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Et NEW EDITIONS
SOPHIA ZAPHIROPOULOS

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION
New Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills I is the first part of a

t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach t h e t e c h n i q u e s students require to attempt any of the variations among t h e six f o r m s of writing task s e t in t h e r e v i s e d Cambridge Proficiency examination. Approximately o n e third of the material in Writing Skills has been revised for this book. All the o t h e r material in this b o o k is new. Eleven of the twenty units consist of t w o facing pages, and should, under normal circumstances, be completed in a l e s s o n , with a writing task to be d o n e later in approximately o n e hour, the time allowed for it in the examination. In t h e remaining nine units of four pages, t w o lessons will normally be required. The changes in the examination The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE. P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e than o n e point to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. T h e q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an article

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e three set texts, Q u e s t i o n 5 consists of three q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an a a article letter report an essay a review

T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks ( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 words), remain unchanged. T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills It is important for students to understand that while credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y considerations to be taken into account; organisation and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least equally important. Different writing tasks require s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e m , and s u c h t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively through m o d e l s written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are supported with revision of the necessary grammatical structures and lexical items by means of accompanying exercises and the reference section and the appendix at t h e end. Doing justice to oneself in an examination T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often underestimated by students. The difference, however, is n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this book, but learning the right technique to deal with each is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that students pay particular attention to the tips provided throughout the book. These consist of practical advice on what to do and what not to do in a given situation and should make it possible for students w h o take it to do justice to themselves in the exam.

an essay a letter a proposal

In P a r t 2, candidates c h o o s e o n e question comprising instructions which give candidates guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating, analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s , p e r s u a d i n g , judging p r i o r i t i e s , e v a l u a t i n g , m a k i n g recommendations, giving information and summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :
an a a article proposal report

a letter a review

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS

REVISION

P A G E

S E C T I O N

I : A R T I C L E S

Describing and narrating

What a difference! Close friends again

Tenses
Used to and would

Taking sides

Who's freedom? Theirs or ours?

10

Balancing an argument

Computers: a dream or a nightmare?

Connectors and modifiers: balancing an argument

14

Providing solutions

T o o many people, not enough earth Preserving the planet for future generations

Conditionals Should, ought to and would

16

S E C T I O N

2:

L E T T E R S

Complaining

Semi formal: A resident's concerns Formal: An official complaint

18

Giving information

A letter of welcome to exchange students

20

Making suggestions

Preserving and restoring a town Improving a town

Articles Should

24

Giving opinions

Young people on the streets

Conditionals

26

S E C T I O N 3: E S S A Y S

Comparing

Public and private transport in the city

Connectors and modifiers

30

Responding to generalisations

Relation between national character and climate

Articles

32

Ii

Providing information

The importance to good health Alternative medicine

Connectors and modifiers

34

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS S E C T I O N 4 : P R O P O S A L S

REVISION

PAGE

12

Applying for funds

First aid facilities at the Five Oaks Sports Centre

38

13

Assessing choices

Spending the proceeds of a summer fair

Passive voice

42

14

Evaluating a situation

Decline in local tourism A college newspaper

Should

46

Conditionals

S E C T I O N

5:

R E V I E W S

IS

Reviewing a book

Not without my daughter

Tenses in 'timeless' time

50

16

Reviewing a film

Castaway

Tenses in 'timeless' time

52

Reviewing a restaurant/hotel

The Willows

Phrases in apposition Compound adjectives

54

S E C T I O N

6:

R E P O R T S

Assessing facilities

The Majestic Hotel

58

Assessing suitability

The Jorvik Viking Centre

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

60

20

Giving information

A college film club

62

Reference section

64

Appendix

70

CPE W r i t i n g S h e e t s

72

Articles

Describing and narrating

In this article, Martin Fraser d e s c r i b e s his return to a small t o w n in England after an a b s e n c e of 25 years. Read t h e article and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

What a difference]
W h e n I w a s a b o y I u s e d to s p e n d a fortnight every s u m m e r with my aunt E l i z a b e t h in L e a b u r y , a small t o w n in t h e M i d l a n d s . B u t twenty-five years ago she r e t i r e d a n d m o v e d to t h e s e a s i d e , a n d I did n o r return until I had to go there on b u s i n e s s last w e e k . My aunt's house was on the outskirts of t h e t o w n so I often u s e d to ride o u t into t h e c o u n t r y on my bicycle. I w o u l d follow t h e L o n d o n r o a d for a m i l e o r t w o a n d t h e n b r a n c h off for a c i r c u l a r t o u r of t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g villages, eventually finding my way back by the other main road. A b o u t a mile from h o m e t h e r e w a s a small p o n d with d u c k s s w i m m i n g on it. I u s e d to s t o p t h e r e t o w a t c h t h e m a n d skim s t o n e s across the water. Beyond the p o n d was H a y w a r d ' s F a r m , with cows grazing in t h e fields, a n d t h e n I w o u l d c o m e d o w n t h e hill i n t o t h e t o w n a n d t u r n r i g h t i n t o m y a u n t ' s r o a d t o c o m p l e t e t h e circuit. T h e r e have obviously b e e n changes since I w a s a b o y b u t I w a s n o t p r e p a r e d for m a n y of t h o s e I saw last w e e k . F o r o n e thing, the motorway that passes close to the town actually goes over two of the villages I u s e d to ride t o . As y o u c o m e into L e a b u r y , y o u no l o n g e r p a s s a f a r m w i t h cows grazing in t h e fields. A vast h o u s i n g estate stretches from the m o t o r w a y to what used to be the outskirts. The centre of the town has been entirely transformed. T h e old buildings h a v e b e e n k n o c k e d d o w n a n d t h e r e is a big shopping centre with a multi-storey car p a r k b e s i d e it. T h e r e a r e n o family s h o p s in the main street now, only the s a m e offices, s t o r e s a n d f a s t - f o o d r e s t a u r a n t s you find e v e r y w h e r e . T h e old t o w n u s e d t o h a v e a c h a r a c t e r of its o w n b u t n o w it is like any o t h e r p l a c e in E n g l a n d . On t h e way back, I w e n t to see my aunt's old house, though I hardly r e c o g n i s e d it at first. T h e p r e s e n t o w n e r s have p a i n t e d it bright yellow so it looks like a big j a r of m u s t a r d . I s h o o k my h e a d i n disbelief a n d t u r n e d t o w a r d s h o m e . B u t just before I reached the motorway, I s u d d e n l y saw s o m e t h i n g familiar, a little p o n d with a wall r o u n d it, s o m e ducks, a n d two boys skimming stones across the water. At least some things have not changed.

Describing and narrating


2 This article refers to four separate t i m e s : A B C D 25 or more years ago, when the writer was a boy last week, when he visited the town again the present moment some time or period of time in between his childhood and now

Articles

Study Reference section 12 on page 68 and Reference section 14 on page 69 and then a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , writing t h e c o r r e c t letter of t i m e reference (A, B, C or D) in t h e space, as in t h e e x a m p l e . W h i c h p e r i o d o r p e r i o d s a r e r e f e r r e d t o in: a b c d e f t h e first s e n t e n c e ? t h e w h o l e of t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h ? t h e first s e n t e n c e of t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p h ? t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e n t r y to t h e t o w n ? t h e d e s c r i p t i o n in t h e fourth p a r a g r a p h ? t h e writer's c o m m e n t s in t h e last p a r a g r a p h ? and and and

W h i c h t e n s e s ( p r e s e n t , p r e s e n t perfect o r p a s t ) o r f o r m s (used t o , w o u l d ) d o e s t h e w r i t e r u s e t o d e a l with e a c h p e r i o d ?

C
D

Look at t h e pictures of A t h e n s and w o r k with a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e class to d e c i d e w h a t changes have taken place in t h e period of 70 years between the times when the p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e taken.

