7The Solar System Through Moses and Abraham, God gave us a glimpse of his creations.

The worlds are innumerable unto man, yet numbered to God. As one earth with its heavens passes away by the word of his power, another comes into being, that man might have immortality and eternal life. Among the governing stars is Kolob, which governs our system and is closest to God's throne. The Lord God is more intelligent than all the spirits. Yet beautiful as this awe-inspiring revealed message is, it is general in almost every way. No one could construct detailed pictures of the universe from these revealed concepts. However, a relatively detailed picture of the universe has become available to mankind, beginning with Copernicus and Galileo, and coming into especially sharp focus during the past half century—particularly during the past decade or so. This is the dispensation of the fulness of times when all things are to be revealed to man. Must we believe that this knowledge will come only through the prophets? God has admonished us to study, to be anxiously engaged in a good cause, and to ponder in our hearts. (See D&C 58:27; 88:62, 78-80.) With this approach, men in and out of the Church have been discovering truths about the universe and about creation. God has told us that in the dispensation of the fulness of times nothing would be withheld, including the facts of astronomy: " . . . the sun, moon, or stars—All the times of their revolutions . . . and all their glories, laws, and set times, shall be revealed. . . ." (See D&C 121:28-32.) Many of these things are now known, and new facts are being discovered at a dizzying pace. It seems apparent that God is revealing these scientific matters in the dispensation of the fulness of times via inspiration (seldom recognized as such) to scientists who are pursuing an almost passionate search for these truths. In this and the next four chapters, we shall review some of the findings of science. We shall briefly examine the universe (astronomy), the earth (geology), some principles of life function (biology), and the modern theories of genetics and evolution that seem to have bearing on the problems of creation. Some general references to material on these subjects, mostly text-books, are included in the Bibliography. In this chapter we shall examine the development of knowledge about the structure of the solar system. Such an examination shows that science has been going on at least since the ancient Greeks. (Although the method was formalized only in the 1600s by Galileo and especially by Francis Bacon, note the word science in the Bible: Daniel 1:4 and 1 Timothy 6:20.) This story also illustrates the scientific method and how science does what it claims to do: to continue to approach a more exact understanding of reality. THE FLAT EARTH UNDER THE BLUE DOME Imagine how early men must have wondered about the universe as they watched the sun move overhead during the day and the stars and the moon at night. The earth appeared vast, immobile, and quite flat. Above was a huge dome, apparently a sphere that rotated on its north-south axis, making a little more than one complete circuit around the earth each day.

as shown in Fig. Third. it was now up to ancient man to apply the logic. including the 23. called the Zodiac.This sphere was sprinkled with fixed stars forming patterns. the brightest of these seven lights. Aristotle. Mercury. The year was defined as the time that the sun took to complete one full circuit among the stars and along the ecliptic. Perhaps water on the other side of this crystal accounted for the daytime blue color. Venus. All these things. concluding that everything was just as it looked (certainly the simplest conclusion): The earth was huge. This implied a round earth at the center of the celestial sphere. First. completed their circuits in various intervals of time. and Aristotle's second evidence was that. but they ended by putting too much emphasis on the logic and too little on the measurements. during an eclipse of the moon. indulged in much creative invention and mysticism. and solid. the Greeks understood that the earth was round.5 degree tilt of an ecliptic to the equator. astrology was extremely important to the developing science of astronomy. But what did it all mean? Having the objective data. Seven of the lights on the firmament apparently moved on its surface. He imagined that the celestial bodies influenced one's life. and the sun was such a bright light that it obscured the stars.C. and its pathway was called the ecliptic. in addition to his logic. One of his indulgences was astrology. Jupiter. the constellations. Astronomy was also furthered because of man's need to measure and understand time. .5 degrees to the equator of the celestial sphere. Of course. but the following three were logical and based upon objective data. They also formalized the processes of logic. it was not difficult to imagine that the moon was a sphere and that its apparent shape was determined by the portion illuminated by sunlight. ancient man. summarized the arguments. In any case. The position of the sun among the constellations at the time of birth was especially important. who lived from 384 to 322 B. were observed by ancient man and could be observed by anyone today with no instruments except a protractor that divided the circle into 360 degrees.5 days. 9-1. From this model. From the earliest times. as one moves north. The sun. the earth's shadow on the moon was round. with its center tilted 23. and Saturn. There were also seven lights that wandered among the fixed stars on a fairly narrow path. although the positions of the planets also somehow influenced the newborn in some way. and the five planets. but most people. Since the surface of the celestial sphere is so far away. have never let this situation bother them much. Aristotle understood the phases of the moon and eclipses. there were no objective data to support all this.. Some were subjective and based upon mysticism. moved exactly along the center of this path. This he did. Clearly. depending upon the planet. The moon made its complete circuit in about 29. the earth must be round to account for this observation. during most of history. flat. A ROUND EARTH WITHIN A CELESTIAL SPHERE The Greeks began to extend the objective data by making measurements. particularly as his agricultural practices (planting times) became more sophisticated. the stars visible on the southern horizon drop out of sight. and the stars were on some kind of huge crystal sphere called the firmament. because it became important to predict the positions of the wandering planets. although even ancient man realized that they must be present in the daytime sky. Mars.

