement for this purpose shall conform to the requirements of M.S. 522 and shall be dry, free flowing and free from agglomerations at the time of use. Notwithstanding the use of ordinary Portland cement as an anti-stripping agent as specified above, the Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the bitumen binder adheres satisfactorily to the aggregate and does not strip from it during the service life of the asphaltic concrete. Accordingly, the Contractor shall carry out bitumen stripping tests with the proposed aggregates to demonstrate to the complete satisfaction of the S.O. that the aggregates will perform satisfactorily in service with the specified bitumen binder. Such tests shall be carried out in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 182, or such other test methods as the S.O. shall direct or approve. When AASHTO Test Method T 182 is used, the coated area at the end of the mixture's period of immersion in water shall be not less than 95%. Where, in the opinion of the S.O., ordinary Portland cement does not per form satisfactorily as an anti-stripping agent, the Contractor may propose to use another adhesion and anti-stripping agent in addition to, or wholly or partially instead of, the ordinary Portland cement specified above. Such agent shall be of a type approved by the S.O. and shall be thoroughly mixed with the bituminous binder,

The gradation envelopes in the above Table are purposely wider than the tolerances for good works control of asphaltic concrete mixes. For each type of mix required in the Works, the Contractor shall establish a job mix formula gradation which shall consist of a single definite percentage passing for each sieve size in the above Table and shall produce a smooth curve within and essentially parallel to the appropriate gradation envelope. This job mix formula gradation, with the allowable tolerances for a single test as specified in SubSection 4.2.4.3 (c), then becomes the job control envelope and this job control envelope must be totally within the limits of the appropriate gradation envelope in the above Table. (b) Mineral Filler Mineral filler shall be finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, limestone dust, hydrated lime, hydraulic cement, or such other suitable material as the S.O. shall approve. At the time of mixing with bitumen it shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and shall be essentially free from agglomerations. Not less than 70% by weight shall pass the B.S. 75 um sieve. (c) Bituminous Material Bituminous binder for asphaltic concrete shall be penetration graded bitumen of 80-100 grade conforming to M.S. 124. (d) Anti-Stripping Agent Ordinary Portland cement shall be added to the combined aggregate for asphaltic concrete to serve as an
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Standard Specification For Road Works A sample of each trial mix (i.e. each combination of trial gradation and bitumen content) shall be subject to a comprehensive Marshall method test and analysis as follows :i) preparation of specimens for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows/face compaction standard; ii) determination of the bulk specific gravity of the specimens in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 166; iii) determination of the stability and flow values in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245; iv) analysis of the density and voids parameters to determine the percentage of voids in the compacted aggregate, the percentage of voids in the compacted aggregate filled with bitumen, and hence the percentage of air voids in the compacted mix. For each trial mix conforming to a proposed job mix formula, the parameters of the above tests and analyses shall conform to the requirements of the appropriate type of mix as given in Table 4.10.

all in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. In such a case, the agent shall be added to the bitumen binder used in the bitumen stripping tests in the appropriate amount and manner. Aggregate which does not perform satisfactorily in the bitumen stripping tests, using the approved adhesion and anti-stripping agent when appropriate, shall not be used in asphaltic concrete. 4.2.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design (a) Job Mix Formulae After obtaining supplies or production (as applicable) of all aggregates consistent as to gradation and other qualities, the Contractor shall propose a job mix formula for each class of mix required in the Works. In order to attain optimum quality of the mixtures, the job mix formula for each class shall be prepared on the basis of testing several trial gradations within the limits set in Table 4.8 at an appropriate range of bitumen contents. As a guide to the testing range of bitumen contents, the design bitumen content will usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4.9.

TABLE 4.9 - DESIGN BITUMEN CONTENTS

ACW14 - Wearing Course ACW14 - Binder Course ACB 28 - Binder Course

5.0 – 7.0 % 4.5 - 6.5 % 4.0 - 6.0%

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TABLE 4.10 - TEST AND ANALYSIS PARAMETERS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

Parameter

Wearing Course

Binder Course

Stability S Flow F Stiffness S/F Air voids in mix Voids in aggregate filled with bitumen

> 500 kg > 2.0 mm > 250 kg/mm 3.0% - 5.0%

> 450kg > 2.0mm > 225 kg/mm 3.0% - 7.0%

75% - 85%

65% - 80%

Air voids shall be defined as the small pockets of air between the coated aggregate particles in a compacted asphaltic concrete mix. The portion of the bitumen absorbed into the aggregate particles must therefore be allowed for when calculating the air voids. For combined aggregate with a water absorption of not more than 2.0%, the absorbed bitumen may be estimated on the basis that the absorption of bitumen will be approximately 20% of the water absorption. Voids in the aggregate of a mix shall be calculated on the basis of the weighted average bulk specific gravity on an oven dried basis of the coarse and fine aggregate fractions (separated by the ASTM # 10 sieve or B.S. 2.0 mm sieve) as determined in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 84 and T 85 as applicable.

The Marshall density of an asphaltic concrete mix is defined as the average density of a set of three (3) test specimens moulded for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows per face compaction standard. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. full details of his proposed job mix formula for each class of mix required in the Works including :i) the gradation analysis of each aggregate to be used in the mix; ii) the proportions for cold batching the aggregates; iii) the mixing plant screen sizes, the smallest of which shall generally be not more than 3.2 mm; iv) the gradation analysis of the aggregate in each of the mixing plants' hot bins and of the mineral filler (including any ordinary Portland cement added as anti-stripping agent);
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Standard Specification For Road Works As directed by the S.O., comprehensive sampling and testing of each class of mix shall be carried out to check for satisfactory compliance with its job mix formula, and for a satisfactory degree of compaction. As a result of the plant trials, the S.O. may require amendments to the job mix formulae, further tests and analyses, and possibly additional plant trials before finally approving the mixes for full scale production and use in the Works. (c) Compliance with the Job Mix Formulae The S.O.'s final approval of the job mix formulae shall bind the Contractor to furnish asphaltic concrete mixes meeting the precise gradations and bitumen contents specified in these formulae within the tolerances set forth in Table 4.11. Modifications to a job mix formula may only be made with the approval of the S.O. Should the S.O. at any time have reason to believe that the materials and methods of mixing and laying are different from those approved, he shall so advise the Contractor, and may order that asphaltic concrete works be discontinued pending further trials and testing.

v) the job mix formula gradation of the combined aggregate and filler; vi) the proportions for combining the hot bin aggregates and filler; vii)the bitumen content (by weight of total mix); viii)the dry and wet mixing times if a batch plant is to be used, or the mixing time if a continuous mix plant is to be used; ix) the full results of the comprehensive Marshall method tests and analyses as described above for each trial mix used in determining the job mix formula. The S.O. may require changes of any of the factors in each proposed job mix formula and further tests and analyses in order to attain optimum quality of the asphaltic concrete mixes. (b) Plant Trials After having received the S.O.'s preliminary approval of his proposed job mix formulae, the Contractor shall arrange to mix, lay and compact asphaltic concrete conforming to the proposed formula for each class of mix required in the Works. A minimum of 10 tonnes of each mix shall be placed in trial areas to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the S.O. that the mixing, laying and compacting equipment conforms to the requirements of this Specification, and that the proposed mixes are satisfactory. The trial areas shall not be part of the Contract Works but shall be provided by the Contractor at his own expense. They shall be approved by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 4.11 - TOLERANCES FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES

ParameterPermissible Variation

% By Weight of Total Mix

Bitumen. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 5.0 mm and larger sieves. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 3.35 mm and 1.18 mm sieves. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 425 um and 150 um sieves. Fraction of combined aggregate passing 75 um sieve.

+ 0.2%

+ 5.0%

+ 4.0%

+ 3.0%

+ 2.0%

4.2.4.4 Equipment The Contractor shall provide all the plant and equipment necessary for executing the work in accordance with this Specification and shall furnish the S.O. with such details of particular items of equipment, e.g. manufacturer, model type, capacity, weight, operating features, etc., as the S.O. shall require. (a) Road Cleaning Equipment Road cleaning equipment will be required where asphaltic concrete is to be laid on a surface which is not to receive a tack coat. The equipment shall be the same as that required for preparing a surface for a tack coat, and shall include a power broom and compressed air blower as specified in Sub-Sections 4.2.1.3 (a) and 4.2.1.3 (b) respectively. (b) Asphalt Mixing Plant The asphalt plant shall be either a batch plant or a drum mix plant or a continuous mix plant of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S.O. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. The mixing plant shall have a capacity suited to the Works and sufficient to enable the paver to operate more or less continuously when paving at normal speeds at the required thicknesses. The plant shall be so designed as to enable consistent production of asphaltic

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Standard Specification For Road Works The plant shall be provided with accurate mechanical means for uniformly feeding the aggregates into the dryer so that uniform production and temperature of the heated aggregates will be obtained. A separate feed bin with an adjustable gate opening shall be provided for each aggregate to be included in the combined aggregate for the mix; normally four bins will be required. The feed bins and gates shall be so constructed and equipped that they shall be readily accessible for calibrating at all times, and shall provide for a continuous and uniform flow of each aggregate required in the mix. The plant shall have a rotary drum dryer of satisfactory design for drying and heating the combined aggregate so that its temperature will be at the required level at the time it is mixed with the bitumen. The burner shall be so designed that complete combustion of the fuel will be obtained, and the aggregate will remain clean and not become coated with soot or oil. The plant shall be equipped with four (or more) screens, the smallest of which shall generally be not more than 3.2 mm. The screens shall have a normal capacity slightly in excess of the maximum output of the mixing plant. The screens shall be readily accessible for inspection. The plant shall include four (or more) storage bins for screened aggregates, each with a capacity of not less than twice the pugmill dead load capacity. The bins shall be arranged so as to provide separate dry storage for each screened fraction of the aggregate. Each bin shall be provided with an overflow pipe of such size and location as to prevent any backing up of material into other bins. Each bin shall be so constructed that representative aggregate samples can be readily obtained, and
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concrete mixes within the tolerances prescribed in this Specification, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Scales for all weigh boxes or hoppers shall be of the springless dial type, accurate to within 0.5% of the maximum load that may be required. Scale dials and pointers shall be easily read from their operator's normal position without significant parallax errors. Scales shall be substantially constructed so that they shall maintain their accuracy after initial adjustment. The Contractor shall furnish not less than ten 25 kg test weights at the plant for checking, adjusting and calibrating scales. Tanks for storage of bitumen shall have a capacity suited to the proposed rate of utilization of the material and the method and frequency of its delivery to the Works, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The tanks shall be provided with means of measuring the volume of their contents at all times and of drawing off samples of the contents. The bitumen feeding system shall provide for continuous circulation of hot binder through the system and back into the feed tank. The end of the return line discharging into the feed tank shall always be kept submerged in the bitumen in the tank in order to prevent oxidation of the returning hot binder. The storage tanks, and where necessary barrel decanters, and all elements of the bitumen feeding system shall be equipped with heating systems or insulating jackets as necessary to provide for effective and positive control of the temperature of the bitumen at all times up to the temperature required for utilisation. . The method of heating shall be such that neither flames nor the products of combustion shall come into direct contact contact with the bitumen or the casing of its immediate container, and such that no portion of the bitumen shall be subject to overheating.
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Standard Specification For Road Works the truck loading area, which shall be kept free from drippings from the mixer. Special Requirements for Batch Plants Each storage bin for screened aggregate shall be provided with a bottom outlet gate so constructed as to prevent leakage when closed. These gates shall have a quick and complete closing action. The plant shall be equipped with a weigh box or hopper for accurately weighing out aggregate from each of the screened aggregate storage bins. The weigh box or hopper shall be suspended from its scale's lever mechanism and shall be sufficiently large to hold a full batch equal to the pugmill capacity without hand raking or spilling of the aggregate. The discharge gate shall be so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the weigh box or hopper into the mixer, and prevent leakage when closed. The plant shall be equipped with a binder weigh bucket which shall be charged through a fast acting non-drip valve in the binder feed pipe located directly over the bucket. The bucket shall be suspended from its scale's lever mechanism and shall have a capacity sufficient to weigh out binder up to 20% of the weight of the pugmill dead load capacity. The bucket shall have a discharge mechanism which shall provide for rapid and complete emptying of the bucket in a thin uniform sheet or multiple sprays over the full length and width of the mixer. The dicharge mechanism shall not leak or drip when closed. The batch mixer shall be a suitable twinshaft pugmill, with a capacity of at least 500 kg of asphaltic concrete, capable of producing a thoroughly homogeneous mixture. The clearance of the paddle blades from all fixed and
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shall have means for observing the aggregate level. Separate dry storage shall be provided for mineral filler, and the plant shall be satisfactorily equipped to feed filler into the mixer. Satisfactory means by either weighing or metering shall be provided to obtain the prescribed amount of bitumen in the mix within the specified tolerance. Means shall be provided for checking the quantity or flow rate of binder entering the mixer. Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the prescribed temperature of the bitumen in the pipelines, weigh bucket or flow meter, and spray bars. An armoured thermometer with a range of 30 oC to 200 oC shall be fitted in the bitumen feed line at a suitable location near the discharge valve at the mixer unit. Suitable dial-scale mercury actuated thermometers, electric pyrometers or other thermometric instruments shall be fitted at the discharge chute of the dryer and in each hot aggregate storage bin to indicate the temperatures of the heated aggregates. The plant shall be equipped with a dust collector so constructed as to waste the material collected or feed it uniformly to the heated aggregate. The plant shall be equipped with adequate and safe stairways to the mixing platform and sampling locations, and guarded ladders and cat-walks shall provide access to all other positions as necessary for proper operation, inspection and maintenance of the plant, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. All gears, pulleys, chains, sprockets and other dangerous moving parts shall be properly guarded and protected. Ample and unobstructed space shall be provided on the mixing platform, and clear and unobstructed passage shall be maintained at all times in and around
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Standard Specification For Road Works producing an accurate and continuous blend of the individual aggregate sizes from the cold feed compartment. The drum mixer shall be of an inclined, oil-fired and parallel flow type in which the aggregates and exhaust gases flow in the same direction. The drum mixer length to diameter ratio shall be such as to ensure efficient drying and intimate mixing of aggregate, filler and binder over the full range of rated operating efficiencies. A bypass chute shall be incorporated for sampling of cold aggregate. Freshly mixed material shall be delivered and stored in a surge silo through a proper conveyor system. Special Requirements for Continuous Mix Plants Each storage bin for screened aggregate shall be provided with an accurately controlled variable orifice gate discharging on to an aggregate feed mechanism. The discharge orifice shall be rectangular with one dimension variable by means of an adjustable and lockable gate, which shall have an indicator showing the distance it is open. These gates shall be used for accurately proportioning the screened aggregates for the mix. The plant shall have means of calibrating the aggregate bin discharge gate openings by weighing test samples obtained by diverting the aggregate fed out of each bin into a suitable test box. Test boxes shall have a capacity of not less than 100 kg each. The plant shall have satisfactory means of effecting positive interlocking control between the flow of screened aggregates from the storage bins and the flow of binder from the meter or other proportioning device. This control shall
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moving parts of the mixer shall be not more than 20 mm. If the pugmill is not enclosed it shall be equipped with a dust hood to prevent loss of fines from the mixture. The discharge gate shall be so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the mixer, and prevent leakage of any mix constituent when closed. The mixer shall be equipped with an accurate time lock system for controlling the operations of a complete mixing cycle. It shall lock the aggregate weigh box or hopper gate after charging the mixer with aggregate, until the closing of the mixer gate at the completion of the mixing cycle; it shall lock the binder weigh bucket discharge mechanism during the dry mixing and wet mixing periods. (The dry mixing period is defined as the interval of time between the opening of the aggregate weigh box or hopper gate and the start of discharging the binder weigh bucket. The wet mixing period is defined as the interval of time between the start of discharging the binder weigh bucket and the opening of the mixer gate.) The dry and wet mixing periods shall both be adjustable in increments of not more than 5 seconds from zero to not less than 120 seconds total for dry and wet mixing. Special Requirements for Drum Mix Plants The cold material feeder unit shall consist of not less than 5 compartments with suitable heaped capacity appropriate for the plant. Each bin shall be provided with a control gate and measuring feeder suitable for accurate blending of the aggregates on to the cold feed collecting conveyor. The cold feed system shall incorporate a device for moisture compensation capable of

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Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Tip-Trucks The Contractor shall provide a suitable number of tip-trucks of a type approved by the S.O. for transporting asphaltic concrete from the mixing plant to the paving works. The trucks shall have trays with smooth, flat beds and sides, and shall have load capacities of not less than 5 tonnes. Prior to loading, the inside of each truck tray shall be lightly and evenly coated with a soap or detergent solution, or such other liquid as the S.O. shall approve, to prevent adhesion of the asphaltic concrete. The trucks shall be equipped with covers of canvas or other suitable material to protect the asphaltic concrete. (d) Asphalt Paver The asphalt paver shall be of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S.O. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. The paver shall be self-propelled and capable of reverse as well as forward travel. It shall be equipped with a hopper at the front designed to receive the paving mixture from tip-trucks, and shall have a mechanical distribution system for spreading the mixture evenly and without segregation over the surface to be paved in front of a screeding and compacting unit which shall be equipped with a suitable heating device. The screeding and compacting mechanism shall be capable of confining the edges of the material being laid without the use of stationary side forms, shall be adjustable to strike off the mixture to the thickness and cross-section shape required, and shall be controlled by an automatic levelling device to produce an even carpet of bituminous mixture with a uniform sur face texture free from indentations, ridges, tear marks or other irregularities.

be accomplished by interlocking mechanical means or another positive method satisfactory to the S.O. The continuous mixer shall be a suitable twin-shaft pugmill with an adjustable dam and paddles with reversible blade pitch for adjusting the volume of mixture held in the pugmill. The clearance of the paddle blades from all fixed parts of the mixer shall be not more than 20 mm. The binder shall be fed into the mixer through a spray bar directed on to the aggregate across the full width of the pugmill at the feed end. The discharging mixture shall pass over the dam into a hopper with a discharge gate so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the hopper, and prevent leakage of the mix when closed. The mixer shall be equipped with a permanent gauge for measuring the depth of mixture in the pugmill and a manufacturer's calibration plate showing the volume of mixture in the pugmill at each increment of depth. The mixing time shall be determined using the formula :Mixing time (seconds) = Dead weight of mix in pugmill (kg) Pugmill output (kg per second) and for a given output it may be varied slightly by adjusting the depth (and hence weight) of the mixture held in the pugmill by varying the dam height, the configuration of the paddle blades, or both. However for substantial adjustments of the mixing time, in order to maintain the depth at a level compatible with efficient mixing, i.e. so that the paddle tips just break out of the mixture at the height of their action, the rate of feed of materials to the mixer (and hence output) should be changed.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 4.2.4.5 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Asphaltic concrete paving work shall only be carried out in dry weather when the surface to be covered is dry, or if so specified, has received a bituminous tack coat which shall have achieved a satisfactory degree of tackiness, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. All laying, rolling and finishing work shall be carried out during daylight hours, unless the Contractor shall have provided suitable floodlighting for the job site, to the satisfaction of the S.O. The S.O. may order the discontinuation of work on account of adverse weather, unsatisfactory condition of materials, equipment or surface to be paved, or such other conditions as he shall consider detri mental to the work. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to constructing an asphaltic concrete pavement layer, the surface to be covered shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface, any damage to or deterioration of it shall be made good before asphaltic concrete paving work is commenced. If the surface to be covered is not to be provided with a bituminous tack coat, then immediately prior to commencing asphaltic concrete paving, it shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and, if necessary, scraped using hand tools to remove all loose particles, dirt, dust and other objectionable
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The paver shall be capable of laying the bituminous mixture in paving widths in the range 2.5 to 3.75 m and of finishing the pavement layer true to the required lines, grades, levels, dimensions and cross-sections, subject to compaction by rolling, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

(e) Rollers A pneumatic tyred roller and two steel wheeled tandem rollers shall be provided. However, a three wheeled steel roller may be substituted for one of the tandem rollers if the S.O. shall so approve. All rollers shall be of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S.O. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.3.3 (g). Steel wheeled rollers shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. Steel wheeled rollers shall be selfpropelled and capable of being reversed without backlash; they shall be equipped with power steering and dual controls allowing operation from either the left or right side. They shall be equipped with water tanks, sprinkler systems and scraper blades to keep all wheels evenly wetted and clean during operation. Each steel wheeled roller shall be ballasted so that its total operating weight is in the range 8 to 10 tonnes and its driven roll (or rolls) shall exert a rolling force of not less than 3.5 tonnes/metre of roll width. The Contractor shall provide the S.O. with a calibration chart for each roller showing the relationships between the quantity or depth of ballast and total weight and rolling force.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Ordinary Portland cement and/or other mineral filler to be used in the mix shall be stored separately and kept completely dry. Its rate of feed into the plant shall be accurately controlled by weight or volumetric measurement, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (d) Heating of Bitumen The binder shall be heated so that when delivered to the mixer it shall be at a temperature in the range 140ºC to 160ºC. (e) Mixing Asphaltic Concrete The mixing plant shall be so coordinated and operated as to consistently produce asphaltic concrete mixes within the tolerances prescribed in this Specification, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

material, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. If the surface to be covered is to be provided with a bituminous tack coat, then this shall be applied all in accordance with the provisions of SubSection 4.2.2. (c) Aggregate Handling and Heating Each aggregate to be used in the asphaltic concrete mixes shall be stored in a separate stockpile near the mixing plant. Stockpiles of sand and other fine aggregates shall be kept dry using waterproof covers and other means as necessary. In placing the aggregates in the stockpiles and loading them into the mixing plant's cold aggregate feed bins, care shall be taken to prevent segregation or uncontrolled combination of materials of different gradation. Segregated or contaminated materials shall be rescreened or rejected for use in the Works and removed from the mixing plant site. The aggregates shall be fed into the dryer at a uniform rate proportioned in accordance with the appropriate job mix formula. The rate of feed for each aggregate shall be maintained within 10% of the rate prescribed, and the total rate of feed shall be such that the plant's screens shall never be overloaded. The aggregates shall be dried and heated so that when delivered to the mixer they shall be at a temperature in the range 150ºC to 170ºC. Immediately after heating, the aggregates shall be screened into four (or more) fractions which shall be separately stored in the hot aggregate storage bins in readiness for mixing.

Mixing in Batch Plants For each batch the screened hot aggregates shall be weighed out into the aggregate weigh hopper in accordance with the proportions prescribed in the appropriate job mix formula; the sequence of weighing out shall commence with the largest sized aggregate and progress down to the fines, unless the S.O. shall otherwise approve. Mineral filler shall be weighed out into the filler weigh hopper, where this is provided, or added last to the aggregate weigh hopper, in accordance with the job mix formula proportions. The hot binder shall be weighed out into the binder weigh bucket in ccordance with the proportions prescribed in the job mix formula.

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Standard Specification For Road Works shall be as prescribed in the job mix formula; this shall be sufficient so that all particles of aggregate are uniformly coated with bitumen, and shall usually be 45 seconds or more for dense graded mixtures. The plant shall be so adjusted as to maintain the level of mixture in the pugmill such that the tips of the paddle blades just break out of the mixture at the height of their action. (f) Transportation of Asphaltic Concrete Asphaltic concrete shall be transported from the mixing plant to the site of the paving works in loads of not less than 5 tonnes using tip-trucks as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.4.4 (c). Except where asphaltic concrete is to be hand laid, it shall be discharged directly into the paver hopper, as required, from the tip-trucks. Care shall be taken in the truck loading, hauling and unloading operations to prevent segregation of the mix. During transportation, the asphaltic concrete shall be protected from contamination by water, dust, dirt and other deleterious materials. The temperature of asphaltic concrete immediately before unloading from the truck either into the paver hopper or on to the road for hand spreading shall be not less than 125ºC. Any load which has cooled below the specified temperature in the truck shall be rejected for use in the Works and removed from the Site of the Works. (g) Laying Asphaltic Concrete The sequence of laying operations shall be planned in advance by the Contractor and approved by the S.O.
Page 112

The hot aggregates and filler shall be discharged into the pugmill and mixed dry for the dry mixing time prescribed in the job mix formula, which shall usually be in the range 5 to 10 seconds. The hot binder shall then be added and wet mixing per formed for the wet mixing time prescribed in the job mix formula; this shall be sufficient so that all particles of aggregate are uniformly coated with bitumen, and shall usually be 45 seconds or more for dense graded mixtures. The volume of each batch shall be such that the tips of the pugmill paddle blades just break out of the mixture at the height of their action. After the completion of wet mixing, each batch of asphaltic concrete shall be discharged from the pugmill either into a storage hopper or directly into a truck for hauling to the paving site. Care shall be taken that no segregation of the mix occurs. Mixing in Continuous Mix Plants The screened hot aggregates and filler shall be fed continuously from their storage bins in accordance with the proportions prescribed in the appropriate job mix formula, combined in the plant, and fed continuously into the mixer. The hot binder shall be sprayed on to the combined aggregate as it enters the pugmill at the rate required to achieve the bitumen content pre scribed in the job mix formula. The materials shall then be carried through the pugmill and in the process be thoroughly mixed by the action of the paddles and dis charged over the dam into the stor age hopper. The mixing time (as defined in Sub-Section 4.2.4.4 (b)
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Standard Specification For Road Works and before laying restarts after each interruption of the paving operation. As far as is practicable, the paver shall be operated continuously and the supply of bituminous mix shall be regulated so as to enable continuous paving. Transverse joints in a paving lane shall be kept to a practicable minimum, and intermittent stopping and restarting of the paver shall be avoided as far as is practicable. Care shall be taken that no bituminous mix is placed on expansion joints at bridges, inspection covers for utilities ducts, drainage and sewerage manholes and the like, and that catchpits, drainage openings through kerbs, etc., remain properly open and serviceable. During laying operations, such areas and openings shall be protected by suitably shaped and secured boards or other materials approved by the S.O., and compaction of mix in the immediately surrounding or adjacent areas shall be completed by hand methods, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Alternatively, bituminous mix shall be laid and compacted by hand methods as necessary around surfacing discontinuities of these types, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (h) Construction Joints

Generally each paving layer shall have a compacted thickness of not less than twice the nominal maximum aggregate size of the mixture, and not more than 100 mm. Where applicable, e.g. on superelevated sections and on carriageways with cross-slope in one direction only, laying shall commence along the lower side of the carriageway and progress to the higher side. Laying shall not be carried out in a downhill direction along any section of road. As far as is practicable, laying shall be carried out using a paver approved by the S.O. Hand-casting of bituminous mix on to the machine finished surface shall be kept to the practicable minimum necessary for correcting blemishes and irregularities. In any areas inaccessible to the paver, laying shall be carried out by hand methods using rakes, lutes and other hand tools, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. All laying of bituminous mix shall be such that after compaction by rolling the specified course or layer thickness and surface profile shall be achieved. Care shall be taken to achieve a uniform surface texture free from indentations, ridges, tear marks or other irregularities, and to prevent segregation of the mix. At the commencement of initial rolling the temperature of asphaltic concrete shall be not less than 110ºC. Material which has cooled below the specified temperature before laying shall not be used and shall be removed from the Site of the Works. The Contractor shall provide accurate thermometers at the paving site at all times, and shall check the temperature of asphaltic concrete in the paver hopper at regular intervals
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Existing bituminous surfacing which new bituminous mix is to adjoin shall be cut back to present a straight, vertical edge not less than 25 mm deep and a smooth transition section not less than 0.5 metre long against which to lay the new material. The specified thickness of the new surfacing shall be built up gradually from the vertical joint to avoid any bumps or ridges across the carriageway.
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Standard Specification For Road Works Initial (or breakdown) rolling shall be carried out with an approved steel wheeled tandem roller or three wheeled steel roller. The principal heavy rolling shall be carried out with an approved pneumatic tyred roller immediately following the initial rolling; the pneumatic tyred roller shall be ballasted to an operating weight of not less than 15 tonnes and its tyre inflation pressure shall be not less than 0.7 N/sq.mm. The final rolling shall be carried out with an approved steel wheeled tandem roller and shall serve to eliminate minor surface irregularities left by the pneumatic tyred roller. All rollers shall operate in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway with their driven wheels towards the paver. Rolling shall generally commence at the lower edge of the paved width and progress uniformly to the higher edge, except that where there is a longitudinal construction joint at the higher edge, this shall be rolled first ahead of the normal pattern of rolling. Generally, successive roller passes shall overlap by half the width of the roller, and the points at which the roller is reversed shall be staggered. However, when operating on gradients in excess of 4%, the breakdown roller shall not pass over any previously unrolled mix when operating in the downhill direction. In all cases, compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The steel wheeled rollers shall operate at speeds of not more than 5 km/hr and the pneumatic tyred rollers shall operate at speeds of not more than 8 km/hr. No roller or
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Where longitudinal or transverse joints are required in a layer of bituminous mix under construction, the material first laid and compacted shall be cut back to a vertical face for the full thickness of the layer on a line satisfactory to the S.O. before the adjacent area is paved. At all construction joints, a thin uniform coating of bitumen emulsion of grade RS-1 or RS-1K shall be brushed on to the vertically cut joint faces some 10 to 15 minutes before laying the next section of bituminous mix commences to ensure good bonding. Also, all contact surfaces of kerbs, gutters, manholes, catchpits, etc., shall be similarly treated with a coating of bitumen emulsion before bituminous mix is placed against them. Construction joints in a layer of bituminous mix shall be offset from those in any immediately underlying bituminous layer by at least 100 mm for longitudinal joints and at least 0.5 metre, where possible, for transverse joints. (i) Compaction of Asphaltic Concrete For each layer of asphaltic concrete, compaction by rolling shall commence as soon after laying as the material will support the rollers without undue displacement; nevertheless the temperature of asphaltic concrete at the commencement of rolling shall be not less than 110ºC. In any areas inaccessible to the rollers, proper compaction shall be carried out using vibrating plate compactors, hand tampers or other suitable means, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.
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Standard Specification For Road Works the average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness, and the minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm. The top surface of a wearing or binder course shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4.4. (k) Opening to Traffic Asphaltic concrete shall not be opened to traffic until compaction has been completed and the material has thoroughly cooled and set in the opinion of the S.O. This will usually be not less than 4 hours after the commencement of rolling. Where it is necessary to allow earlier use of the finished surface to facilitate the movement of traffic, vehicles may be allowed to run on the work after rolling has been completed, provided that speeds are restricted to 30 km/hr or less and sharp turning movements are prohibited.

heavy vehicle shall be allowed to stand on newly laid bituminous mix before compaction has been completed and the material has thoroughly cooled and set. Rolling shall continue as long as is necessary to achieve the appropriate requirement as follows :Type of Pavement Layer
Wearing course Binder course

Required Compacted Density
98 - 100% Marshall density 95 - 100% Marshall density

Care shall be taken to prevent overcompaction of asphaltic concrete. Within 24 hours of laying and compacting the bituminous mix, the Contractor shall cut core samples of not less than 100 mm nominal diameter at locations selected by the S.O. The rate of sampling shall be 1 sample per 500 sq.m of mix laid, but not less than 2 samples for the work completed in each paving session. These core samples shall be used by the S.O. to determine the thickness of the compacted layer of mix and the compacted density of the material in accordance with either ASTM Test Method D 1188 or ASTM Test Method D 2726, whichever is applicable. (j) Finished Asphaltic Concrete Asphaltic concrete binder and wearing courses shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; their widths shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; ;

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Standard Specification For Road Works 4.2.5.3 Equipment The equipment shall be all as specified in Sub-Section 4.2.4.4. 4.2.5.4 Construction Methods All the provisions of Sub-Section 4.2.4.5 for the construction of asphaltic concrete pavement courses shall apply as appropriate to the construction of bituminous macadam pavement courses with the following variations and additions. (a) Aggregate Heating The aggregates shall be dried and heated so that when delivered to the mixer they shall be at a temperature in the range 140 oC to 160 oC. (b) Rolling Temperature

4.2.5 Bituminous Macadam 4.2.5.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing, placing, shaping and compacting bituminous macadam roadbase and/or levelling course and/or binder course and/or wearing course on a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course, and shall include the careful and thorough cleaning of surfaces which are to be covered without receiving a bituminous tack coat. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. 4.2.5.2 Materials The materials for bituminous macadam (aggregates, mineral filler, bituminous binder and anti-stripping agent) shall comply with all the requirements of Sub-Section 4.2.4.2, except for the combined gradation requirements. For each bituminous macadam mix, the gradation of the combined coarse and fine aggregates, together with ordinary Portland cement added as an adhesion and anti-stripping agent and, if necessary, any other mineral filler, shall conform to the appropriate envelope given in Table 4.12. The binder content shall also be in accordance with Table 4.12. Where the characteristics of the aggregates require a binder content other than that given in the above Table, the revised target binder content shall be agreed between the Contractor and the S.O. and the same tolerances shall apply.

The temperature of bituminous macadam at the commencement of rolling shall be not less than 100 oC. (c) Compacted Density The compacted density of bituminous macadam shall be as follows :Type of Pavement Layer
Bound roadbase Levelling course Binder course Wearing course

Required Compacted Density
90 - 100% Marshall density 90 - 100% Marshall density 95 - 100% Marshall density 98 - 100% Marshall density

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Standard Specification For Road Works Bituminous macadam levelling course shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; its dimensions shall be as specified or shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O., all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The top surface of bituminous macadam levelling course shall have the required shape,, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be every where within the tolerances for binder course specified in SubSection 4.4. Bituminous macadam binder and wearing courses shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; their widths shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; the average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness, and the minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm. The top surface of a wearing or binder course shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4.4.

The Marshall density of a bituminous macadam mix is defined as the average density of a set of three test specimens moulded in the same way as asphaltic concrete specimens are prepared for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows per face compaction standard. The bulk specific gravity of the specimens shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 166. The Marshall density of each mix shall be determined using a sample (or samples) taken from the mixing plant soon after the commencement of preparing each mix for the Works. (Note : Stability and flow tests are not normally required for bituminous macadam mixes.) (d) Finished Bituminous Macadam Bituminous macadam roadbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner; its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line; and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. The top surface of bituminous macadam roadbase shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4.4.2.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 4.12 - GRADATION LIMITS AND BINDER CONTENTS FOR BITUMINOUS MACADAM

Mix Type

Bound Bound Roadbas Roadbase e BMR40 BMR28

Levelling Course BML10

Binder Course BMB28

Binder Course BMB20

Wearing Course BMW14

Wearing Coursex BMW20

Mix Designatio n B.S. Test Sieve 50.0 mm 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 10.0 mm 6.3 mm 3.35 mm 1.18 mm 300 mm 75 mm

% Passing 100 95 - 100 70 - 94 56 - 76 44 - 60 32 - 46 7 - 21 2-9 100 90 - 100 71 - 95 56 - 80 44 - 60 31 - 45 7 - 21 2-8 100 85 - 100 30 - 60 15 - 25 2-6 100 90 - 100 71 - 95 58 - 82 44 - 60 32 - 46 7 - 21 2-8

by Weight 100 95 - 100 65 - 85 52 - 72 39 - 55 32 - 46 7 - 21 2-8 100 95 - 100 70 - 90 45 - 65 30 - 45 15 - 30 3-7 100 95 - 100 65 - 85 52 - 72 39 - 55 32 - 46 7 - 21 2-8

Binder Content

3.5 " ± 0.5%

4.0 " ± 0.5%

5.1 " ± 0.5%

4.7 " ± 0.6%

4.7 " ± 0.6%

5.0 " ± 0.5%

4.9 " ± 0.5%

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Standard Specification For Road Works Sub-Section 4.1.2.3, and the abutting carriageway structure course or courses shall likewise have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate Sub-Section or SubSections of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of the underlying and abutting pavement courses, any damage to or deterioration of these underlying and abutting pavement courses shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before shoulder construction proceeds. Shoulders shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O. in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness at the point of maximum thickness. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal shape and thickness, and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness at the point of maximum thickness. Each layer of shoulder material shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction, and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the shoulder and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the carriageway, except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge.

