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Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, school or training. It may be goaloriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology,educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy. Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.
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Learning may

occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.
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Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play.
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10 Meaningful Learning 1.2 Sensitization 1.1 Simple non-associative learning   o 1.1 Habituation 1. An animal first responds to a stimulus. One .14 Nonformal learning and combined approaches 1.15 Tangential learning 1.8 E-learning and augmented learning 1. but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses.1 Classical conditioning 1.13 Nonformal learning 1.1.4 Observational learning 1. 1 Types of learning o 1.16 Dialogic learning 2 Domains of learning 3 Mathematical models of learning 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Other references [edit]Types [edit]Simple of learning non-associative learning [edit]Habituation Main article: Habituation In psychology.11 Informal learning 1.2.6 Enculturation 1.12 Formal learning 1. habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition stimulus.3 Imprinting 1.1.7 Multimedia learning 1.2 Associative learning  o o o o o o o o o o o o o o      1.5 Play 1.9 Rote learning 1.

An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously. one particular unmoving owl in one place). including the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus. problematic gambling.. It is also referred to as classical conditioning. This is determined by what we find to be the most reinforcing stimuli. Honeybees display associative learning through the proboscis extension reflex paradigm.g. they do not eliminate that there are thought processes that interact with those behaviors (see Relational Frame Theory for more information). So when . However. This process is thought to be tied to impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core process for many behaviors (e. pre-occurring element. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced). Making decisions is an important part of everyday functioning. OCD). 1995). Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal..example of this can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is put into the cage. The pain is the result of the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning the person that the stimulation is harmful. Delayed discounting is the process of devaluing rewards based on the delay of time they are presented. this stimulation will create a warm sensation that will eventually turn painful. How we make those decisions is based on what we perceive to be the most valuable or worthwhile actions. Behaviorism is a psychological movement that seeks to alter behavior by arranging the environment to elicit successful changes and to arrange consequences to maintain or diminish a behavior. demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to (namely. [edit]Associative learning Associative learning is the process by which an element is taught through association with a separate. [edit]Sensitization Main article: Sensitization Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al. showing habituation. the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator. the birds react to it again as though it were a predator. Behaviorists study behaviors that can be measured and changed by the environment. [clarification needed] [4] Sensitization is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism. After a while. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning uses reinforcement/punishment to alter an action-outcome association. Soon the birds react less. substance abuse. In contrast Pavlovian conditioning involves strengthening of the stimulus-outcome association. [5] Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior.

Once this occurs the bell becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation to the bell is the conditioned response (CR). [edit]Classical conditioning Main article: Classical conditioning The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response) with another previously neutral stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). In 1913. Another influential person in the world of Classical Conditioning is John B. The classic example is Pavlov and his dogs. and controversial. After numerous pairings of the bell and the food the dogs learned that the bell was a signal that the food was about to come and began to salivate just when the bell was rang. which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus. experiment." where he demonstrated how psychologists can account for the learning of emotion through classical conditioning principles. Skinner's radical behaviorism. Meat powder is the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the salivation is the unconditioned response (UR). [edit]Observational learning Main article: Observational learning . the dogs did not salivate. Watson published the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views. salivating is a reflexive response to the meat powder. Watson's behaviorism (and philosophy of science) stood in direct contrast to Freud. Meat powder naturally will make a dog salivate when it is put into a dog's mouth. The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. "Little Albert. Watson's work was very influential and paved the way for B. Watson's view was that Freud's introspective method was too subjective. Following conditioning. Watson's most famous. and that we should limit the study of human development to directly observable behaviors. the neutral stimulus. Watson. Then Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the meat powder. the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other. This may be a larger reinforcer at a later time or a smaller immediate reinforcer.teaching an individual a response. [edit]Imprinting Main article: Imprinting (psychology) Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The first time Pavlov rang the bell. F. you need to find the most potent reinforcer for that person. but once he put the meat powder in their mouths they began to salivate." in which he argued that laboratory studies should serve psychology best as a science.

