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DUCTANCE. Conductance is the ability of a material to pass electrons. The factors that affect the magnitude of resistance are exactly the same for conductance, but they affect conductance in the opposite manner. Therefore, conductance is directly proportional to area, and inversely proportional to the length of the material. The temperature of the material is definitely a factor, but assuming a constant temperature, the conductance of a material can be calculated. The unit of conductance is the MHO (G), which is ohm spelled backwards. Recently the term mho has been redesignated SIEMENS (S). Whereas the symbol used to represent resistance (R) is the Greek letter omega (W), the symbol used to represent conductance (G) is (S). The relationship that exists between resistance (R) and conductance (G) or (S) is a reciprocal one. A reciprocal of a number is one divided by that number. In terms of resistance and conductance:

1 1 R=,G= G R Q factor, dissipation and tan-delta Capacitors have Q (quality) factor (and the inverse, dissipation factor, D or tan-delta) which relates capacitance at a certain frequency to the combined losses due to dielectric leakage and series internal resistance (also known as ESR) dissipation factor (dielectric loss). The lower the Q, the lossier the capacitor. Aluminum electrolytic types have typically low Q factors. High Q capacitors tend to exhibit low DC leakage currents. Tan-delta is the tangent of the phase angle between voltage and current in the capacitor. This angle is sometimes called the loss angle. It is related to the power factor which is zero for an ideal capacitor.

Variable capacitors Main article: Variable capacitor Variable capacitors may have their capacitance intentionally and repeatedly changed over the life of the device. They include capacitors that use a mechanical construction to change the distance between the plates, or the amount of plate surface area which overlaps, and variable capacitance diodes that change their capacitance as a function of the applied reverse bias voltage. Variable capacitance is also used in sensors for physical quantities, including microphones, pressure and hygro sensors. Non-ideal properties of practical capacitors Breakdown voltage Main article: Breakdown voltage The breakdown voltage of the dielectric limits the power density of capacitors. For a particular dielectric, the breakdown voltage is proportional to the thickness of the dielectric. If a manufacturer makes a new capacitor with the same dielectric as some old capacitor, but with half the thickness of the dielectric, the new capacitor has half the breakdown voltage of the old capacitor. Because the plates are closer together, the manufacturer can put twice the parallel-plate area inside the new capacitor and still fit it in the same volume (capacitor size) as the old capacitor. Since the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is given by:

this new capacitor has 4 times the capacitance as the old capacitor. Since the energy stored in a capacitor is given by:

this new capacitor has the same maximum energy density as the old capacitor. The energy density depends only on the dielectric. Making a few thick layers of dielectric (which can support a high voltage, but results in a low capacitance), or making many very thin layers of

dielectric (which results in a low breakdown voltage, but a higher capacitance) has no effect on the energy density.

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