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Adm|n|strat|on aggregaLe of Lhose persons ln whose hands Lhe relns of governmenL are for
Lhe Llme belng
Adm|n|strat|ve |aw law LhaL conLrols or ls lnLended Lo conLrol Lhe admlnlsLraLlve operaLlons of
Lhe governmenL

Adm|n|strat|ve funct|on Lhose whlch lnvolve Lhe regulaLlons and conLrol over Lhe conducL and affalr
of lndlvlduals for Lhelr own welfare and Lhe promulgaLlon of rules and
regulaLlons Lo beLLer carry ouL Lhe pollcy of Lhe leglslaLure or such as are
devolved upon Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency by Lhe organlc law of lLs exlsLence

lotetool oJmlolsttotloo legal aspecLs of publlc admlnlsLraLlon as a golng concern

xtetool oJmlolsttotloo

legal relaLlons beLween admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles and prlvaLe lnLeresLs

any of Lhe varlous unlLs of governmenL lncludlng a deparLmenL bureau
offlce lnsLrumenLallLy or governmenLowned or conLrolled corporaLlon or
a local governmenL unlL or a dlsLlncL unlL Lhereln
locotpototeJ oqeocles ot

vesLed by law wlLh a [urldlcal personallLy dlsLlncL from Lhe personallLy of
Lhe 8epubllc (ex naLlonal ower CorporaLlon hlllpplne orLs AuLhorlLy
naLlonal Pouslng AuLhorlLy hlllpplne naLlonal Cll Company)

NoolocotpototeJ oqeocles
ot losttomeotolltles
Lhose noL vesLed by law wlLh a [urldlcal personallLy dlsLlncL from Lhe
8epubllc endowed by law wlLh some lf noL all corporaLe powers
(ex Sugar 8egulaLory AdmlnlsLraLlon)

Chartered |nst|tut|ons Any agency organlzed or operaLlng under a speclflc charLer and vesLed by
law wlLh funcLlons relaLlng Lo speclflc consLlLuLlonal pollcles or ob[ecLlves
lncludlng sLaLe unlverslLles and colleges and Lhe moneLary auLhorlLy of Lhe

Government of the kepub||c
of the h|||pp|nes
corporaLe governmenLal enLlLy Lhrough whlch Lhe funcLlons of governmenL
are exerclsed LhroughouL Lhe hlllpplnes lncludlng Lhe varlous arms
Lhrough whlch pollLlcal auLhorlLy ls made effecLlve ln Lhe hlllpplnes
wheLher perLalnlng Lo Lhe auLonomous reglons Lhe provlnclal clLy
munlclpal or barangay subdlvlslons or oLher forms of local governmenL


any agency of Lhe naLlonal governmenL noL lnLegraLed wlLhln Lhe
deparLmenL framework vesLed wlLh speclal funcLlons or [urlsdlcLlon by law
endowed wlLh some lf noL all corporaLe power admlnlsLerlng speclal funds
and en[oylng operaLlonal auLonomy usually Lhough a charLer

ub||c off|ce rlghL auLhorlLy and duLy creaLed and conferred by law by whlch for a
glven perlod elLher flxed by law or endurlng aL Lhe pleasure of Lhe
appolnLlng power an lndlvldual ls lnvesLed wlLh some porLlon of Lhe
soverelgn funcLlons of governmenL Lo be exerclsed by LhaL lndlvldual for
Lhe beneflL of Lhe publlc

keorgan|zat|on process of resLrucLurlng Lhe bureaucracy's organlzaLlonal and funcLlonal
seLup Lo make lL more vlable ln Lerms of Lhe economy efflclency
effecLlveness and make lL more responslve Lo Lhe needs of lLs publlc
cllenLele as auLhorlzed by law

Lhe means used by Lhe leglslaLure Lo reorganlze or abollsh offlces whlch lL
may do so by law dlrecLly or lndlrecLly by auLhorlzlng an execuLlve
deparLmenL or agency Lo reorganlze lLs offlce

lour klnds of admlnlsLraLlve law
1 SLaLuLes seLLlng up admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
2 8ody of docLrlnes and declslons deallng wlLh Lhe creaLlon operaLlon and effecL of deLermlnaLlons and
regulaLlons of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
3 8ules regulaLlons or orders of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles ln pursuance of Lhe purposes for whlch
admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles were creaLed of endowed
4 ueLermlnaLlons declslons and orders of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles ln Lhe seLLlemenL of
conLroversles arlslng ln Lhelr parLlcular flelds
1 1987 ConsLlLuLlon
2 1987 AdmlnlsLraLlve Code
3 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code

ConsLlLuLlonal admlnlsLraLlve offlces
4 Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman
3 nLuA
6 CP8
7 naLlonal ollce Commlsslon

8easons for creaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve agencles
1 1o unclog courL dockeLs
2 1o meeL Lhe growlng complexlLles of modern socleLy
3 1o help ln Lhe regulaLlon of ramlfled acLlvlLles of a developlng counLry
4 1o enLrusL Lo speclallzed agencles ln speclfled flelds wlLh Lhelr speclal knowledge experlence and
capablllLy Lhe Lask of deallng wlLh problems Lhereof as Lhey have Lhe experlence experLlse and power of
dlspaLch Lo provlde soluLlons LhereLo

1ypes of admlnlsLraLlve bodles
1 CranL of some graLulLy granL or speclal
hlllpplne veLerans 8oard 8oard on enslons for veLerans
hlllpplne veLerans AdmlnlsLraLlon CovernmenL Servlce
lnsurance SysLem Soclal SecurlLy SysLem

2 1o carry on cerLaln governmenLal funcLlon 8ureau of lmmlgraLlon 8ureau of lnLernal 8evenue 8oard
of Speclal lnqulry and 8oard of Commlssloners Clvll Servlce
Commlsslon 8angko SenLral ng lllplnas