W r i t e an article a b o u t changes that have taken place in o n e of t h e following in r e c e n t years: a b c your neighbourhood a p l a c e w h e r e you w e n t on holiday as a child a city or c o u n t r y y o u first visited m a n y years ago a n d h a v e s e e n again recently

Follow this plan of four stages (though t h e r e may be m o r e than four paragraphs):

1 2 3

Introduction, indicating the place and your association with it Description of the place as it used to be Description of the place as it is now, emphasising changes that have occurred Your reactions to these changes

Articles

Describing and narrating

T h e description of changes in a place (pages 6-7) w a s told from t h e point of v i e w of t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t . In many articles of this kind, h o w e v e r , t h e main narrative t e n s e is past. Study Reference section 12b and d on page 68 and t h e n read Gloria's article a b o u t a m e e t i n g with a s c h o o l friend s h e m e t again after t e n years w h o had changed. M o s t of t h e verbs have b e e n left in brackets. C o m p l e t e t h e article by putting t h e m into t h e m o s t suitable t e n s e .

Close

friends

again

Soon after I left school my family (1) (move) to Bristol and I (2) (lose) touch with all my friends, when l (3) (return) to London last year after ten years, l (4) (find) some of their names in the phone book and we (5) (organise) a reunion. But there was no trace of Eugenia, my closest friend. The others told me they (6) (not see) her for a long time. Eugenia was the most attractive girl in my class. She was tall and slim and (7) (have) ioveiy dark brown eyes and long black hair that (8) (come) half way down her back, she was very popular because she (9) (have) a wonderful sense of humour, she used to invent games to keep us all amused and always (10) (seem) to be laughing and smiling.
One morning last month I (11) (12) (go) into a jeweller's shop

in the city to buy a watch. The only assistant was a tall woman who
(look) a few years older than me. Her hair was grey

and although she still (13) (have) a young, slim figure, there were lines around her eyes, and she (14) (have) a long, deep scar on her cheek. I (15) (ask) to see some watches, our eyes (16) (meet), and she (17) (give) a little cry of amazement. She (18) (stare) at me for a few seconds and then she (19) (say): "Gloria, (20) (you not
remember) me?"

I (21) (shake) my head and her face (22) (grow) sad, but then she (23) (say) quietly: "No, l (24) (change) a lot, l suppose. I'm Eugenia." I was so embarrassed that l (25)
just (26) (arrange) to meet and then she (28)

(not know) what to say so l


(tell) me the story of her

(put) my arms round her. We (27)

life. She said that after leaving school, she (29)


and had married a man she had met there. They (30)

(go) to America
(live)

together happily for several years until her husband (31) (kill) in a car crash, she (32) (be) injured in the crash and her hair (33) (turn) grey overnight. After that she (34) (return) to London but (35) (have to) take the first job she
could find.

I (36) (see) her several times since then. I want to do everything I can to help her. it was a terrible shock at first to see how much she (37) (change) but now we (38) (become) close friends again and can be together.

Describing and narrai:

Articles

Gloria gives us a lot of information a b o u t herself and Eugenia. Find t h e paragraph in which s h e tells us t h e following and w r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph n u m b e r in t h e space, as in t h e e x a m p l e . a b c d e f g h i j k h o w s h e lost c o n t a c t w i t h E u g e n i a h o w s h e m e t h e r again h o w s h e feels a b o u t h e r n o w w h a t E u g e n i a w a s like at school w h a t she l o o k e d like at school w h a t she used to do at school w h a t she d o e s n o w w h a t she looks like n o w w h a t s h e w a s d o i n g in t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n w h e r e G l o r i a first m e t h e r why E u g e n i a h a s c h a n g e d ..J....

W h a t do y o u think is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t point in t h e story? W h y ? H o w d o e s Gloria e m p h a s i s e it?

Look at t h e pictures of t h e man and t h e w o m a n and w o r k with a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e class t o n o t e d o w n h o w t h e y have changed physically in t h e c o u r s e of thirty years.

W r i t e an article with t h e main narrative t e n s e in t h e past a b o u t t h e changes y o u n o t i c e d in s o m e o n e you saw again n o t long ago but had n o t s e e n for a long t i m e . T h e p e r s o n may b e s o m e o n e y o u k n o w or a famous p e r s o n y o u saw in real life or on TV ( n o t an a c t o r / a c t r e s s playing different parts). Follow this plan of four stages (though t h e r e may be m o r e than four paragraphs): 1 2 Introduction, indicating how you first saw the person Description of what they used to look like If you knew them, what they were like; if you write about a famous person, say what impression they gave you. Description of what they looked like when you saw them again, what they were like, or the impression they gave Say how and why you think they had changed, and how you felt about the changes.

Articles

aking sides

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. T h e following c o m m e n t s w e r e m a d e during a public discussion, held at y o u r t o w n hall. T h e discussion w a s a b o u t t h e f r e e d o m of t h e press. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e local n e w s p a p e r responding to t h e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

Journalists have a responsibility to the public to investigate a story and uncover the real facts - no matter who they upset. /fou denij can't that a aood

They are encouraged to invade peoples privacy by shameless celebrities who want press coverage at any cost.

\ey

snoui T'hey

ashamedof tfiemsefvesl an have no respect for individuals privacy!

dal ielli can newipaperi

Journalists are fierce in defence of the freedom of the press but KEITH HUNTER asks

Whose freedom? Theirs or ours?


Every time there is an outcry against the excesses of the popular press and they are t h r e a t e n e d with some kind of sanction, usually no m o r e t h a n the responsibility to print an apology w h e r e no one will notice it, editors and newspaper owners take refuge in t h e sacred c o n c e p t of ' t h e freedom of t h e p r e s s ' and warn against the evils of censorship. They argue t h a t it is t h e i r duty to i n v a d e p e o p l e ' s privacy, in effect to deprive t h e m of their freedom to live their own lives in p e a c e , b e c a u s e it is 'in t h e public interest.' No one who believes in democracy and the freedom of speech wants newspapers to be silenced if they are genuinely engaged in exposing corruption in high places. In t h e newspapers' defence, it can also be a r g u e d t h a t many figures in t h e public eye are d e s p e r a t e for almost any kind of publicity. S o m e of t h e m seem to have no higher aim in life than a vague desire to feature in magazines, posing for p h o t o g r a p h s o r r e c o u n t i n g t h e i n t i m a t e details o f their lives in interviews. T h o s e who create news stories with sensational headlines, however, - the photographers who pursue the famous on m o t o r cycles, the journalists who bribe If you write an article where you are strongly in favour of something or against it, remember that others may have different opinions. It is more effective to mention them and then show they are wrong than not to mention them at all. their servants to disclose the secrets of their employers' private lives, the editors who send armies of employees with microphones and tape recorders to t h e h o m e of a n y o n e , rich or p o o r , w h o s e relatives have died tragically - have a very clear aim in life. F o r them the freedom of the press is really the freedom to m a k e money out of other people's shame and misery. Most of us would be reluctant to impose censorship on the press but would like to put a stop to their intrusion into p e o p l e ' s private lives. N o t long ago t h e r e was a play on TV t h a t suggested a n e a t solution. A M e m b e r of Parliament proposed that if a newspaper published an untrue story about s o m e o n e , he would be given the same a m o u n t of space in t h e n e w s p a p e r to write a story a b o u t t h e j o u r n a l i s t or editor, true or false. I wonder how they would react if similar lies and half-truths a b o u t their own private lives and those of their families were published 'in the public interest'!

Taking sides
2

Articles

C h o o s e t h e s e n t e n c e , a or b, that b e s t d e s c r i b e s w h a t t h e w r i t e r is saying in each paragraph. T h e n read t h e c o r r e c t s e n t e n c e s t o g e t h e r t o s u m m a r i s e t h e argument. P a r a g r a p h 1 a Editors are right to defend the freedom of t h e press when they are criticised. b Editors use the popular belief in the freedom of the press to justify their invasion of people's privacy. P a r a g r a p h 2 a No o n e wants censorship for political reasons and it is true that many well-known figures seek publicity at all costs. b Newspapers have a duty to expose corruption and have to publish stories about well-known figures if they are required to. P a r a g r a p h 3 a So newspapers work hard to find out the facts of the cases they investigate. b But newspapers only investigate stories about people's private lives to m a k e money out of them. P a r a g r a p h 4 a Newspapers should be censored if they tell lies. b Newspaper staff should be subjected to the same t r e a t m e n t as their victims if they tell lies.