but this seemed unlikely. If the sun's rays were parallel at Syene and Alexandria. then he came within 1 percent of the correct value for the earth's circumference. This he did by measuring one line early in the evening and another several hours later after the earth (or the celestial sphere. Hipparchus (160 to 127 B. accounting for this by two models. One of his notable achievements was to measure the distance from the earth to the moon by parallax or the change in angle of a line drawn from widely separate points on the earth's surface to a single point on the moon. He determined that the sun appeared largest and thus came closest to the earth in winter. Ptolemy deduced that the moon was 29.Aristotle rejected the idea that the earth moved around the sun. but Hipparchus intuitively preferred the model of the eccentric. surely it would cause the apparent positions of the stars to change throughout the year. If Eratosthenes used for his stadium one commonly used by the Greeks (equal to one-quarter of a mile—but we don't know for sure).) At the same time in Alexandria. it was exactly overhead. as he thought) had turned a certain distance. the sun was not directly overhead but made an angle to the vertical of about 1/50th of a circle (7 degrees). 23. and correcting for the moon's movement due to the daily rotation.) was one of the best of the Greek astronomers. then 5.C. This model he called an epicycle. He lived about 140 years after Christ. or 300 to 500 years after the Greek astronomers mentioned above. He was able to predict eclipses quite accurately. and hence. He measured the length of the year within six minutes. He also attempted to measure the relative distances to the moon and the sun in terms of the earth's diameter by observing their apparent sizes and the sizes of shadows during eclipses. Yet Aristarchus of Samos (writing around 320 to 310 B. as the positions of objects in a distant scene appear to change as the observer changes his position (a phenomenon known as parallax). the sun went around the earth in a circular orbit. 5. Since there was no annual stellar parallax. This model was called an eccentric. He also suggested that the sun was itself moving on a portable circle that had its center moving on a much larger circular orbit with the earth at its center.C. To him this model best accounted for the data. In one.000 stadia north of Syene. Either model accounted for the data equally well. (Syene would thus be on the Tropic of Cancer. because it was simpler. as well as the moon's path on the ecliptic. The true average value is about 30 earth diameters! . His approach is the principle upon which celestial navigation is based. but the earth was not at the exact center of the circle. it was possible that the stars were extremely far away.C. THE SIZE OF THEE EARTH AND OTHER MEASUREMENTS Eratosthenes of the Alexandrian school (276 to 195 or 196 B. He reasoned that if the earth moved that much in the course of each year. the earth must be stationary in relation to the celestial sphere. Ptolemy was the last great astronomer of Greek antiquity.5 earth diameters from the surface of the earth. He made numerous extremely careful measurements and invented or at least developed trigonometry. the sun fully illuminated the bottom of a deep well.000 stadia must be about 1/50th of the earth's circumference. He noted that at Syene in Egypt on the longest day of the year at noon. Of course.) measured the size of the earth.5 degrees north of the earth's equator.) decided that the earth did go around the sun and that the stars were indeed very far away.