4.3

SHOULDERS Description This work shall consist of furnishing, compacting and shaping earth or gravel shoulder material on a prepared and accepted subbase or lower subbase or subgrade, all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. For paved shoulders, the bituminous surfacing and underlying pavement courses shall be constructed as described in the appropriate Sections of this Specification.

4.3.1

4.3.2

Materials Earth Shoulders Earth shoulder material shall be suitable material as described in Sub-Section 2.2.1.

4.3.2.1

4.3.2.2

Gravel Shoulders Gravel shoulder material shall conform to the requirements for gravel surfacing material set forth in Sub-Section 4.1.3.2.

4.3.3

Construction Methods Shoulders shall be constructed in stages or in one operation as directed or approved by the S.O., but in no instance shall a shoulder be built up to a level higher than that part of the abutting carriageway structure which has been completed and accepted. Prior to placing any shoulder material, the underlying subbase or lower subbase or subgrade shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of

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Standard Specification For Road Works be correct within a tolerance of + 50 mm and minus 0 mm from the centre-line, except for kerbs, channel blocks and edge lines which shall be laid with a smooth alignment within a tolerance of + 25 mm and minus 0 mm from the centre-line. 4.4.2 Surface Levels of Pavement Courses The design levels of pavement courses shall be calculated from the vertical profile, crossfall and pavement course thicknesses shown on the Drawings. The level of any point on the constructed surface of a pavement course shall be the design level subject to the appropriate tolerances given in Table 4.13.
TABLE 4.13 - TOLERANCES IN SURFACE LEVELS OF PAVEMENT COURSES

In all cases, compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives compactive effort appropriate to its thickness, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Throughout the placing, adjustment of moisture content and compaction of shoulder material, care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its seperation into coarse and seperate parts, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O., earth shoulders shall be turfed in accordance with Sub-Section 2.2.8.2. Shoulders shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner. The total width of carriageway and shoulder shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. The top surface of each shoulder shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades, shall be everywhere within 10 mm of the required plane, and shall provide a flush joint with the carriageway surface and shall be uniformly free draining away from the carriageway, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 4.4 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT, SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY OF PAVEMENT COURSES Horizontal Alignment The horizontal alignment shall be determined from the centre-line of the pavement surface shown on the Drawings. The edges of the pavement as constructed and all other parallel construction lines shall
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Pavement Course Wearing Course Binder Course Roadbase

Tolerance + 5 mm + 5 mm + 0 mm - 20 mm + 10 mm - 20 mm

Subbase and Lower Subbase

4.4.1

The combination of permitted tolerances in the levels of different pavement courses shall not result in a pavement thickness less than that shown on the Drawings. Each pavement course shall have an average thickness not less than that shown on the Drawings.

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Standard Specification For Road Works The traverse length of 300 m and its associated maximum permissible number of irregularities shall apply wherever the continuous length of the completed carriageway is 300 m or more, whether or not it is constructed in shorter lengths. Where the total length of pavement is less than 300 m the measurements shall be taken on 75 m lengths. The transverse regularity of a newly laid surface shall be measured with a 3 m straight-edge and shall have no greater depression under the straight-edge than that shown in Table 4.14

4.4.3

Surface Regularity The regularity of surfaces shall be within the relevant limits given in Table 4.14. A longitudinal irregularity is a variation in profile of the road surface as measured by the rolling straight-edge or wedge and straight-edge device. The permissible number of such longitudinal irregularities is indicated in Table 4.14.

TABLE 4.14 - TOLERANCES FOR SURFACE IRREGULARITIES

Longitudinal Direction

Transverse Direction Maximum Permissible Depth of Transverse Irregularities

Class of Surface Regularity

Maximum Permissible Number of Surface Irregularities Depth Exceeding 4 mm over over traverse traverse length length of 300 m of 75 m Depth Exceeding 7 mm over traverse length of 30 m 2 4 4 over traverse length of 75 m 1 2 3

Class SR1 Class SR2 Class SR3

20 40 60

9 18 27

4 8

mm mm

12 mm

No longitudinal irregularity exceeding 10 mm shall be permitted for Class SR1 Surface Regularity and no longitudinal irregularity exceeding 15 mm shall be permitted for Class SR2 and Class SR3 Surface Regularities.

The class of Surface Regularity for each portion of the Works shall be as stated on the Drawings or in the Bills of Quantities.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 5 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 5 - PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
Page 5.1 5.2 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS Cement Aggregate Joint Filler Joint Sealants and Seals Waterproof Membrane Curing Materials S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-126 S5-126 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-129 S5-131 S5-132 S5-132 S5-133

5.2.1 5.2 2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.3

PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Concrete Equipment

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4

CONSTRUCTION Preparation of Subgrade or Subbase

5.4.1

5.4.2 Construction by Machine 5.4.2.1 Fixed Forms, Rails and Guide Wires For Machine Construction 5.4.2.2 Construction by Fixed Form Paving Machine 5.4.2.3 Construction by Slip Form Paving Machine 5.4.3 Construction by Hand-Guided Method 5.4.4 5.4.4.1 Manual Construction Side Forms for Manual Construction

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Standard Specification For Road Works Page

5.5

JOINTS Transverse Expansion Joints Transverse Contraction Joints Planes of Weakness Load Transfer Assemblies

S5-133 S5-133 S5-134 S5-134 S5-135

5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.2.1 5.5.2.2

5.5.3 5.5.4 5.5.5 5.5.6

Longitudinal Joints Transverse Construction Joints Sealing Joints Concrete Saw

S5-135 S5-135 S5-135 S5-136

5.6

SURFACE TEXTURE Texture of Running Surfaces

S5-136 S5-136 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-138 S5-139 S5-139

5.6.1

5.6.2 Measurement of Texture Depth : Sand Patch Method 5.6.2.1 Apparatus 5.6.2.2 Method 5.7 5.8 5.9 ROUNDING OF EDGES CURING REMOVING FORMS

5.10 OPENING TO TRAFFIC 5.11 TREATMENT OF MANHOLES AND GULLIES 5.12 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENTS, SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY

S5-139

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Standard Specification For Road Works 5.2.4 Joint Sealants and Seals Joint sealants shall consist of hot or cold-poured compounds or pre formed seals as indicated on the Drawings and shall comply with the following requirements :(a) Hot-Poured Sealants Hot-poured sealants shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 2499 for Type A2 sealants.

SECTION 5 - PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
5.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of constructing a Portland cement concrete pavement with or without reinforcement in accordance with this Specification, including all relevant requirements of Section 9, and in conformity with the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings. Portland cement concrete shall consist of a mixture of Portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, with or without admixture.

(b) Cold-Poured Sealants Cold-poured sealants shall comply with the performance requirements for the Normal type of sealant given in B.S. 5212. The sealant shall be composed of a curing agent and a base resin, which shall be in such proportions as recommended by the manufacturer to provide a fast cure if the material is mixed and applied by special machines, or a retarded cure if mixed by hand. It shall cure within 1 hour and remain active for not less than 4 hours. The sealant shall be applied after the curing period of the primer and within the period that the primer remains active. Materials to be mixed and applied by hand shall be supplied in separate containers and shall be mixed in the correct proportions using a powered stirrer or mixer or any other method approved by the S.O.

5.2

MATERIALS All materials shall conform to the relevant requirements in Section 9 of this Specification. In addition the following requirements shall also be complied with.

5.2.1

Cement Cement shall be ordinary Portland cement unless otherwise shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O.

5.2 2

Aggregate Coarse aggregate to be used for at least the top 50 mm of the slab shall have a polished stone value of not less than 40.

5.2.3

Joint Filler The expansion joint filler shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M153 or M213.

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Standard Specification For Road Works It shall have test certificates from an approved testing laboratory to show that the compound has a curing efficiency of 90%. The curing compound shall contain sufficient flaked aluminium in finely divided dispersion to produce complete coverage of the sprayed surface with a metallic finish. The curing compound shall not react chemically with the concrete to be cured and shall not crack, peel or disintegrate within 2 weeks after application.

(c) Gunning Grade Sealants Gunning grade sealants consisting of two-part poly-sulphide-based sealing compounds shall comply with B.S. 4254. Alternatively, poly-urethanebased sealing compounds may be used provided their performance is not inferior to B.S. 4254 material. (d) Preformed Compression Seals Preformed compression seals shall be made from natural rubber and shall conform to the requirements contained in Table 5.1. 5.2.5 Waterproof Membrane Plastic sheeting shall have a minimum thickness of 125 um and shall be of a quality as approved by the S.O. 5.2.6 Curing Materials The exposed surface of concrete pavements shall be cured immediately after the surface treatment by the application of one of the following curing materials :(a) White Pigmented Liquid Membrane-Forming Compound White pigmented liquid membraneforming compound shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M148, Type 2. (b) Aluminised Curing Compound Aluminised curing compound shall be stable and impervious to evaporation of water from the concrete surface within 60 minutes after application.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 5.1 - SPECIFICATION FOR PREFORMED NATURAL RUBBER COMPRESSION SEALS

Property. Hardness.

Units IRHD

Requirement 55 + 5

Tensile Strength, minimum.

MPa

15

Elongation at break, minimum.

%

400

Compression Set, 24 hours at 100 oC, maximum.

%

40

Ageing Resistance, maximum change from unaged values after 72 hrs + 0 hrs at 100 oC :- 2 hrs - hardness - tensile strength - elongation at break. IRHD % % 0 to + 10 - 20 - 25

Ozone Resistance, 20% elongation, 96 hours at 140 oC, 50 pphm.

-

No cracking

Change in Volume after immersion in water for 7 days at laboratory temperature, maximum.

%

0 to + 5

Recovery of Finished Seals, under 50% deflection, after 72 hrs + 0 hrs at 100 oC. - 2 hrs

%

85

Note : All tests are in accordance with ISO Standards.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Prior to the placing of concrete, all of the required joint assemblies such as dowel bars, tie bars, etc., shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Sub-Section 5.5. In one-layer construction, the slab reinforcement shall also be installed and fixed in accordance with the relevant requirements of Section 9. In two-layer construction, the thickness of the top layer shall be not less than 50 mm or twice the maximum size of the coarse aggregate, whichever is the greater, and shall be at least 15 mm thicker than the depth of the groove former, if used. Placement of reinforcement and concreting of the top layer shall be done immediately, and in any case not more than 30 minutes, after the completion of the bottom layer. 5.4.2.1 Fixed Forms, Rails and Guide Wires For Machine Construction (a) Fixed Forms and Rails All forms and rails shall be made of steel and be sufficiently robust and rigid to support the weight and pressure caused by the paving equipment. Side forms for use with wheeled paving machines shall incorporate metal rails firmly fixed at a constant height below the top of the forms. The forms shall be secured by using not less than three pins for each 3 m length, having one pin fixed at each side of every joint. Forms shall be tightly joined together by a locked joint, free from play or movement in any direction.

5.3

PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Concrete Concrete shall be of the grade shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 9 of this Specification.

5.3.1

5.3.2

Equipment All equipment used such as batching plant and mixers shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 9 of this Specification.

5.4

CONSTRUCTION Preparation of Subgrade or Subbase Prior to placing concrete pavement, the underlying subgrade or subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Sections 2.2.7 or 4.1.2 as appropriate and the waterproof membrane laid as required in the Drawings. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or subbase, any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before the waterproof membrane is laid and the concrete pavement constructed.

5.4.1

5.4.2

Construction by Machine The concrete slab shall be constructed either by fixed form or by slip form paving plant in a continuous process in either one or two layers, as approved by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works form paving plant. (Each guide wire shall be at a constant height above and parallel to the required edges of the slab within a vertical tolerance of ±3 mm. In addition, one of the wires shall be at a con stant horizontal distance from the required edge of the pavement within a lateral tolerance of ±10 mm. The guide wires shall be supported from stakes not more than 8 m apart by connectors capable of fine horizontal and vertical adjustment. The guide wire shall be tensioned on the stakes so that a 500 gramme weight shall produce a deflection of not more than 20 mm when suspended at the mid-point between any pair of stakes. The ends of the guide wires shall be anchored to fixing points which shall be not closer to the edge of the slab than the row of stakes and in no circumstances shall a guide wire be anchored to a stake. The stakes and guide wires shall be checked and approved by the S.O. prior to concreting. 5.4.2.2 Construction by Fixed Form Paving Machine A fixed form paving train shall consist of separate powered machines which spread, compact and finish the concrete in a continuous operation. Concrete shall be discharged without segregation into a hopper spreader which is equipped with the means to control its rate of deposition on to the subbase or on to the lower layer. . The con crete shall be spread in each layer
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Forms shall be cleaned and oiled immediately before each use. The rails or running surfaces shall be kept clean in front of the wheels of any paving machines. The forms shall be straight within a tolerance of 3 mm in 3 m. The forms shall be bedded on low moisture content cement mortar and set to the pavement surface level as described in the Contract within a tolerance of ±3 mm. The bedding shall not extend under the slab. There shall be no vertical step between the ends of adjacent forms greater than 3 mm. The horizontal alignment for forms shall be to the required alignment of the pavement edge as described in the Contract within a tolerance of ±10 mm. The mortar or concrete bedding shall be broken out after use. Prior to concreting, the forms shall be approved by the S.O. Forms shall not be removed earlier than 6 hours after the completion of the construction of the slab. Care shall be taken to prevent damage to the concrete and any projecting tie bars during the removal of the forms. If the removal of forms results in any damage to the concrete the period of 6 hours shall be increased to that which is necessary to avoid further damage and the Contractor shall make good the damaged areas. b) Guide Wires Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., a guide wire shall be provided along each side of the slab to be constructed by slip
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works The regulation and finishing of the surface of the slab shall be carried out by a machine which incorporates twin oblique oscillating finishing beams which shall be readily adjustable for both height and tilt. The beams shall weigh not less than 170 kg per linear metre, be of rectangular section and span the full width of the slab. The leading beam shall be vibrated. The beams shall be supported on a carriage, the level of which shall be controlled by the average level of not less than four points evenly spaced over at least 3.5 m of the supporting rail, beam, or slab, on each side of the slab that is being constructed. The final regulation and surface finishing of the slab shall be carried out after any wet forming of joint grooves. After the final regulation and before texture is applied, any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed. When a concrete slab is constructed in more than one width, flanged wheels on the paving machines shall not be run directly on the surface of any completed part of the slab. The second or subsequent slabs shall be constructed either by supporting machines with flanged wheels on flat- bottom section rails weighing not less than 15 kg/m laid on the surface of the completed slab, or by replacing the flanged wheels on that side of the machine by smooth flangeless wheels. Before flangeless wheels or rails are used, the surface regularity of the slab over which they are to pass shall comply with Sub-Section 5.4.1 and its surface shall be thoroughly cleaned and brushed to remove
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without segregation and to a uniform uncompacted density over the whole area of the slab. The deposited concrete shall be struck off to the necessary level by the underside of the hopper as it is traversed across the spreading machine. The machine shall be capable of being rapidly adjusted for changes in average and differential surcharge necessitated by changes in slab thickness or crossfall. Prior to being compacted, the surface level of each loose spread layer shall be adjusted to the correct surcharge by means of rotating strike off blades or a screw device. The concrete shall be compacted by vibration or by a combination of vibration and mechanical tamping so as to comply with Sub-Section 5.3.1 throughout the full depth of the slab. Poker vibrators shall be used adjacent to the side forms and the edge of previously constructed slabs. The initial regulation and finish to the surface of the slab shall be effected by means of a beam oscillating transversely or obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the pavement. This beam shall be readily adjustable for both height and tilt. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with Sub-Section 5.5. The concrete shall be recompacted around the former by a hand held vibrating plate compactor drawn along or on each side of the joint, prior to regulation of the surface by the diagonal finishing beam.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works guide wires by at least one sensor attached to the paver. The alignment and level of ancillary machines for finishing, texturing and curing of the concrete shall be automatically controlled relative to the guide wires or to the surface and edge of the slab. Slip form paving machines shall have vibration of variable output, with a maximum energy output of not less than 2.5 kW per metre of slab per 300 mm depth of slab for a laying speed of up to 1.5 m per minute or pro rata for higher speeds. The machines shall be of sufficient mass to provide adequate reaction on the traction units to maintain forward movements during the placing of concrete in all situations. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with Sub-Section 5.5. The concrete shall be compacted around the former by a separate vibrating plate compactor with twin plates. The groove former shall be compacted to the correct level by another vibrating float which may be included with the transverse joint finishing beam. In addition a hand held vibrating float, at least 1 m wide, shall be drawn over the surface along the joint. Any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed before the surface is textured. Where a concrete surface slab is constructed in more than one width or where the edge needs to be matched for level to another section of surface slab, and the surface levels at the edges are not achieved, paving shall be carried out over separate fixed side forms supporting the edge to the required levels.
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all extraneous matter. Flangeless wheels or rails shall be positioned sufficiently far from the edge of the slab to avoid damage to that edge. 5.4.2.3 Construction by Slip Form Paving Machine A slip form paving train shall consist of powered machines which spread, compact and finish the concrete in a continuous operation. A slip form paving machine shall compact the concrete by internal vibration and shape it between sliding side forms or over fixed side forms by means of either a conforming plate or by vibrating and oscillating finishing beams. The concrete shall be deposited without segregation in front of the slip form paver across its whole width and to a height which at all times is in excess of the required surcharge. The deposited concrete shall be struck off to the necessary average and differential surcharge by means of a strike-off plate or a screw auger device extending across the whole width of the slab. The equipment for striking off the concrete shall be capable of being rapidly adjusted for changes in the average and differential sur charge necessitated by changes in slab thickness or crossfall. The level of the conforming plate and finishing beams shall be controlled automatically from the guide wires by sensors attached at the four corners of the slip form paving machine. The alignment of the paver shall be controlled automatically from the
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Details of joints shall be as shown on the Drawings. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with SubSection 5.5. Any irregularities at wet formed joint grooves shall be rectified by means of a vibrating float at least 1.0 m wide drawn along the line of the joint. The whole area of the slab shall be regulated by two passes of a scraping straight edge not less than 1.8 m wide or by a further application of a twin vibrating finishing beam. Any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed before the surface is textured. The surface shall be brush-textured as described in Sub-Section 5.6. The concrete shall be cured in compliance with Sub-Section 5.8. 5.4.4 Manual Construction Areas to be constructed by manual method shall be agreed with the S.O. The slabs shall be constructed in one layer. Dowel bars, tie bars and reinforcement, if specified, shall be fixed in position as shown on the Drawings. The concrete shall be spread uniformly without segregation or varying degrees of pre-compaction, by conveyor, chute or by other means approved by the S.O. The concrete shall be struck off by a screed so that the average and differential surcharge is sufficient to ensure that after compaction the surface is to the required level. The concrete shall be compacted by internal poker vibrator or other means approved by the S.O. The vibrations shall be at points not more than 500 mm apart over the whole
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5.4.3

Construction by Hand-Guided Method Areas to be constructed by handguided method shall be agreed with the S.O. The slabs shall be constructed in one layer. Dowel bars, tie bars and reinforcement, if specified, shall be fitted in position as shown on the Drawings. The concrete shall be spread uniformly without segregation or varying degrees of precompaction, by conveyor, chute or by other means approved by the S.O. The concrete shall be struck off by a screed so that the average and differential surcharge is sufficient to ensure that after compaction the surface is to the required level. The concrete shall be compacted by vibrating finishing beams. In addition, internal poker vibration shall be used for slabs thicker than 200 mm and may be used for lesser thicknesses. When used, the pokers shall be at points not more than 500 mm apart over the whole area of the slab, and adjacent to the side forms or the edge of a previously constructed slab. The surface shall be regulated and finished to the level of the top of the forms or adjacent slab or pavement layer by using twin vibrating finishing beams. The beams shall be metal with a contact face at least 50 mm wide and a vibrating unit having a minimum centrifugal force of 4 kN with a frequency recommended by the manufacturer or an equivalent compactive effort. The vibrating beams shall be moved forward at a steady speed of 0.5 m to 1 m per minute whilst vibrating over the compacted surface to produce a smooth finish.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works As soon as surplus water has risen to the surface, the pavement shall be given a broomed finish. 5.4.4.1 Side Forms for Manual Construction All side forms shall be made of steel and be sufficiently robust and rigid to withstand construction forces. Timber forms shall only be used for work which is less than 200 m in length. The forms shall comply with other requirements of SubSection 5.4.2.1 as appropriate. 5.5 JOINTS Joints shall be constructed as specified herein and/or as directed or approved by the S.O. Before any joint materials are set in place, the underlying pavement course at those locations shall have been approved by the S.O. Preformed expansion joint filler shall be placed around each structure which extends into or through the pavement over the full interface with the concrete pavement slab before concrete is placed. 5.5.1 Transverse Expansion Joints The components for each transverse expansion joint shall be assembled in advance and placed in position as a unit. Each assembly shall consist of an installing template, preformed joint filler of the required dimensions in a single piece, dowel bars and sleeves of the required sizes and lengths at the required locations, and spacing and supporting elements for the dowel bars, as shown on the Drawings.
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area of the slab, and adjacent to the side forms or the edge of a previously constructed slab. The surface shall be regulated and finished to the level of the top of the forms or adjacent slab or pavement layer by using an approved portable hand screed. The screed shall be at least 600 mm longer than the width of the slab to be struck off and compacted. It shall be of approved shape, sufficiently rigid to retain its shape and constructed either of metal or of other material shod with metal. Compaction shall be attained by raising and dropping the screed in successive positions until the required compaction and reduction of surface voids is secured. The screed shall then be placed on the forms and slid along them, with out lifting, in a combined longitudinal and transverse shearing motion moving always in the direction in which the work is progressing. If necessary, this shall be repeated until the surface is of uniform texture, true to grade and contour, and free from porous areas. After the concrete has been struck off and compacted, it shall be further smoothed, screeded and compacted by means of a longitudinal hand float or other equipment as approved by the S.O. Details of joints shall be as shown on the Drawings. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with SubSection 5.5. Any irregularities at wet formed joint grooves shall be rectified by suitable means approved by the S.O. The concrete shall be cured in compliance with Sub-Section 5.8.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Stakes for supporting the installing template shall be of a cross-section and length satisfactory to the S.O. 5.5.2 Transverse Contraction Joints Transverse contraction joints shall consist of planes of weakness created by forming or cutting grooves in the surface of the pavement and, when shown on the Drawings, shall include load transfer dowel bar assemblies. 5.5.2.1 Planes of Weakness (a) Sawn Grooves When sawn grooves are specified they shall be sawn in the con crete after its initial set. Grooves shall be at right angles to the centre line of the pavement, shall be true to line and shall have the width and depth shown on the Drawings. All joints shall be sawn before uncontrolled shrinkage cracking takes place but not until the concrete has hardened to the extent that tearing and ravelling is not excessive, usually 4 to 24 hours after placing. If extreme conditions exist which make it impracticable to prevent erratic cracking by early sawing, formed grooves shall be used. Any procedure for sawing joints that results in premature and uncontrolled cracking shall be revised immediately by adjusting the sequence of cutting the joints or the time interval involved between the placing of the con crete or the removal of the curing medium and cutting of the joints.

The installing template shall be metal plate of adequate rigidity approved by the S.O., cut to the required depth and crown of the slab and having a length 10 mm less than the required length of the joint. It shall be slotted from the bottom as necessary to permit removal. Suitable means shall be provided on the template for facilitating its removal. One half length of each dowel bar shall be thoroughly coated with a 200 pen bitumen blended with creosote oil or other material as approved by the S.O. A dowel sleeve shall be fitted on to the coated end of each dowel. The dowel supports shall be constructed so as to hold dowels in correct alignment, both vertically and horizontally, subject to a tolerance of not more than 1 in 100. When assembled, the top of the installing template shall be about 5 mm above the top of the preformed filler. The filler shall be vertical and shall be in a plane at right angles to the centre line of the road, subject to a tolerance of not more than 1 in 500. The joint assembly shall be placed so that the installing template is on the side of the filler remote from pouring operations. The top of the filler shall be 10 mm below the required con crete surface, and the bottom shall rest on or extend slightly into the underlying pavement course. The assembly and its installation shall have been approved by the S.O. before any concrete is placed against it.

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Standard Specification For Road Works When adjacent lanes of pavement are constructed separately, steel side forms shall be used which will form a key along the longitudinal joint as shown on the Drawings. 5.5.4 Transverse Construction Joints Concreting operations shall be planned such that transverse construction joints shall be constructed at designed transverse expansion or contraction joints. Transverse construction joints shall be keyed or butt joints formed by placing suitable bulkheads approved by the S.O. When there is an interruption of more than 30 minutes in the concreting operations, a transverse construction joint shall be constructed. As far as is practicable, this construction joint shall be formed at a designed transverse expansion or contraction joint. When this is not possible, transverse construction joints shall be constructed at least 3 metres from all transverse expansion or contraction joints. In such cases, tie bars 12 mm in diameter and 1 metre long at 600 mm centres shall be placed at the transverse construction joints. Wire fabric or bar mat reinforcement shall extend across all such transverse construction joints. 5.5.5 Sealing Joints Joints shall be sealed as soon after completion of the curing period as feasible and before the pavement is opened to traffic, including construction traffic. Immediately prior to sealing, each joint shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign material, including membrane curing
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(b) Formed Grooves When formed grooves are specified, they shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device into the soft, freshly laid concrete. The tool or device shall remain in place until the concrete has attained its initial set and then be removed without disturbing the adjacent concrete. The line, width and depth shall be as shown on the Drawings. 5.5.2.2 Load Transfer Assemblies Load transfer assemblies for transverse contraction joints shall be as shown on the Drawings. They shall be of similar construction to the assemblies for transverse expansion joints except that no joint filler shall be required and, consequently, no installing template shall be used. 5.5.3 Longitudinal Joints Longitudinal joints shall be constructed as shown on the Drawings. Planes of weakness shall be created by forming or cutting grooves as previously specified. Tie bars across a longitudinal joint shall be placed perpendicular to the joint and shall be rigidly supported as shown on the Drawings. The bars shall not be painted or coated with bitumen or other material.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works units and power to complete the sawing with a water-cooled diamond edge saw blade, or an abrasive wheel, to the required dimensions and at the required rate. The Contractor shall provide at least one stand-by saw in good working order. An ample supply of saw blades shall be maintained at the site of the work at all times during sawing operations. The Contractor shall provide adequate artificial lighting facilities for night sawing. All of this equipment shall be on the job before and continuously during concrete placement. 5.6 SURFACE TEXTURE 5.6.1 Texture of Running Surfaces After the final regulation and before the application of the curing membrane, the surfaces of concrete slabs to be used as running surfaces shall be brush-textured in a direction at right angles to the centre line of the carriageway. The type of brush and method of application for surface texturing shall be approved by the S.O. based on trial brushing to be conducted by the Contractor. The texture depth shall be determined by the sand patch test as described herein. The average texture depth for each set of 10 tests shall not be less than 0.75 mm and not more than one test of each set shall show a texture depth of less than 0.65 mm. In no case shall the maximum texture depth exceed 2 mm.

compound, and the joint faces shall be clean and surface dry when the seal is applied. The sealing material shall be applied in accordance with the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Sealing material to be applied hot shall be stirred during heating so that localized overheating does not occur. The pouring shall be done in such a manner that the material will not be spilled on to the exposed surfaces of the concrete. Any excess material on the surface of the concrete pavement shall be removed immediately and the pavement surface cleaned. The use of sand or similar material as a cover for the seal will not be permitted. Preformed compression seals for sealing joints shall be of the crosssectional dimensions shown on the Drawings. Seals shall be installed using suitable tools, without elongation, and secured in place with an approved adhesive which shall cover both sides of the concrete joints. The seals shall be installed in a compressed condition and shall at time of placement be below the level of the pavement surface by approximately 5 mm. The seals shall be in one piece for the full width of each transverse joint. Notwithstanding the above, all sealants shall be applied or installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or recommendations. 5.5.6 Concrete Saw When sawing of joints is specified, the Contractor shall provide sawing equipment adequate in number of
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Standard Specification For Road Works 31000 where D is the diameter of the of the D x D patch in mm. 5.7 ROUNDING OF EDGES Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O., edges of concrete slabs shall be rounded as follows. After brush texturing but before the concrete has attained its initial set, top edges of concrete slabs shall be worked with an approved tool and rounded to a radius of 5 mm. A well defined and continuous rounded edge shall be produced and a smooth, dense mortar finish obtained. At all transverse joints, any tool marks a ppearing on the slab adjacent to the joints shall be eliminated by brooming the surface. In doing this, the rounding of the edge of the slab shall not be disturbed. All concrete on top of joints shall be removed completely. 5.8 CURING The exposed surfaces of concrete pavement shall be cured immediately after surface texturing and rounding of edges by treating with a curing compound fulfilling the requirements of Sub-Section 5.2.6. It shall be mechanically sprayed on to the surface at a rate of 0.22 to 0.27 litre per square metre using a fine spray. The mechanical sprayer shall incorporate an efficient mechanical device for continuous agitation and mixing of the compound in its container during spraying. For the sides of slip formed slabs or when the side forms are removed within the curing period, and for small areas where a mechanical distributor cannot be used, the compound shall be sprayed by hand lance at a rate of 0.27 to 0.36 litre per square metre.

5.6.2 Measurement of Texture Depth : Sand Patch Method 5.6.2.1 Apparatus i) A cylindrical container - 25 ml capacity. ii) A flat wooden disc 64 mm in diameter with a hard rubber disc, 1.5 mm thick, stuck to one face, the reverse face being provided with a handle. iii) Dry natural sand passing a 300 um B.S. sieve and retained on a 150 um B.S. sieve. 5.6.2.2 Method The surface to be measured shall be dried, any extraneous mortar and/or loose material removed, and the surface swept clean using a wire brush both at right angles and parallel to the centre line of the carriageway. The cylinder shall be filled with the sand, tapping the base three times on a hard surface to ensure compaction, and striking off the sand, level with the top of the cylinder. The sand shall be poured into a heap on the surface to be tested. The sand shall be spread over the surface, working the disc with its face kept flat, in a circular motion so that the sand is spread into a circular patch with the surface depressions filled with sand to the level of the peaks. The diameter of the patch shall be measured to the nearest 5 mm. The texture depth in mm of concrete surfaces shall be calculated as:-

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Standard Specification For Road Works In addition, the entire surface shall be protected from the effects of solar radiation by the use of frames covered with material with heat and rain deflecting properties for not less than 4 hours after application of the curing compound. Notwithstanding the foregoing, concrete surfaces which are subjected to heavy rainfall within 3 hours after the curing compound has been applied shall be resprayed, all as specified above at no additional cost. Concrete liable to be affected by running water shall be adequately protected from damage during the setting period.

The compound shall form a uniform, continuous, coherent film that shall not crack or peel and shall be free from pin holes or other imperfections. If discontinuities, pin holes or abrasions exist, an additional coat shall be applied within 30 minutes to the affected areas. Necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure proper curing at the joints and that none of the curing compound enters joints which are to be sealed with joint sealing compounds. Rope of moistened paper, fibre or other suitable material shall be used to seal the top of the joint opening, and the concrete in the region of the joint shall be sprayed with curing compound immediately after the rope seal has been installed. Approved stand-by facilities or approved alternative methods for curing concrete pavement shall be provided at a readily accessible location at the site of the work for use in the event of mechanical failure of the spraying equipment or any other conditions which may prevent correct application of the membrane curing compound at the proper time. In the event of a failure of the regular spraying equipment, the paving operation shall be stopped, and the stand-by or alternative curing method shall be used on the remaining portion of the paving already placed. Concrete surfaces to which membrane curing compounds have been applied shall be adequately protected for the duration of the entire curing period from pedestrian and vehicular traffic, except as required for joint sawing operations and surface tests, and from any other cause which will disrupt the continuity of the membrane. The curing membrane so formed shall be maintained intact for a period of not less than fourteen (14) days.

5.9

REMOVING FORMS Forms shall not be removed until the freshly placed concrete has set for at least 6 hours. The forms shall be removed carefully so as to avoid damage to the pavement. As soon as forms are removed, the ends of all expansion joints shall be cleaned of concrete and the full width of the filler exposed for the full depth of the slab. Any areas showing a minor degree of honeycombing shall be repaired with 1:3 cement mortar. Where the S.O. considers that a major degree of honeycombing is present, the work shall be considered defective and shall be removed and replaced at the expense of the Contractor. In such cases, the section of concrete removed shall be to the full width and depth of the slab and at least 3 metres long.

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Standard Specification For Road Works fixed to the slab edges so exposed. This shall be to the full depth of the slab allowing for the depth of the groove required for sealing. Alternatively, the recesses may be sawn out after the con crete has hardened. Reinforcement shall be placed as shown on the Drawings and concrete placed by hand in the space between the main slab and the manhole or gully frame. This concrete shall be of the same grade as that of the main slab, and the mix shall be modified as necessary to permit full compaction by the methods adopted. 5.12 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENTS, SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY The alignment, levels and regularity of the finished surface shall be in compliance with Sub-Section 4.4 of this Specification.