In which paragraphs is t h e w r i t e r following t h e t e c h n i q u e s u g g e s t e d in t h e tip on t h e o p p o s i t e page?

T h e w r i t e r tries t o influence t h e reader with his c h o i c e o f w o r d s . A n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w t o understand m o r e a b o u t this. a F i n d w o r d s or p h r a s e s in t h e first two p a r a g r a p h s t h a t suggest t h e following: The press 1 go t o o far in p u r s u i n g n e w s stories.

a r e n o t really sorry for w h a t t h e y d o .

a r e hypocritical in t h e i r d e f e n c e of t h e i r actions.

u p s e t p e o p l e ' s lives.

Many 5

well-known

people

will do a n y t h i n g to be n o t i c e d .

h a v e no s e r i o u s a i m in life.

invite t h e invasion of t h e i r privacy.

W h a t is t h e effect of substituting t h e s e w o r d s for t h o s e t h e w r i t e r uses: follow ( p u r s u e ) , p a y ( b r i b e ) , i n f o r m a t i o n (secrets), n u m b e r s ( a r m i e s ) , u n h a p p i n e s s ( m i s e r y ) ?

W h i c h of t h e s e w o r d s is obviously an e x a g g e r a t i o n b u t effective b e c a u s e it also implies aggression?

S!

Articles

Taking sides

Based on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e tip on page 10, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order.

Say why you d i s a g r e e with t h e s e a r g u m e n t s a n d d i s r e g a r d t h e m b e c a u s e t h o s e you s u p p o r t a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t . Give e x a m p l e s . R e a c h a conclusion, s u m m a r i s i n g y o u r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n in two or three sentences. T h i n k of o n e or two ideas for t h e o t h e r side of t h e issue a n d say w h a t sort of p e o p l e a r e likely to s u p p o r t t h e m . I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in g e n e r a l t e r m s . Do n o t r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y t h o u g h you c a n suggest which side you a r e on.

L o o k at this q u e s t i o n and t h e n put t h e paragraph n o t e s b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r according to t h e plan in e x e r c i s e 4. Can you think of a suitable title? You heard t h e following c o m m e n t s a b o u t vivisection while y o u a t t e n d e d a d e b a t e on t h e subject at college recently. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for publication in t h e c o l l e g e magazine responding t o t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion. Under no So once are its manu ^atal diseases circumstances should animals be used in laboratory experiments. Animals feel pain and shouldn't be made to suffer in this way. 'Medicalresearch is acceytahie, using hut There is no justification for vivisection: animals have rights too.

now curable and all thanhs to

animahsjor is

cosmetic testing intoferahfe.

research, on

carried out ils. anima

Q0Q(?Q<?QQ0Q
Scientists - must carry out research on someone/something - better animals than humans. 1000s lives saved through medical breakthroughs - only possible because of experiments on animals. Humans are higher life form than animals - using animals justified. Conflict surrounding use of animals in labs - nothing new. Laws brought in - ban some experimentation. Extend law to cover ALL experiments? Medical research to save lives OK if NO other way of doing research possible. Cosmetic research not acceptable - total ban. Animal rights activists all forms banned no justification. Pain/Suffering extreme. Humans - no right to treat animals like this. Alternative methods must be found, Some research done for cosmetic reasons only!

Taking sides
6

Articles

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e y o u r article using t h e paragraph plan o p p o s i t e . D o n ' t forget to think of a title. You belong to a debating s o c i e t y and o v e r h e a r d t h e s e c o m m e n t s at a r e c e n t d e b a t e . T h e d e b a t e w a s a b o u t w h e t h e r capital p u n i s h m e n t should be r e s t o r e d for s o m e crimes. You feel strongly a b o u t t h e issue and have decided to w r i t e an article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r responding to t h e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

l{
An eye for an eye, a tooth for- a tooth! ^Jabln anotlier perion-'i

of

life is never riq Lt wLatever tL

the restoration capital punishment prevents even one murder, then its worthwhile.

What

if

someone who's innocent is foundguiCty?

plan in

You live in a small t o w n s o m e of w h o s e residents are b e c o m i n g increasingly w o r r i e d a b o u t s p o r t s and h o b b i e s that harm t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e t o w n council held a m e e t i n g to discuss t h e problem and y o u a t t e n d e d . After hearing w h a t local p e o p l e had to say, y o u d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e local paper responding t o t h e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

^Jlie country ianei

auiet around tL

town, are overrun witli ijouiiii racing motorlllei eir a

The wildlife of Granger's Lake is being terrified every weekend by jet skie shattering the silence of this once peaceful haven. It's a disgrace.

and creating, let tL In atone oJI

nuliance putting otkeri

iivei

danger.

ifl can't ride my jet ski on the Cake, where am 1 sup-posed to go?

We live in this town too and should be able to do what we like, where and when we like. Were not any laws.

13

Articles

Balancing an argument

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t s on t h e subject of c o m p u t e r s . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine entitled Computers: a dream or a nightmare? W r i t e y o u r article taking t h e points raised b e l o w into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving y o u r o w n opinion. Technological progress in the world of computers saves everyone time. At the touch of a button, massive amounts of information can be accessed. Furthermore, work done on a computer can be updated and changes can be made speedily. Future generations will come to rely on computer technology to such a great extent that they will no longer need to learn to do things for themselves. This would appear to be acceptable, but what happens when the machines go wrong?

Computers: a dream or a nightmare?


W i t h i n a few y e a r s , w e h a v e come to regard computers as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of everyday life. We see t h e m in o p e r a t i o n in almost every office and they are increasingly c o m m o n in the h o m e . While this has b e e n a g r e a t a d v a n t a g e for s o m e people because it has m a d e their work easier, it has b e e n a nightmare for others, who have had difficulty in learning new skills. In the same way, while some parents believe that their children can learn faster with computers, others worry that they will b e c o m e totally d e p e n d e n t o n t h e m before they have learnt to read, write and count for themselves. O n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e benefits computers have brought are obvious. Above all, they save space and time. Vast quantities of data can be kept economically on disks and r e p r o d u c e d a t any t i m e i n s t e a d o f filling r o w s of filing c a b i n e t s , a n d there are hundreds of timeconsuming tasks that can now be p e r f o r m e d very simply. In a m i n u t e or two, a typist can now edit and r e t y p e a l e t t e r ; in a few s e c o n d s , a bank can check how much a customer has in an account in another city. On the other hand, however, t h e r e are also d i s a d v a n t a g e s . Computers do make mistakes although they are always the result of a h u m a n e r r o r . We r e a d of p e o p l e r e c e i v i n g g a s bills for m i l l i o n s o f pounds because the computer has been badly p r o g r a m m e d or an o p e r a t o r has pressed the wrong key. T h e trouble is that computers do not r e c o g n i s e such e r r o r s so t h e r e is a danger that the next generation may be taught to rely on t h e m absolutely before they have learnt the basic skills necessary to work out problems for themselves. On balance, computers are neither a dream nor a nightmare. They are admirable tools that improve the quality of life but, like all tools, they must be used sensibly. We must never forget that h u m a n beings provided t h e m with the information they contain so we cannot trust them until w e k n o w e n o u g h t o r e c o g n i s e when it is inaccurate. In this respect, the g r e a t e s t risk c o m e s at t h e national level; the advice given by a g o v e r n m e n t c o m p u t e r could lead to d i s a s t e r if t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e for m a k i n g t h e decisions w e r e t e m p t e d to take it just because it came from a machine that is supposed to be infallible.

T h e writer's approach to t h e subject is balanced. Study Connectors and Modifiers A3 on page 70 and underline t h e four w o r d s o r phrases that t h e w r i t e r has used t o balance his argument.

Tip
Good articles of this kind do not require the use of very complicated structures but they do require connectors to be well used. Always check the appendix on page 70 before writing one.

Balancing an argument
Answer t h e s e questions. a

Articles

W h i c h two s e n t e n c e s in t h e first p a r a g r a p h a r e e x a m p l e s of t h e w r i t e r b a l a n c i n g by using c o n t r a s t . Which phrase does he use to show that he regards the examples as equal?

W h a t c o n t r a s t exists b e t w e e n p a r a g r a p h s 2 a n d 3?