3 1o perform some buslness servlce for Lhe
8ureau of osLs osLal Savlngs 8ank MeLropollLan
WaLerworks and Sewerage AuLhorlLy hlllpplne naLlonal
8allways Clvll AeronauLlcs 8oard

4 1o regulaLe buslness affecLed wlLh publlc
llber lnspecLlon 8oard hlllpplnes aLenL Cfflce Cfflce of
Lhe lnsurance Commlssloner

3 1o regulaLe prlvaLe buslness and
lndlvlduals under Lhe pollce power of Lhe
SecurlLles and Lxchange Commlsslons 8oard of lood
lnspecLors 8oard of 8evlew of MoLlon lcLures
rofesslonal 8egulaLlons Commlsslon

6 1o ad[usL lndlvldual conLroversles because
of some sLrong soclal pollcy lnvolved

naLlonal Labor 8elaLlons Commlsslon CourL of Agrarlan
8elaLlons 8eglonal Cfflces of Lhe ueparLmenL of Labor
8uraeau of Labor SLandards Women and Mlnors 8ureau
7 1o conducL lnvesLlgaLlons and gaLher
evldence for lnformaLlon
recommendaLlon or prosecuLlon of crlmes
Commlsslon on Puman 8lghLs naLlonal 8ureau of
lnvesLlgaLlon rosecuLors Cfflce

1wo mosL lmporLanL powers of admlnlsLraLlve offlcers
1 ;uasl leglslaLlve
2 ;uasl [udlclal

O urlsdlcLlon Lo hear and declde cases whlch lnvolves Lhe exerclse of ad[udlcaLory power ls conferred
only by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or by Lhe sLaLuLe lL cannoL be conferred by Lhe 8ules of CourL

O urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sub[ecL maLLer musL exlsL as a maLLer of law and cannoL be flxed by agreemenL of
Lhe parLles acqulred Lhrough or walved enlarged or dlmlnlshed by any acL or omlsslon nelLher can lL
be conferred by acqulescence of Lhe Lrlbunal

O urlsdlcLlon cannoL be lmplled from Lhe language of Lhe sLaLuLe ln Lhe absence of a clear leglslaLlve
lnLenL Lo Lhe effecL

Lxpress and |mp||ed powers
eoetol tole Lhe quanLum of powers possessed by an admlnlsLraLlve agency formlng parL of
Lhe execuLlve branch wlll be llmlLed Lo LhaL conferred expressly or by necessary
or falr lmpllcaLlon ln lLs enabllng acL

lmplleJ powet Lhe granL of [udlclal or quasl[udlclal power Lo Lry acLlons carrles wlLh lL all
necessary and lncldenLal powers Lo employ all wrlLs processes and oLher means
essenLlal Lo make lLs [urlsdlcLlon effecLlve

power Lo lssue and promulgaLe rules of procedure
auLhorlLy Lo enforce or execuLe [udgemenL
M|n|ster|a| and d|scret|onary powers
,lolstetlol Joty one whlch ls so clear and speclflc as Lo leave no room for Lhe exerclse of
dlscreLlon ln lLs performance

one whlch an offlcer or Lrlbunal performs ln a glven sLaLe of facLs ln a
prescrlbed manner ln obedlence Lo Lhe mandaLe of legal auLhorlLy wlLhouL
regard Lo Lhe exlsLence of hls own [udgemenL upon Lhe proprleLy or
lmproprleLy of Lhe acL done
mandamus may lle Lo compel performance

lsctetloooty Joty LhaL whlch by lLs naLure requlres Lhe exerclse of [udgemenL

law lmposes a duLy upon a publlc offlcer and glves hlm Lhe rlghL Lo declde
how or when Lhe duLy shall be performed

peLlLlon for cerLlorarl may lle where Lhere ls grave abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe offlclal or
admlnlsLraLlve agency

lsctetloo faculLy or rlghL whlch Lhe law confers Lo acL offlclally under cerLaln
clrcumsLances accordlng Lo Lhe dlcLaLes of one's own consclence or
[udgemenL wlLhouL Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe [udgemenL or consclence of oLhers

conferred upon an offlclal by whlch he may declde a quesLlon elLher way
and sLlll be rlghL

power or rlghL conferred upon publlc funcLlonarles by law of acLlng offlclally
under cerLaln clrcumsLance unconLrolled by Lhe [udgemenL or consclences
of oLhers

means sound dlscreLlon exerclsed noL arblLrarlly or wllfully buL wlLh regard
Lo whaL ls rlghL and equlLable under Lhe clrcumsLances and Lhe law and
dlrecLed by offlcer's reason and consclence Lo [usL resulL

Mandatory and perm|ss|ve dut|es and powers
,ooJototy stotote commands elLher poslLlvely LhaL someLhlng be done or performed ln a
parLlcular way or negaLlvely LhaL someLhlng noL be done leavlng Lhe person
concerned no cholce on Lhe maLLer excepL Lo obey

omlsslon Lo follow renders Lhe proceedlngs Lo whlch lL relaLes lllegal and
vold declslon rendered lnvalld

sLaLuLory requlremenLs lnLended for Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe clLlzens and by a
dlsregard of whlch Lhelr rlghLs are ln[urlously affecLed

ltectoty stotote ouLllnes Lhe acL Lo be done ln such a way LhaL ln[ury can resulL from lgnorlng
lL or LhaL lLs purpose can be accompllshed ln a manner oLher Lhan LhaL
prescrlbed and subsLanLlally Lhe same resulL obLalned

a sLaLuLe whlch merely operaLes Lo confer dlscreLlon upon a person namely
Lo acL accordlng Lo Lhe dlcLaLes of hls own [udgemenL and consclence and
noL conLrolled by Lhe [udgemenL and consclence of oLhers

nonperformance of whaL lL prescrlbes Lhough consLlLuLlng ln some
lnsLance an lrregularlLy or sub[ecLlng Lhe offlclal concerned Lo dlsclpllnary or
admlnlsLraLlve sancLlon wlll noL vlLlaLe Lhe proceedlngs Lhereln Laken

lf no subsLanLlal rlghLs depend on lL and no ln[ury can resulL from lgnorlng lL
and Lhe purpose of Lhe leglslaLure can be accompllshed ln a manner oLher
Lhan LhaL prescrlbed and subsLanLlally Lhe same resulLs obLalned