5.10 OPENING TO TRAFFIC No pavement shall be opened to any traffic earlier than twenty-eight (28) days from the completion of concreting. The Contractor shall erect and maintain suitable barricades and shall employ watchmen to exclude public traffic and that of his employees and agents from the newly constructed pavement. These barriers shall be arranged so as not to interfere with public traffic on any lane intended to be kept open and necessary signs and lights shall be maintained by the Contractor clearly indicating any lanes open to traffic. Where, as shown on the Drawings, it is necessary to provide for traffic across the pavement, the Contractor shall, at his own expense, construct suitable and substantial crossings to bridge the newly constructed concrete pavement for as long as the S.O. shall direct. Any part of the pavement damaged by traffic or other cause prior to its final acceptance shall be repaired or replaced all at the expense of the Contractor in a manner suitably satisfactory to the S.O. 5.11 TREATMENT OF MANHOLES AND GULLIES Manhole covers, gullies and their frames shall be isolated from the main pavement slab as shown on the Drawings and their surrounds cast in separate operations. Manholes and gully recesses shall be formed by casting the main slab against formwork boxes with vertical sides, placed and fixed accurately. The formwork boxes shall be removed before the concrete around the manhole or gully cover is to be placed and preformed joint filler, 20 mm thick,
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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 6 ROADSIDE FURNITURE

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 6 - ROAD FURNITURE
Page 6.1 CORRUGATED SHEET STEEL BEAM HIGHWAY GUARDRAIL Description Materials Beam Element Posts Installation of Guardrails Setting Posts (Timber or Steel) Placing Beams Anchorages Marking and Storage Marking Storage Basis of Acceptance Beam Elements Posts and Block-Outs S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-146 S6-146 S6-146 S6-146 S6-147 S6-147 S6-148 S6-149 S6-149 S6-151 S6-151

6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.2.1 6.1.2.2 6.1.3 6.1.3.1 6.1.3.2 6.1.3.3 6.1.4 6.1.4.1 6.1.4.2 6.1.5 6.1.5.1 6.1.5.2 6.2

TRAFFIC SIGNS Description Sign Definitions Sign Classification Standards Permanent Traffic Signs General Requirements Foundations Posts Sign Plate Sign Faces Backing Frames Construction and Assembly Location and Erection Covering of Permanent Traffic Signs

6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.5.1 6.2.5.2 6.2.5.3 6.2.5.4 6.2.5.5 6.2.5.6 6.2.5.7 6.2.5.8 6.2.5.9

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Standard Specification For Road Works Page

6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8

Temporary Traffic Signs Traffic Signs On Gantries Preparation and Finish of Metal and Other Surfaces

S6-152 S6-152 S6-152

6.3

ROAD MARKINGS Description Road Marking Materials Preparation of Site Preparation of Material on Site Laying Protection of Markings Reflectorisation Thickness Tolerance on Width Defective Materials or Workmanship Clearing Up CONCRETE KERB Description Materials Installation of Kerbs Excavation Cast In Situ Kerb Precast Concrete Kerb Slipforming for Concrete Kerb Backfilling

S6-153 S6-153 S6-153 S6-153 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-156 S6-156 S6-156 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-158 S6-158

6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7 6.3.8 6.3.9 6.3.10 6.3.11 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.3.1 6.4.3.2 6.4.3.3 6.4.3.4 6.4.3.5

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Standard Specification For Road Works if used, shall be channel sections of dimensions as shown on the Drawings and shall be of the same material as that used for the posts. Both the posts and blockout pieces shall be hot-dip galvanised in accordance with Sub-Section 6.1.2.1. (b) Timber Posts Timber posts and block-out pieces shall be of medium hardwood (except the species Merpauh and Rengas) as classified by the Malaysian Timber Industry Board in its publication `Malaysian Hardwood', and shall be treated according to M.S. 733. The preservative retention in the outermost 25 mm shall not be less than 16 kg per cubic metre. Heavy hardwood can also be used as an alternative with the approval of the S.O. Guardrail timber posts and blockout pieces shall be of the dimensions as shown on the Drawings. The fibres of the block should run in the same direction as those of the post. The post shall be sound and free from loose knots or decay with no cracks at the top. All cut faces shall be smooth and square as shown on the Drawings. All timber components shall be cut and drilled before treatment with preservative.

SECTION 6 - ROAD FURNITURE
6.1 CORRUGATED SHEET STEEL BEAM HIGHWAY GUARDRAIL Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of corrugated sheet steel beam highway guardrails inclusive of bolts, nuts, posts and other ancillary works, all in accordance with this Specification, and the Drawings, and as directed by the S.O. 6.1.2 Materials Beam Element Unless otherwise specified on the Drawings, corrugated sheet steel beam highway guardrails shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO Specification M180 for Class `A' Type II (galvanised) guardrail with effective length of beam 3810 mm (12 feet 6 inches). Guardrails shall be fabricated and furnished complete with terminal or buffer sections, connecting and splicing bolts, nuts and washers, etc., all conforming to the requirements of AASHTO Specification M180 and as necessary for erecting the guardrails as shown on the Drawings or as required by the S.O. 6.1.2.2 Posts (a) Steel Posts Steel posts shall be channel sections of dimensions as shown on the Drawings and the material shall conform to B.S. 449 Part 1 Grade 43. The block-out pieces,
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6.1.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.1.4 Marking and Storage Marking In addition to the marking specified in AASHTO Specification M180, the JKR logo shall also be marked on each beam element. 6.1.4.2 Storage All galvanised beam elements, terminal sections, bolts, nuts and washers and posts shall be stored under a cover that will protect them from rain until they are erected or used. While in storage, the material shall not be in direct contact with the soil and there shall be a minimum space of 300 mm between the lowest most elements and the ground surface. 6.1.5 Basis of Acceptance Beam Elements All material shall be subjected to inspection and sampling in accordance with AASHTO Specification M180 at a sampling rate of 1 in every 200 or as directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall provide and arrange the testing facilities and the test pieces as and when requested by the S.O. The cost of all sampling and testing shall be borne by the Contractor. If, in the subsequent installation, there is detection of non-compliance with the requirements of this Specification through random sampling carried out by the S.O., then the material of the lot will be rejected and the Contractor shall remove the same from the Site at his own cost.
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6.1.3

Installation of Guardrails Setting Posts (Timber or Steel) Before posts are erected, the alignment and finished levels of the guardrails shall be set accurately on site for approval by the S.O. Post holes at the correct positions shall be dug either manually or mechanically to the required level. The posts shall then be set plumb in the holes with the front face forming a smooth line to the approval of the S.O. After the posts are in place, the holes shall be backfilled with grade 20/20 concrete compacted in such a manner as not to displace the posts from correct alignment as shown on the Drawings. Posts may be installed by means of driving with suitable equipment if the S.O. is satisfied that the Contractor is capable of installing the post to the designed depth, line and level, accurately. Posts shall be spaced as indicated on the Drawings.

6.1.3.1

6.1.4.1

6.1.5.1

6.1.3.2

Placing Beams The guardrail beams shall be fixed and firmly bolted together with the block-out pieces on to the post to the lines and grades as shown on the Drawings, and as directed by the S.O.

6.1.3.3

Anchorages Anchorages shall be constructed as shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S.O.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works It shall include all excavation and backfilling, all necessary foundations, anchorages, fixtures and fastenings, brackets, lighting units and electrical installations where required, application of paints and finishes, etc., to complete the work all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 6.2.2 Sign Definitions For the purpose of this Specification, traffic signs are defined as follows :i) Non-illuminated signs are those signs which are not lit either internally or externally and shall be retro-reflective; ii) Externally illuminated signs are those which comprise either retro-reflective or non-retroreflective facing with external lighting luminaire. 6.2.3 Sign Classification For the purpose of this Specification, the following clasifications shall apply :(a) Permanent Traffic Signs Any of the traffic signs defined in Sub-Section 6.2.2 above or any part thereof as designated on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. to remain in position upon completion of the Works. (b) Temporary Traffic Signs

6.1.5.2

Posts and Block-Outs (a) Steel For each lot of 200 pieces or less of either steel posts or steel block-outs supplied to the Site, the Contractor shall submit certificates from an approved testing laboratory certifying compliance with the properties required and the mill certificate. However, the S.O. reserves the right to conduct further tests on the materials supplied. The Contractor shall provide and arrange the testing facilities and test samples at his own expense as and when instructed by the S.O. The steel which has been rejected by the S.O. shall be removed from the Site.

(b) Timber For each lot of 200 pieces or less of either timber posts or timber block-outs supplied to the Site, the Contractor shall submit a test report from an approved testing laboratory certifying compliance with specified timber species and other qualities. However, the S.O. reserves the right to conduct further tests on the materials supplied. 6.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS

6.2.1

Description This work shall consist of the supply, assembly, erection and installation of sign faces, sign plates, posts and backing frames, all in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings and as specified herein. Any of the traffic signs defined in Sub-Section 6.2.2 above or any part thereof designed by the Contractor with the approval of the S.O. which will not remain in position at the completion of the Works.

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Standard Specification For Road Works transported and stored in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 6.2.5.2 Foundations The type and size of foundations for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and, unless otherwise stated therein, shall comply with this Specification. All excavations, erection of formworks, placing of reinforcement, etc., for foundations shall be carried out in compliance with this Specification and shall be approved by the S.O. before placing of concrete and backfilling. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, signs supported by a single post placed in the ground shall have the post installed centrally in 300 mm diameter holes filled with grade 20/20 concrete complying with Section 9 of this Specification to within 450 mm of the ground surface. The hole shall be excavated either mechanically or manually. Posts shall be supported for a minimum of three (3) days after placing the concrete. Backfilling shall not take place until at least 48 hours after placing the concrete, or other period agreed by the S.O. Where signs are illuminated, provision shall be made for cable entry through the foundation by means of ducting as shown on the Drawings.

6.2.4

Standards All traffic signs shall, except where specified otherwise, comply with the requirements of ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) Series 2, published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Kuala Lumpur.

6.2.5

Permanent Traffic Signs General Requirements Permanent traffic signs shall be constructed, assembled, located and erected as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Each complete traffic sign or part thereof shall be capable of passing the tests specified in B.S. 873. All externally illuminated traffic signs shall comply with Category 1 luminance of B.S. 873 unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Before the commencement of fabrication of any traffic sign, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the Contractor shall submit for the S.O.'s approval the details of fabrication drawings for all signs. All traffic sign housings shall be provided with vandal and weather resistant locks. Keys, in the quantities determined by the S.O., shall be provided to the S.O. Types of lock shall be kept to a minimum. Traffic signs shall be carefully handled to prevent damage (methods shall include the use of proper slings), and shall be

6.2.5.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.2.5.4 Sign Plates All permanent sign plates shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B.S. 873. Sign plates shall be made of 10 S.W.G. sheets of aluminium alloy HS 30-WP conforming to B.S. 1470 with a minimum thickness of 3 mm. A sign plate not exceeding 1.2 m in height and 2.4 m in width shall be made from a single sheet. Where more than one sheet is used to make up a sign plate, the sheets shall be rectangular, of approximately the same size and shape, and the position of the joints shall be to the approval of the S.O. Sign plates shall be drilled at all locations where rivets or bolts are required for attaching the plate to the backing frame or fixings before application of the sign face. However, riveting shall be carried out only after the application of the sign face. Subject to the S.O.'s approval, double sided "Very High Bond" (V.H.B.) tapes may be used as an alternative to rivets. Nevertheless, the tape shall comply with the following requirements :i) Peel Adhesion - 440 N per 100 mm; ii) Tensile Adhesion - 910 kPa; iii) Dynamic Shear -550 kPa.

Where pockets are formed in concrete foundations their plan dimensions shall be 100 mm larger than those of the post. All backfilling of foundation pits and reinstatement of existing surfaces above the foundations shall comply with the relevant requirements of this Specification. 6.2.5.3 Posts Posts for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B.S. 873. Posts shall be of tubular hollow section steel of not less than 50 mm outside diameter complying with B.S. 1387. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, posts shall not protrude above the top of the sign unless supporting an external luminaire where the protrusion shall be kept to a minimum. Signs erected on a single post shall be positioned so that the post is in the centre of the sign, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Compartments for electrical equipment shall be as shown on the Drawings. In the case of signs supported by more than one post, such compartments shall be on the post furthest from the carriageway unless otherwise directed by the S.O. Flange plates shall have holes or slots as shown on the Drawings to accommodate any holding down bolts.
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Standard Specification For Road Works Only vertical and horizontal joints shall be permitted and all joints in plastic sheeting shall be overlapped by not less than 6 mm. The overlap in the horizontal joints shall be from the top and the vertical joints shall be from the left; butt joints in plastic sheeting will not be accepted. Plastic sheeting shall be applied evenly over the whole surface of the sign plate and shall adhere fully. It shall be free from twists, cracks, folds or cuts, air bubbles and other blemishes. All plastic sheetings used on the same sign shall be carefully matched for colour to produce a uniform appearance both by day and by night. Non-uniform shades of colour on any one sign will not be accepted. The edges of all plastic sheeting shall be sealed. Edge sealing shall be continuous and uniform and shall also be applied to all bolt and rivet holes. A coat of clear lacquer shall be applied to the whole of the face and edges of each finished sign plate at the time of fabrication. The lacquer shall be continuous and uniform and shall be of the type specified or supplied by the manufacturer of the sheeting material. Where sheeting is applied to extruded sections by pressure roller, it shall extend over the top and bottom edges of these sections by not less than 3 mm.

Where top and bottom light spill screens are required as shown on the Drawings, these shall extend for the whole width of the sign, be fabricated out of the same material as the sign plate and shall have corners cut to the same radius as the other corners of the sign plate. Top and bottom light spill screens shall be considered part of the sign plate and any stiffeners and mounting fittings shall be designed to accommodate the combined size. 6.2.5.5 Sign Faces Sign faces for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the `Draft Malaysian Standard Specification for Reflective Sign Face Materials' (SIRIM Reference D111 [ISCF]), and on replacement of this draft, the respective Malaysian Standard Specification. All retro-reflective plastic sheeting shall be fixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., sign faces shall be formed from a single piece of plastic sheeting. Where, with the agreement of the S.O., more than one plastic sheet is used, the number of sheets shall be kept to a minimum. All faces up to 1 m in size shall be produced with a single sheet and no joint will be accepted.

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Standard Specification For Road Works fabricated from 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm angles. The angles used for the backing frames shall be made from aluminium alloy HE9-TE conforming to B.S. 1474. The angles shall be welded, bolted or riveted together to form the backing frames as shown on the Drawings. Backing frames shall not project beyond the face of the sign. Where large signs are built in sections, the backing frames of these sections shall be bolted together with 8 m diameter bolts at not more than 200 mm centres. The details of joints between angles of the backing frame and of joints between sections of large signs shall be to the approval of the S.O. The sign plate shall be riveted or bonded with double sided V.H.B. tape to the backing frame after the application of the sign face. 6.2.5.7 Construction and Assembly Traffic signs shall be constructed and assembled as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B.S. 873. All sign plates, backing frames, purlins, posts and other components shall be de-burred prior to assembly. Where framing and stiffening are not an integral part of the sign plate, their joints shall be welded or joined with suitable brackets utilising nuts, bolts and washers.
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Any cut-out letters, numerals, symbols and borders shall be of material compatible with the sheeting to which they are applied. They shall be applied in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer's instructions. Screen processed letters, numerals, symbols and borders shall be screen printed with materials in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer's instructions. Any inks, pastes and finishing coats used shall be compatible with the sheeting material. The finish of all sign faces shall be capable of passing the tests described in B.S. 873, and the standards of fabrication and workmanship shall be such that under normal conditions of service and proper maintenance, the sign faces shall last not less than 5 years without any serious blemishes or defects for Engineering Grade retroreflective sheeting and 8 years for High Intensity retro-reflective sheeting. The Contractor shall furnish to the S.O. a letter of warranty for the specified period for all sign faces from the supplier of the sheeting or the sign fabricator. 6.2.5.6 Backing Frames Backing frames for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with this Specification. Signs exceeding 600 mm in height or width shall be stiffened by means of angles while signs exceeding 1 m in height or width shall have a backing frame
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works before final installation and they and their anchorages shall be installed so as to achieve the loadings, torque settings and requirements shown on the Drawings. Sign plates shall be connected to posts by a method approved by the S.O. Banding systems shall be of stainless steel. Where ferrous components are permitted, any drilling of such components shall be completed before the application of any finish. Any hole drilled to accommodate rivets or bolts in plates with plastic sheeting shall, immediately prior to the insertion of the rivet or bolt, have a clear lacquer, as recommended by the manufacturer of the plastic sheeting, applied to its edge to prevent the ingress of moisture. The surfaces of rivets or bolts exposed on the sign face shall be coloured by a material approved by the S.O. to match that part of the face. Traffic signs to be erected on road lighting columns shall have fixings compatible with the column cross-section and finish. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.O., columns shall not be drilled and wiring shall be contained in approved external conduits. In addition to the requirements of this Specification, variable message traffic signs shall be of a type approved by the relevant authorities.
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Where purlins are adopted, they shall be attached to each vertical member of the backing frame and the sign stiffening and framing shall be continuous in the vertical direction. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.O., purlins shall be spaced equally apart. Connections shall be made at every point where a purlin crosses a post. Where purlins are not adopted, the sign stiffening and framing shall be continuous in the horizontal direction. All rivets and other devices used in the fixing of sign plates to their stiffeners or backing frames, or those used in the construction of housings, shall be of a material compatible with the materials being joined. Spacing of rivets or other devices used in the fixing of sign plates to their stiffeners or backing frames shall be uniform and shall not exceed 150 mm around the outside edge of any sheet or section of a sheet, and shall not exceed 300 mm on cross braces. Hollow rivets shall be filled with a plastic plug flush with the head of the rivet. An additional washer of neoprene, nylon or other material approved by the S.O. shall be used against the sign face to protect it from the effects of any metal nuts, bolts, washers and/or screws. Where traffic signs, including external lighting luminaires or their supports, are required to have holding down bolt fixings, the bolts shall be lightly greased
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.2.5.9 Covering of Permanent Traffic Signs Where it is required in the Contract that permanent traffic signs are to be blanked-out or are to have an alternative message, the covering to be adopted shall comply with the following requirements. The covering shall be 1.5 mm (16 S.W.G.) thick made from a material compatible with that of the sign plate, or a material approved by the S.O. Cover plates shall be fixed by means of 5 mm diameter stain less steel bolts, washers and nuts or non-ferrous rivets not more than 600 mm apart, the bolts passing through 12 mm diameter, 5 mm thick plastic distance pieces between the sign face and cover plate. Any holes remaining in the finished sign face shall be filled with blocked rivets coloured on the face by methods approved by the S.O. Where self-adhesive plastic film is used, it shall be compatible with the sign face materials and be applied and removed in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions. Any loose covering used must be sufficiently opaque to prevent reflection from the covered sign and be securely fastened to the back of the sign. Under no circumstances shall tape or other adhesive material be applied to the face of the sign. A minimum space of 50 mm shall be left between the covering and the face to permit airflow over the sign.
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6.2.5.8

Location and Erection The approximate location of each permanent traffic sign shall be as shown on the Drawings. All traffic signs shall have their exact location determined by the S.O. and recorded on the as-built Drawings. All posts shall be erected plumb and where two or more posts are provided for any one sign, the face of the posts shall be lined up. Signs erected on two posts shall have each post positioned so that the distance from the centre of the post to the edge of the sign plate is 300 mm unless otherwise directed by the S.O. Any pockets formed in concrete foundations to receive the posts shall immediately prior to erection be cleaned out. The posts shall be placed centrally in the pockets and be bedded on and filled up to finished foundation level with grade 20/20 concrete. Traffic signs mounted on posts, except those on gantries, shall be erected to have their faces plumb and orientated in relation to the carriageway in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2B/85. Traffic signs mounted on gantries shall be erected as shown on the Drawings. No traffic sign shall be dismantled, resited or removed without prior approval from the S.O.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.2.7 Traffic Signs On Gantries Where traffic signs are erected on gantries, the signs shall comply with the relevant requirements of this Specification. Fabrication and construction of gantries shall be as shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S.O.

Traffic signs which are to be covered shall not be erected on trafficked highways without the covering in place. Removal of any covering shall be carried out with minimum disturbance to traffic and only after the S.O. has given his approval. Irrespective of any requirement in the Contract to cover signs, any traffic sign erected at such a time that its legend does not relate either wholly or in part to the traffic movement and route in operation, shall have its sign face securely covered with one of the materials described above until such time as the S.O. authorises its removal. 6.2.6 Temporary Traffic Signs Temporary traffic signs shall be constructed either as non-illuminated or externally illuminated signs as directed by the S.O.Location and erection of temporary traffic signs shall be in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85. Erection of temporary traffic signs mounted on posts shall comply with Sub-Section 6.2.5.8. Any temporary covering of temporary traffic signs shall comply with Sub-Section 6.2.5.9. Removal of temporary traffic signs shall be carried out as soon as they become superfluous or a hazard to traffic. Methods of removal and making good shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval beforehand. Making good shall be carried out immediately after removal of the traffic sign to the satisfaction of the S.O.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

6.2.8

Preparation and Finish of Metal and Other Surfaces Traffic signs shall be prepared, protected against corrosion and finished in compliance with B.S. 873. Faces of sign plates shall be prepared to receive sign face materials in compliance with B.S. 873 and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Steel backing frames, fittings and purlins shall be prepared and protected in compliance with B.S. 873. Steel posts and post housings shall be prepared and protected in compliance with B.S. 873. Backs of aluminium or aluminium alloy sheets forming plate signs and external parts of luminaire housings and other permanently exposed components shall, to prevent retroreflection, be dulled with paint using a method approved by the S.O. Ferrous steel shall be finished both inside and out by galvanising, electro-plating or application of zinc or aluminium spray or other e quivalent finish approved by the S.O. Aluminium and other metals shall be left untreated unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.
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Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 3262 Part 1. Yellow thermoplastic material shall be of standard colour B.S. 381C No. 356 (Golden Yellow). (b) Road Marking Paint Road marking paint shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 164. Yellow paint shall be of standard colour B.S. 381C No. 356 (Golden Yellow). 6.3.3 Preparation of Site Thermoplastic material and road marking paint shall be applied only on a surface which is clean and dry. It shall not be laid over loose detritus, mud or extraneous matter or over old material or paint marking incompatible with the paint being applied. A tack coat compatible with the marking material shall be applied in accordance with manufacturer's instructions prior to the application of thermoplastic material. If a primer or undercoat is necessary to ensure proper adhesion of the marking paint to the road surface without bleeding or other discoloration, the primer or undercoat shall be fully compatible with the marking paint and the road surface. The rate of application of tack coat, primer or undercoat shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and to the satisfaction of the S.O.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, stainless steel shall be left untreated except where the component is visible against the sign face when it shall be coloured on the face by methods approved by the S.O. External surfaces shall be prepared and protected as described in the Contract. Cabinets and feeder pillars shall have final coats of paint applied on Site after final installation, including the fitting of any internal apparatus required as part of the permanent Works. Internal surfaces shall, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, receive the same treatment as for external surfaces except that final paint coats shall be applied before internal components are installed. 6.3 ROAD MARKINGS

6.3.1

Description This work shall consist of the supply of road marking material and its application to form continuous or intermittent lines, letters, arrows, symbols or figures. The markings shall be white or yellow laid to the dimensions and at the locations shown on the Drawings and as specified herein or as directed by the S.O. The work includes the supply of all labour, tools, equipment, materials, and warning and traffic guidance signs as necessary for the safe and efficient completion of the entire work.

6.3.2

Road Marking Materials The marking material shall be one of the types detailed below as indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

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HStandard Specification For Road Works specified. When more than one coat is used, the succeeding coat shall not be applied until the previous coat has fully set. Road markings of a repetitive nature other than centre lines, lane lines, etc., shall, unless otherwise decided by the S.O., be set out with stencils which comply with the size and spacing requirements as shown on the Drawings. 6.3.6 Protection of Markings All markings shall be protected from traffic until they have dried sufficiently so that no pick-up by vehicle tyre will occur. 6.3.7 Reflectorisation Solid glass beads to be incorporated in marking materials prior to application to road surfaces shall be Class `A' glass beads complying with the requirements of Table 1 of B.S. 6088 (see Table 6.1). Solid glass beads for additional surface reflectorisation shall be Class `B' glass beads complying with the requirements of Table 2 of B.S. 6088 (see Table 6.2). 6.3.8 Thickness The determination of thickness shall be in accordance with B.S. 3262 Part 3, Appendices B and C.

6.3.4

Preparation of Material on Site (a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall be supplied in block or powder form. If the material is supplied in block form it shall be broken into pieces, each weighing not more than 4 kg, which shall be melted in a heater fitted with a mechanical stirrer to prevent local overheating. A thermometer of sufficient accuracy shall be used during laying to ensure that overheating of the material does not occur. Once molten hydrocarbon resins shall be used within 6 hours and wood and gum resins shall be used within 4 hours. The material shall not be heated beyond the manufacturer's specified temperature during application. Excess material shall be discarded on completion of application. (b) Road Marking Paint All paint shall be thoroughly stirred before application to keep the pigments in uniform suspension. The use of thinners or other additives shall not be permitted unless otherwise approved by the S.O.

6.3.5

Laying Centre lines, lane lines and edge lines shall be marked by approved mechanical means or as directed by the S.O. Other markings shall be applied by brush, spray, screed, hand-propelled or self-propelled machine according to the marking configuration and the type of marking material approved for use. The rate of application of the marking material for each coat shall be that recommended by the manufacturer unless otherwise

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Standard Specification For Road Works

TABLE 6.1 - CLASS `A' GLASS BEADS : PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, ROUNDNESS AND DEFECTS

B.S. Sieve

Percentage Retained

Min. % Spherical Beads by mass as tested in accordance with Appendix C

Max. % Defective Beads as tested in accordance with Appendix D

1.18 mm 850 um 425 um

0 to 3 0 to 10 90 to 100 70 30

TABLE 6.2 - CLASS `B' GLASS BEADS : PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, ROUNDNESS AND DEFECTS

B.S. Sieve (um)

Percentage Retained

Min. % Spherical Beads by mass as tested in accordance with Appendix C

Max. % Defective Beads as tested in accordance with Appendix D

850 800 300 180 Below 180

0 to 5 5 to 20 30 to 75 10 to 30 0 to 15 80 20

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.3.10 Defective Materials or Workmanship Materials which are defective or which have been applied in an unsatisfactory manner or to incorrect dimensions or in a wrong location, shall be removed by approved chemical or mechanical means. To the extent necessary, the road pavement shall be made good and the markings reapplied all at the Contractor's own expense and to the approval of the S.O. Where directed by the S.O., existing markings shall be removed in the same manner as above. 6.3.11 Clearing Up The Contractor shall clean up all spatters, splashes and smirches of marking material completely to the satisfaction of the S.O.

(a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall be laid to the following thicknessess :i) for synthetic hydrocarbon resin binder -screed lines : not less than 2 mm nor more than 5 mm; -sprayed lines other than yellow lines : not less than 1.5 mm; -sprayed yellow edge lines (for `no parking', `no waiting', etc.) : not less than 0.8 mm. ii) for gum or wood resin binders -screed lines : not less than 3 mm not more than 5mm; -sprayed lines other than yellow lines : not less than 2 mm; -sprayed yellow edge lines (for `no parking', `no waiting', etc.) : not less than 2 mm nor more than 3 mm. (b) Road Marking Paint Road marking paint shall be laid to give a wet film thickness of not less than 315 microns and not more than 400 microns. 6.3.9 Tolerance on Width The tolerance on the specified width of the marking shall be within the range of + 10% and minus 0%.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.4.3.2 Cast In Situ Kerb When a cast in situ kerb is placed next to a concrete pavement, expansion joints in the kerb shall be located in line with expansion joints in the pavement. Expansion joints shall be formed at the intervals shown on the Drawings using preformed filler 10 mm in thickness in accordance with the specification for the pavement joint filler. Concreting shall generally be in accordance with the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Forms shall not be removed within 24 hours of the concrete being placed. Minor defects shall be repaired with mortar containing 1 part Portland cement to 2 parts sand. After placing and compaction, the concrete shall be covered with suitable material and kept moist for a period of 7 days. 6.4.3.3 Precast Concrete Kerb Precast concrete kerbs shall be cast using steel moulds and shall be of the types as shown on the Drawings. Each kerb shall be set so that its front top arris conforms to the line and grade required. All spaces under the kerb shall be filled with bedding material which shall be thoroughly tamped.

6.4

CONCRETE KERB

6.4.1

Description This work shall consist of the supply and installation of cast in situ or precast concrete kerbs constructed at the locations and in accordance with the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and types as shown on the Drawings, all in accordance with this Specification.

6.4.2

Materials Concrete for kerb sections shall be grade 25/20 concrete unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings and shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, bedding shall be grade 10/25 concrete.

6.4.3

Installation of Kerbs Excavation Excavation shall be made to the required depth and the base shall be trimmed and compacted to a firm and even surface. All soft and unsuitable material shall be removed and replaced with suitable material as defined in Section 2 of this Specification. The bedding material shall then be placed and compacted to form a bed of required thickness as shown on the Drawings.

6.4.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 6.4.3.5 Backfilling The spaces in the front and back of each kerb shall be refilled to the required elevation with suitable material approved by the S.O. which shall be tamped in layers of not more than 150 mm until properly compacted. The finished work shall be true to line, grade and level to within ±10 mm and shall present a smooth appearance free from kinks and distortion visible to the eye.

Kerbs shall be laid with joints as narrow as possible and filled with mortar containing 1 part Portland cement to 2 parts sand. Where a Portland cement concrete pavement is to be constructed contiguous to a kerb, expansion joints shall be constructed in the kerb directly in line with pavement expansion joints. The expansion joint in the kerb shall be 20 mm in width and shall be filled with an expansion joint filler of the same nominal thickness as the pavement joint. Any voids between filler and the concrete kerb shall be filled with mortar. 6.4.3.4 Slipforming for Concrete Kerb In situ concrete kerbs shall be laid by an approved automatic kerbing machine or, if practicable in the case of concrete pavements, by the concrete paver itself. The kerbs shall be dense with regular sides, edges, arrises and chamfers, finished to a fine surface free from blow holes and dragging, and shall be impervious.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 7 STREET LIGHTING

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 7 - STREET LIGHTING
Page 7.1 GENERAL Scope of Work On Site Commissioning Tests As-Built Drawings Maintenance Traffic Safety and Control S7 - 162 S7 - 162 S7 - 162 S7 - 163 S7 - 163

7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.2

LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES General Types of Cables Power Cables S7 - 4 Earthing Conductors S7 - 4 Lengths of Cables Cable Routes Cable Trenches Cable Ducts Cable Termination Termination of PVC Insulated Armoured Cable Termination of Paper Insulated Cables Cable Jointing Cable Markers Cable Laying and Installation S7 -164 S7 - 164

7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.2.1 7.2.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 7.2.7.1 7.2.7.2 7.2.8 7.2.9 7.2.10 7.3

S7 - 164 S7 - 164 S7 - 165 S7 - 165 S7 - 166 S7 - 166 S7 - 166 S7 - 167 S7 - 167 S7 - 168

STREET LIGHTING LUMINAIRES Light Distribution Requirements Constructional Requirements Luminaires Lamps Ballast Capacitors Ignitors S7 - 170 S7 - 170 S7 - 170 S7 - 171 S7 - 172 S7 - 172 S7 - 172
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7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.2.1 7.3.2.2 7.3.2.3 7.3.2.4 7.3.2.5

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Standard Specification For Road Works page

7.4

FEEDER-PILLARS General

S7 - 14 S7 - 172 S7 - 172 S7 - 173 S7 - 173 S7 - 173 S7 - 173 S7 - 173 S7 - 173

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6 7.4.7 7.4.8

Fabrication of Feeder-Pillars Factory Inspection Foundation Earthing Time Switches Contactors By-Pass Switches and Selector Switches

7.5

COLUMNS AND BRACKETS S7 - 16 General Design Loading Fabrication of Column Sections Doors and Door Openings Service Slots Bracket Arms Base-Plates Baseboards Street Lighting Cut-Outs Earthing Terminals Cable Entry Erection of Columns Protection Against Corrosion S7 - 174 S7 - 174 S7 - 174 S7 - 174 S7 - 174 S7 - 174 S7 - 175 S7 - 175 S7 - 175 S7 - 175 S7 - 175 S7 - 175 S7 - 176

7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.3.1 7.5.3.2 7.5.4 7.5.5 7.5.6 7.5.7 7.5.8 7.5.9 7.5.10 7.5.11

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Standard Specification For Road Works Tests on cables shall include continuity, phasing out and insulation resistance between conductors and between conductors and sheaths by employing a 500 V insulation tester.The date of commissioning shall be agreed to by the S.O. and the Electrical Contractor shall ensure that the installation is safe before the cable is energised. The S.O. reserves the right to be present at all tests and the Electrical Contractor shall give at least one (1) week's notice in writing to the S.O. for this purpose. In any case, no test shall be carried out without prior approval from the S.O. Copies of all test certificates shall be submitted to the S.O. within one (1) week of the completion of the testing.

SECTION 7 - STREET LIGHTING

7.1

GENERAL Scope of Work This work shall comprise the design of cabling works and the supply and installation of all luminaires, lamps, ballasts, capacitors, ignitors, feeder pillars, columns, ducting and cabling, and all necessary ancillary equipment, together with the transportation, storage, erection, connection, testing and commissioning of the same for a complete street lighting system, all in accordance with the Drawings and this Specification. The work shall also include cabling from the nearest specified power source of the local supply authority to the street lighting system, if required.

7.1.1

7.1.3

As-Built Drawings Within three (3) calender months from the practical completion of the installation, one set of true-to-scale negatives (110/115 g/sq.m A0 or A1 sizes) and four sets of prints of each of the following as-built drawings shall be submitted to the S.O. by the Electrical Contractor :i) Site plans; ii) Schematic wiring diagrams;

7.1.2

On Site Commissioning Tests On completion of the installation work on site, the Electrical Contractor shall, at his own expense, arrange for all necessary tests to be carried out on the installation by competent personnel as part of the tests required of him for the whole of the installation under this Contract. The tests to be carried out shall be as prescribed in the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and the Electricity (Board Supplies) Rules 1949, and shall include other tests deemed necessary by the S.O. In the event that the installation fails to pass any of these tests, the Electrical Contractor shall take such measures as are necessary to remedy the defects and the installation shall not be considered to have been completed until all such tests have been passed.

iii) Layout plans showing cable routes with reference to easily recognisable buildings and structures, sizes and types of cables, locations and types of joints, cable ducts, street lighting poles and luminaires, feeder pillars and earthing points.

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Standard Specification For Road Works ii) replacing any broken or defective cable markers; iii) making good any damage to buildings, concrete areas, slopes, drains, culverts, existing cables, pipes, etc., which have not been properly made good as a result of the Electrical Contractor's work; and iv) carrying out any other work deemed necessary by the S.O. 7.1.5 Traffic Safety and Control When work is being carried out beside any public road or other existing road, warning signs shall be erected. The general arrangement and location of temporary warning signs shall be strictly in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85, published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Kuala Lumpur, and shall be submitted by the Electrical Contractor and approved by the S.O. before work commences. Where it is necessary for any pit or trench to be left open overnight, flashing warning lamps shall be placed at each end of the pit or trench and at intervals not greater than 10 m apart. In built-up areas, barricades shall be erected along the length of the pit or trench in addition to the warning lamps. Where necessary, flag-men shall be stationed to control traffic.