THE SOLAR SYSTEM: THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM From 1473 to 1543. 9-2). He did not make observations but was a mathematician who had the advantages of a good number system and algebra. If the planet moved on an epicycle. He was also able to calculate the relative distances of the planets from the sun. however. and the church was thus set up to lose one of those arguments with science. that is. His arguments. that the earth must be stationary. 9-2). Ptolemy recorded all this in the Almagast. They were a triumph of creativity. and the rate of movement of the epicycle were adjusted just right. How can we explain it? Ptolemy constructed geometrically a model based upon Hipparchus' epicycles. During the Middle Ages. then the planetary motion could be quite accurately predicted. Ptolemy was able to predict the motions of the planets with a high degree of accuracy. He deduced that the planets nearest the sun must go faster than the ones farther away. he published in De Revolutionibus his arguments for a universe in which the earth went around the sun. for example. In 1543. that is. Modern astronomers use algebraic equations in exactly the same way. eccentrics. and Saturn). Ptolemy moved the earth slightly off center (on an eccentric). The planet did not move at a constant rate around the center of its circle but rather at a constant rate around another point opposite to the earth. rather. In his heliocentric system. The scriptures were mingled with philosophy. Most of the time.RETROGRADE MOTION OF THE SUPERIOR PLANETS: THE PTOLEMIC SYSTEM One of the main problems facing ancient astronomers concerned the so-called retrograde motion of the superior planets (those that did not stay relatively close to the sun: Mars. With this complex geometry and the cumbersome Roman numerals (but not algebra). causing them to appear to move backwards among the much more distant fixed stars (Fig. or we would feel it moving around the sun. Near the time of opposition. and he argued that if the motion of the earth would tear it apart. It had been argued. Nicolas Copernicus lived in Poland. the planet appears for a while to move backwards. A sort of loop is formed in the sky if one plots the path of the planet among the fixed stars. This was simple for the inner (minor) planets and not too difficult for the outer (major) ones. making the astrologer's job that much easier. he was able to account nicely for the retrograde motion of planets. To improve the accuracy of prediction. It involved measuring . and hence at opposition they tend to overtake the outer planets. and equants were a description of reality. Copernicus showed that one wouldn't necessarily feel motion. these planets move among the stars from west to east. were extremely disturbing to the scholars of his day. when a planet and the sun are on opposite sides of the earth. from east to west. around another so-called equant (Fig. Ptolemy's models were accepted by the church as true descriptions of the universe. the motion of the huge and much faster celestial sphere should certainly be catastrophic. though perhaps not conclusive. Jupiter. they simply provided an excellent model for prediction of planetary positions. however. Nowhere does he claim that his marvelously creative system of epicycles.

taking his observational data with him.) Tycho determined the length of the year within one second. This worked extremely well. It was held by the church that only perpetual circular motion was worthy of God. He stated these observations as laws of planetary motion. (If you're interested. Kepler spent twenty-five years working with Tycho's data. In spite of these marvelous observations. the year before Tycho's death. his data were accurate within one minute of arc. being fastest when the planet was closest to the sun.) Actually. spending eight years examining one hypothesis after another to account for Mars' motion. usually called Tycho. Toward the end of his life. Copernicus' system. Copernicus incorporated the eccentrics and epicycles of Ptolemy! TESTING THE MODELS: TYCHO BRAHE AND JOHANNES KEPLER The Ptolemic or the Copernican models accounted equally well for the available observations. Tycho was a Danish astronomer (15461601) who built an observatory in 1576 on the island of Hveen. is the same. He accepted the Copernican system and attempted to apply the data to it. Kepler's laws accounted for Tycho's data on Mars within one minute of arc. but Kepler was convinced that Tycho's data were more accurate even than this. For twenty years he made extremely accurate observations of planetary motions and other astronomical events. provided the improved observational data required for further testing of the two hypotheses. they have no apparent diameter. that is. was not able to account for observed planetary motions as well as the Ptolemic system. This is evident when one draws an ellipse by tying a string to two thumbtacks (the foci) and then pushing a pencil against the string. he got in an argument with the Danish king and had to move to Prague. Tycho Brahe. the sum of the distances to two points inside the ellipse. the . To make it work as well. called the foci of the ellipse. Kepler found that if the sun was at one focus of the ellipse that described the orbit of Mars. Although he did not have telescopes. although he thought he could measure some of their diameters as about two minutes of arc. He began with Mars. One minute is about the limit of human vision.the angular distances between the sun and the planets at various times and applying a little trigonometry. Kepler had tried earlier hypotheses that agreed with Tycho's data within about eight minutes of arc. then the speed of Mars around its orbit varied. Actually.) Tycho also interpreted certain biblical statements as refuting the idea of a moving earth. (The full moon subtends an angle in the sky of about 1/2 degree or 30 minutes. (Actually this was only an illusion—all stars appear only as points of light. based upon circular orbits for the planets around the sun. he rejected the Copernican model. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was born in Germany and hired by Tycho at age twenty-nine. An important property of an ellipse is that from any point on the curve. but Kepler finally discarded this notion and tried an ellipse for the orbit of Mars. even in the largest telescopes. see the book by Abel in the Bibliography. He was unable to measure any parallax of stars.