Lrrors |n exerc|se of power
CovernmenL noL bound by errors of publlc offlcers
CovernmenL ls noL sLopped by mlsLakes of offlcers
CovernmenL offlclals are presumed Lo perform Lhelr funcLlons wlLh regularlLy and sLrong evldence ls
necessary Lo rebuL Lhls presumpLlon

resldenL as chlef execuLlve and admlnlsLraLlve offlcer
4 lmplled from hls execuLlve power he belng Lhe chlef execuLlve admlnlsLraLlve power
admlnlsLraLlve power ls an ad[uncL Lo such and ls deslgned Lo complemenL Lhe effecLlve exerclse
of execuLlve power

ower of contro| 1he power Lo alLer modlfy nulllfy or seL aslde whaL a subordlnaLe offlcer had
done ln Lhe performance of hls duLles and Lo subsLlLuLe hls [udgemenL wlLh LhaL
of Lhe laLLer

Doctr|ne of
qua||f|ed po||t|ca|
All execuLlve and admlnlsLraLlve organlzaLlons are ad[uncLs of Lhe execuLlve
deparLmenL Lhe heads of Lhe varlous execuLlve deparLmenLs are asslsLanLs and
agenLs of Lhe chlef execuLlve and excepL ln cases where Lhe chlef execuLlve ls
requlred by Lhe consLlLuLlon or law Lo acL ln person or Lhe exlgencles of Lhe
slLuaLlon demand LhaL he acL personally Lhe mulLlfarlous execuLlve and
admlnlsLraLlve funcLlons of Lhe chlef execuLlve are performed by and Lhrough Lhe
execuLlve deparLmenLs and Lhe acLs of Lhe secreLarles of such deparLmenL
performed and promulgaLed ln Lhe regular course of buslness are unless
dlsapproved or reprobaLed by Lhe chlef execuLlve preempLlvely Lhe acLs of Lhe
chlef execuLlve

ower of
Lhe power Lo see LhaL Lhe offlclals concerned perform Lhelr duLles and lf Lhey
laLer fall or neglecL Lo fulfll Lhem Lo Lake such acLlon or sLeps as prescrlbed by law
Lo make Lhem perform Lhelr duLles

ower of
lncludes gaLherlng organlzlng and analyzlng evldence whlch ls a useful ald or Loll
ln an admlnlsLraLlve agency's performance of lLs rulemaklng or quasl[udlclal

ower of conLrol excludes
1 1he abollLlon or creaLlon of an execuLlve offlce
2 1he suspenslon or removal of career execuLlve offlclals or employees wlLhouL due process of law
3 SeLLlng aslde modlflcaLlon or supplanLlng of declslons of quasl[udlclal agencles lncludlng LhaL of
Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenL on conLesLed cases LhaL have become flnal pursuanL Lo law or Lo
rules and regulaLlons promulgaLed Lo lmplemenL Lhe law

1he resldenL exerclse general supervlslon over local governmenL unlLs

ower of lnvesLlgaLlon
4 noLlce and hearlng requlred as an elemenL of due process
4 1he resldenL has execuLlve power of lnvesLlgaLlon emanaLlng from hls power of supervlslons and
conLrol over all execuLlve deparLmenL bureaus an offlces
4 urely lnvesLlgaLory power Commlsslon on Puman 8lghLs naLlonal 8ureau of lnvesLlgaLlon

Leg|s|at|ve power Lhe power Lo make alLer and repeal laws
ku|e admlnlsLraLlve agency sLaLemenL of general appllcablllLy LhaL lmplemenLs or
lnLerpreLs a law flxes and descrlbes Lhe procedures ln or pracLlce
requlremenLs of an agency noL affecLlng Lhe rlghLs of or procedure
avallable Lo Lhe publlc
ku|emak|ng an agency process for Lhe formulaLlon amendmenL or repeal of a rule
ku|emak|ng power of
adm|n|strat|ve agenc|es
Lhe power Lo lssue rules and regulaLlons whlch resulL from delegaLed
leglslaLlon ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlve level
ku|es and regu|at|ons producL of a delegaLed power Lo creaLe new or addlLlonal legal provlslons
LhaL have Lhe effecL of law
ower of subord|nate
Lhe delegaLed auLhorlLy Lo lssue rules and regulaLlons Lo carry ouL Lhe
provlslons of Lhe sLaLuLe

De|egat|on of |eg|s|at|ve power to the res|dent
1 Lmergency powers %ectloo 2J%2) Attlcle vl of tbe coostltotloo)

2 1arlff powers flx Larlff raLes lmporL and exporL quoLas Lonnage and wharfage dues and oLher duLles
or lmposLs %ectloo 28%2) Attlcle vl of tbe coostltotloo)