These as-built drawings shall be properly stencilled and shall have, at the lower right hand corner, the Electrical Contractor's name and address, the date of commissioning, the scale, drawing number (this shall be obtained from the S.O.) and title, and the following particulars:JABATAN KERJA RAYA CAWANGAN ELEKTRIK CONTRACT NO. TENDER NO. In addition, one (1) set of the asbuilt drawings shall be properly framed and kept in the switchroom. If the as-built drawings submitted are not acceptable by the S.O., the Electrical Contractor shall amend and resubmit the drawings within two (2) weeks from the date of return of the drawings. 7.1.4 Maintenance During the Defects Liability Period, the Electrical Contractor shall per form maintenance work for the complete cabling and associated works. All labour, materials, tools and parts necessary to rectify the defects due to manufacturing or installation faults shall be supplied and/or executed at no extra cost to the Government. Maintenance work shall be carried out as soon as the Electrical Contractor has been informed by the S.O. to do so. The work to be performed shall include but shall not be limited to the following :i) replacing or making good any defective cables, cable joints and cable terminations;
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Standard Specification For Road Works iii) B.S. 6480 Part 1 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors, insulated with strong longfibred paper, uniform in texture, free from metallic particles, mass impregnated with non-draining insulating oil compound suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V, lead alloy sheathed, double steel tape armoured and served. 7.2.2.2 Earthing Conductors Cables from street-lighting cutouts and earthing cables to luminaires shall be 2.5 sq.mm PVC/PVC cables bundled together with cable ties and terminated with lugs where necessary. 7.2.3 Lengths of Cables The lengths of each type of cable indicated on the Drawings and/or in the B.Q. are for tendering purposes only. The Electrical Contractor shall as certain the length of each cable required before placing orders for cables. The actual length of each cable installed shall be measured on site and the Electrical Contractor shall be paid according to the rate specified in the Contract. The rates quoted shall include any wastage due to cutting to lengths, terminations, etc. 7.2.4 Cable Routes Cable routes shown on the Drawings are for tendering purposes only. The Electrical Contractor shall, after consulting the S.O., peg out cable routes for the S.O.'s approval prior to excavation of the cable trenches.

7.2

LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES General The Electrical Contractor shall submit, for the approval of the S.O., a program of work for the excavation of cable trenches, laying of cables, reinstatement of trenches, etc., one (1) week before the work is to be executed.

7.2.1

7.2.2

Types of Cables Power Cables Power cables shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with :i) M.S. 274 or B.S. 6346 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors, insulated with PVC suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V, laid together and bedded with PVC, armoured with galvanised steel wires and sheathed with PVC; or ii) B.S. 6480 Part 1 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors, insulated with strong longfibred paper, uniform in texture, free from metallic particles, mass impregnated with non-draining insulating oil compound suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V, lead alloy sheathed and served; or

7.2.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works complying with B.S. 1387, complete with screwed and socketed joints. Unless otherwise specified, the pipes shall be 150 mm in diameter. The Electrical Contractor shall provide pumps and other appliances for the necessary pumping required for the disposal of water so as to prevent any risk of the cables and other materials to be laid in the trench from being detrimentally affected. Where necessary, bailing shall be provided. Where it is necessary to cross drains, culverts or similar obstructions which are too deep for the cables to be buried below, galvanised steel pipes as specified above shall be provided. The pipes shall be supported at each end in a concrete block and shall project through the blocks into the ground to a depth of at least 750 mm. All ducts shall be extended at least 600 mm beyond paved areas, concrete areas, drains, road crossings, pipe crossings, etc. Cables entering buildings shall be protected by pitch fibre ducts of 150 mm diameter, complying with B.S. 4108, complete with bend pieces, buried to a depth of 900 mm and encased in 75 mm of concrete all round. The ducts shall be installed with a gradient so as to drain away any water in the ducts. All ducts passing through walls shall be effectively sealed and made water-tight.

7.2.5

Cable Trenches Unless otherwise specified, cable trenches shall be 750 mm deep. They shall be of sufficient width as to enable provision of adequate spacing between cables but in any case shall not be less than 450 mm wide. Trenches shall be as straight as possible and shall have vertical sides which shall be timbered where necessary so as to avoid subsidence damage. The bottoms of trenches shall be firm and of smooth contour and any objects likely to damage the cable sheathing shall be removed. Material excavated from trenches shall be placed or removed so as to prevent nuisance or damage to adjacent areas or buildings. Trench excavation and backfilling shall be so executed that all roads, walls, sewers, drains, pipes, cables, structures, etc., shall be reasonably secured against risk of subsidence damage. Provision shall be made during excavation and until interim restoration has been completed for reasonable access of persons and vehicles to the areas of buildings adjacent to the trenches. Where a trench passes from a foot way to a roadway or at other positions where a change in level is necessary, the bottom of the trench shall rise and/or fall gradually.

7.2.6

Cable Ducts At road crossings, sewerage pipe crossings, water pipe crossings, paved areas, concrete areas and where specified by the S.O., cables shall be protected by galvanised steel pipes buried to a depth of 900 mm below finished ground level. The pipes shall be heavy duty pipes

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Standard Specification For Road Works 7.2.7.2 Termination of Paper Insulated Cables PILCDS and PILCDSTAS paper insulated cables, unless otherwise specified, shall be terminated by the heat shrinkable method. The cables shall be tested for moisture before termination is commenced. Samples of paper both from the layers nearest to and furthest from the conductor shall be immersed in transformer oil or paraffin wax heated to a temperature of approximately 115ºC. If any residual moisture is present, this will be detected immediately through the presence of bubbles. Samples of paper shall be tested singly and shall not be touched by hand, but shall be gripped with a pair of tweezers. Phasing and insulation resistance tests shall be taken on each length of cable laid before termination is commenced. The heat shrinkable termination materials used shall be supplied in a complete kit to suit various sizes of cable and to provide stress controlled, non-tracking, environmentally sealed termination. They shall consist of high permittivity, high resistivity, heat shrinkable, stress controlled, UV stable, non-tracking polymeric materials and heatactivated sealants to prevent ingress of moisture and contamination. Terminations shall meet the performance tests of IEC 112, IEC 446 and IEC 507, Section 3. They shall also have the following performance characteristics :-

Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., the number of cables installed in each duct shall be such that the space factor shall be not less than 60%. A drawn wire shall be provided for each duct. Unless specified to be provided by others, the above galvanised steel pipes and /or pitch fibre ducts shall be provided by the Electrical Contractor whether or not they are shown on the Drawings. 7.2.7 Cable Termination Unless otherwise permitted, all cable termination and jointing works shall be carried out in the presence of the S.O. A plastic laminated plate engraved with details such as size of cable, number of cores, date of com missioning, date of jointing, length of cable, distance of cable joint, etc., shall be securely fixed near the termination. 7.2.7.1 Termination of PVC Insulated Armoured Cables PVC/SWA/PVC cables shall be provided with compression cable gland termination. The cable gland shall be of gunmetal or brass and shall grip both the inner and outer PVC sheath of the cable. It shall be so designed that any strain on the cable is taken by the steel wire armouring which shall be effectively sealed between the gland itself and the outer cable sheath.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Core numbers printed on papers shall be observed when jointing and, whenever possible, such numbers shall be maintained throughout the system. Core numbers `0', `1', `2' and `3' shall denote neutral, red, yellow and blue phases respectively. In the case of 2-core cables, core number `1' shall denote the phase conductor and `0' the neutral. Crossing of cores in the cable boxes shall be avoided wherever possible and connections shall be consistent with the foregoing requirements. 7.2.9 Cable Markers Cable markers with lettering and signs as shown on the Drawings shall be provided by the Electrical Contractor at every change of direction of underground cable routes and every 15 m on straight runs. Cable markers shall be of heavy duty reinforced concrete construction and shall be approved by the S.O. The cable marker shall form a trapezoidal block with a 100 mm square top face and 150 mm square bottom face, and shall be 400 mm in height as shown on the Drawings. The top face shall be indented in bold lettering with the initials "L.V." and a directional sign or signs indicating the direction/directions of the cable route. The cable marker shall be buried to a depth of 300 mm or any other depth as directed by the S.O. Cable joint markers of similar construction but with the symbol "X" shall be provided and installed at every cable joint in a similar manner.

i) A.C. Voltage withstand for 15 minutes, 50 Hz : 4.0 kV phase to earth; ii) A.C. Voltage withstand for 4 hours, 50 Hz : 3.0 kV phase to earth; iii) Impulse Voltage withstand 10 positive and 10 negative, 1.2/50 microseconds : 8.0 kV peak phase to earth; iv) Continuous A.C. Voltage 1.5 kV phase to earth; v) Insulation Resistance between phase conductor and ground : > 1000 Megaohms. 7.2.8 Cable Jointing Jointing of cables shall be undertaken only by competent and fully experienced jointers. Cable boxes, compounds and jointing materials used shall be of an approved type. Every cable joint shall be started and finished on the same day. Wherever cables are to be jointed in the open during wet weather conditions, the Electrical Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent moisture from getting into the cables. Where cable sheaths are to be used as earth continuity conductors, the glands shall have the necessary contact surface to provide a low resistance path under fault conditions. Phasing and insulation resistance tests shall be taken before jointing is commenced. :

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Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Cable Laid Direct In Ground Before any cable is laid, the trench shall be thoroughly inspected and any debris and other sharp objects shall be removed. The bottom of the trench shall be covered with a layer of clean sand 75 mm thick. The cables shall then be laid on this bedding in an orderly manner without overlapping and crossing each other. 75 mm of clean sand shall cover the laid cables and shall be spread over the trench before placing the cable protective covers. Cable protective covers shall be of clay bricks. The bricks shall be new, well burnt and in complete pieces. They shall be laid lengthwise from end to end along the entire route of the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq.mm. For cable sizes in excess of 120 sq.mm, more than one row of bricks shall be laid. Each cable shall be seperately protected by these bricks and the cover shall have at least 25 mm overhang on each side of the cable. The trench shall then be backfilled with earth and shall be compacted in layers of 150 mm using a mechanical rammer. An orange coloured multi-strand nylon rope of minimum 6 mm diameter shall be laid at a depth of 300 mm along the trench to identify the cable route. At every 10 m interval, an extra 2 m of nylon rope shall be coiled and laid. The finished surface shall be left proud by 50 mm to allow for subsidence and the Electrical

7.2.10

Cable Laying and Installation All cables shall be handled, laid and installed according to this Specification, the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations, the cable manufacturer's recommendations and ERA Reports, using proper installation equipment, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. All cables shall be supplied in complete lengths to suit the circuits they serve and no straight through joints shall be used. Straight through joints in the cable shall only be permitted in very exceptional circumstances such as those arising from unavoidable limitations in manufactured length. Where straight through joints or other approved joints are permitted by the S.O., the cost of such joints shall be borne by the Electrical Contractor. No joints in the cable will be allowed unless approved in writing by the S.O. The minimum bending radius of the cables shall be in accordance with Table 52 C of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. Wherever cables are cut, the ends shall be immediately sealed in an approved manner unless it is intended to proceed with cable jointing or termination immediately. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.O., no cable shall be laid and/or covered up in the absence of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works The minimum thickness of the sheet steel used shall be 1.5 mm for cable trays with widths of up to 300 mm, and 2.0 mm for widths exceeding 300 mm. Cable trays shall be supported at least 25 mm from the trench wall by mild steel brackets at 600 mm intervals. Brackets shall be anti-rust treated and painted with one coat of primer. Samples of cable trays and brackets shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval prior to installation. To provide electrical continuity, all cable joints shall be bridged by means of tinned copper tape of dimensions not less than 25 mm x 3 mm. All saddles for cables on cable trays shall be installed by bolts, washers and nuts. All tees, intersection units, adaptor units, etc., shall be factory manufactured unless otherwise approved by the S.O. Trenches inside buildings shall be filled with clean sand up to a level above the cable ducts. (c) Cable Run On Walls and Under Floor Slabs Cable run on walls and under floor slabs shall be mounted on perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheet steel cable trays. The construction and finish of the cable trays and the method of installation of cables on cable trays shall be as described in SubSection 7.2.10 (b) above. Cable trays shall be suspended from floor slabs by hangers or mounted on walls by brackets at 600 mm intervals. The materials and finishes used for the hangers, brackets and other suspending and supporting structures shall be
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Contractor shall be responsible for the removal of any surplus material to a position indicated by the S.O. The surface of the refilled trench shall be temporarily reinstated and maintained in a thoroughly safe condition until complete consolidation of the soil has been achieved. As soon as the soil has consolidated, the trench shall be made good to its original condition, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (b) Cable Installed In Precast Concrete Trenches Methods of installation of cables in precast concrete trenches shall be in accordance with Type L, Type M, or Type N of Table 9A of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. However, if the method is not specified, the cables shall be installed as directed by the S.O. Cables laid in the bottoms of trenches shall be in accordance with Method Type L of Table 9A of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. Cables installed on trench walls shall be in accordance with Method Type M or Type N of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and shall be secured on a cable tray by means of saddles at suitable intervals. In the case of single core cables, whether secured individually or in a group to the cable tray, nonferrous saddles shall be used. Cable trays shall be fabricated from perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheets finished in an orange enamel.
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Standard Specification For Road Works 7.3.2 Constructional Requirements Luminaires All luminaires shall be new, totally enclosed, dust proof,insect proof and watertight and shall be tested in accordance with B.S. 4533. All exposed parts shall be of non-corrosive materials. The luminaires shall provide the requisite light distribution with the size and type of lamp specified. Each luminaire shall consist of a lamp compartment made up of an upper canopy or housing and a lower bowl assembly, a lampholder, cable clamps, mains connectors and earth terminations, as well as all necessary control gear. The control gear shall be pre-wired and integral with the luminaire. The luminaire wiring shall be of a size and insulated with a material that will more than effectively withstand the current, voltage and temperatures expected within the luminaire during both the starting and operating modes in the ambient temperature of the Site. The lamp compartment of the luminaire shall be accessible via a hinged bowl made of ultraviolet stabilised plastic material such as acrylic which shall, in the closed position, bed firmly upon a soft resilient neoprene or non-ageing felt gasket. The gasket shall be positively secured in the luminaire housing and shall be weather-resistant. The bowl shall be secured firmly to the luminaire body by means of stainless steel clips and hinged pins.In the lowered position of the bowl, it shall be restrained from becoming detached or being
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the same as those described for brackets in Sub-Section 7.2.10 (b) above. Where cable trays pass through floors or fire resistant walls, the surrounding holes shall be sealed to the full thickness of the floor or wall with non- hygroscopic fire-resisting material of minimum 2-hour fire rating as approved by the Jabatan Bomba Malaysia.

7.3.2.1

7.3

STREET LIGHTING LUMINAIRES

7.3.1

Light Distribution Requirements Unless otherwise specified, the performance and light distribution of street lighting luminaires shall be of the Low Threshold Increment (LTI) type. The direction of maximum intensity of flux shall lie between 0º and 65º of the downward vertical and the maximum permissible value of the intensity emitted at 90º and 80º shall not exceed 10 cd/1000 lumens and 30 cd/1000 lumens respectively. Each luminaire shall normally direct two beams along the length of the road. The polar light distribution curves for the luminaire shall generally be smooth and free from any abrupt variations so that the luminous intensity diminishes smoothly and progressively from its maximum.

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Standard Specification For Road Works The lamps supplied shall have a mortality rate not greater than 10% at 5,000 switched operating hours and shall not take longer than 4 minutes after the initial "switch on" to attain 80% of their guaranteed output at the rated voltage of 200/250 V and frequency 50 Hz. The reignition period after an interruption of the supply shall not be longer than 1 minute to attain 80% of the lumens output.

blown towards the other portion of the luminaire or the column arm. If independent reflectors are incorporated in the luminaire, such reflectors shall be of high purity aluminium mirrors, chemically anodised to yield optimum reflection of light distribution. Full details of the luminaire and accessories shall be furnished as required in the Appendices to this Specification. 7.3.2.2 Lamps (a) High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) Lamps High presssure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps shall conform to IEC Publication 662 and shall have a colour temperature of approximately 21,000 K. The majority of the light output shall fall within the 560-610 nanometre waveband, i.e. in the yellow/orange, range. The lamps shall have an initial luminous efficiency of approximately 115 lumens per watt for a 400 watt lamp and 100 lumens per watt for a 250 watt lamp. The lumens output after 100 operating hours shall be 45,000 lumens for a 400 watt lamp and 25,000 lumens for a 250 watt lamp. The lamps shall be of tubular or of any other approved shape and shall have plated brass caps securely fitted to the glass envelopes. The cap shall be of GESE40 material to fit the luminaire supplied.

(b) Low Pressure Sodium Vapour (LPSV) Lamps Low pressure sodium vapour (LPSV) lamps shall conform to the requirements as laid down in B.S. 3767. The majority of the lumens output shall be within the 580-590 nanometre waveband range. The lamps shall have an initial luminous efficacy of approximately 160 lumens per watt for a 135 watt lamp. The lumens output after 100 operating hours shall be not less than 50 lumens per watt. The lamps shall be of tubular shape with a bayonet cap (B.C.), shall take no longer than 11 minutes after initial "switch on" to attain 90% of of their quoted lumens output. All LPSV lamps shall be guaranteed for a minimum operating life of 4,000 operating hours. All lamps shall be suitable for use, in conjunction with their control gears, on 220/240 V supply and shall be capable of being started and operated at 10% reduction in rated voltage.
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Standard Specification For Road Works 7.4 FEEDER-PILLARS

7.3.2.3

Ballast The ballast shall be manufactured to B.S. 4782. It shall be correctly rated for its duty and shall be designed to operate on a dual mains voltage of 220/240 V by means of suitable tappings. The tappings shall be brought out to marked terminals. The ballast shall have laminated cores and high conductivity windings with power loss and noise kept to a minimum.

7.4.1

General Feeder-pillars shall be supplied completely assembled with control gear and all internal electrical and mechanical inter-connections and structural parts for voltages up to and including 1,000 volts A.C. They shall comply with and be tested to the requirements of B.S. 5486.

7.4.2 7.3.2.4 Capacitors Capacitors shall be manufactured to B.S. 4017 and housed in extruded aluminium canisters with shrouded screw terminals. They shall not be fused but shall have an an external safety dis charge resistor. The capacitor shall be capable of raising the power factor of each circuit to at least 0.85 lagging. 7.3.2.5 Ignitors Ignitors for the discharge lamps shall be of the electronic / superimposed pulse type rated for the appropriate wattage. The unit shall be capable of operating on a voltage ranging from 200 to 250 volts. The unit shall be totally enclosed with an external terminal block for the supply connection and a length of high tension cable shall be included for the lamp connection. It shall be compatible with the normal control gear. The case of the unit shall carry a label showing the connections and listing the appropriate voltage.

Fabrication of Feeder-Pillars The Electrical Contractor shall submit a design drawing of the shape, size, electrical and mechanical connections, materials, etc., of the feeder-pillar for the approval of the S.O. prior to manufacture. The plinth, foundation work, etc., shall be included in the design drawing. The feeder-pillar housing shall consist of a drip canopy, rigidly welded channeled steel framework manufactured from 2.64 mm (12 s.w.g.) sheet steel. It shall be hot-dip galvanised and the process of galvanising, treatment before galvanising and treatment after galvanising shall be as described in Sub-Section 7.5.10 of this Specification. On the front and rear sides of the feeder-pillar, the following sign shall be stencilled in red paint using a lettering height of 90 mm :BAHAYA 415 V LAMPU JALAN

The door of the feeder-pillar shall be rigidly reinforced and hinged internally to prevent unauthorised access. The feeder-pillar shall be lockable with either wedge-type locks protected by screw
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Standard Specification For Road Works copper tape, precast concrete earth chambers with covers, etc. 7.4.6 Time Switches Time switches supplied for the control of luminaires, etc., shall be of the synchronous/step-by-step motorwound handset dial plug-in type. They shall incorporate a 24-hour spring reserve or a battery back-up system. Time switches shall be rated as specified in the Drawings and shall be operational on a 220/240 V, 50 Hz supply. 7.4.7 Contactors Contactors shall comply with B.S. 5424 with uninterrupted ratings, mechanical duty Class 2 and a utilisation category of at least AC3. The contactor coils shall be fully tropicalised and wound for continuous operation for a 220/240 V, 50 Hz supply. The contacts of the contactor shall be rated for the breaking capacity of the connected load. 7.4.8 By-Pass Switches and Selector Switches Single or three-phase by-pass switches as applicable shall be connected in parallel with the contactors for use in the event of the failure of the contactors. These shall be manufactured to B.S. 5419 and shall be capable of breaking the load connected to the contactors without undue ageing or damage. A four-position selector switch shall be provided to select the mode of operation and shall be appropriately labelled.

plugs or some other secret locks approved by the S.O. The feederpillar shall be self-ventilated and weather proof and such ventilation openings shall be protected by wire mesh to prevent the entry of vermin, rodents and birds. A baseboard made of tufnol or other approved treated hardwood of at least 16 mm thickness shall be included to mount equipment such as time switches, contactors, etc. 7.4.3 Factory Inspection The Electrical Contractor shall make arrangements to witness the electrical tests and for joint inspection to be carried out at the factory prior to transportation to the Site. 7.4.4 Foundation The Site of the foundation of the feeder-pillar shall be filled where required, compacted and levelled before the reinforced concrete base of minimum 250 mm height above the finished earth level is constructed. Cable entry ducts shall also be provided. 7.4.5 Earthing The earthing system for the feederpillar shall comply with the Rules and Regulations of the Supply Authority, The British Code of Practice C.P. 1013, the relevant sections of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and the Contract Drawings. Each feeder-pillar shall be effectively earthed using 4.8 mm x 16 mm diameter steel core copper-jacketted earth electrodes, 25 mm x 3 mm
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Standard Specification For Road Works minimum overlapping position of 1.5 times the external across-faced dimension. 7.5.3.1 Doors and Door Openings Weather proof doors shall be provided with an anti-vandal locking device over the door opening of each column as shown on the Drawings. The complete locking device shall be made from stainless steel. Door openings shall have internal reinforcement to compensate for the loss of stiffness in the columns caused by forming the door openings. 7.5.3.2 Service Slots For flange mounted types of columns, cable entries shall be through the flange plates via a hole of suitable diameter as shown on the Drawings. A suitable duct for cable entry shall also be provided at the concrete base. For planted root types of columns, service slots shall be on the same side and vertically below the service doors. 7.5.4 Bracket Arms Bracket arms shall be of suitable outreach as indicated on the Drawings and in the B.Q. The bracket arms shall be octagonal in shape for up to 2.0 m in length. For bracket arms longer than 2.0 m in length, the extra length shall be formed from Grade 43C tubular steel conforming to B.S. 4360. The bracket arms shall be arranged so as to give a 50 uplift as shown on the Drawings. A tubular steel spigot of appropriate dimensions for the
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7.5

COLUMNS AND BRACKETS

7.5.1

General All columns and brackets shall be of tapered, octagonal, hot-dip galvanised interchangeable sections complying in all respects with the Drawings. They shall be manufactured to comply with B.S. 1840 and B.S. 5649 with Grade 43C or 50C steel conforming to B.S. 4360. The base-plates and bracket arms shall be manufactured as seperate units suitable for mounting or fixing on to the columns.

7.5.2

Design Loading The columns shall be designed to withstand loadings comprising :i) loads due to wind speeds of up to 27 m/sec.; ii) loads due to the weight of the columns, lighting luminaires and bracket arms; iii) other applied loads if applicable.

7.5.3

Fabrication of Column Sections Each column section shall be mechanically formed and longitudinally welded by the continuous automatic gas shielded electric arc process (M.I.G. process) to B.S. 5135. The sections shall be constructed so as to overlap each other by a minimum of 1.5 times the diameter of the immediate lower section (external across-faced dimension) and to be easily assembled on site by using simple tools without employing welding techniques. The manufacturer shall provide a mark on the finished column section indicating the

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Standard Specification For Road Works cables as appropriate. Cut-outs shall be provided with adequate shrouding to prevent cross-phasing or accidental contact with live metal. The fuse carriers shall be selfaligning and shall accept any of the standard rated fuses for the purpose. Each unit shall possess high mechanical and di-electric strength and shall be suitable for use in the tropics. Samples of complete cut-out units shall be submitted for the approval of the S.O. 7.5.8 Earthing Terminals Columns shall be provided with a corrosion resistant terminal having substantial contact surfaces for the attachment of an earthing lead. This terminal shall be provided close to the door opening inside each column. Where bolts are used, they shall be not less than 6 mm in diameter and shall be provided with two suitable washers and nuts. 7.5.9 Cable Entry Armoured cables brought into the columns shall be provided with compression cable gland terminations. An appropriate type of earthing clamp shall be provided to bond the armouring of the cables which shall be effectively earthed. 7.5.10 Erection of Columns Columns shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and as shown on the Drawings. The Electrical Contractor shall peg out the positions of the columns for the approval of the S.O. before planting the columns.

luminaire shall be welded at the end of each bracket arm. After welding, etc., bracket arms shall be treated as described in Sub-Section 7.5.10 before being hot-dip galvanised. 7.5.5 Base-Plates For flange mounted types of columns, flange-plates of substantial thicknesses as shown on the Drawings shall be welded on to the columns. For planted root types of columns, detachable anti-sink plates shall be supplied. Base-plates, nuts and bolts, etc., shall be hot-dip galvanised after manufacture. 7.5.6 Baseboards A piece of baseboard shall be included in each base compartment for cable termination or control gears assembly. Baseboards shall be made from fibre board of 10 mm thickness. Alternative baseboards made from galvanised perforated metal may also be used with the approval of the S.O. Baseboards shall be made to the dimensions as indicated on the Drawings and shall be fixed securely in position inside the columns. 7.5.7 Street Lighting Cut-Outs Street lighting cut-outs shall be of a type manufactured for use in street lighting installations. They shall have facilities for double fusing loop-in loop-out terminals. The cutout bases shall have a supply cable contact block rating of at least 50 A and shall be capable of accepting circular cable cores of up to 25 sq.mm copper 2-core or 4-core
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Standard Specification For Road Works Treatment prior to galvanising shall include degreasing, rinsing, pickling, further rinsing and fluxing. The minimum average weight of the zinc coating shall be 460 g/sq.m for any individual test area. The galvanised columns and bracket arms shall be of prime finish and of good uniformity, i.e. they shall be free from injurious defects such as blisters, flux and uncoated spots. The planted sections of columns and the base-plates shall be factorycoated with bitumen using the hotdipping process conforming to AASHTO M 190.

Columns shall be erected such that the service doors shall face away from on-coming traffic except at parapets of bridges and retaining walls. At such locations, the orientation of the service doors shall be determined by the S.O. After erecting each column, backfill shall be compacted by means of suitable ramming equipment. 7.5.11 Protection Against Corrosion Individual sections of the columns, base-plates, doors and bracket arms shall be protected against corrosion by hot-dip galvanising the sections both internally and externally, all in accordance with B.S. 729. All welding works shall be completed before galvanising.

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 8 TRAFFIC SIGNALS

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 8 - TRAFFIC SIGNALS
Page 8.1 GENERAL Scope of Work Design and Construction Contractor's Responsibility Cleanlines Metric Range of preferred Dimensions Self-Tapping Screw Corrosion Compliance With Manufacturer's Instruction Component and materials Conditions of Operation Maintenance To Be Kept To A Minimum Components Metering Identification of Equipment Protective Requirements General Insulating Bushes Isolation From Main Supply Earthing of Transformer Secondary Circuits Current Loading of Wires Danger Notices Cable Connecting Units Insulation Whiskering of Tin Electricity Supply On-Site Commisioning Test Procedures Documentation General Hardware, Software and maintenance Manual Guarantee of Supply Warranty Period S8-182

8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.2.1 8.1.2.2 8.1.2.3 8.1.2.4 8.1.2.5 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.4.1 8.1.4.2 8.1.4.3 8.1.4.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 8.1.6.1 8.1.6.2 8.1.6.3 8.1.6.4 8.1.6.5 8.1.6.6 8.1.6.7 8.1.6.8 8.1.6.9 8.1.7 8.1.8 8.1.9 8.1.9.1 8.1.9.2 8.1.10 8.1.11

S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-183

S8-183 S8-183 S8-183 S8-183 S8-184

S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185

S8-186 S8-186 S8-187 S8-187

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Standard Specification For Road Works Page

8.2

LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES Type of Cables Power Cables Feeder Cables for Vehicle Detectors Loop Cables for Vehicle Detectors Earthing Conductors Cable Termination Cable Jointing Cable Markers S8-187 S8-187 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188

8.2.1 8.2.1.1 8.2.1.2 8.2.1.3 8.2.1.4 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.3

SIGNAL LANTERNS Standard Requirements Optical Requirements Optical Arrangement for Drivers Optical Arrangement for Pedestrians Height of Signal S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-190 S8-190 S8-190

8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.2.1 8.3.2.2 8.3.2.3

8.3.3. Constructional Requirements 8.3.3.1 Lamps 8.3.3.2 Target Boards 8.4 SIGNAL POSTS AND MAST ARMS Standard Requirements Cable Entry Connecting Facilities for Cables Location and Erection Finish

8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 8.5

S8-191 S8-191 S8-191 S8-191 S8-191

PEDESTRIAN PUSH-BUTTONS Standard Requirements Location Pedestrian Demand Indicator Audible Signal S8-192 S8-192 S8-192 S8-192
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8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4

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8.6

TRAFFIC CONTROLLER General Requirements Housing Controller Mains Switch Board Facility Switch Pedestrian Facilities Logic Module Microcomputer System Input/Output Interfaces Real 'Time-Of-Day' Clock Operator Interface and Controller Display Supply Monitor Watchdog Timer Mains Supply Interruptions Circuit Breakers Inputs Interchangeability Vibration and Noise Radio Interference Safety Timing S8-1192 S8-193 S8-193 S8-194 S8-194 S8-194 S8-194 S8-195 S8-195 S8-195 S8-195 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-197

8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4 8.6.5 8.6.6 8.6.6.1 8.6.6.2 8.6.6.3 8.6.6.4 8.6.6.5 8.6.6.6 8.6.7 8.6.8 8.6.9 8.6.10 8.6.11 8.6.12 8.6.13 8.6.14 8.7

VEHICLE DETECTORS Standard Requirements Number of Traffic Lanes Supply Voltage Equipment Construction Performance Requirements S8-197 S8-197 S8-197 S8-197 S8-197

8.7.1 8.7.2 8.7.3 8.7.4 8.7.5

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8.8

ROADWORKS General Permission to Excavate Road Excavation, Backfilling, Reinstatement and maintenance of Excavations General Excavation Bedding of Excavation Cable Ducts Cable Laying and Installation Cable Laid Direct On The Ground Cables Installed in Precast Concrete Trenches Backfilling of Excavations And Reinstatements Sensing Loop Slots Maintenance of drains and Services During Excavations Reinstatement of Drains and Precast Units Completion of Works Maintenance of Excavation Traffic Arrangements General Arrangement and Location of Signs Barriers and Barricades Temporary Warning lamps Use of Traffic Guidance Cones Temporary Traffic Diversions Temporary Traffic Control Plant and Equipment Vehicles Maintenance of Signs, Lights, Barriers,Temporary Traffic Diversions, etc. S8-197 S8-198

8.8.1 8.8.2 8.8.3 8.8.3.1 8.8.3.2 8.8.3.3 8.8.3.4 8.8.3.5 8.8.3.6 8.8.3.7 8.8.3.8 8.8.3.9 8.8.3.10 8.8.3.11 8.8.3.12 8.8.3.13 8.8.4 8.8.4.1 8.8.4.2 8.8.4.3 8.8.4.4 8.8.4.5 8.8.4.6 8.8.4.7 8.8.4.8 8.8.4.9

S8-198 S8-198 S8-198 S8-199 S8-199 S8-199 S8-200 S8-200 S8-201 S8-201 S8-201 S8-202 S8-202 S8-202 S8-203 S8-203 S8-203 S8-204 S8-204 S8-204 S8-204 S8-205 S8-205 S8-205

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Standard Specification For Road Works be responsibile for the design, material quality and workmanship of the system and every part of the system offered, whether manufactured by him or supplied to him by other manufacturers. Approval by the S.O. does not relieve the Contractor of these responsibilities. Materials shall as far as possible be of Malaysian origin except where such materials can be shown to be unavailable in Malaysia. 8.1.2.2 Cleanliness Particular attention shall be given in the design of the equipment for the exclusion of dust, dirt, etc., especially in the case where forced ventilation is employed. 8.1.2.3 Metric Range of Preferred Dimensions Except as may be agreed for practical reasons, design shall make use of the metric range of preferred dimensions and tolerances. 8.1.2.4 Self-Tapping Screws Self-tapping screws shall be used only for retaining duties. They shall not be used for fixing removable covers, nor for the support of direct loads. 8.1.2.5 Corrosion All equipment shall be designed to resist corrosion in the Malaysian environment for a period of 20 years from the date of installation.

SECTION 8 - TRAFFIC SIGNALS
8.1 GENERAL Scope of Work This work shall comprise the design of cabling works and the supply and installation of all signal lanterns, traffic controllers, detectors, posts, ducting and cabling, and switchgears with all necessary ancillary equipment, together with the transportation, storage, erection, connection, testing and commissioning of the same for a complete traffic signal installation, all in accordance with the Drawings and this Specification. The work shall also include cabling from the nearest specified power source of the local supply authority to the traffic control system, if required. The type of signal operation, number of plans, number and sequence of phases, cycle times, timings of each phase, offset times, locations of controllers and power source tapping points, and other specific requirements shall be as shown on the Drawings. 8.1.2 Design and Construction Contractor's Responsibility The Contractor shall design the interconnecting signal cabling for the proposed signal system as shown on the Drawings. The cabling design drawings are to be approved by the S.O. before construction commences. Equipment offered shall be in all respects suitable for the requirements and for the environmental conditions specified. The Contractor shall
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8.1.1

8.1.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works replaceable may be accepted with the aproval of the S.O. 8.1.4.3 Components All active and passive components, their mounting and the plugs, sockets and connections, shall be designed for a life expectancy of 20 years as specified in Sub-Section 8.1.4.2. All shall operate well within their ratings with due consideration for the environmental conditions and temperature rises within cabinets or enclosures. Thermionic valves other than cathode-ray tubes shall not be used. Metal oxide or grade II carbon resistors shall be used. Grade I carbon film resistors shall not be used. Where high dissipation power resistors are used, metal oxide resistors shall be used whenever they are available, in preference to wire wound types. Metal can transistors shall be used wherever possible. Germanium transistors shall not be used unless approved by the S.O. 8.1.4.4 Metering The equipment shall be provided with waveforms and voltage test points as necessary for indicating circuit conditions.