extremely powerful logic and model-building had been applied to excellent objective data. Galileo is said to have tested this from the Leaning Tower of Pisa and found it to be untrue. According to the system of Ptolemy. This could be applied to the planets in their orbits and to other cosmological questions. that objects would not remain on the earth if it were in motion. Venus exhibited phases the same as those of the moon. Venus was always closer to the earth than the sun (Fig. . Hence. 9-2). He formulated the law of inertia. He finally constructed telescopes magnifying up to 30 diameters and used them to see the Copernican system in all its glory. Here logic predicted a clear-cut test between the two systems.1253. everything on earth would have the inertia of a moving earth and would not be swept off and left behind. in the Sidereal Messenger. The Milky Way consisted of thousands of stars. Indeed. Jupiter had four moons that moved with the planet and were not left behind. . as opponents said would happen to our moon if the Copernican system were correct. When Venus was closest to earth.accuracy claimed by Tycho. It had been argued. 1 Galileo heard about telescopes and in 1609 developed the first one having practical astronomical value without ever having seen one. it fell directly on the deck below because of its forward inertia. 1242. And the very idea of a major planet having moons as the earth has a moon argued against the earth as the center of the universe. exactly as predicted by the Copernican system. which states that bodies tend to remain at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. and the Copernican model was supported while the Ptolemic model failed completely. it is valid to date development of the modern scientific method from Galileo's experimental and creative approach to things. for example.) In the 1590s Galileo accepted the Copernican hypothesis. was the first really important scientist to emphasize observation over reasoning from basic postulates. five observations that were in close agreement with the Copernican solar system but not with the model of Ptolemy: 1241. This made it easier to accept the postulated tremendous distances of the fixed stars and the consequent lack of an annual stellar parallax. When it was farthest away from the earth. so it would always appear as a crescent. it was large and appeared as a crescent. Galileo pointed out that when an object was dropped from the mast of a moving ship. (Except for effects of wind resistance. each appearing as a point of light. In 1610 he published. the Italian physicist. Creative. it appeared full and much smaller. Aristotle had written that heavier bodies fall fastest. bodies all fall at the same speed. He performed numerous experiments on acceleration (by rolling balls down inclined planes) and on falling bodies. FURTHER TESTING OF THE MODELS: GALILEO GALILEI Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).

As force is exerted to expel a propellent from the nozzle of the rocket in one direction. but the mass remains. Since the same kinds of features were known on the earth. As Newton restated his first law: Momentum is conserved. and mountains on the moon. but the centripetal force (tension . The Copernican system was a description of the solar system and not an explanation of what was happening. He had worked out most of his understanding of cosmology by age twenty-four. that is. and not the center of the universe. This is possibly the most important scientific document ever published. an equal and opposite force propels the rocket in the opposite direction. England. Newton (and others independently) derived a mathematical equation for centripetal force. All forces occur in pairs. The Force (F) is equal to the mass (m) times the acceleration (a): F = ma. mass is taken as being equal to weight at sea level on earth. 1255. Any force in one direction has an equal force in the opposite direction. He was placed under house arrest for the last ten years of his life.1254. It was published twenty years later in 1687 at the urging of his friends under the title Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The inertia of a body in motion is equal to its momentum. It was a magnificent and unanswerable argument for the Copernican system. He showed that the sun makes a complete revolution in a little over a month. Galileo observed spots on the sun (the celestial body had "blemishes!") that moved as though the sun were a rotating sphere. valleys. 3. Centripetal force causes the tension on a string that is whirling an object. The magnitude of the force determines the rate at which it produces a change in momentum. although in space the weight is gone. By convention. If a force acts on a body. Force. Inertia. This Newton provided. to resist change. As an initial basis for his mathematical explanation of the universe. Galileo was forced to plead guilty to heresy and to deny his teachings. which Newton defined as being equal to the mass times the velocity. the year after Galileo's death. 2. but principally for his own amusement. for it tied everything together. he argued that the earth was a planet similar to the others. Perhaps Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived. The momentum of the whirling object tends to make it go in a straight line. an observation that again seemed more compatible with the Copernican system of celestial spheres rotating in their orbits. Newton formulated the three laws of motion: 1. where it remained until 1835. it produces a change in the momentum of the body in the direction of the applied force. Reaction. Bodies having inertia tend to remain at rest or in motion. meriting its placement on the Catholic index of prohibited books. This is the law upon which rocket propulsion operates. Newton stated that the property of a body giving it inertia (as stated by Galileo) is its mass. and this rate of change is called acceleration. Galileo wrote his Dialogue on the Great World Systems in Italian rather than in Latin. Galileo saw craters. NEWTON'S LAWS: REFINING THE MODEL Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in Lincolnshire.