3 Crdlnance powers %AJmlolsttotlve coJe of 1987)
Lxecut|ve orders rules of a general or permanenL characLer ln lmplemenLaLlon or
execuLlon of consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLory powers
Adm|n|strat|ve orders relaLe Lo parLlcular aspecLs of governmenLal operaLlons ln pursuance of
hls duLles as admlnlsLraLlve head
roc|amat|ons flxlng a daLe or declarlng a sLaLe or condlLlon of publlc momenL or
lnLeresL upon Lhe exlsLence of whlch Lhe operaLlon of a speclflc law or
regulaLlon ls made Lo depend
Memorandum orders maLLers of admlnlsLraLlve deLall or of subordlnaLe or Lemporary lnLeresL
whlch only concern a parLlcular offlcer or offlce of Lhe governmenL
Memorandum c|rcu|ars maLLers relaLlng Lo lnLernal admlnlsLraLlon whlch Lhe resldenL deslres
Lo brlng Lo Lhe aLLenLlon of all or some of Lhe deparLmenLs agencles
bureaus or offlces of Lhe governmenL for lnformaLlon or compllance
Genera| or spec|f|c orders acLs and commands of Lhe resldenL ln hls capaclLy as commanderln
chlef of Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe hlllpplnes

De|egat|on of |eg|s|at|ve power to the Supreme Court
1 romulgaLe rules of procedure %ectloo 5%5) Attlcle vlll of tbe coostltotloo)
concernlng Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of consLlLuLlonal rlghLs pleadlngs pracLlce and
procedures ln all courLs Lhe admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law Lhe lnLegraLed 8ar and legal asslsLance
Lo Lhe underprlvlleged

2 Crlglnal appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SC
no law shall be passed lncreaslng Lhe appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Supreme CourL wlLhouL lLs advlce
and concurrence %ectloo J0 Attlcle vl of tbe coostltotloo)

De|egat|on of |eg|s|at|ve power to the |oca| governments
1 ower Lo creaLe own source of revenue
2 ower Lo levy Laxes fees and charges
3 ower Lo pass upon an ordlnance

Adm|n|strat|ve funct|on
Lhose whlch lnvolve Lhe regulaLlon and conLrol over Lhe conducL and affalr of lndlvlduals for Lhelr own
welfare and Lhe promulgaLlon of rules and regulaLlons Lo beLLer carry ouL Lhe pollcy of Lhe leglslaLure or
such as devolve upon Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agencles by Lhe laws creaLlng Lhem

uas||eg|s|at|ve uas|[ud|c|a|
ower Lo make rules and regulaLlons whlch resulLs ower Lo hear and deLermlne quesLlons of facL Lo
ln delegaLed leglslaLlon LhaL ls wlLhln Lhe conflnes of
Lhe granLlng sLaLuLe and Lhe docLrlne of non
delegablllLy and separablllLy of powers
whlch Lhe leglslaLlve pollcy ls Lo apply and Lo
declde ln accordance wlLh Lhe sLandards lald down
by Lhe law lLself ln enforclng and admlnlsLerlng Lhe
same law
CperaLes ln Lhe fuLure CperaLes on pasL LransacLlons and clrcumsLances
Cf general appllcaLlon Applles Lo speclflc slLuaLlons persons or enLlLles
LxhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles does noL
LxhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles applles
uocLrlne of prlmary [urlsdlcLlon does noL apply uocLrlne of prlmary [urlsdlcLlon applles
WlLhln Lhe regular [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courLs uocLrlne of prlmary [urlsdlcLlon applles
noLlce and hearlng noL requlred noLlce and hearlng necessary

k|nds of ru|emak|ng power

8ulemaklng by reason of parLlcular delegaLlon of
ower Lo lssue rules and regulaLlons whlch have Lhe
force and effecL of law
8ulemaklng by Lhe consLrucLlon and lnLerpreLaLlon
of a sLaLuLe belng admlnlsLered
ower of admlnlsLraLlve agencles Lo lnLerpreL and
consLrue LhaL sLaLuLes enLrusLed Lo Lhem for
lnLerpreLaLlon as lncldenL of Lhe execuLlon of a
lnLerpreLaLlon handed down by Lhe SecreLary of
usLlce upon requesL of a governmenL agency or
lnLerpreLaLlon ln adversary proceedlngs
ueLermlnaLlon of facLs under a delegaLed power as
Lo whlch a sLaLuLe shall go lnLo effecL
ower Lo ascerLaln facLs whlch wlll form Lhe basls for
Lhe enforcemenL of a sLaLuLe

What cannot be de|egated What may be de|egated
WhaL Lhe law shall be
1o whom lL may be applled
WhaL acLs are necessary Lo effecLuaLe Lhe law
Pow Lhe law shall be enforced
lssue rules Lo flll ln deLalls
1o ascerLaln facLs on whlch Lhe law wlll operaLe
1o exerclse pollce power
1o flx raLes

1ests to determ|ne va||d|ty of de|egat|on

Comp|eteness test Suff|c|ent standard test
1he law musL be compleLe ln all lLs lLems and
condlLlons when lL leaves Lhe leglslaLure such LhaL
when lL reaches Lhe delegaLe Lhe only Lhlng he wlll
have Lo do ls enforce lL
1here musL be sufflclenL guldellnes or llmlLaLlons
ln Lhe law Lo map ouL Lhe boundarles of Lhe
delegaLe's auLhorlLy and prevenL Lhe delegaLlon
from runnlng rloL

L|ements for the va||d exerc|se of quas||eg|s|at|ve power
1 MusL be germane Lo Lhe ob[ecLs and purposes of Lhe law
2 MusL conform Lo Lhe sLandards LhaL Lhe law prescrlbes
3 MusL be reasonable
4 MusL be falrly adopLed Lo carrylng lnLo effecL Lhe general provlslons of Lhe law

When contemporaneous construct|on d|sregarded
1 1here ls no amblgulLy ln Lhe law
2 ConsLrucLlon ls clearly erroneous
1he courL wlll reflne and when necessary correcL Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe
lnLeracLlons of Lhe Lhree branches of Lhe governmenL almosL always ln slLuaLlons where some
agency of Lhe sLaLe has engaged ln acLlon LhaL sLems ulLlmaLely from some leglLlmaLe area of
governmenLal power
1he docLrlne of esLoppels does noL preclude correcLlon of Lhe erroneous consLrucLlon by Lhe offlcer
hlmself by hls successor ln offlce or by Lhe courL ln an approprlaLe case
Lrroneous conLemporaneous consLrucLlon creaLes no vesLed rlghL on Lhe parL of Lhose who relled
upon and followed such consLrucLlon A vesLed rlghL may noL arlse from a wrong lnLerpreLaLlon of a
law by an admlnlsLraLlve or execuLlve offlcer whose prlmary duLy ls Lo enforce and noL Lo consLrue
Lhe law
3 1he CourL has prevlously glven Lhe sLaLuLe a dlfferenL lnLerpreLaLlon