8.1.3

Compliance With Manufacturer's Instructions The Contractor shall ensure that the equipment and parts used shall be entirely suitable for the work to be performed and that they shall be manufactured to proper tolerances and fit. He shall further ensure that the loading of equipment shall under all normal circumstances not exceed the maximum laid down or agreed to in writing by the manufacturer. The Contractor shall be responsible for the inspection of all equipment and parts before their incorporation in the Works to ensure that they comply with the requirements of this Specification and that they are not defective in any way as regards materials or workmanship. Should any such non-compliance or defects be found during the inspection, the Contractor shall correct or cause to be corrected such non-compliance and defects, all at the Contractor's expense and to the satisfaction of the S.O.

8.1.4

Components and Materials Conditions of Operation The system shall be designed to operate continuously. Account shall be taken of equipment being sited in all exposed locations.

8.1.4.1

8.1.4.2

Maintenance To Be Kept To A Minimum The materials and components, excluding expendable items such as lamps, shall be such as to provide a life expectancy of up to 20 years unless specifically stated otherwise in this Specification. Components which have a shorter life span but are easily

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.1.6.3 Isolation From Main Supply Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., systems shall be completely isolated from the mains supply by means of a suitable double-wound transformer which shall include an earthed screen. The primary and secondary output terminations shall be separated in an approved manner. The main transformers at the controller shall be provided with primary tappings so that the equipment operates with mains supply in the range of 200 to 260 volts. 8.1.6.4 Earthing of Transformer Secondary Circuits When a dangerous voltage is connected to the primary winding of a transformer, the secondary circuit shall be connected where practicable to an earthed point. 8.1.6.5 Current Loading of Wires All wirings shall be suitably rated to carry in excess of the current permitted by their fuses, circuit breakers or other current linking devices. Similar precautions shall be taken to reduce the possibility of overheating components. Provisions shall be made in the equipment :i) to prevent damage to circuits due to failure of any pulses, power supplies or mains supply; ii) to prevent damage to power supplies by inadvertent removal of the load.
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8.1.5

Identification of Equipment The Contractor shall mark or label clearly all modules, units and main parts of the system with a functional code or title, type number, trade name and serial number. The marking or labelling of main items shall be clearly visible on the outside. The labels and markings of encased units or modules shall be visible when the case or cover is removed. Components shall not be marked with circuit references. The marking shall be adjacent to the component. Markings required for controls, maintenance or warning shall be adjacent to the part concerned. Markings shall maintain legibility throughout the life of the equipment in the specified environmental conditions. Techniques used shall be approved by the S.O.

8.1.6

Protective Requirements General All metal work not normally required to carry current shall be connected to an earth point except where otherwise dictated by transmission or other requirements (such metal work shall include cases, screens, cores, cable glands, cable conduits and cable sheaths, etc.).

8.1.6.1

8.1.6.2

Insulating Bushes Insulating bushes shall be provided wherever conductors carrying dangerous voltages pass through holes in metal parts and where the conductors would be likely to touch the edge of the holes.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.1.6.9 Whiskering of Tin Where non-insulated electronic circuits are positioned within 4 mm of a non-insulated tinned surface, a loose barrier of insulated materials shall be provided between the surface and the connection to prevent the possibility of unwanted contact. Approved soldered-in-lead through connectors are exempted from this requirement. 8.1.7 Electricity Supply The Contractor shall comply with all LLN or the power source authority requirements in getting an electricity supply to the installation, and any costs associated with obtaining this supply shall be included in the Tendered rates. The Contractor shall ensure that the equipment supplied will function correctly at the supply voltage, and shall allow for normal variation and surges. 8.1.8 On-Site Commissioning Test Procedures Testing and commissioning of all equipment shall be successfully completed within one (1) month from the date of completion of the installations. The Contractor shall notify the S.O. when the on-site commissioning tests are to be undertaken. The Contractor and the Supervisor shall forward to the S.O. duly certified copies of the test results when the tests have been successfully completed. When the S.O. has received these test results and is satisfied that the system has passed the test, the S.O. shall notify the Contractor in writing that the system has passed the on-site
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8.1.6.6

Danger Notices All equipment or units working at a voltage at or above 150 volts D.C. or 100 volts A.C. (RMS) shall be protected by an approved cover, which shall be removable. The cover shall have a sign with a danger symbol indication of the voltage. The highest voltage to which access can be had by removal of the cover shall be shown, where dangerous voltages exist.

8.1.6.7

Cable Connecting Units Terminal strips and terminals shall be clearly and indelibly coded. Terminals carrying mains electrical power shall be segregated from other terminals. Unless approved by the S.O., not more than three cable cores shall be retained by any terminal. All wiring and cabling shall be neat, adequately supported to prevent vibration, and so arranged as to prevent strain on individual wires, particularly on hinged panels.

8.1.6.8

Insulation If no value is specified, the insulation resistance between any two parts not intended to be in electrical contact shall not be less than 100 megaohms when measured at a voltage appropriate to the equipment. Where `n' such paths are effectively connected in parallel, the resistance of the combination shall be not less than 100/n megaohms.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.1.9.2 Hardware, Software and Maintenance Manual The manual shall contain descriptions of the complete hardware system followed by maintenance procedures. A description of the complete software system shall also be included. The hardware description shall start with the overall configuration of the system, with layouts showing the location of every unit, with block diagrams and an explanation of the operation of the system. Detailed descriptions of component units shall explain their operation. Block diagrams showing the flow and interaction of data, logic diagrams, circuit diagrams with component valves, and layout diagrams shall be provided. Parts lists and wiring schedules shall be provided, but care shall be taken to avoid these obscuring the operational description. Maintenance procedures shall cover the diagnosis of faults, testing and setting up adjustments, replacement of units and routine mechanical servicing. The software description should aim at enabling new programs for an intersection to be written, and to provide the basic standard techniques used in writing the system programs. Where programming technique is dependent on particular features of the system, it is important that program material is specially written. This shall be in the form of guidance, referring to operational features in the software manual.
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commissioning tests. The S.O. shall notify the Contractor in writing of all faults detected during these tests. If the S.O. decides the system is not in accordance with the Contract, he may reject the system, and he shall inform the Contractor of the reasons in writing within a reasonable time. 8.1.9 Documentation General System manuals for each equipment associated with the Contract shall be delivered to the S.O. Reissues shall be provided if site commissioning and testing make this necessary. All documentation shall be indexed and shall carry an issue number and date. Two copies each of the documentation shall be supplied to the S.O. All documentation shall be produced in uniform style in A4 size. All diagrams relating to the final documentation shall be reduced to page height, bound and correctly referenced to the text. They shall fold clear of the text for ease of use. Great care shall be taken to ensure that in the writing of all documentation, expert familiarity with apparently simple features is not advertently assumed. Difficulties should be anticipated. All documentation shall be in English or Bahasa Malaysia.

8.1.9.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall carry out any repair within 24 hours of being informed of the damages. Upon failure to do so, the S.O. has the option to appoint another party for repair and the cost thus incurred will be borne by the Contractor. All maintenance conducted shall be entered into the Local Controller Logbook, dated and signed by the maintenance staff of the Contractor. Repainting of the signal aspects, posts, and local controllers shall be performed just before the end of the Warranty Period. 8.2 LOW VOLTAGE UNDER GROUND CABLES Types of Cables Power Cables Power cables shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with M.S. 274 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors, insulated with PVC suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V, laid together and bedded with PVC, armoured with galvanised steel wires and sheathed with PVC. The copper conductors for Mains Power cables running from the power source to the controller shall have a nominal cross-sectional area not less than 16 sq.mm. Other interconnecting signal cables shall be multicore cables having copper conductors of nominal cross-sectional area not less than 1.5 sq.mm with a minimum of 5 cores.

An as-built plan showing the final wiring diagrams, pole locations, controller locations, detector placement, conduit runs and timing plan shall be included in each controller cabinet. 8.1.10 Guarantee of Supply The Contractor shall be required to ensure that for a period of not less than 10 years from the date of commissioning the system, a supply of replacement components and materials or their agreed equivalent is available, as the S.O. may require. A Contractor who is not a manufacturer is required to submit a letter from the manufacturer certifying that the manufacturer will support the equipments and components. 8.1.11 Warranty Period After acceptance of the installation, the Contractor shall still be subject to obligation of free servicing, change in phasing, maintenance and free replacement of all defective parts and fused bulbs for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of issue of the Certificate of Completion. A qualified Service Engineer provided by the Contractor must be available on 24 hours service a day to attend to any breakdown at anytime including public holidays. All repairs and replacements required during the Warranty Period shall be carried out with despatch and an adequate supply of spares shall be available for this purpose. The Contractor shall be liable for damages if he does not undertake remedial works within 24 hours.

8.2.1

8.2.1.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.2.1.4 Earthing Conductors Earthing conductors shall have a nominal cross-sectional area of 2.5 sq.mm and earthing rods shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 10 sq.mm. 8.2.2 Cable Termination Unless otherwise permitted, all cable termination and jointing works shall be carried out in the presence of the S.O. A plastic laminated plate engraved with details such as size of cable, number of cores, date of commissioning, date of jointing, length of cable, distance of cable joint, etc., shall be securely fixed near the termination. PVC/SWA/PVC cables shall be provided with compression cable gland termination. The cable gland shall be of gunmetal or brass and shall grip both the inner and outer PVC sheath of the cable. It shall be so designed that any strain on the cable is taken by the steel wire armouring which shall be effectively sealed between the gland itself and the outer cable sheath. 8.2.3 Cable Jointing No cable jointing shall be allowed for interconnecting signal cables. Jointing of mains power cables shall be allowed only when approved by the S.O. 8.2.4 Cable Markers Cable markers with lettering and signs as shown on the Drawings shall be provided by the Contractor at every change of direction of underground mains power cable routes and at every 15 metres on straight runs. Cable markers shall be
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The current rating of cables shall comply with the appropriate Tables of the latest IEE Wiring Regulations for the class of conductor used. 8.2.1.2 Feeder Cables for Vehicle Detectors The material for feeder cables to vehicle detectors shall be screened, twisted balanced-twin cables which shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with M.S. 274. The core conductors shall be of annealed copper having a nominal cross-sectional area of 1.5 sq.mm unless otherwise specified. The cable shall have a nominal characteristic impedance (Zc) of 90 ohms at 50 kHz. The conductors shall be insulated. The insulation shall be waterproof and, when installed, shall withstand a temperature of 70ºC without suffering damage or deformation. 8.2.1.3 Loop Cables for Vehicle Detectors The material for inductive type vehicle-detector loop cables shall be in accordance with Australian Standard 2276.3 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2276.3 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. The detector sensing shall be of a type which can be easily assembled from bulk cable on Site, and shall be approved by the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works For horizontal overhead signals, the coloured lens of the left-most optical system shall be green, the middle one amber, and the right-most one red, as seen by the driver. Primary signals shall be fitted with a type A visor and secondary signals shall be fitted with a type B visor as described in A.S. 2144. 8.3.2.2 Optical Arrangement for Pedestrians Each signal face shall contain two optical systems arranged vertically, each having a diameter of not less than 295 mm nor more than 305 mm, which shall incorporate pedestrian symbols as shown on the Drawings. The upper optical system shall illuminate a red `DON'T WALK' symbol and the lower one a green `WALK' symbol. The optical system spacings shall be as shown on the Drawings. 8.3.2.3 Height of Signal (a) Post-Mounted Signals Intended For Drivers The height of signals shall be such that when erected the centre of the amber optical system shall be not less than 2.4 metres nor more than 4 metres above the carriageway level. Where no amber signal is installed these dimensions apply to the centre of the green signal.

of heavy duty reinforced concrete construction and shall be approved by the S.O. The cable marker shall form a trapezoidal block with a 100 mm square top face and 150 mm square bottom face, and shall be 400 mm in height as shown on the Drawings. The top face shall be indented in bold lettering with the initials `L.V.' and a directional sign or signs indicating the direction/directions of the cable route. The cable marker shall be buried to a depth of 300 mm or any other depth as directed by the S.O. Cable joint markers of similar construction but with the symbol `X' shall be provided and installed at every cable joint in a similar manner. 8.3 SIGNAL LANTERNS

8.3.1

Standard Requirements All components, their installation and performance, shall be in accordance with A.S. 2144 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2144 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O.

8.3.2

Optical Requirements Optical Arrangement for Drivers Each signal face shall, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, contain three optical systems arranged vertically, each having a diameter of not less than 295 mm nor more than 305 mm. For post-mounted signals, the coloured lens of the upper optical system shall be red, the middle one amber, and the lower one green.

8.3.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works iv) overall length : 44 mm maximum; v) overal diameter : 12 mm maximum; vi) nominal operating voltage : 11.7 V.

(b) Light Signals Intended For Pedestrians The height of signal shall be such that when erected the height of the lower edge of the housing enclosing the green signal shall be not less than 2.1 metres nor more than 2.6 metres above the carriageway level. (c) Overhead Mounted Traffic Control Light Signals The height of overhead mounted signals shall be such that when erected, the lowest point of the signal head assembly shall be not less than 5.5 metres nor more than 8.5 metres above the carriageway level. 8.3.3 Constructional Requirements 8.3.3.2 8.3.3.1 Lamps The lamp used in the optical system, to meet the requirements of A.S. 2144 Section 3, shall be a 12 V, 50 W, long life tungsten halogen lamp. The bulb shall be clear, uncoloured and the filament shall only be used in the horizontal position. The lamp shall meet the following requirements as tested in A.S. 2144 :i) nominal lumens : 820 lm at 12 V;

Each tungsten halogen lamp shall be provided with an appropriate transformer complying with the requirements of B.S. 9720, mounted within the signal head and connected to a terminal block which may be mounted remotely. Wiring between the lamp holder and the transformer and the terminal block shall be in compliance with the requirements of M.S. 136 and B.S. 6007. Target Boards Unless otherwise specified, a target board shall be provided with each signal face intended for vehicle drivers, extending not less than 275 mm above the centre of the upper optical system nor less than 275 mm below the centre of the lower optical system. It shall extend not less than 280 mm horizontally either side of the vertical centre line of the optical system. Other types of target boards shall be as shown on the Drawings. The target boards shall be manufactured from a durable resilient material and shall be stiffened where necessary to resist distortion due to wind and extreme ambient temperature. All target boards shall have an orange border not less than 45 mm nor more than 55 mm wide.

ii) nominal life :

2000 hours continuous burning at 12 V input;

iii) nominal colour temperature : 2850 K at 12 V input;

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.4.3 Connecting Facilities for Cables Provision shall be made for the connection of terminating and inter connecting cables coming from within the post or mast arm and of cables from the traffic signal lanterns. 8.4.4 Location and Erection The posts and mast arms shall be erected at the approximate locations as shown on the Drawings. On roadways whose edges are defined by a raised kerb, the posts shall be erected so that no part of the signal head other than overhead signals projects over the roadway. Where possible, the signal should have a clearance of 300 mm to 450 mm behind the kerb line. The post shall be at a distance not less than 1 metre before the edge line. In areas where there is no kerb, the steel posts should be erected so that the signal head is clear of the shoulder (or usable area) and should not be less than 2 m nor more than 3 m from the edge of the nearest traffic lane. All posts and mast-arms shall have their exact location determined by the S.O. and recorded on the as-built Drawings. 8.4.5 Finish Unless otherwise specified, the interior and exterior of steel posts shall be protected by a finish complying with the requirements of M.S. 740.

8.4

SIGNAL POSTS AND MAST ARMS Standard Requirements All signal posts, signal mast arms and mountings of signal lanterns shall be as shown on the Drawings. The posts and mast arms shall be so designed and constructed as to provide adequate support and stability for the signal head assembly. All signal posts shall be of tubular hollow section of steel with a nominal diameter of 100 mm and fitted with a weather-proof cap to prevent ingress of water. Mast arms shall be tubular hollow sections of steel of a generally tapered form mounted on a baseplate as shown on the Drawings. Every post shall be provided with one nickel-plated brass earthing screw located within the post, 25 mm below the top. The posts and mast arms shall be capable of having holes drilled in the vertical section, 1 metre above the ground, for the mounting of one pedestrian push-button assembly in accordance with Sub-Section 8.5.

8.4.1

8.4.2

Cable Entry Buried posts shall incorporate a cable-entry aperture as shown on the Drawings. Baseplate-mounted posts shall provide for entry of the cable into the interior of the post through a hole in the baseplate having a diameter not less than the inside diameter of the post.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.5.4 Audible Signal An audible signal shall, unless otherwise specified, be provided with all pedestrian push-buttons in accordance with A.S. 2353. 8.6 TRAFFIC CONTROLLER General Requirements A controller is the complete timing mechanism which controls the signal phases at an intersection. The controller shall be microprocessorbased consisting of :i) a microprocessing unit; ii) interfacing for inputs and outputs; iii) ancillary equipment. The control equipment and components shall be housed in a weatherproof cabinet as specified in Sub-Section 8.6.2. The controller shall be able to provide four phases and shall be capable of expansion to at least eight phases by the addition of modules on site, which shall be in addition to any special phase required in connection with start up sequences, all reds, etc. It shall also provide a variety of timing functions and differing operational modes. The controller unit shall be capable of operating a minimum of eight plans in a 24 hour period. All active and passive components, their mountings and plugs, sockets and connections shall be suitable for their application.

The exterior surface of steel posts shall be painted with alternate black and orange bands of 300 mm width in weather resisting plastics material as specified in Clause 6 of B.S. 873, Part 1, and as shown on the Drawings. Any surface cut after galvanizing, painting, or the application of the plastics finish, shall be wire brushed and given two coats of good quality zinc-rich paint in accordance with B.S. 4652. 8.5 PEDESTRIAN PUSH-BUTTONS Standard Requirements All pedestrian push-buttons, their mechanism and operation, shall be in accordance with A.S. 2353 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2353 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.5.2 Location Pedestrian push-button detectors shall be provided facing the footpath at each end of each crosswalk where pedestrian actuated signals are required as shown on the Drawings. 8.5.3 Pedestrian Demand Indicator When the button is pressed, an internally illuminated panel shall light up bearing the legend `NANTI', which shall be white on a black or blue background. It shall continue to be displayed until the cross signal (green man) commences. The pedestrian demand indicator shall be provided with all pedestrian pushbuttons unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.

8.6.1

8.5.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works All means of access shall be protected by locks of different patterns and the corresponding locks and keys shall be identical for controller housings of the same make, type and series. Not less than two keys of each type shall be supplied with each controller and they shall be handed over to the S.O. after the completion of testing and commissioning. A log book shall be provided in each housing for the purpose of maintenance and inspection records. The log book shall be attached to the housing by a cord or similar method to prevent removal from the housing cabinet. A pocket or shelf shall be provided within the housing for its storage. 8.6.3 Controller Mains Switch Board The controller mains switch board shall consist of :i) one mains switch and one mains fuse (rated 30 A); ii) one isolation switch together with a fuse to control mains supply, active to all lamps; iii) one flashing yellow feature switch and fuse; iv) one equipment switch and fuse (rated 15 A) to supply four sub-circuits labelled as :. controller . detectors . auxiliary . general purpose outlet; v) neutral link; vi) earth link.

8.6.2

Housing The housing shall have a weatherproof enclosure for the protection of :i) the logic module; ii) interfacing and/or lamp switching modules; iii) power supplies; iv) a `call-recorded' tranformer; v) mains switch board; vi) facility switch; vii)shelf space for mounting of vehicle detectors. The housing cabinet shall be in accordance with A.S. 2578, Part 1, unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2578, Part 1, shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. Housing shall be manufactured from such material approved by the S.O. Appropriate means of entry and support for cables shall be provided. Sufficient ventilation shall be provided to prevent condensation inside the cabinet under all weather conditions. Charcoal or some other dehydration agent shall be placed in the housing as directed by the S.O. All non-current carrying metal parts shall be bonded together and effectively earthed in accordance with CP 1013.

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Standard Specification For Road Works When the pedestrian indications are allowed an exclusive phase, the pedestrian steady green shall be controlled by the appropriate control command and followed by the flashing green pedestrian signal. The intergreen periods shall be inserted before the pedestrian steady green and between the end of the flashing green and the start of the next vehicle phase green. It shall be possible to operate the pedestrian phase with or without pedestrian detection. This shall be selected by a switch or other methods within the controller, subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.6.6 Logic Module Arrangement of the microprocessor based logic module shall be subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.6.6.1 Microcomputer System The microcomputer system shall contain a stored program in readonly-memory (ROM). Part or all of the ROM shall be reprogrammable. The stored program shall permit the traffic controller to be operated in different traffic modes as follows :i) isolated traffic-actuated operation; ii) cableless/Synchronous operation; iii) fixed time operation. All information relating to a particular signal installation, such as number of plans, signal groups, detector logic, time setting and description of logical

The controller shall be suitable for operation at 240 V + 6%, 50 Hz + 1%, single phase A.C. supply. 8.6.4 Facility Switch A facility switch shall be provided to switch the signal lanterns to ON, OFF or FLASH or other facilities such as manual operation. The switch shall only control the signal lamps and flashing yellow circuits while leaving the control equipment fully operative. Access to this facility shall be via a separate locked door or some other means which does not give access to the controller. The facility shall be located not less than 1 metre from the ground level. 8.6.5 Pedestrian Facilities Pedestrian indications shall be allocated as exclusive phases or be connected in parallel to a green phase(s). When the pedestrian indications are connected in parallel to a green vehicle phase, the steady pedestrian green shall commence at a preset period adjustable to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 seconds before or after the start of the green vehicle phase. The steady pedestrian green shall persist until the end of a preset period. It shall be followed by the flashing pedestrian green. The flashing pedestrian green shall flash at 76 to 84 flashes per minute, and the lamp shall be on for between 50% to 70% of the time. The amber signal terminating the vehicle green phase shall not commence until a preset period adjustable to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 seconds has elapsed after the termination of the flashing pedestrian green.
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Standard Specification For Road Works The clock shall derive its timing from two sources, either from the 50 Hz mains supply or a crystal oscillator. When the mains supply is normal, the 50 Hz mains frequency shall provide the time. The crystal reference signal shall be phase locked to the mains frequency by a digital phase locked loop. The real time clock shall provide time in seconds, minutes, hours and days to the microprocessor via a data bus. 8.6.6.4 Operator Interface and Controller Display A keyboard display unit shall be provided as an operator interface with the controller logic module. Visual indicators shall be provided to indicate the status of various traffic parameters such as the phase currently running, base phase step for each phase, demand for each phase, pedestri an demands recorded, etc. When operated in link mode, the display shall be able to provide all traffic parameters associated with the appropriate link mode. 8.6.6.5 Supply Monitor All D.C. power supplies to various cards in the logic module shall be constantly monitored to ensure correct operation of the controller. The monitor shall be arranged so that if one or more of the supply output voltages falls below certain preset levels, the power failure detection circuit will activate to cause the controller to black out the intersection.

and conditional features, shall be contained in the reprogrammable ROM. Time settings may be stored by means of :i) reprogrammable ROM; and ii) battery back-up RAM. The RAM settings shall be such that they may be changed by means of a detachable keyboard while the controller is functioning. The reprogrammable ROM shall be separate from the CPU and its associated circuitry to facilitate field servicing. 8.6.6.2 Input/Output Interfaces The Contractor shall provide for the approval of the S.O., detailed technical information on the input and output interfaces. Inputs include those from vehicle detectors, pedestrian push buttons and signal links. The output shall be to the vehicle signal lamps, pedestrian lamps, wait indicators and signal linking. 8.6.6.3 Real `Time-of-Day' Clock For cableless/synchronous linking operations, a hardware clock shall be provided. The circuit generating the hardware clock shall be backed up by a standby battery for up to 48 hours or more (when fully charged).

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.6.10 Interchangeability All parts shall be interchangeable with like parts for equipment of the same make, type and series. 8.6.11 Vibration and Noise

The mains supply voltage shall also be monitored. Any voltage drop below certain levels shall cause a black out situation. 8.6.6.6 Watchdog Timer A watchdog timer shall be used to detect failure of the microprocessor system to execute its traffic control program. Any failure to execute traffic instruction shall black out the intersection. 8.6.7 Mains Supply Interruptions

The apparatus shall be reasonably quiet and the mechanism shall not cause undue vibration. The apparatus shall be constructed so as to reduce to a minimum any damage to lamps and equipment due to vibration caused by traffic. 8.6.12 Radio Interference The design of equipment shall be such as to prevent interference to telegraphic, telephonic or radiotransmissions. The apparatus will be considered to meet this requirement, as far as radio interference is concerned, if the interference produced by it does not exceed the limits laid down in M.S. 71 and B.S. 800. 8.6.13 Safety Where right of way signals are shown for any controlled traffic in one phase, it shall not be possible through failure of any operating component of the controller to give a right of way signal to a conflicting traffic signal. The Contractor shall satisfy the S.O. as to how the conflicting green state can be detected and what action is to be taken on its detection. The use of two independent safeguard systems is favoured. A method of testing the operation of the safeguards shall be provided.

In the event of a mains supply interruption equal to or less than 50 milliseconds, the controller shall continue to function correctly. When a controller commences to fail (after a mains supply interruption in excess of 50 milliseconds) it shall shut down for the duration of the mains interruption plus a nominal period of about 5 - 10 seconds. At the expiration of this nominal period the controller shall commence operation at an all red state. This state shall persist for at least 5 seconds and shall be followed by the pre-selected phase. 8.6.8 Circuit Breakers Appropriate fuses or circuit breakers shall be provided by the Contractor for the connection of the controller to the mains supply. A mains isolation switch shall also be provided. 8.6.9 Inputs All inputs shall be suitably protected against high voltage peaks and short circuits.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.7.3 Supply Voltage The detectors shall operate on 240 V + 6%, 50 Hz + 1% single phase A.C. power supply. Power shall be supplied from the traffic controller. 8.7.4 Equipment Construction The Contractor shall be responsible for the manufacture, installation and commissioning of the detector system. 8.7.5 Performance Requirements The detector shall respond to any vehicle, except bicycles and trishaws, normally encountered on public roads travelling at any speed. The Contractor shall satisfy the S.O. with respect to the accuracy of the detector unit in terms of false or nil presence actuation at normal operating sensitivity for all types of vehicles including high-bodied vehicles and multi-axle vehicles. 8.8 ROADWORKS General The Contractor shall carry out all necessary roadworks in connection with the installation of the system. These shall include any roadworks associated with :i) installation of Local Controller and Detector Recording housings; ii) installation of signal poles and heads; iii) installation of cable ducting;

The Contractor shall satisfy the S.O. as to how the conflicting green state can be detected and what action is to be taken on its detection. The use of two independent safeguard systems is favoured. A method of testing the operation of the safeguards shall be provided. 8.6.14 Timing The duration of all periods timed by the controller shall be within + 10% of the nominal time when the applied main voltage is within the range between + 10% of the nominal value and + 4% of its nominal frequency. This shall apply to those timing arrangements which measure selected fixed periods. The flashing rate of any flashing signals shall be between 76 and 84 flashes per minute within the same voltage and frequency limits. 8.7 VEHICLE DETECTORS Standard Requirements All equipment, its construction and performance, shall be in accordance with A.S. 2703 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2703 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.7.2 Number of Traffic Lanes The loop detector shall sense traffic flow on one to four traffic lanes depending on where it is installed. It shall sense traffic moving in one direction only and detection on a two way road shall be achieved by using two sets of detectors so that the information obtained for each direction is separate.
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8.7.1

8.8.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.8.3 Excavation, Backfilling Reinstatement and Maintenance of Excavations General The Contractor shall cause as little obstruction as possible to the general public during the execution of all works under this Contract, and shall pay due regard to the interests and convenience of the public and of all private persons who have property in or are resident in the neighbourhood of the works. The Contractor shall ensure that no delay occurs between opening excavations, laying cables, backfilling and reinstatement and that these actions form a continuous process. 8.8.3.2 Excavation Each trench shall be excavated to the required level and materials taken out shall not be re-used unless otherwise specified or directed by the S.O. For excavation in side-tables, turfs shall be carefully removed, stacked and periodically watered for later re-use. The remaining excavated materials may be stockpiled on the Site for later backfilling but excavated topsoil shall be kept separate. For excavation in carriageways and footpaths, selected granular materials, excavated premix and subbase may be stockpiled on Site for later backfilling. All other unsuitable excavated material must be removed to spoil on the day it is excavated.

If an existing conduit has been installed across the road carriageway, all cross-carriageway cabling shall be carried by this conduit. 8.8.2 Permission to Excavate Road The Contractor shall apply to the S.O. for approval to excavate the roadway. This approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. The application shall be made not less than seven (7) days before the commencement of the work. The Contractor shall comply with the following conditions and other additional instructions from the S.O. :i) trenching in sidetables, footpaths and carriageways shall be excavated, backfilled, reinstated and maintained as specified in this Sub-Section; ii) cables to be laid in carriageway shall be at least 750 mm below the carriageway level; iii) cables running longitudinally in footpaths and side-tables shall be at least 600 mm clear of the edge of the kerb line or carriageway and at least 750 mm below the adjacent carriageway channel level; iv) no work shall be done during traffic peak hours unless approved by the S.O.

8.8.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works necessary to cross drains, culverts or similar obstructions which are too deep for the cables to be buried below, galvanised steel pipes shall be provided. The pipes shall be supported at each end in a concrete block and shall project through the blocks into the ground to a depth of a least 750 mm. All ducts shall be extended at least 600 mm beyond paved areas, concrete areas, drains, road crossings, pipe crossings, etc. Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., the number of cables installed in each duct shall be such that the space factor shall not be less than 60 %. A drawn wire shall be provided in each duct. Unless specified to be provided by others, the above galvanised steel pipes shall be provided by the Contractor whether they are shown on the Drawings or not. 8.8.3.5 Cable Laying and Installation All cables shall be handled, laid and installed according to this Specification, the IEE Wiring Regulations, cable manufacturer's recommendations and ERA Reports by using proper installation equipment. All cables shall be supplied in complete length to suit the circuits they serve and no straight through joints shall be used. Straight through joints in the cable will only be permitted in very exceptional circumstances such as those arising from unavoidable limitations in manufacturing length. If straight through joints or other approved
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All excavated materials shall be kept clear of the carriageways at all times. All sides of excavations shall be vertical. In soft or unstable ground the sides shall be adequately supported. All excavations shall be kept free of standing water. If, for unavoidable reasons, a trench running laterally across a road cannot be backfilled and must be left open overnight or for a longer period, then steel plates, securely bolted and adequate to take traffic loading, shall be placed across the trench and the section of road opened to traffic. 8.8.3.3 Bedding of Excavation Before ducts are laid, the trench beds shall be levelled and sand placed on the bed and hand tamped to a thickness of not less than 75 mm. All ducts shall be covered by a layer of sand hand tamped to a thickness of at least 75 mm above the crown of the duct. 8.8.3.4 Cable Ducts At road crossings, sewerage pipe crossings, water pipe crossings, paved areas, concrete areas and areas specified by the S.O., cables shall be protected by galvanised steel pipes buried to a depth of 900 mm below finished ground level. The pipes shall be heavy duty pipes, complying with B.S. 1387, complete with screwed and socketed joints. Unless otherwise specified, the pipes shall be 150 mm in diameter. Where it is
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Standard Specification For Road Works the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq.mm. For cable sizes exceeding 120 sq.mm, more than one row of bricks shall be laid. Each cable shall be separately protected by these bricks and the cover shall have at least 25 mm overhang on each side of the cable. An orange coloured, multi-strand nylon rope of minimum 6 mm diameter shall be laid at a depth of 300 mm along the trench to identify the cable route. At every 10 metres interval, an extra 2 metres length of nylon rope shall be coiled and laid. 8.8.3.7 Cables Installed in Precast Concrete Trenches Methods of installation of cables in precast concrete trenches shall be in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition) for Type L, Type M or Type N cables. However, if the method is not specified, the cables shall be installed as directed by the S.O. Cables laid at the bottom of trenches shall be Type L cables in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition). Cables installed on the trench walls shall be Type M or Type N cables in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition) and the cables shall be secured on a cable tray by means of saddles at suitable intervals. In the case of single core cables, whether secured individually or in groups to the cable tray, non ferrous saddles shall be used.

joints are permitted by the S.O., the cost of such joints shall be borne by the Contractor. No joints in the cable will be allowed unless approved in writing by the S.O. The minimum bending radius of the cable shall be in accordance with Table 52C of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition). Wherever cables are cut, the ends shall be immediately sealed in an approved manner unless it is intended to proceed with cable jointing or termination straight away. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.O., no cable shall be laid and covered up in the absence of the S.O.