include parents. actions. such as cellular phones. such as orcas playing with seals they have caught. enculturation results in [6] competence in the language. but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young. such as a dance. Augmented digital content may include text. suggesting a link with learning. and peers. whether [6] deliberately or not. This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory (Paivio 1971). [edit]E-learning and augmented learning Electronic learning or e-learning is a general term used to refer to Internet-based networked computerenhanced learning. By . and environmental outcomes (results. one's personal repetition of an observed behavior. animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals. it may also have other benefits not associated directly with learning. such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk of injury and possibly infection. Play is generally seen in younger animals. other adults. When a learner interacts with the e-learning environment. If successful. see Emulation (observational learning)). Play involves a significant cost to animals. (most) infants will tune into their surrounding culture. values and rituals of the culture. but improves performance in similar situations in the future. the context-driven instruction can be dynamically tailored to the learner's natural environment. so there must be significant benefits associated with play for it to have evolved. video. [6] The influences which as part of this process limit. and learns the requirements of this different culture). [edit]Play Main article: Play (activity) Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself. which gives them experience with catching prey. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans. images. A specific and always more diffused e-learning is mobile learning (m-learning). it's called augmented learning. It also consumes energy. [edit]Multimedia learning Multimedia learning is where a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information (Mayer 2001). Humans can copy three types of information simultaneously: the demonstrator's goals. However. direct or shape the individual. audio (music and voice). for example improving physical fitness. where a person is within a culture different to their normal culture. and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that culture.The learning process most characteristic of humans is imitation. Through copying these types of information. Besides inanimate objects. which uses different mobile telecommunication equipment. (compareacculturation. By adapting to the needs of individuals. [edit]Enculturation Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of their native culture by which he or she is surrounded.

exploring. [edit]Formal learning Main article: Education A depiction of the world's oldest continually operating university. Although it has been criticized by some schools of thought. during a meal at table with parents. See also Minimally Invasive Education. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition. one would learn to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going). [edit]Meaningful Learning Meaningful learning refers to the concept that the learned knowledge (lets say a fact) is fully understood by the individual and that the individual knows how that specific fact relates to other stored facts (stored in your brain that is). rote learning is a necessity in many situations.personalizing instruction. the University of Bologna. It is learning from life. it is good to contrast meaningful learning with the much less desirable.Learning from which students have understood the information they are learning rather than memorising it specifically for the purpose of passing assessment tests. For understanding this concept. Italy . play. from mathematics to music to religion. based on the idea that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more it is repeated. augmented learning has been shown to improve learning performance for a lifetime. [edit]Rote [7] learning Main article: Rote learning Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. etc. rote learning. [edit]Informal learning Main article: Informal learning Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations (for example. Rote learning is used in diverse areas.

helped to acquire new skills. and nonformal learning methods. some people may be motivated to learn how to play a real instrument. such as solving a Rubik's cube quickly. workshops. teaching. on the condition they prepare. which in turn helps to speed up future attempts. links below). For example. a place to get experience in organizing. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints. They may be given time to assist international youth workshops and training courses. * Occasionally revisiting the cube helps prevent negative learning or loss of skill. etc. [edit]Dialogic learning Main article: Dialogic learning Dialogic learning is a type of learning based on dialogue.   Thinking critically about moves helps find shortcuts. such as in a school system. some people may be inspired to read the original work. several factors come into play at once:   Directions help one learn the patterns of solving a Rubik's cube. in clubs or in (international) youth organizations. [edit]Tangential learning Tangential learning is the process by which people will self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in a context that they already enjoy. contribute. Practicing the moves repeatedly and for extended time helps with "muscle memory" and therefore speed. [edit]Nonformal learning and combined approaches The educational system may use a combination of formal. [edit]Nonformal learning Main article: Nonformal learning Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system. In order to learn a skill. [edit]Domains of learning .Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship. The UN and EU recognize these different forms of learning (cf. share and can prove this offered valuable new insight. informal. after playing a music-based video game. or after watching a TV show that references Faust and Lovecraft. In some schools students can get points that count in the formal-learning systems if they get work done in informal-learning circuits.

ski. in learning to play chess. For example. [edit]Mathematical For m [8] models of learning . worship. love. later in the game the person may even learn to love the game itself. drive a car. analyze. etc. and appreciate its history (affective domain). swim. These domains are not mutually exclusive. Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:    Cognitive – To recall. Psychomotor – To dance. value its applications in life. dive. Affective – To like something or someone. ride a bike. etc. Furthermore. discuss. but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor). fear. etc. appreciate.In XXI c. hate. calculate. problem solve. the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain).