Server: In the context of client-server architecture, a server is a computer program running to serve the requests of other programs

, the "clients". Thus, the "server" performs some computational task on behalf of "clients". The clients either run on the same computer or connect through the network. In most common use, server is a physical computer (a hardware system) dedicated to running one or more such services (as a host),[1] to serve the needs of users of the other computers on the network. Depending on the computing service that it offers it could be a database server, file server, mail server, print server, web servers, or other. In the context of Internet Protocol (IP) networking, a server is a program that operates as a socket listener.[2] Servers often provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet. For example, when you enter a query in a search engine, the query is sent from your computer over the internet to the servers that store all the relevant web pages. The results are sent back by the server to your computer.

Usage Servers provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet. For example, when you enter a query in a search engine, the query is sent from your computer over the internet to the servers that store all the relevant web pages. The results are sent back by the server to your computer. The term server is used quite broadly in information technology. Despite the many serverbranded products available (such as server versions of hardware, software or operating systems), in theory any computerised process that shares a resource to one or more client processes is a server. To illustrate this, take the common example of file sharing. While the existence of files on a machine does not classify it as a server, the mechanism which shares these files to clients by the operating system is the server. Similarly, consider a web server application (such as the multiplatform "Apache HTTP Server"). This web server software can be run on any capable computer. For example, while a laptop or personal computer is not typically known as a server, they can in these situations fulfill the role of one, and hence be labelled as one. It is in this case that the machine's purpose as a web server classifies it in general as a server.

Such programs may wait in a sleep state for their necessity to become apparent. In this client– serverconfiguration one or more machines. Between the 1990s and 2000s an increase in the use of dedicated hardware saw the advent of self-contained server appliances. share information with each other with one acting as a host for the other. These operating systems attempt to abstract hardware. The least of these are the routers. a dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for production environments. domain name servers. either a computer or a computer appliance. While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server. and various other servers necessary to provide us the world wide web. such as the aforementioned Apache HTTP Server software. and typically more than one large hard drive. the operating system can be seen as serving hardware to the software. One well-known product is the Google Search Appliance. gateways. The Internet itself is also a forest of servers and clients. all of which are available in a near plug-and-play configuration. modern personal computers can be seen as a forest of servers and clients operating inparallel. increased high-performance RAM. Simpler examples of such appliances include switches. and print server. Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions rightfully seem to be designed with a client–server architecture in mind. which in all but low-level programming languages must interact using an API. modems. network connections. Since any software that provides services can becalled a server. and even the servers themselves. the word server typically designates computer models intended for hostingsoftware applications under the heavy demand of a network environment. . More obvious distinctions include marked redundancy in power supplies.In the hardware sense. routers. a unit that combines hardware and software in an out-of-the-box packaging. These operating systems may be able to run programs in the background called either services ordaemons. These features may include a faster CPU. In a sense. allowing a wide variety of software to work with components of the computer. Merely requesting a web page from a few kilometers away involves satisfying a stack of protocols that involve many examples of hardware and software servers.

depending on the server application. These components offer higher performance and reliability at a correspondingly higher price. Servers may incorporate faster. they may run in headless mode without a monitor or input device. mission-critical enterprise servers are ideally very fault tolerant and use specialized hardware with low failure rates in order to maximize uptime. Since servers are usually accessed over a network. making hardware reliability and durability extremely important. Such components are also . For example. nonECC memory is more likely to cause data corruption. Hardware redundancy—installing more than one instance of modules such as power supplies and hard disks arranged so that if one fails another is automatically available—is widely used. audio and USB interfaces may be omitted. and uninterruptible power supplies that ensure the servers continue to function in the event of a power failure. it may take only a few minutes of down time at a national stock exchange to justify the expense of entirely replacing the system with something more reliable.[citation needed] To increase reliability. Absolute CPU speed is not usually as critical to a server as it is to a desktop machine [citation needed]. Servers often run for long periods without interruption and availability must often be very high. redundant power supplies and so on. Many servers do not have a graphical user interface (GUI) as it is unnecessary and consumes resources that could be allocated elsewhere.Server hardware A server rack seen from the rear Hardware requirements for servers vary. most of the servers use memory with error detection and correction. higher-capacity hard drives. Similarly. ECC memory devices that detect and correct errors are used. larger computer fans or water cooling to help remove heat. Processes that are not needed for the server's function are not used. redundant disks. Although servers can be built from commodity computer parts. Servers' duties to provide service to many users over a network lead to different requirements such as fast network connections and high I/O throughput. for even a short-term failure can cost more than purchasing and installing the system.