Def|n|t|on of terms

uas|[ud|c|a| acLlons or dlscreLlons of publlc admlnlsLraLlve offlcers or bodles requlred Lo lnvesLlgaLe
facLs hold hearlngs and draw concluslons from Lhem as a basls for Lhelr offlclal acLlon
and Lo exerclse dlscreLlon of a [udlclal naLure

an organ of governmenL oLher Lhan a courL and oLher Lhan a leglslaLure whlch exerclses
ad[udlcaLlve powers affecLlng Lhe rlghLs of prlvaLe person

Iud|c|a| act|on an ad[udlcaLlon upon Lhe rlghLs of parLles who ln general appear or are broughL before
Lhe Lrlbunal by noLlce or process and upon whose clalms some declslon or [udgemenL ls

Lo deLermlne whaL Lhe law ls and whaL Lhe legal rlghLs of parLles are wlLh respecL Lo a
maLLer ln conLroversy and whenever an offlcer ls cloLhed wlLh LhaL auLhorlLy and
underLakes Lo deLermlne whose quesLlons he acLs [udlclally

kequ|s|tes 1 revlously esLabllshed rules and prlnclples
2 ConcreLe facLs wheLher pasL or presenL affecLlng deLermlnaLe lndlvlduals
3 ueclslons as Lo wheLher Lhese facLs are governed by Lhe rules and prlnclples

uas| [ud|c|a| uas||eg|s|at|ve
noLlce and hearlng are requlred noLlce and hearlng are noL necessary
AcLlon flled wlLh Lhe CourL of Appeals AcLlon flled wlLh Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
Card|na| pr|mary requ|rements of due process

1 1he rlghL Lo a hearlng whlch lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo presenL one's case and submlL evldence ln supporL
2 1he Lrlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence presenLed
3 1he declslon musL have someLhlng Lo supporL lLself
4 1he evldence musL be subsLanLlal and subsLanLlal evldence means such evldence as a reasonable mlnd
mlghL accepL as adequaLe Lo supporL a concluslon
3 1he declslon musL be based on Lhe evldence presenLed aL Lhe hearlng or aL leasL conLalned ln Lhe record
and dlsclosed Lo Lhe parLles affecLed
6 1he Lrlbunal or body of any of lLs [udges musL acL on lLs own or hls own lndependenL conslderaLlon of Lhe
law and facLs of Lhe conLroversy and noL slmply accepL Lhe vlew of subordlnaLe
7 1he board or body should ln all conLroverslal quesLlons render lLs declslon ln such a manner LhaL Lhe
parLles Lo Lhe proceedlng can know Lhe varlous lssues lnvolved and Lhe reason for Lhe declslon rendered
8 1he offlcer or Lrlbunal conducLlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon musL be vesLed wlLh compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon and so
consLlLuLed as Lo afford a person charged admlnlsLraLlvely wlLh a reasonable guaranLee of honesLy and

Def|n|t|on of terms

Doctr|ne of pr|mary

where a clalm ls orlglnally cognlzable ln Lhe courLs and comes lnLo play
whenever enforcemenL of Lhe clalm requlres Lhe resoluLlons of lssues whlch
under a regulaLory scheme have been placed wlLhln Lhe speclal compeLence of
an admlnlsLraLlve body ln such case Lhe [udlclal process ls suspended pendlng
referral of such lssues Lo Lhe deLermlnaLlve body for lLs vlew

when Lhe deLermlnaLlon requlres Lhe experLlse speclallzed skllls and
knowledge of Lhe proper admlnlsLraLlve bodles because Lechnlcal maLLers or
lnLrlcaLe quesLlons of facLs are lnvolved rellef musL flrsL be obLalned ln Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve proceedlng before a remedy wlll be supplled by Lhe courLs even
Lhough Lhe maLLer ls wlLhln Lhe proper [urlsdlcLlons of a courL

Doctr|ne of exhaust|on
of adm|n|strat|ve

calls for resorL flrsL Lo Lhe approprlaLe admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles ln Lhe
resoluLlon of a conLroversy falllng under Lhelr [urlsdlcLlon before Lhe same may
be elevaLed Lo Lhe courLs of [usLlce for revlew
Doctr|ne of qua||f|ed
po||t|ca| agency

deparLmenL secreLarles are alLer egos or asslsLanL of Lhe presldenL and Lhelr
acLs are presumed Lo be Lhose of Lhe laLLer unless dlsapproved or reprobaLed
by hlm

uest|on of fact when doubL or dlfference arlses as Lo Lhe LruLh or falsehood of alleged facLs or
when Lhe query necessarlly lnvlLes callbraLlon of Lhe whole evldence
conslderlng malnly Lhe credlblllLy of Lhe wlLnesses exlsLence and rellablllLy of
speclflc surroundlng clrcumsLances Lhelr relaLlon Lo each oLher and Lo Lhe
whole and Lhe probablllLles of Lhe slLuaLlon

uest|on of |aw when Lhere ls doubL or dlfference of oplnlon as Lo whaL Lhe law ls on a cerLaln
of facLs and whlch does noL call for an examlnaLlon of Lhe probaLlve value of Lhe
evldence presenLed by Lhe parLles