8.8.3.6

Cable Laid Direct On The Ground Where trench beds have been covered with sand, the cables shall then be laid on this bedding in an orderly manner without overlapping and crossing each other. After laying the cables, a layer of 75 mm clean sand shall cover the cables and shall be carefully spread over the trench before placing the cable protective covers. The cable protective covers shall be clay bricks. The bricks shall be new, well burnt and in complete pieces. They shall be laid lengthwise from end to end along the entire route of the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq.mm. For cable sizes exceeding 120 sq.mm, more than one row of

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Standard Specification For Road Works For excavations in carriageways and footpaths the backfilling shall be done in 150 mm layers to within 300 mm of the surface level using clean sand and suitable excavated granular material or other approved granular material. Each layer shall be compacted using a power driven rammer. The next 230 mm of backfill shall consist of crushed aggregate roadbase con forming to Sub-Section 4.1.4 of this Specification, laid and compacted by a power driven rammer. A tack coat of cationic bituminous emulsion shall be applied on the crushed aggregate surface and a 75 mm thick layer of compacted asphaltic premix shall be placed as the final layer, all in accordance with the relevant requirements of Section 4 of this Specification. 8.8.3.9 Sensing Loop Slots The Contractor shall be responsible for providing the slot in the roadway for the loop sensor; the installation and jointing of the loop feeder cable; the backfilling of the slot in the roadway; and the slot or trenches for the feeder cables, all as shown on the Drawings. 8.8.3.10 Maintenance of Drains and Service During Excavations The Contractor shall ensure that he has full knowledge of the location of all drains and services in the area of any excavation prior to the excavation commencing. The Contractor shall ensure that all precautions are taken not to disturb such drains and services and shall be

The cable tray shall be fabricated from perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheets finished in an orange enamel. The minimum thickness of the sheet steel used shall be 1.5 mm for cable trays with widths of up to 300 mm and shall be 2.0 mm for widths exceeding 300 mm. The cable tray shall be supported at least 25 mm from the trench wall by mild steel brackets at 600 mm intervals. The brackets shall be treated with anti-rust and painted with one coat of primer. Samples of the cable tray and brackets shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval prior to installation. To provide electrical continuity, all cable joints shall be bridged by means of tinned copper tape of dimensions not less than 25 mm x 3 mm. All saddles for cables on cable trays shall be installed using bolts, washers and nuts. All tees, intersection units, adaptor units, etc., shall be factory manufactured unless otherwise approved by the S.O. 8.8.3.8 Backfilling of Excavations and Reinstatements For excavations in sidetables, berms and slopes, the excavated material shall be replaced in 150 mm layers in the reverse order to which the material was excavated. Each layer shall be compacted with a power driven rammer. The top 150 mm of the excavation and adjacent disturbed ground shall be filled with good loamy topsoil and hand tamped. Approved quality grass turfs shall be closely and continuously fitted over the topsoiled area where necessary and directly pegged down to prevent displacement.
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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.8.3.13 Maintenance of Excavation The Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the proper maintenance and good condition of each excavation and each reinstatement up to a period of three (3) calendar months after the date of the S.O.'s written approval of such reinstatement works. All excavation sites prior to, during, and after reinstatement shall be maintained in a sound and firm condition, free from depressions, humps, loose stones and any other similar defects such as not to constitute danger or unreasonable nuisance to traffic or members of the public. Loose materials or stones shall not be allowed to accumulate over or around any excavation, but shall be promptly swept clear. Any part of reinstatement in a footpath or carriageway that settles more than 15 mm below the adjacent undisturbed surface level shall promptly be resurfaced to a level not more than 15 mm above the adjacent undisturbed surface level. The resurfacing shall be carried out by applying a prime/tack coat and asphaltic premix as specified in Section 4 of this Specification. The Contractor shall be required to maintain a small mobile gang of workmen for the above purpose, and a regular system of daily inspection shall be instituted for all trenches awaiting temporary and permanent rein statement. Should the Contractor default in the maintenance of excavations and reinstatement where, in the S.O.'s judgement,
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responsible for their maintenance during the reinstatement of such excavations. The Contractor should note if the Site of the Works is subject to frequent and heavy rainfall and all precautions shall be taken to maintain existing drainageways to prevent flooding. 8.8.3.11 Reinstatement of Drains and Precast Units The Contractor shall carry out the reinstatement of all existing precast channel drains, gulleys, pavement slabs, dividers, kerbs, etc., which have been affected by any trench opening. Only excavated units in a sound and undamaged condition may be replaced, otherwise the Contractor shall supply and lay similar new units. The units shall be replaced to the original lines and levels and shall be bedded, backed and jointed to the satisfaction of the S.O. 8.8.3.12 Completion of Works On completion of reinstatement works at any one site, the Contractor shall clear away all debris, surplus materials and plant and leave the site in a clean and tidy condition. The Contractor shall carry out any further remedial works as directed by the S.O. and shall obtain the S.O's written approval for the reinstatement works.

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Standard Specification For Road Works On multilane roads, not more than one traffic lane in either direction shall be closed except as may be otherwise directed by the S.O. On roads of not more than one traffic lane in each direction, the Contractor shall ensure that both lanes are kept open during peak periods as previously defined. This may be accomplished by the use of steel plates as specified in Sub-Section 8.8.3.2. When the work is such that the simultaneous closing of several lanes cannot be avoided and would cause undue interference with traffic, the work should either be carried out at night or during weekends. However, the S.O. may give permission for the simultaneous closing of lanes for emergency works or other works as deemed necessary. 8.8.4.2 Arrangement and Location of Signs, Barriers and Barricades The general arrangement and location of temporary signs at works in progress shall be strictly in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85, published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Kuala Lumpur, and shall be submitted by the Contractor and approved by the S.O. before work commences. Work on a road involving less than one-third of a traffic lane and work on a footpath in the immediate vicinity of the carriageway of a high speed road shall be deemed to be minor obstructions. In these cases, as it will not be necessary to close up one full lane, shorter barriers shall be used.
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such default would constitute in any way a traffic hazard, then the S.O. shall have the power to attend forthwith to such defects and the entire cost of the work plus 25% shall be borne by the Contractor. Before the expiration of the maintenance period of each item of work, the Contractor shall write to the S.O. for final inspection of the work to determine any outstanding defects which have to be rectified. The Contractor will only be absolved of all the responsibilities of the maintenance after such defects are rectified to the satisfaction of the S.O. In the event that the Contractor fails to notify the S.O. of the date of expiration of the maintenance period and has not arranged for the inspection of the work, the maintenance period of each item of work shall be deemed to have been extended by the Contractor due to his fault to such time until the final inspection is carried out. 8.8.4 Traffic Arrangements General Obstructions and excavations shall be adequately fenced and guarded at all times for the protection of all persons who use the roadway. Particular attention shall be paid to the positioning of the barriers. The whole obstruction or excavation shall be completely fenced off, but unnecessary blocking of traffic lanes shall not be permitted. Roads shall not be used for the unnecessary storage of materials.
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Standard Specification For Road Works Cones shall be of rubber or equivalent flexible material and shall be bright orange in colour. 8.8.4.5 Temporary Traffic Diversions For the duration of the work, a satisfactory roadway shall be provided for the traffic. Where a sufficient width of carriageway is not available, a temporary traffic diversion shall be constructed if possible. The extra carriageway shall be properly maintained in a smooth and hard condition at all times for the duration of the work. The maintenance of pedestrian movement shall be provided by construction of temporary walks, barricades and handrails. Certain areas along the construction site may be restricted to pedestrian use where such restrictions are in the interest of pedestrian safety. 8.8.4.6 Temporary Traffic Control It is essential that traffic control at the site be exercised diligently and by competent personnel, if the need arises. The methods of temporary traffic control are :i) Police supervision : this applies where the works are of a very short duration with some special feature, such as a busy road junction; ii) Manually operated 'Stop' and 'Go' signs : this applies at works of short duration, provided that traffic is not dense. Red and green flags should, under no

All traffic signs used in temporary signing must be reflectorised. When practicable, signs shall be sited where they will receive maximum benefits from street lighting. 8.8.4.3 Temporary Warning Lamps Temporary warning lamps shall be used during the hours of darkness in conjunction with all temporary signs, barriers and other traffic control devices which are to remain in position at night. Lamps shall be kept alight at all times during the hours of darkness. Warning lamps shall consist of standard battery operated flashing lights and shall be placed at salient points of the site every night. 8.8.4.4 Use of Traffic Guidance Cones When a portion of a roadway is closed to traffic by the use of barriers, barricades or signs, traffic guidance cones shall be placed on the road so as to guide traffic smoothly from the wide section to the narrow section in which a portion of the roadway has been closed to traffic. Cones shall be used only when the work is in progress or where there is a watchman who can reposition any of the cones which may have been dislodged by the traffic. Otherwise they shall be removed from the roadway when work ceases at night. At night, continuously operating flashing lights shall be used to guide the traffic.

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Standard Specification For Road Works flashing lights on the top of the vehicles. They should also have a plate on the rear side with the words `SLOW MOVING' or `KENDERAAN PERLAHAN'. 8.8.4.9 Maintenance of Signs, Lights, Barriers,Temporary Traffic Diversions, etc. Signs, lights, barriers and other traffic control devices shall be maintained in good order and in the correct position day and night. Signs shall be neat, clear and legible at all times. Temporary traffic diversions shall be maintained in good order at all times.

circumstances, be used for traffic control, but could be used to supplement the disc signs. 8.8.4.7 Plant and Equipment In all cases where traffic is permitted to use the whole or a portion of the existing road, all plant items and similar obstructions shall be removed from the road at night, if at all practicable. During the day, a red flag shall project beyond the extremity of all plant items (other than vehicles) adjacent to the traffic lane. Plant and equipment shall be lit at night if within 5 metres of the edge of the carriageway by two red lights suspended vertically from the point of obstruction nearest to the carriageway. The lights may be omitted in cases where there are permanent obstructions, such as trees less than 5 metres from the edge of carriageway and the plant or equipment are not closer to the road than the permanent obstructions. 8.8.4.8 Vehicles Vehicles which carry out operations on the road and which are required to travel slowly or to stop at frequent intervals should be made as conspicuous as possible. This shall be achieved by painting such vehicles a distinctive colour, and/or painting their rear portions with diagonal stripes of a contrasting colour, and/or providing

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 9 CONCRETE

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SECTION 9 - CONCRETE
Page 9.1 9.2 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-212 S9-213 S9-213 S9-214 S9-214 S9-214 S9-215 S9-215 S9-216 S9-217 S9-217

9.2.1 Cement 9.2.1.1 Transportation and Storage 9.2.2 Aggregates 9.2.2.1 Coarse Aggregates 9.2.2.2 Fine Aggregates 9.2.2.3 Grading 9.2.2.4 Sampling and Testing of Aggregates 9.2.2.5 Storage of Aggregates 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3 Water Admixtures

CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIXES Requirements for Prescribed Mixes Requirements for Designed Mixes Target Mean Strength Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions Mixes Control of Strength of Designed Mixes

9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.2.1 9.3.2.2 9.3.2.3 9.3.2.4

9.3.3 Requirements for Concrete 9.3.3.1 Workability 9.3.3.2 Concrete Grade 9.3.3.3 Minimum Cement Content 9.3.3.4 Maximum Cement Content 9.3.3.5 Total Chloride Content 9.3.3.6 Maximum Sulphate Content 9.4 COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS Prescribed Mix

S9-218 S9-218 S9-218 S9-218 S9-219 S9-220

9.4.1

S9-220 S9-221 S9-221 S9-221 S9-222 S9-223
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9.4.2 Designed mix 9.4.2.1 Characteristic Strength 9.4.2.2 Sampling and Testing 9.4.2.3 Testing plan 9.4.3 Additional Cubes

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9.5

PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Supervision Batching and Mixing Transporting Placing Temperature Requirements Compaction Curing and protection Normal Curing Accelerated Curing Ready-Mixed Concrete S9-223 S9-223 S9-224 S9-224 S9-226 S9-226 S9-227 S9-227 S9-228 S9-228

9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.5.4 9.5.5 9.5.6 9.5.7 9.5.7.1 9.5.7.2 9.5.8 9.6

CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE Construction Joints Fixing Blocks, Brackets, built-In-Bolts, Holes, Chases, etc. Precast Concrete Construction Manufacturer Off the Site Storage Handling and Transport Assembly and Erection Forming Structural Connections Protection S9-228 S9-229

9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.3.1 9.6.3.2 9.6.3.3 9.6.3.4 9.6.3.5 9.6.3.6 9.7

S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-231

STEEL REINFORCEMENT Description Materials Construction Method Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement Fixing of Reinforcement Splicing Supporting and Spacer Blocks Welding of Reinforcement S9-231 S9-231 S9-232 S9-232 S9-232 S9-233 S9-233 S9-233

9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.3.1 9.7.3.2 9.7.3.3 9.7.3.4 9.7.3.5

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9.8

FORMWORK AND SURFACE FINISH FOR STRUCTURE Design and Construction Description Voids In Concrete Form Lining Projecting Reinforcement, Fixing Devices Finishes Formed Surfaces Unformed Surfaces Remedial Treatment of Surfaces Preparation of Formwork Before Concreting Removal of Formwork

9.8.1 9.8.1.1 9.8.1.2 9.8.1.3 9.8.1.4 9.8.2 9.8.2.1 9.8.2.2 9.8.2.3 9.8.3 9.8.4

S9-234 S9-234 S9-235 S9-235

S9-235 S9-236 S9-236 S9-237 S9-237

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Standard Specification For Road Works Manufacturer's certificates of test will, in general, be accepted as proof of soundness. Additional tests shall be carried out on any cement which appears to have deteriorated through age, damage to containers, improper storage or any other reason. In any event, the batch of cement which has been sampled and tested and found not to have complied with the requirements shall be rejected and removed from the Site. 9.2.1.1 Transportation and Storage The cement shall be transported to the Site in covered vehicles adequately protected against water. It shall be stored in a weather-proof cement store to the approval of the S.O. and shall be taken for use in the Works in the order of its delivery into the store. Cement delivered in bulk shall be stored in silos of an approved design. 9.2.2 Aggregates Aggregates shall be naturally occurring sand, gravel or stone, crushed or uncrushed except as otherwise specified, and shall comply with M.S. 29. They shall be obtained from a source approved by the S.O. and shall be hard, strong, durable and clean. They shall be free from adhering coatings and shall not contain any harmful material in sufficient quantity so as to affect adversely the strength, durability and impermeability of the concrete. Marine aggregates shall not be used unless otherwise specified.

SECTION 9 - CONCRETE
9.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the construction of all structures or parts of structures to be composed of Portland cement concrete with or without steel reinforcement, except for reinforced concrete pipe culverts, which shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3.9, and Portland cement concrete pavement, which shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as required by the S.O. 9.2 MATERIALS Cement The cement to be used throughout the work shall be Portland cement obtained from an approved manufacturer. The cement shall be described under one of the following headings :i) Ordinary Portland Cement - the cement shall comply with M.S. 522; ii) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement - the cement shall comply with M.S. 522; iii) Moderate Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement - the cement shall comply with B.S. 12; iv) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement - the cement shall comply with B.S. 4027.
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9.2.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 9.2.2.3 Grading (a) Coarse Aggregate The grading of coarse aggregate shall be analysed as described in M.S. 30 and shall be within the limits given in Table 9.1.

9.2.2.1

Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate shall comply with M.S. 29.

9.2.2.2

Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall comply with M.S. 29. If it is found necessary, the fine aggregate shall be washed and screened to the satisfaction of the S.O.

TABLE 9.1 - COARSE AGGREGATE
B.S. 410 Test Sieve % Passing By Weight

Nominal Size of graded aggregate

Nominal Size of single-sized aggregate

(mm)

37.5mm to 5.0 mm

20.0mm 14.0 mm to to 5.0 mm 5.0 mm

63.0 mm

37.5 mm

20.0 mm

14.0 mm

10.0 mm

75.0 63.0 37.5 20.0 14.0 10.0 5.0 2.36

100 95 - 100 30 - 70 10035 5

100 95 - 100 25 - 55

100 90 100 40 - 85

100 85 - 100 0 - 30 0-5 -

100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0-5 -

100 85 - 100 0 - 20 0-5 -

100 85 - 100 0 - 45 0 - 10 -

85 - 100 0 - 20 -

0 - 10 0 0 – 10 -

-

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(b) Fine Aggregate The grading of fine aggregate shall be analysed as described in M.S. 30 and shall be with in the limits of one of the grading zones given in Table 9.2.

TABLE 9.2 - FINE AGGREGATE

B.S. 410 Test Sieve

% Passing By Weight Grading Zone 1 Grading Zone 2 Grading Zone 3 Grading Zone 4

10.0 mm 5.0 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 um 300 um 150 um

100 90 - 100 60 – 95 30 - 70 15 - 34 5 - 20 0 - 10

100 90 - 100 75 – 100 55 – 90 35 – 59 8 – 30 0 – 10

100 90 – 100 85 – 100 75 – 100 60 – 70 12 – 40 0 - 10

100 95 – 100 95 – 100 90 – 100 80 – 100 15 – 50 0 - 15

9.2.2.4

Sampling and Testing of Aggregates Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the S.O. shall be kept on Site, and shall give a fair indication of the general quality of the aggregates for comparison with the aggregates delivered during the course of the work.

Tests shall be carried out on samples of the latter taken at intervals as required by the S.O. The method of sampling and testing shall be in accordance with M.S. 30 and other standards as specified in Table 9.3. Any batch of aggregate rejected by the S.O. shall be removed from the Site.

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TABLE 9.3 - TESTING OF AGGREGATE

Properties

Test Methods

Limits

Grading Elongation Index Flakiness Index Water Absorption Clay, Silt and Dust Organic Impurities Aggregate Crushing Value Soundness Test (Sodium Sulphate) Chloride Content

M.S. 30 M.S. 30 M.S. 30 M.S. 30 M.S. 30 M.S. 30 M.S. 30 AASHTO Test Method T104 B.S 812 Part 4

Table 9.1 & Table 9.2 not exceeding 30% not exceeding 25% not exceeding 1.5% not exceeding 2% not exceeding 0.4% not exceeding 20% loss not exceeding 12%

not exceeding 0.06% by weight of chloride ions

Sulphate Content

B.S 1377 Test 9

not exceeding 0.4% be weight of SO3

9.2.2.5

Storage of Aggregates Separate storage facilities with adequate provision for drainage shall be provided for each different size of aggregate used. Aggregate shall be handled and stored so as to minimise segregation and contamination.

9.2.3

Water Water shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 28. It shall be clean and free from harmful matter and shall be from a source approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall make adequate arrangements to supply and store sufficient water at the work site for use in mixing and curing concrete. All costs for installing and maintaining the supply shall be borne by the Contractor.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Admixtures which contain calcium chloride or calcium formate as the active constituents shall not be used for structural concrete containing reinforcement, prestressing tendons or other embedded metal. 9.3 CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIXES

9.2.4

Admixtures Suitable admixtures may be used in concrete mixes with the prior approval of or as directed by the S.O. All requirements for sampling, acceptance tests, uniformity tests, independant tests, chloride content, information to be provided by manufacturer, compliance and storage certificates and marking shall be in accordance with M.S. 922. All admixtures shall be used strictly in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Before allowing the admixture to be used in the work, relevant tests based on trial mixes shall be carried out. The trial mix shall be made using job-site materials and under job-site conditions. A control mix shall be made using a conventional trial mix, that is without using the admixture, to determine the water/cement ratio and mix proportions required to give the specified strength with the required slump. Using the same mix proportions as in the control mix, a test shall be prepared using the recommended dosage of the admixture. The results of relevant tests obtained from the control mix and test mix shall be compared. The S.O. may allow the use of the admixture only when the results are found to be satisfactory and comparable to the effects as claimed by the manufacturer. Table 9.4 of admixture acceptance test requirements shall be complied with.

The concrete mixes shall be classified as :(a) Prescribed Mix The Contractor shall provide concrete that contains constituents in the specified proportions. (b) Designed Mix The Contractor shall select the mix proportions and unless otherwise specified, the workability, in order to satisfy the strength and other requirements of the Contract. 9.3.1 Requirements for Prescribed Mixes Unless otherwise specified, the concrete mix shall be as detailed in Table 9.5 which shows the weights of cement and total dry aggregates, in kilograms, to produce approximately one cubic metre of fully compacted concrete, together with the percentages by weight of fine aggregates in total dry aggregates.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Where there are insufficient data to satisfy (i) or (ii) above, the margin for the initial mix design shall be taken as 7.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 and 12 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above. This margin shall be used as the current margin only until sufficient data are available to satisfy (i) or (ii) above. However, subject to the approval of the S.O., when the specified characteristic strength approaches the maximum possible strength of concrete made with a particular aggregate, a smaller margin not less than 5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 7.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above may be used for the initial mix design.

9.3.2

Requirements for Designed Mixes Target Mean Strength The concrete mix shall be designed to have at least the required minimum cement content and to have a target mean strength greater than the required characteristic strength by at least the current margin. The current margin for each particular type of concrete shall be determined by the Contractor and shall be taken as the lesser of :i) 1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 100 separate batches of concrete of nominally similar proportion of similar materials and produced over a period not exceeding 12 months by the same plant under similar supervision, but not less than 2.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 3.75 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above; ii) 1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 40 separate batches of concrete of nominally similar proportions of similar materials and produced over a period exceeding 5 days but not exceeding 6 months by the same plant under similar supervision, but not less than 5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 7.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above.

9.3.2.1

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TABLE 9.5 - PRESCRIBED MIXES FOR GENERAL USE PER CUBIC METRE OF CONCRETE
Grade of Concrete 28-day Characteristic Strenght of Concrete (N/sq.mm) Nominal Max. Sizes of Aggregate (mm) Workability Medium 40 20

High

Medium

High

Slump Limits (mm) 15P 15 Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%)

50 -100

100 - 150

25 - 75

75 - 125

250 1850 30 - 45

270 1800 30 - 45

280 1800 35 - 50

310 1750 35 – 50

20P

20

Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%)

300

320

320

350

1850 25 - 35

1750 25 – 40

1800 25 – 40

1750 20 - 45

25P

25

Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%)

340 1800 25 - 35

360 1750 25 - 40

360 1750 25 - 40

390 1700 30 - 45

Fine aggregate is expressed as a percentage by weight to the total dry aggregates. The lower value shall be used for finer grading. 9.3.2.2 Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the S.O., prior to the supply of any designed mix, the following :-

i) the nature and source of each material; ii) appropriate existing data as evidence of satisfactory previous performance for target mean strength, current margin, workability and water/cement ratio; OR full details of tests on trial mixes carried out in accordance with SubSection 9.3.2.3;

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Standard Specification For Road Works During production, the S.O. may require additional trial mixes to be made before a substantial change is made in the materials or in the proportion of the materials to be used. Trial mixes need not be carried out when adjustments are made to the mix proportions in accordance with Sub-Section 9.3.2.4. 9.3.2.4 Control of Strength of Designed Mixes (a) Adjustment to Mix Proportions Adjustment to mix proportions shall be made subject to the approval of the S.O. in order to minimise the variability of strength and to maintain the target mean strength. The specified limits of minimum cement content and maximum water/cement ratio shall be maintained. Changes in cement have to be declared. Such adjustment shall not be taken to imply any change in the current margin. (b) Change of Current Margin A change in the current margin used for judging compliance with specified characteristic strengths becomes appropriate when the results of a sufficiently large number of tests show that the previously established margin is significantly too large or too small.

iii) the proposed quantities of each material per cubic metre of fully compacted concrete. 9.3.2.3 Trial Mixes The Contractor shall give notice to enable the S.O. to be present at the making of trial mixes and preliminary testing of the cubes. The Contractor shall prepare trial mixes, using samples of approved material typical of those he proposes to use in the Works, for all grades to the satisfaction of the S.O. prior to commencement of concreting. Sampling and testing procedures shall be in accordance with M.S. 26. Three separate batches of concrete shall be made. The workability of each of the three trial batches determined by means of the slump test, compacting factor test or vebe consistometer test in accordance with M.S. 26, shall be appropriate to the proposed uses and methods of placing and compaction of the mix and shall be approved by the S.O. Six cubes shall be made from each batch. Three from each set of six shall be tested at an age of 7 days and three at an age of 28 days. The average strength of the nine cubes tested at 28 days shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by the current margin minus 3.5 N/sq.mm. The approved trial mix shall then be designated as the "designed mix" and its corresponding workability as the "designed workability".

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Standard Specification For Road Works - ±0.04 where the "designed workability" is between 0.8 and 0.9. - ±0.05 where the "designed workability" is 0.8 or less. iii) Vebe - ±3 seconds or ±one-fifth of the "designed workability", whichever is less. 9.3.3.2 Concrete Grade The grade of concrete to be used in the Works shall be as stated on the Drawings and in the Bill of Quantities. (Concrete grade shall be designated as GRADE X/Y where `X' is the numerical value of the characteristic strength in N/sq.mm as determined from test cubes at 28 days, and `Y' is the nominal size of aggregate in mm. For a prescribed mix, a suffix `P' shall be added after `X'). 9.3.3.3 Minimum Cement Content The minimum cement content shall be in accordance with Table 9.6 unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. 9.3.3.4 Maximum Cement Content The maximum cement content shall not exceed 550 kg/cu.m unless otherwise described in the Contract or agreed by the S.O.

Recalculation of the margin shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 9.3.2.1. Although a recalculated margin is almost certain to differ numerically from the previous value, the adoption of the recalculated value will not generally be justified if the two values differ by less than 18% when based on tests on 2 separate batches or less than 11% when based on tests on 100 separate batches, or less than 5% when based on tests on 500 separate batches. On the adoption of a recalculated margin it shall become the current margin for the judgement of compliance with the specified characteristic strength of concrete produced subsequent to the change. 9.3.3 Requirements for Concrete Workability The workability of the fresh concrete shall be such that the concrete is suitable for the conditions of handling and placing so that after compaction, it surrounds all reinforcement, tendons and ducts and completely fills the formwork. Workability of the concrete shall be within one of the following limits :i) Slump - ±25 mm or ± one-third of the "designed workability", whichever is the greater. ii) Compacting Factor - ±0.03 where the "designed workability" is 0.9 or more.
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TABLE 9.6 - MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT AND MAXIMUM FREE WATER/CEMENT RATIO FOR DESIGNED MIX
Prestressed Concrete Exposure Nominal max. size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 (kg/cu.m) Reinforced Concrete Nominal max. size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 (kg/cu.m) Plain Concrete Nominal max. Size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 Max. Free Water/ Cement Ratio

Surfaces sheltered from severe rain :1) surface protected by a water-proof membrane; 2) internal surfaces, whether or not subject to condensation; 3) surfaces continuously buried and/or submerged under water. 1) soffits; 2) surfaces exposed to driving rain, alternate wetting and drying e.g.in contact with backfill. 1) surfaces exposed to the action of sea water with abrasion having a pH of 4.5 or less.

(kg/cu.m)

300 320

270 300

250

280

0.55

320

350

320

350

270

300

0.50

350 380

350

380

320

350

0.45

9.3.3.5

Total Chloride Content The total chloride content of the concrete mix arising from the aggregate or any other source shall not in any circumstances exceed the limits in Table 9.7 expressed as a percentage relationship between chloride ions and weight of cement in the mix.

Tests shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 1881 for each grade of concrete, to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded.

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TABLE 9.7 - MAXIMUM TOTAL CHLORIDE

Type of Concrete

Maximum Total Chloride (%)

Reinforced Concrete made with cement complying with M.S. 522. 0.35 for 95% of test results with no result greater than 0.50.

Plain Concrete containing embedded metal and made with cement complying with M.S. 522.

Concrete made with cement complying with B.S. 4027.

0.2

Prestressed Concrete and Structural Concrete that is steam cured.

0.1

Notes on Table 9.7 :(1) % Chloride ionsx 1.648 = % equivalent sodium chloride. (2) % Chloride ionsx 1.56 = % equivalent anhydrous calcium chloride. 9.3.3.6 Maximum Sulphate Content The total estimated sulphate content of any mix, including that present in the cement shall not exceed 4.0% by weight of cement in the mix. Tests shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 1881 for each grade of concrete to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

9.4

COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS Prescribed Mix A prescribed mix shall be judged on the basis of the specified mix proportions. The workability shall be chosen to suit the construction requirements. Notwithstanding this, strength tests shall be carried out during the progress of work. The rate of sampling shall be as per Rate 2 for ordinary structural concrete as in Table 9.8. For each sampling, three test cubes shall be made. One test cube from each sample-batch shall be tested for the 7-day compressive strength.

9.4.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works 9.4.2 Designed Mix Characteristic Strength The characteristic strength of concrete is that 28-day cube strength, below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall. Compliance with the specified characteristic strength shall be judged by tests made on cubes at an age of 28 days. 9.4.2.2 Sampling and Testing All sampling and testing of constituent materials shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate available Malaysian Standards. In particular, sampling and testing of fresh and of hardened concrete shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of M.S. 26. The rate of sampling shall be as given in Table 9.8, but not less than one sample shall be taken from each source of production on each day that concrete of any particular grade is used.

If the cube strength falls below 75% of the 28-day compressive strength, then the S.O. may direct the Contractor to take necessary steps to review the process of the production of concrete for future use. The remaining two test cubes from the sample-batch shall be tested for the 28-day compressive strength. The appropriate strength requirement shall be considered to be satisfied if at least one of the following is complied with :i) none of the two test cubes is below the specified compressive strength; ii) the average strength of the two test cubes is not less than the specified compressive strength and the difference between the two strengths is not more than 20% of the average strength. In the event that the results of the test do not meet the specified requirements, the S.O. shall determine the action to be taken in respect of the concrete member represented by the sample-batch test cubes. Such action may include demolition of the member. The Contractor shall, if required by the S.O., take cored samples from the hardened concrete member and carry out the compressive strength test.

9.4.2.1

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TABLE 9.8 - MINIMUM RATE OF SAMPLING

Rate

Volume of concrete from which a sample shall be taken

Rate 1 (Prestressed Concrete)

Every 10 cu.m or every group of 10 batches *

Rate 2 (Ordinary Structural Concrete)

Every 20.0 cu.m or every group of 20 batches *

Rate 3 (Mass Concrete)

Every 50 cu.m or every group of 50 batches *

* The sample shall be taken from one single batch randomly selected from the group of batches. 9.4.2.3 Testing Plan Three test cubes shall be made from a single sample taken from a randomly selected batch of concrete. The samples shall be taken at the point of discharge from the mixer or, in the case of ready-mixed concrete, at the point of discharge from the delivery vehicle. One test cube from each sample shall be tested for the 7-day compressive strength. If the cube strength falls below the 7-day strength as determined from the trial mixes, then the Contractor shall take the necessary steps to review the process of the production of concrete and make certain adjustments where appli cable.

The remaining two test cubes from the same sample shall be tested for the 28-day compressive strength. The average strength of the two cubes shall constitute the 28-day compressive strength of the sample. For compliance purposes :i) the average 28-day strength determined from any group of four consecutive samples shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by at least 0.5 times the curent margin. The current margin shall be taken as 7.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 12 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above unless, in accordance with SubSection 9.3.2.1 or 9.3.2.4 (b), a smaller margin has been established to the satisfaction of the S.O.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 9.4.3 Additional Cubes Additional cubes may be reuqired for various purposes. These shall be made and tested in accordance with M.S. 26 but the methods of sampling and the conditions under which the cubes are stored shall be varied according to the purpose for which they are required. For determining the cube strength of prestressed concrete before transer or of concrete in a member before striking formwork, sampling shall be at the point of placing and the cubes shall be stored as far as possible under the same conditions as the concrete in the members. The extra cubes shall be indentified at the time of making and shall not be used for the normal quality control or compliance procedures. 9.5 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Supervision The Contractor shall ensure the required standard of control over materials and workmanship. The S.O. shall be afforded all reasonable opportunity and facility to inspect the materials and the production of concrete, to take any samples and to make any test. 9.5.2 Batching and Mixing The quantities of cement, fine aggregate and various sizes of coarse aggregate shall be measured by weight unless otherwise approved by the S.O. A separate weighing machine shall be provided for weighing the cement. Alternatively the cement may be measured by using a whole number of bags in each batch. The quantity of water
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In this respect, consecutive samples are samples taken at intervals not exceeding 14 days. In all cases, at least four samples shall be taken of concrete on the first day of concreting for each grade of concrete to be used in the Works, irrespective of the volume of concrete produced or the sampling rate. ii) Each individual sample test result shall be at least 85% of the specified characteristic strength. If any one sample test result fails to meet the second requirement (ii), then that result may be considered to represent only the particular batch of concrete from which the sample test cubes were taken. If the average strength of any group of four consecutive sample test results fails to meet the first requirement (i), or more than one sample test result in a group fails to meet the second requirement (ii), then all the concrete in all the batches represented by all such sample test results shall be deemed not to comply with the strength requirements. For the purpose of this Sub-Section, batches of concrete represented by groups of four consecutive sample test results shall include the batches from which samples were taken to obtain the first and the last sample results in the group of four, together with all the intervening batches.