W h a t c o n c l u s i o n d o e s t h e writer r e a c h ? I s h e i n favour o f c o m p u t e r s o r against t h e m ?

I n d i c a t e t h e p u r p o s e of e a c h p a r a g r a p h , writing t h e c o r r e c t n u m b e r in t h e s p a c e . Advantages of computers Conclusion Disadvantages Introduction,

T h e w r i t e r s u p p o r t s general s t a t e m e n t s with explanation o r e x a m p l e s . Underline t h e phrases o r s e n t e n c e s i n t h e article that s u p p o r t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . a b c d e f We r e g a r d c o m p u t e r s as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of everyday life. F o r s o m e p e o p l e this h a s b e e n an a d v a n t a g e , for o t h e r s a n i g h t m a r e . C o m p u t e r s save s p a c e . C o m p u t e r s save t i m e . Computers make mistakes. T h e information they contain may not be correct.

A magazine is inviting readers to submit articles a b o u t different forms of transport. You have read t h e personal a c c o u n t b e l o w and have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article on t h e advantages and disadvantages of travelling by train. W r i t e y o u r article responding to t h e points b e l o w and giving y o u r o w n opinion. It seems that nowadays cars and aeroplanes are much more popular forms of transport than the train, depending, of course, on whether your journey is short or long distance. But 1 remember years ago, when 1 was a young child, that travelling by train was considered the best way to go.

Before writing y o u r article, l o o k at t h e plan b e l o w and make s o m e n o t e s . You can w r i t e four paragraphs, following t h e s a m e plan as t h e article on c o m p u t e r s . a Title. T h i n k of a title for y o u r article. W h i l e it is i m p o r t a n t for y o u r article to h a v e a s u i t a b l e title, do n o t s p e n d t o o m u c h t i m e o n it. I n t r o d u c t i o n . Give a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of t h e c u r r e n t situation. Do n o t at this stage give e x p l a n a t i o n s of advantages or disadvantages. A d v a n t a g e s of travelling by train. List t h r e e in c o m p a r i s o n with cars or p l a n e s , a n d give an e x a m p l e or e x p l a n a t i o n for e a c h , as in t h e t a b l e . Advantage Example/Explanation

1
2 3 d

.No.traffic.jams.

. difficult.to. calculate. time of..

jour.ney.5..

D i s a d v a n t a g e s . List t h r e e d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n d give an e x p l a n a t i o n or e x a m p l e , as for p a r a g r a p h 2. Disadvantage 1 2 Example/Explanation

very jrfoT to be well we writing one.

3 e C o n c l u s i o n . S u m up y o u r a r g u m e n t , giving y o u r o w n o p i n i o n .

15

Articles

Providing

solutions

Read t h e q u e s t i o n below, t h e n o t e s o p p o s i t e and t h e article below, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You b e l o n g to a s o c i e t y that is concerned about the environment. A g u e s t speaker recently gave a talk t o t h e s o c i e t y o n t h e subject of t h e p r o b l e m of population g r o w t h w h i c h y o u a t t e n d e d . You t o o k s o m e n o t e s and have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e society's m o n t h l y newspaper. W r i t e y o u r article.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OOK^O
World pop, doubled since 1950. UN predict + 5 0 % by 2050.
World's naturai resources - running out! Impose birth confrot? human rights/religion/tradition would not

agree (eg China)


Politicians in developing countries say developed countries use too many resources - reduce, BUT still not a solution.

Put pressure on govts to find solution. If not = war, famine, disease!

Too many people, not enough earth


Of all the problems the h u m a n race is responsible for that t h r e a t e n life on E a r t h , p o p u l a t i o n growth is the most serious. T h e world's population has more t h a n d o u b l e d s i n c e 1950 a n d t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s predict that it will grow a further 5 0 % by 2050 to nine billion. All these additional people will require m o r e food, m o r e land to grow it on and m o r e houses to live in, a n d will c o n s u m e m o r e raw materials to p r o v i d e t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s of everyday life. T h e world's resources cannot support such an increase indefinitely. At first sight, t h e solution seems simple. Experts in developed countries argue that we should impose birth c o n t r o l w o r l d w i d e . If p a r e n t s only h a d t h e children they really wanted, they say, population growth would be m a n a g e a b l e , as it is in E u r o p e . P e o p l e should be educated in reliable methods of birth control, and where necessary, these should be supplied. If a birth is n o t desired, t h e p r e g n a n c y should be t e r m i n a t e d by abortion. However, the failure of countries to reach agreement on problems like global warming indicates that there would be even stronger resistance if a plan of this kind w e r e p u t into practice. In this case, t h e opposition would be due not merely to selfish national interests but to individual wishes and conviction, family or tribal tradition and the powerful influence of religious authorities. In some parts of the world, large families are considered desirable and a son is regarded as essential. In China, where the government has p u r s u e d a ruthless policy of limiting families to o n e child, population growth has only b e e n controlled at t h e cost of considerable personal suffering. Politicians in m a n y developing c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e the population is growing much faster than in E u r o p e , refuse to accept that it is the main cause of environmental problems. They point out that countries like t h e U n i t e d States c o n s u m e far m o r e t h a n their fair s h a r e o f t h e w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s . D e v e l o p e d countries should reduce their consumption, but even if they did, this would not p r e v e n t disaster unless p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h was b r o u g h t u n d e r c o n t r o l . W e should p u t pressure on governments to find a viable s o l u t i o n . O t h e r w i s e , t h e p a i n f u l a l t e r n a t i v e will b e c o m e unavoidable; t h e population will eventually be decimated by war, famine and disease.

C h o o s e t h e b e s t heading for each paragraph, and w r i t e t h e c o r r e c t n u m b e r in t h e s p a c e . N o t e that t w o of t h e c h o i c e s are n o t c o r r e c t . a b c An alternative solution A straightforward solution W h y solutions a r e n o t easy d e f W h y a s o l u t i o n m u s t be f o u n d Selfish o p p o s i t i o n T h e size of t h e p r o b l e m

Look at Reference section 4a and b on page 64 and Reference section I1 on page 67 and then study t h e use of should, would and will in t h e article a b o v e and underline t h e m w h e r e t h e y appear.

Providing solutions

Articles

Read Sarah's article on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . C o m p l e t e it by putting t h e verbs in brackets in t h e c o r r e c t t e n s e or using should or would w h e r e necessary.

Preserving

the

planet

for

future

generations

Human activity (1)

(have) a devastating effect on the environment

since the industrial Revolution. Factories and their products have polluted the air in cities, and the

water in rivers and seas; forests (2) (be transformed) into desert by poor methods of cultivation; in our hunger for land, we (3) (invade) the natural habitat of other species, now in danger of extinction. Our activities (4) (probably increase) the temperature of the earth, bringing with it the risk of flooding, w h a t (5) (we do) to resolve these problems before it is too late?
Solutions certainly exist. In general, we (6) (consume) less and recycle

raw materials. In particular, we (7) (restrict) the use of cars in cities; we (8) (close) factories that pollute the air or the rivers; we (9) (protect) wildlife by banning indiscriminate hunting; and we (10) (protect) the rainforests by providing poor farmers with the means to cultivate efficiently. Above all, we (11) (try) to control population growth, which (12) (add) to the problems as fast as we take steps to resolve them.
If we could accomplish this, we (13) (preserve) the planet for future

generations. But it (14)


self-interest and (15)

(not be) possible unless governments laid aside


(agree) to co-operate. In fact, laws protecting the

environment already exist in almost every country. The trouble is that they are often broken, in many countries with the consent of the rulers. Perhaps a real solution (16) (only be found) if every country in the world had an honest, democratic government. in such circumstances we may think that there is nothing we can do as individuals to save
the environment. But we can do a great deal if we are prepared to make sacrifices. We

(17)
something new. And we (18)

(ask) ourselves if we really need to go out in the car or buy


(respect) the environment at all times, we

(19)
We (20)

(not leave) litter around the countryside or throw rubbish in rivers.


(plant) trees and not cut them down.

Sarah is following t h e s a m e paragraph plan that w a s used for t h e article on population growth. In paragraphs 1, 2 and 4, circle t h e t o p i c s e n t e n c e and underline t h e e x a m p l e s that s u p p o r t it.