) This calculation was extended to the orbits of all of the planets and found to hold exactly in every case. Newton was able to derive all of Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his general laws of motion. when the apple is dropped. using the equation for centripetal force. Newton discovered the answer to the question of planetary circular orbits in his law of universal gravitation. fit the observational data of Tycho. and others so well that no previous model could any longer be considered. If all bodies mutually attract each other by the gravitational force. to calculate the acceleration of the earth on the moon required to provide the exact centripetal force necessary to maintain the moon's orbit. His equation also includes a proportionality constant (G) that depends upon the units of mass. combining all forces from all portions of the earth pulling on the apple. This says that the gravitational force (F) is proportional to the product of the masses of two mutually attracting objects (m1 and m2) and that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance (d) between them. What about the planetary orbits? Galileo had argued that the planets remain in motion because of their inertia. then it might provide the centripetal force required to keep the moon in orbit. the answer turns out exactly as predicted: It is 60 2 times less than the acceleration at the earth's surface. Thus. its acceleration should be 60 2 times less. The law of gravitation predicts that because the moon is 60 times farther from the center of the earth than an apple on its surface. To test the law of universal gravitation as it applied in the solar system. (At the moon it is 0. which in the case of the earth was the center of the earth. it accelerates 32 ft/sec2.) By application of the calculus.on the string) holds it to the center so that it goes in a circle. distance. So by 1687 everything had fallen into place. as corrected by Kepler (ellipses rather than circles and epicycles) and as accounted for by Newton's laws. and force: F = G (m1m2/d2) One problem worried Newton. yet the apple falls toward the center. He wondered about the force on an apple pulling it toward the center of the earth. the mathematical model of universal gravitation was upheld by observational data.0089 ft/sec2. Newton found that gravitation acted as if all the mass were concentrated at a point called the center of gravity. At the earth's surface. Newton compared the effect of the earth's gravity on the apple with its effect on the moon. and universal gravitation. Newton invented the calculus. Galileo. centripetal force. Is the apple also pulling on the earth? If this force extends to the moon (the earth and the moon pull on each other). it was necessary to know the gravitational constant (G). When this calculation is performed. It is relatively simple. then each portion of the earth is pulling upon the apple. (This mathematical procedure was derived independently and simultaneously by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in Germany. but he didn't worry about why their orbits are nearly circles instead of straight lines as inertia would suggest. . Newton formulated a simple mathematical statement of the law of universal gravitation. To solve the problem of the direction of force. The Copernican system.

The principle is the same as determining the distance to the moon by measuring its parallax. such as the cyclonic storms mentioned in a footnote above (the Coriolis effect) and the Foucault pendulum. In any case. Of course. asteroids. which apparently account for phenomena occurring at extremely high velocities and small distances (within the atom). Application of celestial mechanics led to the discoveries of Neptune and Pluto. You'll remember that the law of inertia states that objects in motion continue in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. Distances between the earth and planets (but not the moon) were known only in terms of the astronomical unit (the average distance between the earth and the sun). comets. This applies the laws of motion and gravity to calculate the trajectories and orbits of the various bodies in the solar system (planets. . One way was to measure the parallax of Mars at opposition. Since the distance to Mars was known in terms of the astronomical unit. that is. where it works exactly. It is the technology that limits us. providing the proof of the pudding. There are other ways. Foucalt pendulums can be seen in many museums of natural history. etc. Now it can be applied in sending probes to the moon and planets. The time for a complete rotation of the pendulum plane will be more than 24 hours at latitudes below the poles.). miles or kilometers. Two modern advances in physics have been relativity and quantum mechanics. but times can be exactly calculated assuming a rotating earth. accurate telescopes are required to measure planetary parallaxes. determining its distance in miles or kilometers allows us to calculate the astronomical unit in these terms. Newton's laws hold in all the usual circumstances. A few other evidences for a round. The next step was to measure this unit in the terms used to measure the earth's diameter. satellites. Newton's Principia were elaborated into the science of celestial mechanics. So you can imagine that the plane of a pendulum swinging above the north or south pole would appear to rotate 360 degrees in 24 hours as the earth rotated once under the swinging pendulum.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS It is amazing how little has been added to our picture of solar system mechanics since that time nearly three hundred years ago. Most recently the astronomical unit has been determined by radar measurements of the distances to Mars or Venus. the observations exactly match the calculations. rotating earth have been presented. our present space explorations confirm in the minutest detail the solar system model as worked out by Newton and his predecessors. not the theory of celestial mechanics. The problem with rockets and artificial satellites is in building equipment precise enough to calculate (with computers) the necessary angles and velocities and then to achieve them.

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