9.5.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Mixing plant shall be thoroughly cleaned before changing from one type of cement to another. The water content of each batch of concrete may be adjusted so as to produce a concrete of the workability required. 9.5.3 Transporting Concrete shall be transported from the mixer to the formwork as rapidly as practicable by methods which will prevent segregation or loss of the ingredients and maintain the required workability. It shall be deposited as near as practicable in its final position to avoid rehandling. The concrete shall be conveyed by chutes or concrete pumps only with permission from the S.O. 9.5.4 Placing For all concrete whether mixed on or off the site of the Works, each batch shall be placed and compacted with in 2 hours of adding the cement to the dry aggregates and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S.O. if admixture is used) of adding water to the cement and aggregates. Concrete shall not be placed in any part of the structure until the S.O.'s approval has been obtained. If concreting is not started within 24 hours of approval given, approval shall again be obtained from the S.O. All formwork and reinforcement contained in it shall be clean and free from standing water immediately before the placing of the concrete. Concreting shall be carried out continuously between and up to pre determined construction joints in one sequence of operation. In the event of unavoidable stoppage in positions
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shall be measured by volume or by weight. Any solid admixtures to be added shall be measured by weight but liquid or paste ad mixtures may be measured by volume or weight. The batch weight of aggregate shall be adjusted to allow for the moisture content of the aggregate being used. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be within :± 3% of the quantity of cement per batch; ±3% of the quantity of water per batch; ±3% of the quantity of total aggregate per batch; ± 5% of the quantity of admixture per batch. The mixer shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 1305 or B.S. 4251 where applicable. The mixing time shall be not less than two minutes or more than five minutes after all the ingredients have been placed in the mixer. For cements other than ordinary Portland cement, the mixing time shall not be less than that recommended by the manufacturer and subject to the S.O.'s approval of the trial mix. Mixers that have been out of use for more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned before any fresh concrete is mixed. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., the first batch of concrete through the mixer shall then contain only two-thirds of the normal quantity of coarse aggregate.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works No concrete shall be placed in flowing water. Underwater concrete if deemed unavoidable by the S.O. shall be placed in position by tremies or pipelines from the mixer. Concrete to be placed under water shall be an approved mix with the amount of cement increased by 20%. During and after concreting under water, pumping or dewatering operations in the immediate vicinity shall be suspended until the S.O. permits them to continue. Where the concrete is placed by a tremie, the following requirements shall be applicable :i) unless otherwise agreed by the S.O, when concreting of bored piles is being carried out under water, temporary casing shall be installed to the full depth of the borehole so that fragments of ground can not drop from the sides of the hole into the concrete as it is placed; ii) the hopper and tremie pipe shall be a closed system. The bottom of the tremie shall be kept as far as practicable beneath the surface of the placed concrete; iii) the tremie pipe shall be large enough with due regard to the size of aggregate. For 20 mm aggregate the tremie pipe shall be of diameter not less than 150 mm and for larger aggregate, larger diameter tremie pipe shall be required;

not predetermined, the concreting shall be terminated on a horizontal plane and against vertical surfaces by the use of stopping-off boards. Fresh concrete shall not be placed against in situ concrete which has been in position for more than 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S.O. if admixture is used) unless a construction joint is formed in accordance with Sub-Section 9.6.1. When in situ concrete has been in place for 4 hours, no further concrete shall be placed against it for a further 20 hours. Except where otherwise agreed by the S.O., concrete shall be deposited in horizontal layers to a compacted depth not exceeding 450 mm where internal vibrators are used; or 300 mm in all other cases. The surface of the concrete shall be maintained reasonably level during placing. Concrete shall not be dropped into place from a height exceeding 1500 mm. When trunking or chutes are used, they shall be kept clean and used in such a manner as to avoid segregation. The Contractor shall maintain an experienced steel fixer at the site of reinforced concrete works during the placing of concrete to reposition any reinforcement which may be displaced during the work.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works iv) no concrete shall be placed when the air temperature at the point of deposition exceeds 36ºC. 9.5.6 Compaction Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by vibration and thoroughly worked around the reinforcement, tendons, or duct formers, around embedded fixtures and into corners of the formwork to form a dense homogenous mass free from voids and which will have the required surface finish when the formwork is removed. Vibration shall be applied continuously during the placing of each batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased and in a manner which does not promote segregation of the ingredients. The concrete maintained between the two walls of formwork shall be compacted by vibrating of the internal type and concrete in slabs with no formwork on its upper surface shall be compacted either by vibrators of the pan type or by a vibrating screed. The internal vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn slowly and at a uniform pace of approximately 100 mm per second. Compaction shall be deemed to be completed when cement mortar appears in an annulus around the vibrator. Over vibration leading to segregation of the mix must be avoided. The internal vibrators shall be inserted at points judged by the area of mortar showing after compaction, with a certain allowance made for overlapping, and they shall not be allowed to come into contact with
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iv) unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., the first charge of concrete shall be placed with a sliding plug pushed down the tube ahead of it to prevent mixing of concrete and water; v) the tremie pipe shall always penetrate well into the concrete with an adequate margin of safety against accidental withdrawal if the pipe is surged to discharge the concrete; vi) the concrete shall be deposited wholly by tremie and the method of deposition shall not be changed part way up to prevent the laitance from being entrapped within the structure; vii)all tremie pipes shall be scrupulously cleaned after use. 9.5.5 Temperature Requirements During hot weather, additional precautions shall be taken to prevent premature setting and loss of water during placing of concrete in the formwork. These precautions shall include :i) no concrete having an internal temperature exceeding 33ºC shall be deposited; ii) concrete shall not be placed in formwork or around reinforcement whose temperature exceeds 36ºC; iii) newly placed concrete shall be protected from direct sunlight and from loss of moisture by covering, shading or other means;

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Concrete shall not be subjected to any disturbance within 24 hours after compaction. No standing or flowing water shall be allowed to come into contact with exposed concrete surfaces during the first two hours after placing and compaction of the concrete. 9.5.7 Curing and Protection All work shall be protected from damage by shock or overloading or falling earth or flowing water, etc. 9.5.7.1 Normal Curing Exposed surfaces, immediately after compaction, shall be protected from the sun and rain in a manner approved by the S.O. All concrete, after it has set, shall be kept continuously damp until thoroughly cured. Provision shall be made for adequate water distribution to all parts of the Works, so that if required, this treatment can be continued efficiently throughout the whole period of construction. In order to keep the concrete continuously damped, all exposed surfaces shall be covered with continuously damped gunny bags or shall have water impounded on them for the full period of curing which shall be not less than 7 days. Other methods of curing may be used subject to the approval of the S.O.

the formwork or the reinforcement and shall be inserted at a distance of not less than 75 mm from the former. The pan vibrator shall be placed on the surface of the concrete which shall have previously been tamped and levelled leaving an allowance in height for compaction until the cement mortar appears under the pan. The vibrator shall then be lifted and placed on the adjoining surface and this operation shall be repeated until the whole surface has been compacted. Alternatively a vibrating screed spanning the full width of the surface may also be used. Whenever vibration has to be applied externally, the design of formwork and disposition of vibration shall receive special consideration to ensure efficient compaction and to avoid surface blemishes. The mix shall be such that there will be no excess water on the top surface on completion of compaction. External vibrators shall be firmly secured to the formwork which must be sufficiently rigid to transmit the vibration and strong enough not to be damaged by it. Internal vibrators shall be capable of operating at not less than 10,000 cycles per minute and external vibrators at not less than 3,000 cycles per minute. Sufficient vibrators in serviceable condition shall be on Site so that spare equipment is always available in the event of break down.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works relevant production details in suitable format. In addition the manufacturer shall supply to the S.O. test certificates for testing of materials, indicating the sources of supplies and other relevant details. 9.6 CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE Construction Joints The position and detail of any construction joints not described in the Contract shall be subject to the approval of the S.O. and shall be so arranged as to minimise the possibility of the occurance of shrinkage cracks. If for any reason the Contractor has to interrupt a planned pour for more than 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S.O. if admixture is used), additional construction joints shall be positioned and constructed as directed by the S.O. The number of construction joints shall be kept as few as possible consistant with reasonable precautions against shrinkage. Concreting shall be carried out continuously up to construction joints. The joints shall be at right angles to the general direction of the member and shall take due account of shear and other stresses. Concrete shall not be allowed to run to a feather edge and vertical joints shall be formed against a stop board. The top surface of a layer of concrete shall be level and flat unless design considerations make this undesirable. Joint lines shall be so arranged that they coincide with features of the finished work, wherever possible.

9.5.7.2

Accelerated Curing Elevated temperature curing may be used only with ordinary Portland cement. After the completion of the placing of the concrete, 4 hours shall elapse before its temperature is raised. The rise in temperature within any period of 30 minutes shall not exceed 10ºC and the maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 ºC. The rate of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of heating. The use of accelerated curing methods for concrete containing other types of cement or any admixture shall be subject to the approval of the S.O.

9.6.1

9.5.8

Ready-Mixed Concrete Ready-mixed concrete shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 523. The concrete shall be carried in purpose-made agitators operating continuously or truck mixers. The concrete shall be compacted and in its final position within 2 hours of the introduction of cement to aggregate and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S.O. if admixture is used) after the addition of water to the cement-aggregate mix unless otherwise agreed by the S.O. The time of such introduction shall be recorded on the Delivery Note together with the weight of the constituents of each mix. Ready-mixed concrete delivered to the job site shall be accompanied by manufacturer's certificates stating the details of mix proportions by weight, grade of concrete, type and size of aggregate, date and time of production, type and dosage of chemical admixtures and other

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works mortar skin and expose the larger aggregates without disturbing them. Where this treatment is impracticable, sand blasting or a needle gun shall be used to remove the surface skin and laitance. Hardened surfaces shall not be hacked.

At horizontal construction joints, gauge strips about 25 sq.mm in section shall be placed inside the forms along all exposed surfaces to ensure a straight joint on those surfaces. If a kicker (i.e. starter stub) is used it shall be at least 70 mm high and carefully constructed. It is preferable for the kicker to be incorporated with the previous concrete. Where possible, the formwork shall be designed to facilitate the preparation of the joint surface, as the optimum time for treatment is usually two to four hours after placing. Where vertical construction joints are necessary in mass concrete structures, reinforcing bars shall be placed across the joints so as to make the structure monolithic, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Prior to recommencement of concreting on a joint, the surface of the concrete against which new concrete will be cast shall be free from laitance and shall be roughened to the extent that the largest aggregate is exposed but not disturbed. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the lines of the joint. Care shall also be taken that the joint surface is clean and damp but not wet. Immediately before the fresh concrete is placed against the joint, fresh cement mortar shall be applied to the exposed surface. Where the S.O. considers that special preparation is necessary, e.g. for an in situ structural connection, preparation shall be carried out, preferably when the concrete has set but not hardened, by spraying with a fine spray of air and water or brushing with a stiff brush sufficiently to remove the outer
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

9.6.2

Fixing Blocks, Brackets, Built-InBolts, Holes, Chases, etc. All fixing blocks, brackets, built-inbolts, holes, chases, etc., shall be accurately set out and formed and carefully sealed prior to the concrete being placed. No cutting away of concrete for any of these items shall be done without the permission of the S.O. Bolts and other inserts to be cast into the concrete shall be securely fixed to the formwork in such a way that they are not displaced during the concreting operations, and that there is no loss of materials from the wet concrete through holes in the form work. Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings or instructed by the S.O., reinforcement shall be locally moved so that the minimum specified cover is maintained at the locations of inserts, holes, chases, etc. Temporary plugs shall be removed and the threads of built-in-bolts shall be proved to be free and shall be greased before handing over any part of the Works.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 9.6.3.3 Handling and Transport Items shall be lifted only at points described in the Contract or otherwise agreed by the S.O. and shall be handled and placed without impact. The method of lifting, the type of equipment and transport to be used, and the minimum age of the items to be handled shall be subject to the approval of the S.O. 9.6.3.4 Assembly and Erection The method of assembly and erection described in the Contract shall be strictly adhered to on Site. Immediately a unit is in position, and before the lifting equipment is removed, temporary supports or connections between items, as necessary, shall be provided. The final structural connections shall be completed as soon as is practicable. 9.6.3.5 Forming Structural Connections No structural connections shall be made until approval has been given by the S.O. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., the composition and water/cement ratio of the in situ concrete or mortar used in any connection and the packing of joints shall be in accordance with the assembly instructions. Levelling devices shall only be released or removed with the approval of the S.O.

9.6.3

Precast Concrete Construction Manufacture Off the Site After the method of manufacture has been approved, no changes shall be made without the consent of the S.O. The Contractor shall inform the S.O. in advance of the date of commencement of manufacture and casting of each type of item. When the S.O. requires tests to be carried out, no items to which the tests relate shall be dispatched to the Site until the tests have been satisfactorily completed and the results approved by the S.O. All items shall be indelibly marked to show the item mark as described in the Contract, the production line on which they were manufactured, the date on which the concrete was cast and, if they are of symmetrical section, the face that will be uppermost when the member is in its correct position in the Works.

9.6.3.1

9.6.3.2

Storage When items are stored, they shall be firmly supported only at the points described in the Contract. The accumulation of trapped water and deleterious matter in the units shall be prevented. Care shall be taken to avoid rust staining and efflorescence. Items shall be stacked in such a manner that their removal in cor rect order of age is facilitated.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works used for debonding shall be of approved synthetic material. The closed end of the sleeve shall be filled with 25 mm thick compressible foam filler and the sleeve shall fit tightly over the length of bar to be debonded. The Contractor shall furnish manufacturer's certificates for rein forcement supplied by him, and these shall be submitted for acceptance by the S.O. before any material is brought onto the Site. The characteristic strengths of steel reinforcement are given in Table 9.9.
TABLE 9.9 - CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OFSTEEL REINFORCEMENT

9.6.3.6

Protection At all stages of construction, precast concrete units and other concrete associated therewith shall be properly protected to prevent damage to permanently exposed surfaces, especially arrises and decorative features.

9.7

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

9.7.1

Description The work shall consist of furnishing and placing reinforcing steel in accordance with this Specification and in conformity with the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

9.7.2

Materials Hot rolled mild steel and high yield bars shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 146, as denoted on the Drawings. Cold worked steel bars shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 4461. Hard drawn mild steel wire shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 144. Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 145 and shall be delivered to the Site in flat sheets. Bar-mats shall conform to the requirements of M.S. 146 and shall consist of bars of the sizes and spacings as shown on the Drawings. Dowel bars shall be plain round bars conforming to the requirements of M.S. 146. They shall be free from burring or other deformations restricting slippage in the concrete. Dowel bar sleeves

Designation

Nominal Sizes ( mm ) All sizes

Characteristic Strength, fy ( N/sq.mm ) 250

Hot rolled grade 250 ( M.S. 146 ) Hot rolled grade 460 ( M.S. 146 ) Cold worked ( B.S. 4461 ) Hard drawn steel wire( M.S. 144 )

All sizes

460

All sizes

460

Up to and including 12

485

Binding wire shall be 1.6 mm diameter soft annealed steel wire complying with the requirements of B.S. 1052. The Contractor shall, on request, furnish the S.O. with samples of reinforcement brought onto the Site, not withstanding any previous acceptance on the manufacturer's test certificates. The reinforcement represented by by the sample may
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Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Special care shall be taken that the overall length of bars with multiple bends is accurate and that after bending and fixing in position the bars remain in place without wrap or twist. 9.7.3.2 Fixing of Reinforcement The number, size, length, form and position of all reinforcing bars, links, stirrups, spacer bars and other parts of the steel reinforcement, shall be in accordance with the Drawings. Reinforcement shall be secured against displacement. Unless specified otherwise, the actual concrete cover shall be not less than the required nominal cover minus 5 mm. In a member where the nominal cover is dimensioned to the links, spacers between the links and formwork shall be of the same dimension as the nominal cover. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.O., all intersecting bars shall be tied together with binding wire and the ends of the wire shall be turned into the main body of the concrete. The Contractor shall take particular care that the reinforcement is laid out correctly in every respect and temporarily suspended by annealed wire or supported on concrete blocks or other approved spacers in the forms to prevent displacement before or during the placing and compacting of concrete.

be rejected by the S.O. and shall, if it fails to meet the Specification, require its removal from the Works Site. Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions. When placed in the Works it shall be clean and free from loose rust, mill scale, oil, grease, paint, dirt or anything which may reduce its bond with concrete. If directed by the S.O., the steel shall be brushed or otherwise cleaned before use, at the Contractor's expense. 9.7.3 Construction Methods Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement Bars shall be of their correct lengths and bent to the exact shapes required before being fixed in the work. Bars shall be cut and bent cold by the application of slow, steady pressure or in an approved barbending machine. Bending at temperatures in excess of 100 oC may only be carried out with the S.O.'s approval and under his supervision. Except where otherwise indicated on the Drawings, bars shall be bent and measured in accordance with B.S. 4466. Cold worked and hot rolled bars shall not be straightened or bent again once having been bent. Where it is necessary to bend mild steel reinforcement already cast in the concrete, the internal radius of bend shall be not less than twice the diameter of the bar.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

9.7.3.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works be as described in Sub-Section 9.7.2. Other types of spacers may be used only with the approval of the S.O. 9.7.3.5 Welding of Reinforcement Reinforcement in structures shall not be welded except where detailed on the Drawings or required by the Specification. If the reinforcement needs to be welded, the reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 4360. Welding shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 5135 and B.S. 638. Butt welds shall be of the double V type and two butt weld bond tests shall be carried out on a specimen prepared to represent each form of butt welded joint used in welding the reinforcement and for each position of welding. The method of making butt weld tests shall be that laid down in B.S. 709. The specimen shall pass the test to the satisfaction of the S.O. before approval is accorded to use the joint which the specimen represents. Welded joints shall not be made at bends in reinforcement. Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., joints in parallel bars of the principal tensile reinforcement shall be staggered in the longitudinal direction at a distance not less than the end anchorage length for the bar. All welding shall be performed by a competent welder approved by the S.O.

Stirrups and distance pieces shall be kept tight to the bars they embrace or support and all reinforcement shall be kept away from the face of the concrete at the distances shown on the Drawings. No concrete shall be placed until the reinforcement has been inspected and approved by the S.O. Reinforcement temporarily left projecting from the concrete at construction or other joints shall not be bent out of position during the periods in which concreting is suspended except with the approval of the S.O. 9.7.3.3 Splicing Laps and joints including lapping bars, sleeving, threading and other mechanical connections shall be made strictly in accordance with the method specified and at the positions shown on the Drawings or as otherwise approved by the S.O. 9.7.3.4 Supporting and Spacer Blocks Supporting and spacer blocks required for ensuring that the reinforcement is correctly ositioned shall be as small as possible consistent with their purpose, of a shape acceptable to the S.O., and designed so that they will not overturn when the concrete is placed. They shall be made of concrete with 10 mm maximum aggregate size and they shall be of at least the same strength and material source as the adjacent concrete. Wire cast in the block for the purpose of tying it to the reinforcement shall
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Formwork (including supports) shall be sufficiently rigid to maintain the forms in their correct position, shape, profile and dimensions. The supports shall be designed to withstand the worst combination of forces due to self weight, formwork weight, formwork forces, reinforcement weight, wet concrete weight, construction and wind loads, together with all incidental dynamic effects caused by placing, vibrating and compacting the concrete. Where internal metal ties are permitted they or their removable parts shall be extracted without damage to the concrete and the remaining holes filled with mortar of the same strength as the cast concrete. No permanently embedded metal parts shall have less than the specified cover to the finished concrete surface. Except for ties used for anchoring void formers all ties shall be at least 1.2 metres apart and through bolts will not be permitted on exposed faces. All holes left by ties shall be made good within one day of the removal of the formwork using a mortar of the same strength as the cast concrete. The formwork shall be so arranged as to be readily dismantled and removed from the cast concrete without shock, disturbance or damage. Where necessary, the formwork shall be so arranged that the soffit form, properly supported, can be retained in position for such period as may be required by the condition of the maturing concrete or the Specification. If a component is to be prestressed
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The S.O. shall be informed in advance of when welding is to be carried out so that he may supervise and inspect the work. Welding shall not be performed in the field during rain or other adverse conditions. 9.8 FORMWORK AND SURFACE FINISH FOR STRUCTURE Design and Construction Description Formwork shall include all temporary or permanent forms required for forming the concrete, together with all temporary construction required for their support. The design and construction of formwork shall be carried out by competent persons. Where required by the S.O., strength and deflection calculations and drawings of the proposed form work shall be submitted by the Contractor for prior approval. Not withstanding any approval by the S.O. with respect to the design submitted by the Contractor, the responsibility or the adequacy and safety of the design shall remain with the Contractor. The formwork shall be sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent loss of grout or mortar from the concrete at all stages of construction and shall be appropriate for the methods of placing and compacting.

9.8.1

9.8.1.1

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works reinforcement and prestressing cable ducts, to demonstrate that the proposed methods of fixing the formers and placing concrete around them and the reinforcement will produce voids within the tolerances, surrounded with properly compacted concrete of the required strength. The attention of the Contractor is drawn to the inflammation nature of expanded polystyrene and he shall take all necessary precautions to minimise the risk of fire. Concreting of voided slabs in structures shall not commence until the model test has been completed and approved by the S.O. 9.8.1.3 Form Lining The type and treatment of any lining (plywood, metal, plastic, etc.) of the forms shall be ppropriate to the concrete finish required. 9.8.1.4 Projecting Reinforcement, Fixing Devices Where holes are needed in form to accomodate projecting reinforcement or fixing devices, care shall be taken to prevent loss of grout when concreting or damage when removing forms. 9.8.2 Finishes Formed Surfaces Formed concrete surfaces shall have one of the following classes of finish. Unless otherwise specified, all exposed concrete surfaces shall be of Class F2, all
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whilst still resting on the soffit form, provision shall be made to allow for elastic deformation and any vibration in weight distribution. As far as practicable, formwork joints shall coincide with construction joints. 9.8.1.2 Voids In Concrete Voids, where shown on the Drawings, shall be formed with non-recoverable void formers of expanded polystyrene, or by other methods approved by the S.O. They shall not deviate by more than 12 mm from the positions shown on the Drawings, nor shall the cross-section deviate from the specified shape by more than 12 mm. Void formers shall be secured and adequately anchored to prevent movement or flotation outside the limits specified above, during the concreting operation. Anchor ties secured to the soffit form will be permitted providing they comply with the requirements of Sub-Section 9.8.1.1. Void formers of expanded polystyrene need not be vented. Hollow void formers shall be vented by the provision of 50 mm diameter holes between each void and the soffit at positions approved by the S.O. As soon as possible and at least three (3) months prior to the casting of the first deck slab with voids, the Contractor shall construct a model of a size and form to be agreed with the S.O. using the proposed formers, method of fixing, and simulating
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

9.8.2.1

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works After the concrete has been properly cured, the surface shall be rubbed down where necessary, to produce a smooth and even surface. 9.8.2.2 Unformed Surfaces (a) Class U1 The concrete shall be uniformly levelled and screeded to produce a plain, ridged or broom roughened surface. No further work shall be applied to the surface unless it is used as the first stage for a Class U2 or Class U3 finish. (b) Class U2 After the concrete has hardened sufficiently, the concrete Class U1 surface shall be floated by hand or machine to produce a uniform surface free from screed marks. (c) Class U3 When the moisture film has disappeared and the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent laitance from being worked to the surface, a Class U1 surface shall be steeltrowelled under firm pressure to produce a dense, smooth uniform surface free from trowel marks.

unexposed surfaces shall be of Class F1 and Class F3 finish shall be used only where shown on the Drawings. (a) Class F1 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed formwork of closely jointed sawn timber or other approved material. Small blemishes caused by entrapped air or water may be expected but the surface shall be free from voids and honeycombing. (b) Class F2 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed formwork of closely jointed wrought boards, approved ply wood or other approved material. Only very minor surface blemishes shall occur, with no staining or discolouration. (c) Class F3 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed steel forms or plastic coated plywood or wrought boards or other approved material. The surface shall be improved by carefully removing all fins and other projections, thoroughly washing down and then filling the most noticeable surface blemishes with a cement and fine aggregate paste to match the colour of the original concrete. Form release agent shall be carefully chosen to ensure that the surface shall not be stained or discoloured.

9.8.2.3

Remedial Treatment of Surfaces Any remedial treatment of surfaces shall be agreed with the S.O. following inspection immediately after removing the formwork and shall be carried out without delay.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Where the concrete compressive strength is confirmed by tests on concrete cubes stored under conditions that simulate the field conditions, formwork supporting concrete in bending may be struck when the cube strength is 10 N/sq.mm or twice the stress to which it will be subjected, whichever is the greater. In the absence of such tests, the minimum periods between concreting and the removal of forms are given in Table 9.10.
TABLE 9.10 - MINIMUM PERIODS BETWEEN CONCRETING AND REMOVAL OF FORMS

Any concrete, the surface of which has been treated before being inspected by the S.O., shall be liable to rejection. 9.8.3 Preparation of Formwork Before Concreting Before concreting, all forms shall be thoroughly cleaned out, free from sawdust shavings, dust, mud or other debris. The inside surfaces of forms shall, except for permanent formwork, or unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., be coated with an approved nonstaining form oil or other approved material to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Such release agents shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall not come into contact with the reinforcement or prestressing tendons and anchorages. For any exposed surface only one release agent shall be used throughout the entire area. All formwork shall be inspected by the S.O. after preparation and immediately prior to depositing concrete and no concrete shall be deposited until approval of the formwork has been obtained from the S.O. 9.8.4 Removal of Formwork The Contractor shall inform the S.O. and obtain his approval before striking any formwork, but such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities for the safety of the work. The removal shall be done in such a manner as not to damage the concrete, and shall take place at times to suit the requirements for its curing.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Vertical faces of beams, wall columns, piles, foundation plinths and precast items. Underside of slabs. Underside of beams.

3 days

14 days 28 days

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Standard Specification For Road Works

The periods stated above are based on the use of ordinary Portland cement. They may be changed if other types of cement are used, subject to the S.O.'s agreement. For prestressed in situ decks, temporary supports shall not be removed until the deck is stressed to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where it is intended that formwork is to be reused it shall be cleaned and made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. Following the removal of formwork, no further loads shall be imposed upon concrete until at least after the completion of the curing period or until such later time as in the opinion of the S.O. the concrete shall have attained sufficient strength to safely withstand such loads. Full design loads shall not be applied to any structure until all load bearing concrete is at least 28 days old.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 10 PILING WORKS

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 10 - PILING WORKS
Page 10.1 DESCRIPTION S10-245

10.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TOLERANCE 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6 10.2.7 Setting Out Position Verticality Rake Forcible Corrections Piles Out of Alignment or Position Records S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245

10.3 10.3.1

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES Description Materials Concrete Reinforcement Pile Shoes S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-247 S10-247 S10-247 S10-247 S10-248 S10-248 S10-249

10.3.2 10.3.2.1 10.3.2.2 10.3.2.3

10.3.3 Manufacture and Storage of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10.3.3.1 Casting 10.3.3.2 Handling and Storage 10.3.4 10.3.4.1 10.3.4.2 10.3.4.3 10.3.4.4 10.3.4.5 Installation of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles Pitching of Piles Driving of Piles Repair of Damaged Pile Heads Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads

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10.4 10.4.1

PRESTRESSED SPUN CONCRETE PILES Description Materials Concrete Reinforcement End Plates Pile Shoes Manufacture and Storage of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles Casting Handling and Storage Installation of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads S10-250

10.4.2 10.4.2.1 10.4.2.2 10.4.2.3 10.4.2.4 10.4.3 10.4.3.1 10.4.3.2 10.4.4 10.4.4.1 10.4.4.2 10.4.4.3

S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251

10.5 BORED CAST-IN PLACE PILES 10.5.1 10.5.2 10.5.2.1 10.5.2.2 10.5.2.3 10.5.3 10.5.3.1 10.5.3.2 10.5.3.3 10.5.3.4 10.5.3.5 10.5.3.6 10.5.3.7 10.5.3.8 10.5.3.9 10.5.3.10 10.5.4 10.5.4.1 10.5.4.2 Description Materials Concrete and Reinforcement Permanent Casings Drilling Fluid Boring Operations Diameter of Piles Boring Temporary Casings Stability of Piling Excavations Using Drilling Fluid Spillage and Disposal Pumping of Boreholes Continuity of Construction Enlarged pile Bases Cleanliness of Pile Bases Inspection Placing of Reinforcement Joints in Longitudinal Bars Positions of Reinforcement S10-252 S10-252 S10-252 S10-252

S10-252 S10-252 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254

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10.5.5 10.5.5.1 10.5.5.2 10.5.5.3 10.5.5.4 10.5.5.5 10.5.6 10.5.6.1 10.5.6.2 10.5.6.3 10.5.7 10.5.7.1 10.5.7.2 10.5.7.3

Concreting Operations Placing Concrete Workability of Concrete Compaction Placing Concrete In Dry borings Placing Concrete Under Water or Drilling Fluid Extraction of Casing Workability of Concrete Concrete Level Vibrating Extractors Construction of Pile Heads Water levels Cutting and preparation of Pile heads Temporary Backfilling Above Pile Casting Level

S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-255 S10-255 S10-255

S10-256 S10-256 S10-256 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257

10.6 STEEL H-SECTION PILES 10.6.1 10.6.2 10.6.3 10.6.3.1 10.6.3.2 10.6.4 10.6.4.1 10.6.4.2 10.6.4.3 Description Materials Manufacture and Storage of Steel H-Section Piles Manufacture Handling and Storage Installation of Steel H-Section Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258

10.7 STEEL PIPE PILES 10.7.1 10.7.2 10.7.3 10.7.3.1 10.7.3.2 10.7.3.3 10.7.3.4 10.7.3.5 10.7.3.6 10.7.3.7 Description Materials Manufacture and Storage of Steel Pipe Piles Welding Fabrication of Piles Matching of Pile Lengths Straightness of Piles Fabrication of Piles On Site Handling and Storage Marking of Piles S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259

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10.9.4 10.9.4.1 10.9.4.2 10.9.4.3

Installation of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile heads

S10-264 S10-265 S10-265

10.10 10.10.1 10.10.2 10.10.3

BAKAU PILES Description Materials Delivery and Inspection of Bakau Piles Installation of Bakau Piles Pitching of Piles Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads S10-265 S10-265 S10-266 S10-266 S10-266 S10-266 S10-267 S10-267

10.10.4 10.10.4.1 10.10.4.2 10.10.4.3 10.10.4.4

10.11 10.11.1 10.11.2 10.11.3

PILE TESTING Test Piles Preliminary Pile Load Tests Production Pile Load Tests Testing Procedure Preparation of Test Pile Method of Loading Measurement of Settlement Method of Testing General Maintained Load Test Constant Rate of Penetration (CRP) Test Submission of Results Interpretation of Test Results Load Testing of Bakau Piles S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-268 S10-268 S10-268 S10-269 S10-269 S10-269 S10-269 S10-270

10.11.4 10.11.4.1 10.11.4.2 10.11.4.3 10.11.5 10.11.5.1 10.11.5.2 10.11.5.3 10.11.6 10.11.7 10.11.8

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Standard Specification For Road Works deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake or the rake shown on the Drawings is 1 in 25. 10.2.5 Forcible Corrections

SECTION 10 - PILING WORKS
10.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the supply, installation and testing of piles in accordance with this Specification and the lines, levels, grades and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S.O.

10.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TOLERANCES 10.2.1 Setting Out

Forcible corrections to concrete piles shall not be permitted. Forcible corrections may be permitted to other types of piles if approved by the S.O. However, no forcible corrections shall be made to piles which have deviated beyond the permissible limits specified in SubSections 10.2.2, 10.2.3 and 10.2.4 above. 10.2.6 Piles Out of Alignment or Position

Setting out shall be carried out using the data and reference points as shown on the Drawings. Immediately before installation of the pile, the pile position shall be marked with suitable identifiable pins, pegs or markers. 10.2.2 Position For a pile cut off at or above ground level the maximum permitted deviation of the pile centre from the centre points shown on the Drawings shall not exceed 75 mm in any direction. For a pile cut off below ground level an increase in this tolerance is permitted in accordance with Sub-Sections 10.2.3 and 10.2.4 hereinbelow. 10.2.3 Verticality The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical is 1 in 75. 10.2.4 Rake The piling rig shall be set and maintained to attain the required rake. The maximum permitted
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The Contractor shall, if ordered by the S.O., extract and reinstall any pile which has deviated out of position or alignment by more than the specified limit, or alternatively the substructure shall be modified to the approval of the S.O. The cost of such extraction and reinstallation or any extra cost in the design and construction of a modified foundation shall be borne by the Contractor if, in the opinion of the S.O., such extra works have been made necessary due to the error and/or negligence of the Contractor. 10.2.7 Records The Contractor shall keep records of the installation of each pile as required by the S.O. and shall submit two signed copies of these records to the S.O.not later than at noon of the next working day after the pile has been installed. The signed records shall form part of the records for the Works. Any unexpected driving or boring conditions shall be noted in the records.
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Standard Specification For Road Works Other means of jointing reinforcement, such as by means of mechanical couplings shall be to the approval of the S.O. 10.3.2.3 Pile Shoes

10.3 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES
10.3.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of precast reinforced concrete piles, inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and cutting and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.3.2 Materials 10.3.2.1 Concrete Unless otherwise specified, ordinary Portland cement shall be used for the casting of piles. The materials and workmanship shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification. The grade of concrete and the details of reinforcement to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings. 10.3.2.2 Reinforcement The main reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 m in length shall be in one continuous length unless otherwise approved by the S.O. In piles exceeding 12 m long, joints shall be permitted in main longitudinal bars at 12 m nominal intervals. Joints in adjacent bars shall be staggered at least 1 m apart along the length of the pile. Joints shall be butt welded as specified in Sub-Section 9.7.5 of this Specification.

The type of pile shoes to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the following as relevant :i) "Chilled-hardened" cast iron shoes as used for making grey iron castings to B.S. 1452, Grade 10; or ii) Mild steel to B.S. 4360, Grade 50B; or iii) Cast steel to B.S. 3100, Grade A. Mild steel straps cast into the shoes shall be as shown on the Drawings. Rock shoes where required shall consist of wrought iron shoes and mild steel straps cast into "Chilled-hardened" cast iron blocks, as shown on the Drawings. 10.3.3 Manufacture and Storage of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10.3.3.1 Casting The length of piles to be cast shall be as shown on the Drawings, subject to revision by the S.O. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site, the S.O. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified.

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Standard Specification For Road Works thicknesses shall be provided between piles at the lifting points. 10.3.4 Installation of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10.3.4.1 Pitching of Piles Piles shall be pitched accurately in the positions as shown on the Drawings. At all stages during driving and until the pile has set or been driven to the required length, all exposed piles shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling and damage to the piles. 10.3.4.2 Driving of Piles Each pile shall be driven continuously until the specified set and/or depth has been reached, unless otherwise approved by the S.O. The driving equipment used shall be of such type and capacity to the approval of the S.O. A follower (long dolly) shall not be used unless otherwise approved by the S.O. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of each pile shall be kept. The log shall record the number of blows for every 0.5 m of pile penetration. The Contractor shall inform the S.O. without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is encountered. Where required by the S.O. set shall be taken at approved intervals during the driving to establish the behaviour of the piles.
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Piles shall be cast on a horizontal platform in approved moulds to the dimensions as shown on the Drawings. The concreting of each pile shall be completed in one continuous operation and no interruptions will be permitted. Lifting holes shall be formed during casting in the positions and in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings. The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall not be less than those shown on the Drawings and shall not exceed them by more than 6 mm. Any face of a pile shall not deviate by more than 6 mm from a straight edge 3 m long laid on the face, and the centroid of any cross-sections of the pile shall not deviate by more than 12 mm from the straight line connecting the centroids of the end faces of the pile. After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number, and the length shall be clearly marked with indeletable marker on the top surface and on the head of the pile. In addition, each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.5 m along its length before being driven. 10.3.3.2 Handling and Storage The method and sequence of lifting, handling, transporting and storing piles shall be such that piles are not damaged. Only the designed lifting and support points shall be used. During transport and storage, piles shall be placed on adequate supports located under the lifting points of the piles. All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packings of uniform
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Standard Specification For Road Works driving. If a pile has been driven to the required set or depth but sound concrete of the pile is below cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level as described above. 10.3.4.4 Lengthening of Piles Where piles have to be lengthened, other than by means of welding of steel plates as detailed on the Drawings, the reinforcement shall be stripped of all surrounding concrete for a distance equal to thirty times the diameter of the main reinforcement measured from the pile head for spliced joints and 300 mm for butt welded joints and all lateral reinforcement shall be removed. The lengthening bars shall butt on the exposed bars in true alignment and shall be butt welded as specified or shall be spliced with bars of the same diameter as the main pile bars, 60 diameters in length and lapping the main bars for a distance of 30 diameters above and below the joint, and shall be securely bound with 1.63 mm soft annealed iron wire. New binders of similar size shall be provided and spaced at half the centres of the binders in the main body of the pile and shall be securely bound with 1.63 mm soft annealed iron wire and the pile extended by concreting in properly constructed mounds to the length required.

A set shall be taken only in the presence of the S.O. unless otherwise approved. The Contractor shall provide all facilities to enable the S.O. to check driving resistances. The final set of a pile other than as friction pile, shall be recorded as the penetration in millimeters per 10 blows. The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required. Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground. When required, careful levelling from a datum unaffected by the piling shall be made on the pile heads already driven, before and after driving subsequent piles. Piles which have been displaced as a result of driving adjacent piles shall be redriven to the required resistance. 10.3.4.3 Repair of Damaged Pile Heads If a pile is to be subjected to further driving, concrete in the damaged pile head shall be cut off square at sound concrete, and all loose particles shall be removed by wire brushing, fol lowed by washing with water. Care shall be exercised to ensure that the reinforcement in the pile head is not in any way damaged. Any damaged reinforcement shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. The head shall be replaced with concrete of an approved grade. The new head shall be cast truly in line with the remainder of the pile and be properly cured and allowed to harden sufficiently to develop the strength necessary for further
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Standard Specification For Road Works (b) Splicing The projecting bars shall be stripped of all surrounding concrete as necessary to allow splices of length 60 diameters with extension bars. The extension bars shall be securely bound to the projecting bars with 1.63 mm soft annealed iron wire. The concrete of the pile shall be made good either before or together with the casting of the pile cap, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Care shall be taken to avoid cracking or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and made good with new concrete properly bonded to the old.