W r i t e an article in a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n below, using t h e paragraph plan in e x e r c i s e 2. T h e e x t r a c t b e l o w w a s taken from a letter y o u read in y o u r college magazine. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e magazine responding to t h e letter and proposing s o m e solutions to t h e problem.

... is just not the same any more. I remember walking along the river as a child and even swimming in it when the weather was warm. Now, the water is stagnant and polluted and the path along the bank is littered with rubbish. The town centre itself has also been affected. Traffic blocks the roads and the poor pedestrians are choked with exhaust fumes. It really is time that something was done to save our town and the surrounding countryside before it's too late.

If you answer a problem-solving question, do not make vague general statements that you cannot support. Make use of any facts that you know to be true from whatyou have experienced or read. Take account of opposition to any solution you propose and bear in mind that there is probably no simple answer to the question.

Letters

Complaining

Sheila D o n a l d s o n is annoyed a b o u t t h e way in which p e o p l e behave in t h e park near her h o u s e . Read her letter to t h e s e c r e t a r y of t h e local n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a t c h s c h e m e and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e that follows.

Dear

Anne,

I'm writing on behalf of my family and my neighbours to ask you if you would mind writing to the council about Russell Park. We are fed up because, as you know, we've written to them several times to protest but they still haven't done anything. The real problem is that there aren't any walls or fences round the park and young people bang around inside at night shouting and laughing so loudly that we can't sleep. Some of them are vandals and have broken the swings t h a t the children play on and trampled all over the flowerbeds. There these looks people is also a problem days - sleeping on a mess with paper round to clear up with tramps - New Age Travellers as they are called the benches at night. So every morning the park and beer cans lying about. The council ought to send every day, instead of once a week.

Really these are just signs of bigger social problems that the council should try to tackle. They ought to provide a shelter for the homeless and teach the vandals a lesson by enforcing the laws that l suppose exist. We would really be very grateful if you could write on our behalf - maybe your letter would carry more weight and get some results. I'll see you at our meeting next month. Best regards,
In

Sheila Donaldson

lamination, you are not required to write addresses on your letters.

t h e

D e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e following s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e or false. Underline t h e phrases in t h e letter that justify y o u r answers. T F a T h i s is t h e first t i m e Sheila has c o m p l a i n e d . She b c d is complaining about young people because they:

climb o v e r t h e walls r o u n d t h e p a r k . m a k e a noise in t h e p a r k at night. h a v e d e s t r o y e d installations in t h e play a r e a . She is complaining about New Age Travellers because:

e f

they sleep in t h e p a r k d u r i n g t h e day. c r e a t e litter. She thinks the council should:

g h i j

s e n d p e o p l e r o u n d to clean t h e p a r k o n c e a w e e k . p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n for N e w A g e Travellers. pass laws to control v a n d a l s . p u n i s h v a n d a l s by enforcing t h e p r e s e n t laws.

18

Complaining

Letters

Read Anne's letter to t h e council, w r i t t e n in formal language, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e that follows.

D e a r Sir/Madam, I am writing on behalf of my neighbours in the vicinity of Russell Park to express our annoyance that in spite of r e p e a t e d protests, nothing has been done to improve t h e situation there. T h e problem stems in part from the fact that there are no walls or fences r o u n d the park and young people remain t h e r e at night making so much noise that it keeps everyone awake. A n u m b e r of t h e m are vandals who have broken the swings in the children's play park and destroyed the flowerbeds. A p a r t from that, the park is used as a refuge at night by New Age Travellers sleeping on benches, with the result that every morning the area is covered with litter. In our view, the park should be cleaned every day, instead of once a week. We are aware that the real solution lies in dealing with m o r e general social problems affecting society. However, we consider that action should be taken to provide a shelter for homeless people and that if laws exist to prevent young people from vandalising t h e park, they should be enforced. W e look forward to hearing from you, Yours faithfully, _ . y-\nne DanKs A n n e Banks

^ jQ
a r e m a o r m s

WKtKtBBKS&
t w e 0 n o t u s e s o r

Two ways in which formal and informal language are different ^ fo i


e g I v e ) o r m a l l e t t e r s

^ <" > f and we often use passive forms rather than active (eg, nothing

-zz< at the s e n t e n c e s below, taken from Sheila's letter. Find and underline the equivalent s e n t e n c e s in Anne's letter. \ c : e the way t h e phraseology changes depending on w h e t h e r the style of writing is formal or semi-formal. a h c d e f W e ' v e w r i t t e n several t i m e s t o p r o t e s t b u t t h e y still h a v e n ' t d o n e anything. Y o u n g p e o p l e h a n g a r o u n d inside at night s h o u t i n g a n d l a u g h i n g so loudly t h a t we c a n ' t sleep. S o m e of t h e m a r e v a n d a l s a n d h a v e b r o k e n t h e swings that t h e children play on. T h e p a r k looks a m e s s with p a p e r a n d b e e r cans lying a b o u t . T h e council o u g h t to s e n d p e o p l e r o u n d to clear u p . T h e y o u g h t to t e a c h t h e v a n d a l s a lesson by e n f o r c i n g t h e laws t h a t I s u p p o s e exist.

Read t h e question and t h e n o t e s b e l o w and w r i t e y o u r letter, using Anne's letter as a m o d e l for form and style.

You a t t e n d e d a residents' meeting recently which w a s held t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m s with a football ground near y o u r h o u s e . You heard t h e complaints b e l o w at t h e m e e t i n g and have decided t o w r i t e t o t h e council on behalf of your neighbours to ask them to take action to improve t h e situation.

% \ s \ s \ \ \ \ \ \
They make so much noise - no games late at night!

Keep rival fans_apart! Stop the fighting! Police should escort


visiting supporters to and from the ground.

Don't let them park their cars on the pavement! Tow them away!
Buses and coaches in the club car parkl Stop people throwing

stones at visiting teams!

Letters

Giving information
x c h a n e

Read t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and Tom Aldridge's letter, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. S P r o g r a m m e with s t u d e n t s from abroad and has d e c i d e d t o p r o d u c e a w e l c o m e letter w h , c h s t u d e n t s will r e c e i v e on arrival. T h e e d i t o r has asked y o u t c w r i t e a w e l c o m e letter g.vmg information on c o l l e g e facilities, describing places of part cu ar interest: hT he area as well as mentioning special e v e n t s which will take place during their stay
u L

TrZu^T

t 3 k i n

D e a r Visitor (!) Welford College of Education, I would like to welcome you to

our college, and I h o p e that you have a pleasant stay during the Student Exchange P r o g r a m m e . T h e information which follows is intended to help m a k e your stay m o r e pleasurable. College Facilities T h e M a i n Library is o p e n from 8 am - 10 pm on weekdays and from 10 am - 7 pm at t h e weekend. Books may be borrowed for a one-week period, with the exception of books in t h e Reference Library ( A n d e r s o n Building), which must not be removed u n d e r any circumstances. T h e Halls of Residence provide half-board accommodation, so lunch can be bought at the college canteen (Main Building), or t h e Students' U n i o n , or off campus itself. (2) however, that t h e college is some distance from town (20 minutes by bus) so students should ensure they have sufficient time between lessons if they want to leave campus. A m a p of t h e c a m p u s can be found on t h e noticeboard situated in the entrance to the M a i n Building. F u r t h e r information regarding lessons, extra activities, etc can also be found there, while t h e noticeboard outside the Students' U n i o n is the best place to find out about upcoming social events. Places of Interest T h e town itself has lots to offer. W i t h its tiny streets and winding alleys, it is a great place to buy souvenirs. T h e A r t Gallery and the Natural History M u s e u m are situated in t h e town centre. Special Events As part of the National Students' Council Arts Festival, t h e college has organised a week of concerts to be held in t h e Students' U n i o n from 15th May. P r o g r a m m e s and tickets (3) m e m b e r s of the E n t e r t a i n m e n t C o m m i t t e e . A quiz night (4) Entertainment Committee. We hope that this information (5) Please (6) information. Y o u r s sincerely T o m Aldridge Student Counsellor and that you enjoy your stay. the College Secretary should you require further 25th May. This is a charity event; all proceeds will ,

go to the local children's hospital. Students interested in taking part should contact Sarah on the

Giving information
Read Tom's letter again and fill in t h e gaps with t h e phrases below.
are available from do not hesitate to contact it should be noted on will be helpful behalf of

Letters

is being held on

T h e q u e s t i o n stated that t h e w r i t e r should give information on college facilities, d e s c r i b e places of particul; n t e r e s t in t h e area as well as m e n t i o n special e v e n t s which will take place during their stay. C o m p l e t e t h e chart with t h e things t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n s on each of t h e t o p i c s .