Substant|a| ev|dence
flndlngs of facL of Lhe courL or admlnlsLraLlve agency concerned are afforded
greaL welghL and when supporLed by subsLanLlal evldence shall be blndlng on
Lhe CourL of Appeals ln oLher words all LhaL ls necessary Lo susLaln Lhe
flndlngs of facL ls LhaL sald flndlngs are supporLed by subsLanLlal evldence

Iud|c|a| or quas|[ud|c|a|
Lhe deLermlnaLlon of whaL Lhe law ls and whaL Lhe legal rlghLs of Lhe parLles
are wlLh respecL Lo Lhe maLLer ln conLroversy and on Lhe basls Lhereof and
Lhe facLs obLalnlng Lhe ad[udlcaLlon of Lhe respecLlve rlghLs of Lhe conLendlng

M|n|ster|a| duty one ln whlch an offlcer or Lrlbunal performs ln a glven sLaLe of facLs ln a
prescrlbed manner ln obedlence Lo Lhe mandaLe of legal auLhorlLy wlLhouL
regard Lo Lhe exlsLence of hls own [udgemenL upon Lhe proprleLy or
lmproprleLy of Lhe acL done

one whlch ls so clear and speclflc as Lo leave no room for Lhe exerclse of
dlscreLlon ln lLs performance

D|scret|on power or rlghL conferred upon publlc funcLlonarles by law of acLlng offlclally
under cerLaln clrcumsLances unconLrolled by Lhe [udgemenL or consclence of


1 Where Lhe quesLlon demands admlnlsLraLlve deLermlnaLlon requlrlng speclal knowledge experlence
and servlces of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunal
2 Where Lhe quesLlon requlres deLermlnaLlon of Lechnlcal and lnLrlcaLe lssues of facL and
3 Where unlformlLy of rullng ls essenLlal Lo comply wlLh Lhe purposes of Lhe regulaLory sLaLuLe

Doctr|ne of pr|mary [ur|sd|ct|on Doctr|ne of exhaust|on of adm|n|strat|ve remed|es
Clalm ls orlglnally cognlzable ln Lhe courLs Lhe
[udlclal process ls belng suspended pendlng referral
of cerLaln lssues Lo Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency for lLs
Clalm ls cognlzable ln Lhe flrsL lnsLance by Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency alone [udlclal process belng
wlLhheld unLll Lhe admlnlsLraLlve process has run lLs
course and Lhe agency acLlon ls rlpe for revlew

Applles ln cases flled wlLh Lhe Lrlal courL Applles ln peLlLlons for cerLlorarl wlLh Lhe Lrlal courL
or CourL of Appeals

SecLlon 7 of 8A no 876
noL appllcable where
1 ubllc lnLeresL requlres lmmedlaLe courL
2 AdmlnlsLraLlve acL ls a nulllLy
3 AdmlnlsLraLlve remedy ls noL adequaLe
4 udlclal rellef ls requlred Lo prevenL vlolence
3 Agency acLed wlLh no [urlsdlcLlon
6 1here ls yeL no admlnlsLraLlve order
7 1here ls esLoppel
8 1here ls urgency or lrreparable damage
9 ;uallfled pollLlcal agency docLrlne applles
10 lssue ls purely legal
11 AdmlnlsLraLlve remedy ls permlsslve
12 uocLrlne wlll resulL ln nulllflcaLlon of clalm
13 ;uo warranLo applles
14 1here ls no law requlrlng remedles
13 Agency has no [urlsdlcLlon
Concerned wlLh promoLlng proper relaLlonshlps beLween Lhe courLs and admlnlsLraLlve agencles charged
wlLh parLlcular regulaLory duLles
noncompllance ls noL [urlsdlcLlonal and Lhe fallure Lo Llmely ob[ecL LhereLo amounLs Lo a walver Lhereof
and [usLlfles Lhe courL Lo proceed Lo concluslon

lf sLaLuLe WhaL musL be done
rovldes for speclflc meLhod of [udlclal revlew Should be followed oLherwlse may be dlsmlssed
as elLher belng premaLure or lmproper

SllenL or muLe Crdlnary clvll acLlon cannoL be avalled of
Speclal clvll acLlon for cerLlorarl prohlblLlon
and/or mandamus under 8ule 63 of Lhe 8ules of

Modes of [ud|c|a| rev|ew
1 Crdlnary courL acLlon
2 Appeal
3 eLlLlon for revlew

Nature Crdlnary clvll acLlon (appeal)
Sub[ect ueclslons or flnal orders of quasl[udlclal agencles exerclslng quasl[udlclal
funcLlons on poestloos of foct poestloos of low or mlxeJ poestloos of foct ooJ
of low
Lxcept|ons ueclslons of Lhe Commlsslon on LlecLlons and Lhe Commlsslon on AudlL
%ptopet octloo ls petltloo fot cettlototl ooJet koles 64 ooJ 65 of tbe koles of
coott flleJ wltblo J0 Joys ftom ootlce of tbeteof)
kequ|rement LxhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles
Lega| bas|s 8ule 43 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
8aLas ambansa 8lg 129
Venue CourL of Appeals
llfLeen (13) days from recelpL of declslon or resoluLlon
LxLenslon allowed
Contents of pet|t|on 1 lull names of Lhe parLles Lo Lhe case wlLhouL lmpleadlng Lhe courL or
agencles elLher as peLlLloners or respondenLs
2 Conclse sLaLemenL of facLs and lssues lnvolved and Lhe grounds relled upon
for Lhe revlew
3 Clearly leglble or dupllcaLe orlglnal or cerLlfled Lrue copy of Lhe award
[udgemenL flnal order or resoluLlon appealed from and cerLlfled Lrue
coples of maLerlal porLlons of Lhe record referred Lo Lhereln and oLher
supporLlng papers
4 Sworn cerLlflcaLlon agalnsL forum shopplng