Care shall be taken to form the joint between the old and new concrete as specified hereinbefore. The extension shall be truly in line with the remainder of the pile, , and be properly cured and allowed to harden sufficiently to develop the strength necessary for further driving. 10.3.4.5 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth, the head of the pile shall be cut off to the level specified or shown on the Drawings. The length of reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as shown or specified on the Drawings. If the length of reinforcing bars left projecting is insufficient, then they shall be extended by either of the following methods :(a) Butt Welding The extension bars shall butt on the projecting bars in true alignment and shall be butt welded in accordance with Sub-Section 9.7.3.5 of this Specification.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.4.2.4 Pile Shoes If specified, the type of pile shoes to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall be in accordance with Sub-Section 10.3.2.3. 10.4.3 Manufacture and Storage of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles 10.4.3.1 Casting The length of piles to be cast shall be as shown on the Drawings, subject to revision by the S.O. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site, the S.O. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. Piles shall be hollow cylinders manufactured by the centrifugal casting process. Moulds shall be of metal, well braced and stiffened against deformations caused by the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete while spinning. The metal forms shall have smooth joints and inside surfaces. The forms shall be accessible for adequate cleaning. The spiral reinforcement shall be securely held to the longitudinal reinforcement during casting and spinning. Any welding used shall not affect the strength of the pre stressing tendons. The pile shall not be removed from the moulds until after the specified transfer strength is achieved. The external diameter and the thickness of the pile shall not be
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10.4 PRESTRESSED SPUN CONCRETE PILES
10.4.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of prestressed spun concrete piles,inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and cutting and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.4.2 Materials 10.4.2.1 Concrete Unless otherwise specified, ordinary Portland cement shall be used for the casting of piles. The materials and workmanship shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification. The grade of concrete to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings. 10.4.2.2 Reinforcement The prestressing tendons and the non-prestressing reinforcement of the piles including workmanship shall be as specified under Sections 11 and 9 respectively of this Specification and to the details as shown on the Drawings. 10.4.2.3 End Plates Details of end plates of each length of pile shall be as shown on the Drawings. Each end plate shall be machinefinished and provided with a chamfer to accommodate the welding when two lengths of pile are jointed.
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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.4.4.2 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening of piles is required, the details of the joint shall be as shown on the Drawings. When two lengths of pile are jointed, the end plates shall bear over their complete areas. Shims for packing shall not be accepted. 10.4.4.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth, the head of the pile shall be cut off to the level specified or shown on the Drawings. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for approval, his proposed method for cutting of piles. Pile heads shall be constructed to details as shown on the Drawings.

less than that shown on the Drawings and shall be constant over the entire length of the pile and coaxial with the end plate at each end. After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number and length shall be clearly marked with indeletable marking on the top surface and on the head of the pile. In addition, each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.5 m along its length before being driven.

10.4.3.2 Handling and Storage The method and sequence of lifting, handling, transporting and storing piles shall be such that piles are not damaged. Only the designed lifting and support points shall be used. All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packings of uniform thicknessess shall be provided between piles at the lifting points. 10.4.4 Installation of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles 10.4.4.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10.3.4.1 and 10.3.4.2. Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic strength.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Bentonite shall be mixed thoroughly with clean fresh water to make a suspension which will maintain the stability of the pile excavation for the period necessary to place concrete and complete construction. Preparation of the suspension shall comply with the manufacturer's instructions. Where saline or chemically contaminated ground water occurs, special precautions shall be taken to modify the bentonite suspension or prehydrate the bentonite in fresh water to render it suitable in all respects for the construction of piles. 10.5.3 Boring Operations 10.5.3.1 Diameter of Piles The diameter of piles shall not be less than the specified designed diameter at any level throughout its length. 10.5.3.2 Boring

10.5 BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES
10.5.1 Description This work shall comprise the boring or grabbing, with or without casing, and subsequently filling the hole with plain or reinforced concrete to form bored cast-in-situ piles, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.5.2 Materials 10.5.2.1 Concrete and Reinforcement The concrete and reinforcement to be used and workmanship for bored cast-in-situ piles shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification. The grade of concrete and the details of reinforcement to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings. 10.5.2.2 Permanent Casings Permanent casings which form part of the designed pile shall be as specified in the Drawings. 10.5.2.3 Drilling Fluid Drilling fluid material, bentonite, shall comply with Specification No. DF CP4 of the Oil Companies Materials Association or its equivalent. A certificate shall be obtained by the Contractor from the manufacturer of the bentonite powder, showing the properties of each consignment delivered to the site. This certificate shall be made available to the S.O. on request.

Boring shall be carried down to the depth as required and directed by the S.O. When deemed necessary by the S.O., the Contractor shall take undisturbed soil samples while the pile is being bored. The samples shall be taken to an approved Laboratory for testing. Sampling and all subsequent handling and testing shall be carried out in accordance with B.S.5930.

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Standard Specification For Road Works In the event of a rapid loss of bentonite suspension or water from the piling excavation, the excavation shall be backfilled without delay and the instructions of the S.O. shall be obtained prior to resuming boring at that location. 10.5.3.5 Spillage and Disposal

Piles shall not be bored close to other piles which have recently been cast and which contain workable or unset concrete, such that a flow of concrete could be induced from or damage caused to any of the piles. 10.5.3.3 Temporary Casings Temporary casings of approved quality or an approved alternative method shall be used to maintain the stability of pile excavations which might otherwise collapse. Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion. They shall be of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length. During concreting they shall be free from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of the piles being cast. 10.5.3.4 Stability of Piling Excavations Using Drilling Fluid Where the use of drilling fluid or a column of water is approved for maintaining the stability of boring, the level of fluid or column of water in the excavation shall be maintained such that the fluid pressure always exceeds the pressure exerted by the soil and external ground water and an adequate temporary casing shall be used in conjunction with the method to ensure the stability of the strata near ground level until concrete has been placed. The fluid water level shall be maintained at a level not less than 1 metre above the level of the external ground water.

All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of bentonite suspension or water on the site in areas outside the immediate vicinity of the boring operations. Discarded bentonite water shall be removed from the site without delay. The disposal of bentonite water shall comply with the regulations of the Local Controlling Authorities. 10.5.3.6 Pumping of Boreholes Pumping from the borehole shall not be permitted unless a casing has been placed into the stable stratum to prevent the further ingress of water in significant quantities from other strata into the boring, or, unless it can be shown that pumping will not have a detrimental effect on the surrounding soil or its properties. 10.5.3.7 Continuity of Construction A pile constructed in stable soil, without the use of temporary casings or other support, shall be bored and concreted without delay to ensure that the soil char acteristics are not significantly altered.

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Standard Specification For Road Works of the reinforcement during the construction of the pile and the spacing of the reinforcing bars shall be maintained in such a way that proper concreting shall not be impeded. 10.5.4.2 Positions of Reinforcement Adequate spacer blocks, guide tubes, and lifting wires shall be provided so as to maintain the reinforcing steel in the positions as specified. Where temporary casings are employed, the longitudinal reinforcement shall extend at least 1.0 metre below the bottom of the casing so that movement of the reinforcement during extraction of the casing is minimised. 10.5.5 Concreting Operations 10.5.5.1 Placing Concrete The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic concrete shaft of the full crosssection is formed. 10.5.5.2 Workability of Concrete

10.5.3.8 Enlarged Pile Bases The enlarged pile base shall not be smaller than the dimensions specified and shall be concentric with the pile shaft diameter. A sloping surface of the frustum forming the enlargement shall make an angle to the horizontal of not less than 55º. 10.5.3.9 Cleanliness of Pile Bases On completion of boring, loose, disturbed or remoulded soil or fragments of rock shall be removed from the base of the pile. 10.5.3.10 Inspection For dry boreholes, each hole shall be inspected prior to the placing of concrete in it. The inspection shall be carried out from the ground surface in the case where the borehole diameter is less than 750 mm. Where the borehole diameter exceeds 750 mm, adequate equipment conforming to B.S. 5930 shall be provided to enable the Contractor and the S.O. to descend into the borehole for the purpose of inspection. For wet boreholes, i.e. holes filled with drilling fluid or water, a suitable probe shall be provided to ascertain the evenness and cleanliness of the pile base. 10.5.4 Placing of Reinforcement 10.5.4.1 Joints in Longitudinal Bars Reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of the bar is effective across the joint and the joint shall be made so that there is no relative displacement
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

The workability of the concrete shall be determined by the slump test as described in M.S. 26. The suggested slump details for typical concreting situations shall be as specified in Table 10.1 below. The slump shall be measured at the time of discharge into the borehole.

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TABLE 10.1 - SLUMP RANGE FOR TYPICAL CONCRETING SITUATIONS

Typical Conditions of Use

Slump Range (mm)

Placed into water-free unlined bore. Widely spaced reinforcement leaving room for free movement between bars

75 to 125

Where reinforcement is not spaced widely enough to give free movement between bars. Where casting level of concrete is within the casing. Where pile diameter is less than 600 mm. 100 to 175

Where concrete is to be placed by tremie under water or drilling fluid.

150 to collapse

10.5.5.3 Compaction Internal vibrators shall not be used to compact concrete unless it can be satisfied that they will not cause segregation or arching of the concrete. 10.5.5.4 Placing Concrete In Dry Borings Approved measures shall be taken to avoid segregation and bleeding and to ensure that the concrete at the bottom of the pile is not deficient in grout. Where piles are vertical, concrete may be poured through a funnel with a length of tube so that the flow is directed and does not hit reinforcement bars or the side of the hole. Chutes extending to near the base shall be employed for raking piles of large diameter. For raking piles of small
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

diameter, an enriched mix shall be used in the first few batches of concrete to minimise segregation. 10.5.5.5 Placing Concrete Under Water or Drilling Fluid Concrete to be placed under water or drilling fluid shall be placed by tremie unless otherwise approved and shall not be discharged freely into the water or drilling fluid. Before placing concrete, measures shall be taken to ensure that there is no accumulation of silt or other material at the base of the boring.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.5.6.2 Concrete Level When the casing is being extracted, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within it to ensure that the pressure from external water, drilling fluid or soil is exceeded and that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated. No concrete shall be placed in the boring once the bottom of the casing has been lifted above the top of the concrete; it shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained. Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where excess heads of water or drilling fluid could be caused as the casing is withdrawn because of the displacement of water or fluid by the concrete as it flows into its final position against the wall of the pile shaft. Where double casings are used in the boring, the proposed method of working shall be with the approval of the S.O. 10.5.6.3 Vibrating Extractors The use of vibrating extractors shall be permitted subject to the condition that work shall be carried out in such a manner and at such times as to minimise nuisance and disturbance.

The hopper and pipe of the tremie shall be clean and watertight throughout. The pipe shall extend to the base of the boring and a sliding plug or barrier shall be placed in the pipe to prevent direct contact between the first charge of concrete in the pipe of the tremie and the water or drilling fluid. The tremie pipe shall at all times penetrate the concrete which has previously been placed and shall not be withdrawn from the concrete until the completion of concreting. At all times, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within the tremie pipe to ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that from the water or drilling fluid. The internal diameter of the tremie pipe shall not be less than 150 mm for concrete made with 20 mm aggregate and not less than 200 mm for concrete made with 40 mm aggregate. The tremie pipe shall be so designed that external projections are minimised, allowing the tremie pipe to pass through the reinforcing cage without causing damage or uplifting. The internal face of the tremie pipe shall be from projections. 10.5.6 Extraction of Casing 10.5.6.1 Workability of Concrete Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.6.2 Materials All steel H-section piles shall comply with B.S. 4 with regard to sectional dimensions and the steel shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 4360. The sections and grades to be used shall be as specified or as shown on the Drawings. 10.6.3 Manufacture and Storage of Steel H-Section Piles 10.6.3.1 Manufacture

10.5.7 Construction of Pile Heads 10.5.7.1 Water Levels In the event of the ground water level being higher than the required pile head casting level shown on the Drawings, the Contractor shall submit his proposals for approval prior to placing concrete. The pile head shall not be left below the ground water level unless approved precautions are taken. 10.5.7.2 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads The top of the pile shall be brought above the cut-off level of the pile to permit all laitance and weak concrete to be removed and to ensure that it can be properly keyed into the pile cap. Pile heads shall be constructed to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.5.7.3 Temporary Backfilling Above Pile Casting Level After each pile has been cast, any empty bore remaining shall be protected and shall be carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.

Unless otherwise approved by the S.O. the strengthening of the toe in lieu of a shoe or the strengthening of the head of a pile shall be made from material of the same grade as the pile and to the details as shown on the Drawings. For standard rolled sections the deviation from straightness in millimetres shall not exceed 1.04 (L-4.5) where L is the length of the pile in metres. For proprietary sections made up from rolled sections the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/1000 of the length of the pile. Each pile shall be clearly marked with white indeletable marking at the flanged head showing its reference number and overall length. In addition, each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.5 m along its length before being driven.

10.6 STEEL H-SECTION PILES

10.6.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of steel H-section piles, inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.6.4.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth and before encasing in concrete, the piles shall be cut to within 20 mm of the levels shown on the Drawings. Pile heads shall be constructed to the details as shown on the Drawings. The remaining section which can be reused for lengthening of piles shall be stored and protected as directed by the S.O.

The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S.O. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site, the S.O. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. 10.6.3.2 Handling and Storage All operations such as handling and transporting of piles shall be carried out in such a manner that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised. Piles that are damaged during handling and transporting shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense. All damaged and rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith. Piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports. 10.6.4 Installation of Steel H-Section Piles 10.6.4.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles

10.7 STEEL PIPE PILES

10.7.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of steel pipe piles, inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.7.2 Materials

Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10.3.4.1 and 10.3.4.2. 10.6.4.2 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening of piles is required, the piles shall be jointed by butt welding. Butt welded joints shall be stiffened with plates fillet welded on all four sides as detailed on the Drawings. All weldings shall be continuous and complying with B.S. 638, B.S. 5135 and B.S. 5950 for arc welding and B.S. 4577 for resistance welding as appropriate. The type and size of weld shall be as detailed on the Drawings.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

All steel pipes shall comply with B.S. 6323 with regard to sectional dimensions and the steel shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 4360. 10.7.3 Manufacture and Storage of Steel Pipe Piles 10.7.3.1 Welding Unless otherwise specified, all welds shall be full penetration butt welds complying with the requirements of B.S. 5153.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.7.3.4 Straightness of Piles Unless otherwise approved, the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/600 of a length not exceeding 10 m. When two or more such lengths are joined, the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/960 of the completed length. 10.7.3.5 Fabrication of Piles on Site When pile lengths are to be made up on Site, all test procedures and dimensional tolerances shall conform to the Specification for the supply of pipe materials. Adequate facilities shall be provided for supporting and aligning the lengths of pile. 10.7.3.6 Handling and Storage All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports. All operations such as handling, transporting and pitching of piles shall be carried out in a manner such that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised. Piles that are damaged during handling and transporting shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense. All damaged and rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith. 10.7.3.7 Marking of Piles Each pile shall be clearly marked with white indeletable marking showing its reference number and overall length. In addition, each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.5 metre along its length before being driven.

10.7.3.2 Fabrication of Piles The root edge or root face lengths of piles that are to be butt welded shall not differ by more than 25% from the thickness of piles not exceeding 12 mm in thickness; or by more than 3 mm for piles exceeding 12 mm in thickness. When piles of unequal thickness are to be butt welded together, the thickness of the thinner material shall be the criterion. Pile lengths shall be set up so that the differences in dimensions are matched as evenly as possible. The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S.O. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site, the S.O. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. 10.7.3.3 Matching of Pile Lengths Longitudinal seam welds and spiral seam welds of lengths of pipe piles forming a completed pile shall, whenever possible, be evenly staggered. However, if in order to obtain a satisfactory match of the ends of piles or the specified straightness, the longitudinal seams or spiral seams are brought closely to one alignment at the joint, then they shall be staggered by at least 100 mm.

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Standard Specification For Road Works ii) for tubes of any wall thickness, continuous ultra-sonic examination over the whole weld, supplemented where necessary by radiographs to investigate defects revealed by the ultrasonic examination. 10.7.4.4 Acceptance Standards If the results of any weld test do not conform to the specified requirements, two additional specimens from the same length of pile shall be tested. In the case of failure of one or both of these additional tests, the length of pile covered by the test shall be rejected. 10.7.5 Protective Coatings If protective coatings are specified, the preparation of surfaces and the application of the coatings shall be carried out by skilled labour having experience in the preparation of the coatings specified. 10.7.5.1 Surface Preparation Unless otherwise specified, all surfaces to be coated shall be blast cleaned with an approved abrasive in accordance with B.S. 4232 or SIS 05 59 00 to remove rust, mill scale and other adhering materials, to provide a finish to second quality (near white) of B.S. 4232 or SIS 05 59 00 grade Sa 2 1/2. 10.7.5.2 Application and Type of Primer Immediately after surface preparation, the surface shall be coated with an approved primer or the specified coating to avoid recontamination. No coat shall be
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10.7.4 Workmanship 10.7.4.1 Welding Procedures The Contractor shall submit for approval, full details of the welding procedures and electrodes with drawings and schedules as may be necessary. Tests shall be undertaken as may be required by the S.O. and shall be in accordance with the requirements of B.S. 4870. 10.7.4.2 Welders' Qualifications Only welders who are qualified in the approved welding procedure shall be employed. Copies of certificates relating to welders' tests shall be made available to the S.O. on request. 10.7.4.3 Radiographs During production of welded tube piles, at least one radiograph approximately 300 mm long shall be required on each completed length as a spot check on weld quality. This shall be taken on a circumferential or longitudinal weld and its position shall be as directed by the S.O. For spirally welded piles, one of the following tests shall be carried out :i) for tubes of wall thickness 12 mm or less, three spot check radiographs, one at each end of each length of the tube as manufactured and one at a position to be chosen at the time of testing by the S.O.; and spot check radiographs as required by the S.O. on the weld joints between strip lengths;
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.7.6 Installation of Steel Pipe Piles 10.7.6.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles

applied to a metal surface which is not thoroughly dry. The primer shall be compatible with the specified coating. 10.7.5.3 Part to be Welded The coating within 200 mm of a weld shall be applied after welding. 10.7.5.4 Thickness, Number and Colour of Coats The minimum dry film thickness of the finished coating, including the minimum dry film thickness of each coat and the minimum number of coats that are to be applied, shall be as specified and shown on the Drawings. Coatings shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 10.7.5.5 Inspection of Coatings and Acceptibility The finished coating shall be generally smooth, of a dense and uniform texture and free from sharp protuberances or pin holes. Any coat damaged by subsequent processes or which has deteriorated to an extent such that proper adhesion of the coating may not be obtained or maintained, shall be recleaned to the original standard and recoated with the specified sequence of coats. The completed coating shall be checked for thickness and continuity by an approved magnetic gauge or detector. Areas where the thickness is less than that specified shall receive approved additional treatment.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10.3.4.1 and 10.3.4.2. 10.7.6.2 Lengthening of Piles Unless otherwise approved, where lengthening of piles is required, the piles shall be jointed by butt welding along the entire periphery as detailed on the Drawings. 10.7.6.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth and before encasing in concrete, the pile shall be cut to within 20 mm of the levels shown on the Drawings and protective coatings shall be removed from the surfaces of the pile head 100 mm above the soffit of the concrete. Pile heads shall be constructed to details as shown on the Drawings. 10.7.6.4 Concreting of Pile Shaft If concreting is specified or shown on the Drawings after the pile has been cut off to the specified level, the shaft shall be filled with concrete in a continuous operation. The method of placing shall be approved by the S.O. The reinforcement cage in the pile shall be made sufficiently rigid and kept in its correct position during concreting.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.8.3 Drilling Operations 10.8.3.1 Diameter of Piles The diameter of piles shall not be less than the specified/designed diameter at any level throughout its length. 10.8.3.2 Drilling The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. details of drilling equipment and drilling procedure for approval before commencement of works. Drilling operations shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant requirements of SubSection 10.5.3. 10.8.4 Grouting Operations 10.8.4.1 Mixing and Placing Grout The Contractor shall provide details of the method and equipment used in grout mixing. Further information such as grouting pressure, grouting procedure, grouting equipment and techniques employed in grouting underwater shall also be furnished for approval. Grout shall be mixed on Site and shall be free from segregation, slumping and bleeding. Grout shall be pumped into its final position in one continuous operation as soon as possible and in no case more than half an hour after mixing. 10.8.4.2 Testing Grout Grout shall be tested in accordance with B.S. 1881 and B.S. 4550.

The length of the reinforcing bars projecting above the pile cut off level shall be as shown on the Drawings.

10.8 MICROPILES

10.8.1 Description This work shall comprise the drilling of a hole, placing of reinforcement unit and subsequently filling the hole with grout to form micropiles, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. 10.8.2 Materials 10.8.2.1 Reinforcement Unit The type of reinforcement unit to be used, the diameter and/or thickness, grade, yield strength and working stress shall be as specified or as shown on the Drawings. 10.8.2.2 Grout Unless otherwise specified, the grout shall be non-shrink cement grout. The grout mix design such as the water-cement ratio, the minimum cement and grout strength at 7 and 28 days shall be as specified and shown on the Drawings. If admixtures are used, details of admixtures shall be submitted to the S.O. for approval before commencement of works. The use of the admixture shall fully comply with the manufacturer's instructions.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Pressure-treated timber piles shall conform to M.S. 822 and shall be approved by SIRIM. 10.9.3 Manufacture and Storage of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles 10.9.3.1 Manufacture Before commencement of work the Contractor shall notify the S.O. of the name of the supplier and manufacturer for approval. The method of preservative treatment for timber piles shall be the full-cell process as described in M.S. 360. The preservative used shall comply with M.S. 733. The depth of penetration of preservative shall be a minimum of 25 mm and the net dry salt retention in the treated part of the timber shall be a minimum of 16 kg/cu.m. Piles shall be within -2 mm and +6 mm of their specified crosssectional dimensions. The centroid of any cross-section of a pile shall not deviate by more than 25 mm from the straight line connecting the centroids of the end faces of the pile. Before the treated timber pile is accepted for the work the Contractor shall obtain from the manufacturer of the treated piles a warranty on an approved form which provides, that for a ten year period, the treated piles shall be free from fungus and insect attack.

10.8.5 Construction of Pile Heads 10.8.5.1 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening is required, the pile reinforcement unit shall be connected on Site to the details shown on the Drawings. Other means of jointing reinforcement shall be to the approval of the S.O.

10.8.5.2 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads Pile heads shall be constructed to the details as shown on the Drawings.

10.9 PRESSURE-TREATED TIMBER PILES

10.9.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of pressure-treated timber piles, inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. The timber terms used in this Specification shall have the meanings assigned to them in M.S. 229. 10.9.2 Materials Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., Kempas (Koompassia Malaccensis) shall be used and this shall not be of a lesser quality than the grading specified in Appendix A of M.S. 822.

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Standard Specification For Road Works The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S.O. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site, the S.O. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. 10.9.4 Installation of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles 10.9.4.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles Pitching and driving shall be in accordance with Sub-Sections 10.3.4.1 and 10.3.4.2. Piles shall be provided in one single length of 6.0 m each unless otherwise approved. Any pile driven to the required set at a depth of 6.0 m or less shall be in one continuous length. The pile head shall be adequately protected during driving, so that brooming and splitting do not occur. The pile head shall be fitted with toothed metal plates as approved by the S.O. during normal driving. In the case of hard driving, unless otherwise approved by the S.O., a metal helmet shall be fitted to the top of the pile. The top of the pile shall first be trimmed to fit closely into the recess of the underside of the helmet. A hard wood dolly and, if necessary, a packing piece shall be used above the helmet. If during driving the head of the pile becomes excessively broomed or otherwise damaged, the damaged part shall be cut off and the helmet refitted.
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Each treated pile shall be permanently marked with identifications which indicate that they comply with this Specification, manufacturer's trade mark, type of treatment, charge number and date of treatment and the length of the pile. The end plates of each pile shall have SIRIM Control Labels. The S.O. may require inspection and testing at the treatment plant to observe and ensure that the manufacturing process and control testings of the piles are carried out in accordance with this Specification. Records of the actual treatment schedule shall be kept during the treatment process, and the Contractor shall furnish such records for the piles supplied when requested by the S.O. 10.9.3.2 Delivery and Storage The Contractor shall notify the S.O. of the delivery of timber piles to the Site, and provide the necessary facilities to enable the S.O. to inspect each pile and take random sampling for determination of depth of penetration and the net dry salt retention. Accepted piles shall be marked and stacked in lengths on drained hard ground. Each pile shall be stacked clear of the ground and have an air space around it. The piles shall be separated by sticks or blocks placed vertically one above the other and closely spaced horizontally to avoid sagging of the piles. All rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works i) the cut-offs or bored holes shall be given two flood coats of 10% m/v solution of the preservative, or as specified in accordance with M.S. 360, allowing each application to soak thoroughly into the cut or bored surface; ii) immediately after the preservative solution has dried, the pile heads shall be heavily coated with a bituminous compound which conforms to B.S. 3416 for the whole depth that the pile is to be enclosed in the pile cap.

When fissures appear in a pile during driving, which in the opinion of the S.O. will affect its strength, the pile shall be rejected and replaced at the Contractor's expense. 10.9.4.2 Lengthening of Piles If jointing is required, pile joints shall be made by using Mild Steel Welded Boxes 450 mm long fabricated from 5 mm thick plates unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Joint boxes shall be painted with red lead paint or otherwise protected against corrosion to the satisfaction of the S.O. The internal dimensions of the box shall be 3 mm undersize of the pile cross-sectional dimensions. The joint and the ends of the piles to be jointed shall be constructed so that the necessary strength and stiffness are developed at the joint.

10.10

BAKAU PILES

10.10.1

Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of bakau piles, inclusive of pitching and driving, lengthening and preparation of pile heads, all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.

10.9.4.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth, the head of the piles shall be cut off square to sound wood and treated with an approved preservative and a waterproof coating all in accordance with M.S. 822. The pile head shall be embedded for a depth of not less than 150 mm in the concrete cap which shall be at least 150 mm thick round the piles. When piles are cut-off at the pile cap level, all cut-offs and bored holes shall be treated as follows :-

10.10.2

Materials Unless otherwise approved by the S.O. only Bakau Minyak (Rhizophora Apiculapa) or Bakau Kurap (Rhizophora Mucronata) shall be used. Bakau piles shall be provided in one single length of not less than 5.0 m each. The diameter of piles at the small end shall not be less than 75 mm unless otherwise specified.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Unless otherwise approved, bakau piles shall be driven by means of a drop hammer of at least 250 kg in mass, suspended from a shear-leg or approved pile-frame. Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground. When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or any pile resulting from the driving process. If any pile rise occurs as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for approval, his proposals for correcting this and to avoid the same in subsequent work. The pile head shall be flat and at right angles to the axis of the pile, its edges chamfered to minimise splitting during driving. The Contractor shall take precautions to avoid damage to the pile head during hard driving by providing a suitable metal helmet. A hard wood dolly and, if necessary, a packing piece shall be used above the helmet. If during driving the head of the pile becomes excessively broomed or otherwise damaged, the damaged part shall be cut off, the head retrimmed and the helmet refitted.

All bakau piles shall be free from rot, fungal or pest attack and any other defects. The piles shall be reasonably straight and circular in cross-section with all branch joints trimmed off to the general outline of the piles but leaving the bark intact on the piles. 10.10.3 Delivery and Inspection of Bakau Piles The Contractor shall notify the S.O. of the delivery of piles to the Site and provide labour and facilities to enable the S.O. to inspect and measure each pile at the time of unloading. Accepted piles shall be stacked on an approved surface in an approved area and kept constantly in a damp condition. Rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith. 10.10.4 Installation of Bakau Piles

10.10.4.1Pitching of Piles Piles shall be pitched accurately in the positions and at spacings as shown on the Drawings or as approved by the S.O. 10.10.4.2Driving of Piles The length of piles to be driven shall be as shown on the Drawings. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site, the S.O. may, from time to time order the lengths or spacing of piles to be modified.

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Standard Specification For Road Works 10.11.2 Preliminary Pile Load Tests Preliminary pile load tests shall be carried out before the S.O. issues to the Contractor, in writing, instructions on the pile length and pile length combinations for the manufacture and supply of the piles. The Contractor shall not proceed to manufacture or supply the piles until he has received instructions in writing to do so from the S.O. The lengths of the piles for the preliminary load tests shall be determined by the S.O. 10.11.3 Production Pile Load Tests Load tests shall also be carried out during the installation of piles for the permanent Works. Such pile load tests shall be referred to as production pile load tests. 10.11.4 Testing Procedure 10.11.4.1Preparation of Test Pile

10.10.4.3

Lengthening of Piles Where a pile has to be jointed, it shall be to the details as shown on the Drawings. Only one joint shall be allowed. The two pile ends to be jointed shall be of the same diameter and each shall be cut at right angles to its axis to make contact over the whole cross-section when the two timbers are co-axial. A mild steel tube connector of No. 9 gauge to B.S. 6323 shall be used to join the two pile ends. The steel tube connector shall be painted with red lead paint or otherwise protected against corrosion all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The pile ends shall be trimmed or packed in the connector to provide a tight fit.

10.10.4.4

Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When the piles have been driven to the required depth, the top of the piles shall be cut off to a uniform level. The cut-off level shall be below the lowest dry season ground water level as shown on the Drawings or as approved by the S.O.

The pile head shall be cut off or built up to the necessary elevation and shall be capped appropriately to produce a bearing surface perpendicular to the axis of the pile. The arrangement shall be such that none of the test load is carried by the ground under the cap. 10.11.4.2Method of Loading

10.11

PILE TESTING

10.11.1 Test Piles In order to determine the required length of pile at each location, the Contractor shall drive test piles as shown on the Drawings and/or as instructed by the S.O. Test piles shall be driven with the same hammer that is used for driving foundation piles.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

The test load shall be applied in one of the following ways :i) by means of a jack which obtains its reaction from kentledge heavier than the required load;

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Standard Specification For Road Works wires. The reference beam supports shall be located at least 3 m from the load test pile, reaction pile or piles supporting reaction loads. The reference beams or wires shall be protected from the effects of temperature changes. 10.11.5 Method of Testing 10.11.5.1General Maintained Load Tests shall be conducted on test piles as selected by the S.O. The loading tests shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 10.11.5.2. When instructed or approved by the S.O., Constant Rate of Penetration Tests shall also be conducted on other piles. The tests shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 10.11.5.3. Prior to the performance of any load test, the Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his approval, working drawings showing the method and equipment he proposes to use in the performance of the load test and the measurement of settlements. Such submission shall include design calculations of lateral supports or other methods to be used in ensuring against buckling. Horizontal supports to ensure buckling stability shall be provided to the pile to be loaded whenever the ratio of the unsupported height to the least cross-sectional dimension is 20 or more. Horizontal supports shall provide full support without restraining the vertical movement of the pile in any way.
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ii) by means of a jack which obtains its reaction from tension piles or other suitable anchors. The load shall be measured using a calibrated load gauge and also a calibrated pressure gauge in the hydraulic system. The jack and load gauge shall be carefully aligned so that the load applied is co-axial with the pile. When method (i) is used, care shall be taken to ensure that the centre of gravity of the kentledge is on the axis of the pile. The nearest edge of the crib supporting the kentledge stack shall not be closer than 1.3 m to the surface of the test pile. Kentledge shall not be used for testing raked piles. When method (ii) is used, all anchor piles shall be at a distance of at least three (3) pile shaft diameters from the test pile, centre to centre, and in no case shall they be less than 2 m from the test pile. If the anchor piles are to be permanent working piles, their levels shall be observed during application of the test load to ensure no residual uplift occurs. 10.11.4.3Measurement of Settlement Settlements shall be measured by use of a reference beam or wire supported independantly of the load test pile, reaction pile or piles supporting reaction loads. Settlements shall be measured to the nearest 0.1 mm for reference beams or 0.5 mm for reference
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Standard Specification For Road Works corresponding loads shall be made in the loading process. After attaining a test load equal to twice the design load, the load shall gradually be released and at least four readings of settlement and their corresponding loads shall be made during the unloading process. The settlement obtained when the load has been completely released shall also be recorded. An interval of at least 15 minutes shall elapse before the next CRP test is commenced. 10.11.6 Submission of Results Full test data and results shall be jointly signed by the S.O.'s representative and the Contractor's authorised agent immediately upon completion of the test, and shall consist of the following :-

10.11.5.2Maintained Load Test The Maintained Load Test shall be carried out as follows :i) the full test load on a pile shall be twice the design load noted on the Drawings and it shall be applied in twelve equal increments. At least two hours shall elapse between the addition of each load increment, i.e. until the rate of settlement is reduced to less than 0.25 mm/hour and slowing down; ii) the full test load shall be maintained on the pile for at least 48 hours and settlements shall be recorded at intervals of not more than 12 hours. The test pile shall then be unloaded in four equal increments at one hour intervals until the full load is removed. Settlement readings shall be made immediately after and before every load increment is applied or removed. 10.11.5.3Constant Rate of Penetration (CRP) Test For each pile load test, three cycles of pile loading test at a constant rate of penetration shall be carried out to a full test load equal to twice the design load. The rate of loading shall be such that a constant rate of penetration is maintained throughout the test insofar as is practicable. The rate of movement of each pile to be tested shall be agreed upon with the S.O. prior to the start of the test. At least twelve readings of settlements and their
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

i) for the Maintained Load Test, for each stage of loading, the period for which the load was held, the load and the maximum settlement. These are to be plotted as time-settlement graphs. ii) for the CRP test, the maximum load reached and a graph of load against penetration; 10.11.7 Interpretation of Test Results The S.O.'s interpretation and conclusions on the test results shall be final. Unless otherwise specified, the pile so tested shall be deemed to have failed if :i) the residual settlement after removal of the test load exceeds 6.50 mm; or

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Bakau piles shall be tested to failure by the Maintained Load Test as described hereinbefore. The load on the pile group shall be applied in 2 to 4 equal increments as directed by the S.O. until the failure load is reached. The failure load (i.e. ultimate load) is that load at which the piles continue to settle at a constant rate without further increase of applied load. For each increment of load, the settlement readings shall be recorded at 15 minute intervals until the rate of settlement is less than 0.25 mm per hour. The load at each increment shall be maintained at a constant value throughout the test. Graphs of time-settlement, loadtime and load-settlement, to a suitable scale, shall be plotted and submitted to the S.O. with all records of the readings.

ii) the total settlement under the Working Load exceeds 12.50 mm; or iii) the total settlement under twice the Working Load exceeds 38.0 mm, or 10% of pile diameter/width whichever is the lower value. 10.11.8 Load Testing of Bakau Piles In general, all relevant Sub-Sections stated hereinbefore shall apply to the load testing of bakau piles, except that what is understood as single test piles in these Sub-Sections shall mean a group of test piles for bakau piles. The load testing of bakau piles shall be carried out on a group of nine bakau piles, made up of three rows of piles, three in a row. An approved reinforced concrete pile cap with a loading pedestal shall be cast centrally over the group of piles to be tested. The loading pedestal shall be short to ensure stability, and it shall have an approved mild steel bearing plate cast on top. The load shall be applied centrally on to the steel plate.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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