ProI. O.P. Gandhi

The term maintenance` means to keep the equipment in operational condition or repair it
to its operational mode. Main objective oI the maintenance is to have increased
availability oI production systems, with increased saIety and optimized cost. Maintenance
management involves managing the Iunctions oI maintenance. Maintaining equipment in
the Iield has been a challenging task since the beginning oI industrial revolution. Since
then, a signiIicant oI progress has been made to maintain equipment eIIectively in the
Iield. As the engineering equipment becomes sophisticated and expensive to produce and
maintain, maintenance management has to Iace even more challenging situations to
maintain eIIectively such equipments in industrial environment. This brieI lecture on
maintenance management includes maintenance strategies, Iunctions oI maintenance
department, maintenance organization and elements oI maintenance management.


A maintenance strategy or option means a scheme Ior maintenance, i.e. an elaborate and
systematic plan oI maintenance action. Following are the maintenance strategies |1| that
are commonly applied in the plants.

O reakdown Maintenance or Operate to Failure or Unplanned Maintenance
O Preventive or Scheduled Maintenance
O Predictive or Condition ased Maintenance
O Opportunity Maintenance
O Design out Maintenance

The equipment under breakdown maintenance is allowed to run until it breaks down and
then repairing it and putting back to operation. This strategy is suitable Ior equipments
that are not critical and have spare capacity or redundancy available. In preventive or
scheduled Maintenance, maintenance actions such as inspection, lubrication, cleaning,
adjustment and replacement are undertaken at Iixed intervals oI numbers oI hours or
Kilometers. An eIIective PM program does help in avoidance oI accidents. Condition
monitoring (CM) detects and diagnoses Iaults and it helps in planned maintenance based
on equipment condition. This condition based maintenance strategy or predictive
maintenance is preIerred Ior critical systems and Ior such systems breakdown
maintenance is to be avoided. A number oI CM techniques such as vibration,
temperature, oil analysis, etc. have been developed, which guide the users in planned
maintenance |2|. In opportunity maintenance, timing oI maintenance is determined by the
procedure adopted Ior some other item in the same unit or plant. In design out
maintenance, the aim is to minimize the eIIect oI Iailures and in Iact eliminates the cause
oI maintenance. Although it is an engineering design problem, yet it is oIten a
responsibility oI maintenance department. This is opted Ior items oI high maintenance
cost that are due to poor maintenance, poor design or poor design outside design
speciIications. It may be mentioned that a best maintenance strategy Ior each item should
be selected by considering its maintenance characteristics, cost and saIety.

In addition to the above, new strategies concepts such as Proactive Maintenance,
Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), etc. have
recently been evolved to look it Irom diIIerent perspectives and this has helped in
developing eIIective maintenance. In proactive maintenance, the aim is identiIy what can
go wrong, i.e. by monitoring oI parameters that can cause Iailures. In RCM, the type oI
maintenance is chosen with reliability oI the system in consideration, i.e. system
Iunctions, Iailures relating to those Iunctions and eIIects oI the dominant Iunctional
system Iailures. This strategy in the beginning was applied to critical systems such as
aircraIts, nuclear and space applications. At present, this is being extended to critical
systems in the plant. TPM, a Japanese concept, involves total participation oI all
concerned. The aim is to have overall eIIectiveness oI the equipment with participation oI
all concerned using productive maintenance system.


Following are the major Iunctions oI a maintenance department |3-4|:

O Maintenance oI installed equipment and Iacilities
O Installations oI new equipment and Iacilities
O PM tasks Inspection and lubrication oI existing equipment
O CM tasks monitoring oI Iaults and Iailures using appropriate techniques
O ModiIications oI already installed equipment and Iacilities
O Management oI inventory
O Supervision oI manpower
O Keeping records


It concerns in achieving an optimum balance between plant availability and maintenance
resource utilization. The two organization structures that are common are: Centralized
and Decentralized. A decentralized structure would probably experience a lower
utilization than centralized one but would be able to respond quickly to breakdowns and
would achieve higher plant availability. In practice, one may have a mix oI these two. A
maintenance organization can be considered as being made up three necessary and
interdependent components.

1. Resources: men, spares and tools
2. Administration: a hierarchy oI authority and responsibility Ior deciding what,
when and how work should be carried out.
3. ork Planning and Control System: a mechanism Ior planning and scheduling
the work and Ieeding back the inIormation that is needed Ior correctly directing
the maintenance eIIort towards deIined objective.

It may be mentioned that maintenance / production system is a continuously evolving
organism in which the maintenance organization will need continuous modiIications in
response to changing requirements. Moreover, it is required to match the resources to
workload. Maintenance activities be it preventive or condition monitoring, involve use
oI resources- men and materials including documents. This requires coordination
amongst the involved personnel so that these are timely undertaken. Work planning and
control system under maintenance management in the plant ensures this and provides
planning and control oI activities associated with maintenance. This means application oI
general management principles oI planning, organizing, directing and controlling to the
maintenance Iunctions, e.g. to the establishment oI procedures Ior development oI
maintenance strategy and to models Ior describing the Ilow oI work through maintenance
work planning department. Control system controls the maintenance cost and plant


An eIIective maintenance system includes the Iollowing elements |3-4|:

O Maintenance Policy
O Control oI materials
O Preventive Maintenance
O Condition Monitoring
O Work Order
O Job planning
O Priority and backlog control
O Data recording system
O PerIormance measurement measures or indices

Maintenance perIormance Ior a plant or an organization can be assessed through analysis
oI Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) plant data. Relevant parameters,
measures or indices Ior speciIic plants can be identiIied |5|. The perIormance over a
period oI time will show iI it is improving, going down or being sustained. This will also
help in knowing how well the objectives are being met. In addition, it will guide the areas
which are strong and which need to be strengthened. Use oI computers and dedicated
soItware will certainly help in implementing this and the maintenance management
system in general.


The above lecture has brieIly Iocused on the various aspects oI maintenance
management. Maintenance is expected to play even much bigger role in years to Iollow,
as industries worldwide are going through an increasing and stiII competition and
increased automation oI plants. The down time cost Ior such systems is expected to be
very high. To meet these challenges, maintenance has to use latest technology and
management skills in all spheres oI activities to perIorm its eIIective role in proIitability
oI the company.


1. Kelly, Anthony, 'Managing maintenance resources¨, utterworth-Heinemann,
2. Collacott, R.A., 'Mechanical Iault diagnosis¨, Chapman and Hall, 1977.
3. Levitt Joel, 'Handbook oI maintenance management¨, Industrial Press, 1997.
4. Wilson Alan, 'Asset maintenance management¨, Industrial Press, 2002.
5. Tery Wireman, 'Developing perIormance indicators Ior maintenance¨, Industrial
Press, 2005.

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