College facilities

Places of particular interest

Special events

\ ~ III ^ i p P I ! ~~

5
Why d o e s t h e writer m e n t i o n : a the Reference Library?

I
It is very important that letters giving information do not sound like long lists. The information will sound more realistic if there is a reason for giving the information.

Look again at t h e letter and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s .

the Halls of R e s i d e n c e ?

the fact t h a t t h e college is s o m e d i s t a n c e from t o w n ?

the noticeboards?

t h e N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l A r t s Festival?

t h e local c h i l d r e n ' s h o s p i t a l ?

6
5

Letters

Giving information

T h e following table s u m m a r i s e s all t h e information given in Tom's letter. C o m p l e t e t h e table w i t h t h e w o r d s and p h r a s e s b e l o w .

A r t Gallery Halls upcoming

charity of Residence social events

enough time off campus I week borrowing

Entertainment Reference Library 15th

Committee

May

C o l l e g e facilities

library

M a i n Library - 8 - 1 0 w e e k d a y s , 1 0 - 7 w e e k e n d s - A n d e r s o n Building - no b o r r o w i n g a l l o w e d

lunch canteen - M a i n Building S t u d e n t s ' Union

- half board only; no lunch

college 20 m i n s f r o m t o w n -

noticeboards

M a i n Building - m a p of c a m p u s - info l e s s o n s / activities S t u d e n t s ' Union -

Places of interest

town

souvenirs

National History M u s e u m

Special events

week of concerts

National S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l Arts Festival S t u d e n t s ' Union

p r o g r a m m e s and t i c k e t s -

quiz night

25th May - p r o c e e d s to local hospital interested? - S a r a h , Entertainment C o m m i t t e e

Giving information
6

Letters

Read t h e question b e l o w and prepare y o u r letter by c o m p l e t i n g t h e table with t h e kind of information y o u w o u l d give. T h e Tourist Board in y o u r area has decided to p r o d u c e w e l c o m e letters which will be given to t o u r i s t s on their arrival at t h e local airport to help t h e m make t h e m o s t of their holiday. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e t h e letter for English-speaking visitors. You should m e n t i o n places to visit in t h e n e a r e s t t o w n , d e s c r i b e t h e surrounding area and r e c o m m e n d any e v e n t s y o u think visitors w o u l d find interesting.

Surrounding area

Interesting events

23

Letters

Making suggestions

T h e local n e w s p a p e r has offered prizes to readers making suggestions for improving t h e t o w n w h e r e y o u live. Read t h e letter from o n e of t h e o l d e r inhabitants of t h e t o w n , published recently, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Sir, I am writing in response to your appeal for suggestions for improving our town. W h e n I was young it was one of the most beautiful towns in the country, but its c h a r m has been its downfall in recent years. It has b e e n t u r n e d into a tourist attraction p o p u l a r with young p e o p l e who do not appreciate it. In consequence, most of the improvements I suggest would be attempts to preserve or r e s t o r e w h a t i s left o f t h i s d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e b e f o r e it is destroyed. O n e of t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s is t h a t air traffic to o u r tiny airport, especially cheap c h a r t e r flights in s u m m e r arriving at night, has expanded

to such an extent that those who live nearby are unable to sleep because of t h e noise. In my view t h e airport should be closed at night and tourist flights should be restricted to the hours of daylight. It used to be very p l e a s a n t to walk through the narrow streets of t h e old town in t h e evening, with their restaurants a n d cafes, b u t now they have been replaced by bars and night clubs o p e n till very late, playing loud music, and t h e r e are so many cars parked on the pavements that it is impossible to walk safely. T h e c e n t r e s h o u l d b e r e s t o r e d t o its former attractive state. Bars should be required to close by 12.00 pm, the streets should be

converted into a pedestrian precinct and a multi-storey car park should be built on the vacant site near the market. A n o t h e r useful i n n o v a t i o n the council could introduce would be an information c e n t r e for t o u r i s t s i n t h e s q u a r e o u t s i d e t h e town hall. At present many visitors arrive without accommodation and w a n d e r through t h e streets in search of hotels and b o a r d i n g h o u s e s , o r s t o p passers-by t o ask t h e way. If t h e r e w e r e a properly equipped information centre, it would not only be of help to t h e m b u t would be of great benefit to the tourist industry. Alexander Martin

Read Mr Martin's letter again, and make notes about the problems he mentions and the solutions he suggests in the table below. Problem a b c
1

Solution(s)

2 3a 3b

C h o o s e the best heading for each paragraph, and write the correct number in the space. N o t e that t w o of the choices are not correct. a b c d e f A t o w n for y o u n g p e o p l e I n f o r m a t i o n for tourists T h e airport The newspaper's appeal T h e old t o w n T o u r i s t s in t h e t o w n Note the form of address used to the editor of a newspaper, unless you know that she is a woman, in which case 'Madam' is used instead.

Joking suggestions

Letters

Young p e o p l e usually have a different s e t of priorities from their parents and grandparents. Before y o u read Anna Margolis's letter, l o o k at Reference section I on page 6 4 , Reference section 11 on page 67 and Reference section 13 on page 6 9 . N o w c o m p l e t e t h e letter by putting t h e v e r b s in brackets in t h e m o s t appropriate form, using active or passive f o r m s with would, should, must or could, and writing the or a in t h e s p a c e s , only w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .

Sir, While I agree with some of (I) improving (3) town, (4) is only concerned with attracting (6)

suggestions (2)

readers have made for council number of

main problem in my opinion is that (5) tourists. In my view there are (7)

improvements that (8) (undertake) for the benefit of (9) residents, especially (10) younger ones. In (11) first place, there are not enough sports and leisure facilities. Instead of building (12) multi-storey car park on (13) vacant site near (14) town centre, they (15) (construct) (16) indoor swimming pool and (17) tennis courts that (18) (use) in (19) winter. Secondly, I have read that (20) old railway station is going to be pulled down. T h e space (21) (transform) into (22) park and it (23) (not cost) much to provide a place for (24) small children to play (25) games. Part of it (26) (turn into) (27) adventure playground or (28) children's zoo. Lastly, tourists who go as far as (29) river (30) (disgust) by (31) litter along (32) banks and (33) pollution from (34) few old factories that are still in (35) operation. The area (36) (clean up), the factories (37) (close down) and (38) serious effort (39) (make) to transform (40) riverside area into (41) place where (42) people (43) (enjoy) (44) kind of pleasant walk they once had through (45) old part of (46) town. Anna Margolis

- - - a lists t h r e e kinds of i m p r o v e m e n t s , with a paragraph for each: a b e introducing something new t r a n s f o r m i n g s o m e t h i n g a l r e a d y in existence r e m e d y i n g s o m e t h i n g unsatisfactory

I : slete t h e table b e l o w b y referring t o her letter. Problem a enough leisure facilities Solution(s) 1 2 b Open space created when railway station is pulled down 3 4a 4b : Litter on river bank Pollution of river 5 6

" - :e a l e t t e r addressed to t h e e d i t o r of y o u r local newspaper, suggesting i m p r o v e m e n t s that could be m a d e to y o u r t o w n or t h e area of a city w h e r e y o u live. Follow t h e paragraph plan of Anna's letter and t r y to include at least o n e e x a m p l e of each kind of i m p r o v e m e n t .