data. and tight system security. rather than all at once. Server-oriented operating systems can. . Unlike ordinary computers. Normally server rooms are equipped with air conditioning devices. it is usual to store them in dedicated server centers or special rooms. so as not to overload the power supply with startup surges. Linux taking noticeably larger percentage than for desktop computers. and increased security and are also noisy. good Internet access. [Citation needed] As servers need stable power supply. and memory protection. but it may not need restarting for months or years. servers often have more powerful fans. interact with hardware sensors to detect conditions such as overheating. Server casings are usually flat and wide. Many servers take a long time for the hardware to start up and load the operating system. adapted to store many devices next to each other in server rack. with advanced user. transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices. and afterwards they initiate RAID system pre-checks for correct operation of redundancy. flexible and advanced networking capabilities. such as        GUI not available or optional ability to reconfigure and update both hardware and software to some extent without restart. in many cases. It is common for a machine to take several minutes to start up. This requires reducing power consumption as extra energy used generates more heat and the temperature in the room could exceed the acceptable limits. and consequently alert an operator or take remedial measures itself. To prevent overheating.frequently hot swappable. using out-of-band management. Servers often do extensive pre-boot memory testing and verification and startup of remote management services. servers usually can be configured. allowing technicians to replace them on the running server without shutting it down. The hard drive controllers then start up banks of drives sequentially. As servers are usually administered by qualified engineers. powered up and down or rebooted remotely. processor and disk failure. their operating systems are also more tuned for stability and performance than for user friendliness and ease of use. advanced backup facilities to permit regular and frequent online backups of critical data. resource. [edit]Server operating systems Server-oriented operating systems tend to have certain features in common that make them more suitable for the server environment. automation capabilities such as daemons in UNIX and services in Windows.

a central search point for information across a distributed network Communications server. improvements in the reliability of both hardware and operating systems have blurred the distinction between the two classes. and since Windows NT have been available in versions suitable for server use. a server dedicated to running certain software applications Catalog server. provides fax services for clients File server. Today. Some operating systems are supplied in both server and desktop versions with similar user interface. provides database services to other computer programs or computers Fax server. While it is possible for an operating system to make a machine both provide services and respond quickly to the requirements of a user. provides printer services . a server for the home Name server or DNS server Print server. a server that video game clients connect to in order to play online together Home server. carrier-grade computing platform for communications networks Database server. differing mostly in configuration. the requirements of an operating system for a server are different from those of a desktop machine. provides file services Game server. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems also runs on x86 hardware. many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases. The shift towards web applications and middleware platforms has also lessened the demand for specialist application servers. it is usual to use different operating systems on servers and desktop machines. Windows and Mac OS X server operating systems are deployed on a minority of servers.           Application server. The dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-based or open source kernel distributions. such as z/OS. Types of servers In a general network environment the following types of servers may be found. as are other proprietary mainframe operating systems.[citation needed] The rise of the microprocessor-based server was facilitated by the development of Unix to run on thex86 microprocessor architecture. While the role of server and desktop operating systems remains distinct. such as Linux (the kernel).Because servers must supply a restricted range of services to perhaps many users while a desktop computer must carry out a wide range of functions required by its user.