- obstootlol compllooce wltb obove tepoltemeots sofflcleot Noo
compllooce sofflcleot qtoooJ fot Jlsmlssol of petltloo

rocess 1 llllng of verlfled complalnL ln seven (7) leglble coples wlLh proof of servlce
of a copy Lhereof on Lhe adverse parLy and on Lhe courL of agency o poo
2 aymenL of dockeL and oLher fees Lo Lhe Clerk of CourL
3 ulsmlssal lf wlLhouL merlL C8 submlsslon of commenL on peLlLlon by
1he laLLer wlLhln Len (10) days from noLlce

ConLenLs of commenL
a lnsufflclencles or lnaccuracles ln peLlLloner's sLaLemenL of facLs and
b 8eason why peLlLlon should be denled or dlsmlssed

4 ulsmlssal of peLlLlon (Lhru MlnuLe 8esoluLlon) C8
Clve due course Lo Lhe peLlLlon (Lhru a fulllengLh declslon)
3 1ransmlLLal of record
WlLhln flfLeen (13) days from noLlce LhaL peLlLlon has been glven due
6 Cral argumenLs C8 submlsslon of memoranda by Lhe parLles
1he laLLer wlLhln flfLeen (13) days from noLlce
7 Submlsslon for declslon
Dpon flllng of Lhe lasL pleadlng or memorandum
8 romulgaLlon for declslon
ueclslon or flnal resoluLlon of Lhe CourL of Appeals ls appealable Lo Lhe
Supreme CourL by peLlLlon for revlew ln accordance wlLh 8ule 43 of Lhe
8ules of CourL

Cthers Cnly one (1) moLlon for reconslderaLlon ls allowed

Substant|a| ev|dence ru|e ee Jefloltloo of tetms

Lxcept|ons to the substant|a| ev|dence ru|e
1 When Lhe facLual flndlngs of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency and Lhe lnlLlal facLflndlng agency are
2 When Lhe flndlngs are grounded enLlrely on speculaLlon surmlses or con[ecLures
3 When Lhe lnference made by Lhe quasl[udlclal agency from lLs flndlngs of facL ls manlfesLly
mlsLaken absurd or lmposslble
4 When Lhere ls grave abuse of dlscreLlon ln Lhe appreclaLlon of facLs
3 When Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency ln maklng lLs flndlngs goes beyond Lhe lssues of Lhe case and such
flndlngs are conLrary Lo Lhe admlsslon of Lhe parLles
6 When Lhe [udgemenL of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency ls premlsed on a mlsapprehenslon of facLs
7 When Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency falls Lo noLlce cerLaln relevanL facLs whlch lf properly consldered
wlll [usLlfy a dlfferenL concluslon
8 When Lhe flndlngs of facL are Lhemselves confllcLlng
9 When Lhe flndlngs are concluslons wlLhouL clLaLlon of Lhe speclflc evldence on whlch Lhey are based
10 When Lhe flndlngs are premlsed on Lhe absence of evldence buL such flndlngs are conLradlcLed by
Lhe evldence on record

Lffect of appea|
Ceneral rule udgemenLs by lower courLs or quasl[udlclal Lrlbunal or agencles
become execuLory only afLer Lhey become flnal and execuLor
LxcepLlon Where Lhe law so provldes
Lxample Clvll Servlce Commlsslon (AdmlnlsLraLlve Code)
Cfflce of Lhe resldenL (Local CovernmenL Code)
Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman (Cmbudsman AcL)


Nature Speclal clvll acLlon
Sub[ect ;oestloos of low or ettots of jotlsJlctloo buL noL errors of [udgemenL or
quesLlons of facL

1 Annul or modlfy a quesLloned acL or rullng
2 Annul vold proceedlngs
3 revenL unlawful and oppresslve exerclse of legal auLhorlLy
4 rovlde for a falr and orderly admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce

kequ|s|te 1 ulrecLed agalnsL a Lrlbunal board or offlcer exerclslng [udlclal or quasl
[udlclal funcLlons
2 1rlbunal board or offlcer has acLed wlLhouL or ln excess of [urlsdlcLlon or
wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon

WlLhouL [urlsdlcLlon Lhe Lrlbunal board or offlcer acLed wlLh absoluLe
wanL of [urlsdlcLlon because no sLaLuLe confers such [urlsdlcLlon

Lxcess of [urlsdlcLlon Lhe Lrlbunal board or offlcer has [urlsdlcLlon as
granLed by law buL has Lranscended Lhe same or acLed wlLhouL sLaLuLory

Crave abuse of dlscreLlon lmplles caprlclous and whlmslcal exerclse of
[udgemenL as ls equlvalenL Lo lack of [urlsdlcLlon or where Lhe power ls
exerclsed ln an arblLrary or despoLlc manner by reason of passlon or
personal hosLlllLy so apparenL and gross as Lo amounL Lo an evaslon of
poslLlve duLy or Lo a vlrLual refusal Lo perform Lhe duLy en[olned or Lo acL aL
all ln conLemplaLlon of law

3 1here ls no appeal nor any plaln speedy and adequaLe remedy ln Lhe
ordlnary course of law

a When Lhe publlc welfare and Lhe advancemenL or publlc pollcy
b When Lhe broader lnLeresLs of [usLlce so requlre
c When Lhe wrlLs or orders lssued are null and vold
d When Lhe quesLloned order amounLs Lo an oppresslve exerclse of
[udlclal auLhorlLy

Lega| bas|s 8ule 63 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
Contents of pet|t|on 1 Clearly leglble or dupllcaLe orlglnal or cerLlfled Lrue copy of Lhe award
[udgemenL flnal order or resoluLlon appealed from and cerLlfled Lrue
coples of maLerlal porLlons of Lhe record referred Lo Lhereln and oLher
supporLlng papers