Letters

Givins opinions

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e letter b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

You have read the extract b e l o w as part of a e t t e r to a local newspaper. You decide to write a letter t o the s a m e newspaper responding t o t h e points raised and expressing your o w n views

J know I am not alone in feeling threatened by the presence of groups of young people who seem to have nothing better to do than hang around the town centre making a nuisance of themselves. nowadays: It is a reflection of our society a society that encourages laziness

and allows the younger generation to waste their time in this way. If something is not done soon, then 1 fear that these individuals will turn to crime and our town will no longer be the safe peaceful place it once was.

you can't get a j o b and if you clubs o r c e n t r e s i n o u r a r e a Sir, can't get a job, how do you get that could provide some form I am writing in response to experience? of occupation for t h e m during a l e t t e r I r e a d in T u e s d a y ' s Finally, I am of the opinion the day. T h e y are forced to edition of The Kenton Herald that we should show m o r e either meet at each other's a n d h a v e t o say I f e e l t h e understanding towards these homes, often an impossible or opinions expressed are a little young p e o p l e , who a r e , after undesirable option, or in one-sided in that the letter all, o u r neighbours. Although public places, namely the town implies that young people are it is unpleasant to see people centre. to be blamed for this situation hanging around on t h e streets, In addition to this, it is well and that it is what they want. it must be even w o r s e for known that u n e m p l o y m e n t in It is my opinion that the those who are in this situation. our area is a serious problem community should accept If we were to offer t h e m t h e a m o n g 18-25 y e a r o l d s . J o b some of the blame too. If chance to change their opportunities are limited and solutions to this problem situation, I am sure they any that are available are h a d b e e n s o u g h t earlier, t h e would do so. It is time for us taken by people with situation might n o t h a v e got all to take some responsibility qualifications or previous so o u t of h a n d . for t h e m and their position. work experience. As a result, While I admit that our I l o o k f o r w a r d to s e e i n g it has long been the case that town c e n t r e is increasingly a my l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d in a if school leavers cannot go on place where teenagers and forthcoming issue. t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n for young adults congregate, I whatever reason, they will be also a p p r e c i a t e that m a n y of u n l i k e l y to find j o b s locally. J o h n H o l m e s them have no alternative. Moreover, there is the age-old Y o u n g p e o p l e have n o w h e r e p r o b l e m : without experience, else to go. T h e r e a r e no youth

Giving opinions

Letters

read t h e letter again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . bucfa p a r a g r a p h ( s ) d o e s J o h n : a b c d refer to t h e lack of facilities for y o u n g p e o p l e ? talk a b o u t w h o s e responsibility t h e p r o b l e m of y o u n g p e o p l e on t h e streets is? talk a b o u t u n e m p l o y m e n t b e i n g a r e a s o n for t h e s i t u a t i o n ? explain why h e ' s writing? a e r e e to s o m e e x t e n t with w h a t t h e w r i t e r of t h e l e t t e r in The Kenton Herald said? and

_ c c < at t h e s e conditional s e n t e n c e s taken from t h e letter. a If solutions to this p r o b l e m h a d b e e n s o u g h t earlier, t h e s i t u a t i o n m i g h t n o t h a v e got so o u t of h a n d . .. if school leavers c a n n o t go on to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n : they will be unlikely to find j o b s locally.'
1

e were to offer t h e m t h e c h a n c e to c h a n g e t h e i r situation, I am sure they w o u l d do so.'

;: 1 2 3

-ne is an e x a m p l e of:

a p r e s e n t or future a c t i o n in which t h e result will p r o b a b l y h a p p e n ? a p r e s e n t or future action which is unlikely to h a p p e n a past action which c a n n o t be c h a n g e d ?

a: Reference section 4c on page 64 and then w r i t e a conditional s e n t e n c e to e x p r e s s t h e following situations. . h o s e boys d i d n ' t have j o b s a n d s p e n t their t i m e doing a great [teal of v o l u n t a r y w o r k .

This t e e n a g e r was n o t offered t h e j o b so he d i d n ' t t a k e it.

T h e police d i d n ' t allow y o u n g p e o p l e t o h a n g a r o u n d o n t h e streets in t h e past w h i c h is p r o b a b l y why they d i d n ' t do so.

T h e r e w e r e n ' t g r o u p s of y o u n g p e o p l e in t h e t o w n c e n t r e y e a r s ago which m e a n t p e o p l e d i d n ' t feel t h r e a t e n e d .

27

Letters

Giving opinions

N o w l o o k at Reference section 4e on page 65. L o o k at h o w t h e conditional s e n t e n c e s from t h e letter can be rewritten. a 'If solutions to this p r o b l e m h a d b e e n s o u g h t earlier, t h e situation m i g h t n o t have got so o u t of h a n d . '

H a d solutions t o this p r o b l e m b e e n s o u g h t earlier, t h e situation m i g h t n o t h a v e got s o o u t o f h a n d .

Tf school leavers cannot go on to further education for whatever reason, they will be unlikely to find jobs locally.'

S h o u l d school leavers b e u n a b l e t o g o o n t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n for w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , t h e y will b e unlikely to find jobs locally.

Tf we w e r e to offer t h e m t h e c h a n c e to c h a n g e their situation, I am sure they w o u l d do so.'

W e r e w e t o offer t h e m t h e c h a n c e t o c h a n g e t h e i r situation, I a m s u r e t h e y w o u l d d o so.

Rewrite t h e s e s e n t e n c e s practising t h e m o r e formal ways of writing conditional s e n t e n c e s .

If y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e no qualifications or training, they will n o t be able to find w o r k .

If o p p o r t u n i t i e s for t r a i n i n g existed, I am sure p e o p l e w o u l d t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e m ,

If we all t a k e an interest in o u r t o w n , things will get b e t t e r .

If t e e n a g e r s h a d b e e n e n c o u r a g e d to go on to college, t h e y w o u l d have h a d b e t t e r c h a n c e s of finding w o r k .

Giving opinions
Look at this question b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e which follows.

Letters

You have read this e x t r a c t a o o u t relationships b e t w e e n different g e n e r a t i o n s in a -ational newspaper. You : = :ide to w r i t e a letter to :~e s a m e n e w s p a p e r -esponding t o t h e points e - : i o n e d and giving y o u r > i opinion.
_

I look at the younger generation now and can see no similarities with my own when we were young. Nowadays they have altogether too much freedom. changed. They're encouraged to go out and see Their priorities have the world; to travel rather than settle down. interested in buying fast cars,

No longer do they want to raise a family: they're more expensive holidays and generally

wasting their money. In my day we were expected to show respect to our elders, raise a family and become law abiding citizens.

' : j will find it easier to a n s w e r this kind of q u e s t i o n if y o u disagree with t h e points that have b e e n raised in t h e r : - a c t . A n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s will help y o u to think of ideas to include in y o u r letter. a : T h e extract says t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e ' t o o m u c h ' f r e e d o m . ' T o o m u c h ' m e a n s ' m o r e t h a n they n e e d o r i s g o o d : t h e m ' . H o w can you s u p p o r t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e view t h a t t h e f r e e d o m y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e is n o t excessive?

H o w have y o u n g p e o p l e ' s p r i o r i t i e s c h a n g e d ?

H o w can these c h a n g e s be s e e n as a positive t h i n g ?

Is it t r u e to say t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e ' n o l o n g e r w a n t to raise a family'?

" is the writer implying a b o u t y o u n g p e o p l e t o d a y w h e n he says: 'we w e r e e x p e c t e d to s h o w r e s p e c t to o u r e l d e r s , raise a family a n d b e c o m e law a b i d i n g citizens'?

e ::

: - - : etter to help you organise y o u r opinions into a paragraph plan and t h e n w r i t e y o u r letter.

i ;_ = s: on b e l o w and, before y o u w r i t e y o u r letter, ask yourself q u e s t i o n s , as in e x e r c i s e 7 a b o v e , to help

: _ - i c t h e following e x t r a c t in a magazine. You d e c i d e to w r i t e : : : : r e s a m e magazine responding t o t h e points raised and g M n g y o u r o w n opinions o n t h e matter. You don't have to disagree with everything that is said. You may agree to a certain extent but feel the opinions expressed are one-sided.

e reaUy got out of hand. Everywhere you look there are pictures n dels u ho are supposed to represent perfect people. We're r-.;.zzr.:.\ aid. directly or indirectly, that appearance is everything. Have x Jjorgrxt7i that 'beauty is only skin deep'? Doesn't personality count z'jng anymore? >** The cost of keeping fit and dressing fashionably is jr the majority of people. Magazines, advertisements and the like ?typ making ordinary people feel inferior.