an emulator for client–server (web-based) programs Web server.          World Wide Web Domain Name System E-mail FTP file transfer Chat and instant messaging Voice communication Streaming audio and video Online gaming Database servers Virtually every action taken by an ordinary Internet user requires one or more interactions with one or more servers.g.g. a server that HTTP clients connect to in order to send commands and receive responses along with data contents    Almost the entire structure of the Internet is based upon a client–server model. DNS servers. some implementations of telephony (e. acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers Sound server. provides multimedia broadcasting. for example peer-to-peer file sharing.5% of United States energy consumption was used by cooling systems required to cool the servers. Standalone server.5% of energy consumption in the United States. and routers direct the traffic on the internet. servers were responsible for 2. In 2010 it was estimated that by 2020 servers would use more of the world's energy than air travel if current trends continued . High-level root nameservers. Other services do not use dedicated servers. streaming. running continuously throughout the world. Kontiki. and supplying television programs to several users (e. There are millions of servers connected to the Internet. There are also technologies that operate on an inter-server level. A further 2. [edit]Energy consumption of servers In 2010. Skype). Proxy server. SlingBox).

1 GB is defined as one billion bytes.TYPES OF DATA UNITS: What are bits.824 (1024x1024x1024) bytes. For example.610 CDs worth of data.024 ZB. instead of a decimal (base ten) system.737. However. you may notice a discrepancy between your hard drive's published capacity and the capacity acknowledged by your computer. This is not a malfunction but a matter of different definitions. corresponding to the electrical values of off or on. a hard drive that is said to contain 10 GB of storage space using a decimal system is actually capable of storing 10.073. Computer storage and memory is often measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). Bits are usually assembled into a group of eight to form a byte.741.024 kilobytes.576 (1024x1024) bytes. and so on. 1 MB is 1.024 EB. A bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1. Many hard drive manufacturers use a decimal number system to define amounts of storage space.000 bytes.000. in a binary system.048. one 1 GB is 1. A byte contains enough information to store a single ASCII character. A kilobyte (KB) is 1. As a result. A medium-sized novel contains about 1 MB of information.000 Computers count by base 2: .000. 1 MB is defined as one million bytes. or roughly 1. A petabyte (PB) is 1. An exabyte (EB) is 1. or 1.31 GB. 10 GB is 10. not one thousand bytes as might be expected. A terabyte (TB) is 1.024 MB. We count in base 10 by powers of 10: 101 = 10 102 = 10*10 = 100 103 = 10*10*10 = 1.024 TB. and other units of measure for digital information? A bit is a binary digit.024 GB. As a result.000 106 = 1. the smallest increment of data on a computer. bytes. 1 TB is about the same amount of information as all of the books in a large library. because computers use binary (base two) math. Since your computer uses a binary system as mentioned above.418. Finally. you rarely work with information one bit at a time. A zettabyte (ZB) is 1. or 1. Indiana University is now building storage systems capable of holding petabytes of data. not one million bytes.240 bytes. instead of acknowledging 10 GB. respectively. a yottabyte (YB) is 1.024 PB.024 bytes.000. like "h". Similarly. your computer will acknowledge 9. Because bits are so small.

For example. if a broadband Internet connection is advertised with a download speed of 3.024 bytes 1 megabyte (MB) 1.125.099.899.511.21 = 2 22 = 2*2 = 4 23 = 2*2*2 = 8 210 = 1.073. Since one byte is made up of eight bits.048.048. The abbreviations for numbers of bits use a lower-case "b" instead of an upper-case "B". its speed is 3.741.906.375 megabytes per second (which would be abbreviated as 0.024 220 = 1. or 0. this difference can be significant. Bits and bit rates (bits over time. .0 Mbps.0 megabits per second.576 So in computer jargon.776 bytes 1.624 bytes Note: The names and abbreviations for numbers of bytes are easily confused with the notations for bits. as in bits per second [bps]) are most commonly used to describe connection speeds.375 MBps).842.824 bytes 1.627. the following units are used: Unit 1 kilobyte (KB) Equivalent 1. so pay particular attention when comparing Internet connection providers and services.576 bytes 1 gigabyte (GB) 1 terabyte (TB) 1 petabyte (PB) 1.