Venue 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
CourL of Appeals
Supreme CourL
SlxLy (60) days from recelpL of declslon or resoluLlon
Issuance of
Jbeo ptopet
lL ls Lhe lnadequacy noL Lhe mere absence of all oLher legal remedles and
Lhe danger of fallure of [usLlce wlLhouL Lhe wrlL LhaL musL usually deLermlne
Lhe proprleLy of cerLlorarl

Jbeo lt moy oot lssoe
1 1o correcL errors of procedure or mlsLakes ln Lhe courL's flndlngs or
2 Lrrors ln Lhe appreclaLlon of evldence
3 ;uesLlon of facL
4 Lrrors of facL
3 LvaluaLlon of evldenLlary maLLers

Cthers MoLlon for reconslderaLlon musL be flled before Lhe remedy of cerLlorarl may
be avalled of 1hls ls ln order Lo glve Lhe courL or Lrlbunal Lhe chance Lo correcL

1 Where Lhe order ls a paLenL nulllLy as where Lhe courL has no [urlsdlcLlon
2 Where Lhe quesLlons ralsed have been duly ralsed and passed upon by Lhe
lower courL or are Lhe same as Lhose ralsed before Lhe lower courL
3 Where Lhere ls an urgenL necesslLy for Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe quesLlon and
any furLher delay would pre[udlce Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe governmenL or of Lhe
peLlLloner or Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe acLlon ls perlshable
4 Where under Lhe clrcumsLances a moLlon for reconslderaLlon would be
3 Where peLlLloner was deprlved of due process and Lhere ls exLreme
urgency for rellef
6 Where ln a crlmlnal case rellef from an order of arresL ls urgenL and Lhe
granLlng of such rellef by Lhe Lrlal courL ls lmprobable
7 Where Lhe proceedlngs ln Lhe lower courL are a nulllLy for lack of due
8 Where Lhe proceedlngs were ex potte or ln whlch Lhe peLlLloner had no
opporLunlLy Lo ob[ecL
9 Where Lhe lssue ralsed ls one purely of law or where publlc lnLeresL ls
10 Where [udlclal lnLervenLlon ls urgenL
11 Where lLs appllcaLlon may cause greaL and lrreparable damage
12 lallure of a hlgh governmenL from whom rellef ls Lo acL on Lhe maLLer
13 When Lhe lssue of nonexhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles has been
rendered mooL and
14 Where speclal clrcumsLances warranL lmmedlaLe and more dlrecL acLlon


Nature revenLlve remedy
urpose 1o resLraln Lhe dolng of an acL abouL Lo be done noL Lo provlde remedy for acLs
already a folt occompll
Sub[ect lssues affecLlng [urlsdlcLlon
Lega| bas|s SecLlon 2 8ule 63 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
Venue 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
CourL of Appeals
Supreme CourL


Nature revenLlve remedy
urpose 1o resLraln Lhe dolng of an acL abouL Lo be done noL Lo provlde remedy for acLs
already a folt occompll
Sub[ect 1here ls neglecL on Lhe parL of a Lrlbunal or offlcer ln Lhe performance of an acL
whlch Lhe law speclflcally en[olns as a duLy or unlawful excluslon of a parLy from
Lhe use and en[oymenL of a rlghL whlch he ls enLlLled
Lega| bas|s SecLlon 3 8ule 63 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
Venue 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
CourL of Appeals
Supreme CourL
L|ements 1 Any of Lhe followlng
a AgalnsL any Lrlbunal whlch unlawfully neglecLs Lhe performance of an
acL whlch Lhe law speclflcally en[olns as a duLy
b ln case of any corporaLlon board or person unlawfully neglecLs Lhe
performance of an acL whlch Lhe law en[olns as a duLy resulLlng from an
offlce LrusL or sLaLlon and
c ln case any Lrlbunal corporaLlon board or person unlawfully excludes
anoLher from Lhe use and en[oymenL of a rlghL or offlce Lo whlch such
oLher ls legally enLlLled

2 1here ls no oLher plaln speedy and adequaLe remedy ln Lhe ordlnary course
of law

kequ|s|tes for
mandamus to |ssue
1 1he appllcanL musL have a clear legal rlghL le one founded or granLed by
law Lo Lhe Lhlng demanded
2 1he rlghL musL be well deflned clear and cerLaln
3 1he correspondlng duLy of Lhe defendanL Lo perform Lhe requlred acL musL
be clear and speclflc and
4 1he respondenL musL have Lhe power Lo perform Lhe acL concernlng whlch
Lhe appllcaLlon for mandamus ls made and
3 1here musL be unreasonable delay ln Lhe performance of Lhe duLy
noLwlLhsLandlng demand Lo perform lL

When |t may or may
not ||e
May lle
1o compel Lhe dolng of a mlnlsLerlal acL
1o compel Lhe exerclse of dlscreLlon

May noL lle
1o conLrol dlscreLlon
1o compel a course of conducL
1o compel an offlclal Lo do anyLhlng whlch ls noL hls duLy Lo do
1o glve Lhe appllcanL anyLhlng whlch he ls noL enLlLled by law
1o compel performance of an acL prohlblLed by law
1o requlre anyone Lo fulfll conLracLual obllgaLlons
1o compel Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy Lo appolnL a parLlcular person Lo a
speclflc poslLlon Lhough how quallfled he may be Lo Lhe poslLlon
1o compel regulaLory agencles Lo lssue rules and regulaLlons

noL laLer Lhan 60 days from noLlce of Lhe [udgemenL order or resoluLlon C8
from Lhe noLlce of denlal of a moLlon for reconslderaLlon or new Lrlal

Common requlslLes for peLlLlon for cerLlorarl prohlblLlon and mandamus
1 eLlLlon musL be verlfled
2 venue for flllng
3 urlsdlcLlon Lo lssue wrlL
Plerarchy of courLs observed
4 Who should be respondenLs
3 ConLenLs of peLlLlon
6 nonforum shopplng cerLlflcaLlon