Essays

Comparing

L o o k at t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e essay b e l o w and do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Your t u t o r s h o w s y o u t w o e x t r a c t s from articles a b o u t transport. Working out which bus route is best and then waiting at stops for buses which are more often than not delayed or overcrowded is not my idea of fun. Nothing beats the convenience of being able to hop in my car and drive quickly to my destination. Public transport is better now than ever before. It's cheap, reliable and avoids the problem of finding or affording parking.

Your t u t o r asks y o u to w r i t e an essay a b o u t public and private t r a n s p o r t in t h e city, stating which form of t r a n s p o r t y o u prefer.

(1) , the answer to the question 'Which is better in the city - public or private transport?' may seem obvious. A/lost people would rather use their own car than stand in a queue waiting for a bus. (2) , however, driving a car may not always be the most convenient form of transport in a city, even if the authorities allow you to take it into the centre. Having your own form of transport, which usually means a car, naturally has advantages. (3) , at least (4) , is the fact that you can start and finish your journey when and where you like, driving from your house to your office, for example. (5) (6) , even if you have your own parking space at home, you may find it difficult or expensive to park near your office, if that is the case, it would have been quicker and cheaper to travel by bus. (7) , bus journeys are only quicker if the use of private cars is restricted because buses are likely to be held up in the same traffic jams. Provided you live near a bus route that takes you near your destination and the bus is on time, it is probably a better means of transport than your own car, but as we all know buses are often late and frequently crowded so you may have a very frustrating, uncomfortable journey. When l was on holiday in London recently, I travelled in the centre of the city by taxi, bus and underground. The taxi fares were very expensive and the journey took a long time because the driver continually had to stop at traffic lights or behind a line of cars. The bus was even slower for the same reasons but also because it had to stop to pick up and set down passengers. The underground trains were crowded and uncomfortable but this was by far the fastest and cheapest way to cross the city. (8) , I would rather go by car than bus on the surface, but if I can travel underground in the city, I prefer public transport.

Study Connectors and Modifiers on page 7 0 . T h e n read t h e essay again and c o m p l e t e it, c h o o s i n g from t h e list of c o n n e c t i n g phrases.
at first sight first and foremost however in fact in practice in theory on the other hand personally

Answer these questions. a W h y is p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t p r e f e r a b l e in t h e o r y ?

W h y isn't it always b e t t e r in p r a c t i c e ?

In w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e j o u r n e y s q u i c k e r by b u s t h a n by c a r ?

Comparing
I Why a r e b u s j o u r n e y s often u n r e l i a b l e a n d u n p l e a s a n t ?

Why are j o u r n e y s by b u s usually slower t h a n t h o s e by c a r ?

W h y are j o u r n e y s by t h e u n d e r g r o u n d t h e m o s t c o n v e n i e n t in c e n t r a l L o n d o n ?

G e each paragraph a heading, c h o o s i n g from this list. W r i t e t h e r e j e c t n u m b e r i n t h e space. a b : A d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of travelling by b u s A d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of travelling by car I inclusion: it d e p e n d s w h e t h e r y o u a r e a b o v e g r o u n d l u c t i o n : is private t r a n s p o r t always p r e f e r a b l e ?

If you have to compare two things that each have advantages and disadvantages, it is easier to deal with them in separate paragraphs, concentrating on one at a time (see Paragraphs 2 and 3) than to write a number of sentences comparing them in the same paragraph.

-_- question below, which is similar to t h e article y o u w r o t e in Unit 3 on travelling by train. T h e r e is a e - c e . however. T h e r e you w e r e considering t h e g o o d and bad points of o n e thing; here y o u are i- -g t w o things with g o o d and bad points in each case. Follow t h e s a m e plan as t h e essay on t h e ; te oage, using t h e n o t e s b e l o w as a guide. finish
V

O J T class is going on a field trip to an island in t h e s u m m e r holidays. T h e r e has b e e n much discussion a b o u t ere o e s t way t o travel. H e r e are s o m e o f t h e c o m m e n t s that w e r e made. F lying is quicker, ng us with more time to pend on our hofiday.
bq ii muck more tLe boat and. qe qet

'

i relaxing

Think of the cost: flying is really expensive.

Loiidc aij

mood before

u!i ijou qget


TFOUR

to tLe Island.

t u t o r has asked y o u t o w r i t e an essay o n this subject: Which is the better way of travelling to an island, by :t: : :. air? W r i t e y o u r essay, responding to t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d and stating y o u r o w n preference.

auction. W r i t e a b a l a n c e d p a r a g r a p h b u t do n o t go into t o o m a n y details.

Explain t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of travelling by air. ( B u t see TIP below) " :n t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of travelling by sea.

:h a conclusion. If you h a v e a p r e f e r e n c e , say so a n d s u p p o r t it with an e x a m p l e , p r e f e r a b l y from -. - - -.al e x p e r i e n c e . If n o t , y o u can b a l a n c e y o u r conclusion, suggesting t h a t t h e choice d e p e n d s on : _ r s -uch a s t h e r e a s o n for t h e j o u r n e y o r t h e t i m e o f year etc. Give a n e x a m p l e i n e a c h case.

t .'' imte an essay - T i o dungs, and bmr m smng preference for mat of ALJIL deal with the kind wsm pm.fu in paragraph 3 tmm&t m *iU lead more mmmmtA mto your conclusion, httktscmse. if you would rather p.i ** an: rexerse the order of xnx&nphs 2 and 3.

Essays

Responding to generalisations
Years ago, (1) historian Arnold Toynbee based his theory of (2) .. history on (3) climate. Comparing groups of immigrants to (4) United States, he argued that (5) Pilgrim Fathers in (6) New England were forced by their harsh climate to work hard and so became
self-reliant and stern and puritanical in (7) temperament, while those who settled in (8) warmer southern states were easy-going and relaxe. and depended on (9) slave labour. If his theory was correct, similar
comparisons should be possible between the people of northern and

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e essay b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. Your t u t o r s h o w s y o u t w o e x t r a c t s from articles a b o u t national character. It is only natural that the climate affects people's personality. How can a worker from a hot country possibly work as hard as his northern counterpart? The same can be said for the happy-go-lucky attitude that so many people from warm places have, which is rarely seen in most colder countries.

southern Europe.
Needless to say, such generalisations cannot be applied to (10) individuals, and generalisations about people from different countries are

based on stereotypes that foreigners form about them, which may be


inaccurate or out of date. Some people in Greece may still imagine the typical Englishman as someone carrying (11) umbrella and wearing

(12) bowler hat, even though the English tourists who come to Greece seldom remind anyone of this picture in their appearance or behaviour. All the same, there is no doubt (13) grain of (14) truth in this theory that makes (15) sense. People from Scandinavia, historically confined to their houses throughout the long winter by ice and snow, had more reason to be gloomy and introspective than people in Mediterranean
countries, who could get out into (16) sun all the year round. It is even reasonable to suppose that when the long summer evenings come to

Assumptions that people have the same character simply because they are from the same country are completely unfounded. It is unfair to base opinions like this on what are, quite obviously, stereotypes.

Norway and Sweden, with eighteen hours of daylight, the people have more
excuse to celebrate by going a little mad and getting drunk. Where the theory is generally accepted is in the comparisons made in
almost every country in Europe between people from the north and the

south. In England, southerners have always regarded those from the north as hard-working, but unpleasantly direct in speech and mean about money,

while the northerners see Londoners, in particular, as lazy, self-indulgent


and insincere. Anyone who by them in the goes to Milan way. or Barcelona will the find people weather it in

Your t u t o r asks y o u to w r i t e an essay a b o u t t h e relation b e t w e e n national character and climate responding to t h e points raised and giving your o w n views on the matter. W r i t e y o u r essay.

making the same criticisms of southerners from Naples or Seville and being
condemned country, same Everywhere and warmer

the south seems to have produced the same contrast. Greece is a smaller
with less scope for climatic differences in ancient times,

was the Spartans, from the south, who were by tradition tougher and less

pleasure-loving, is Greece an exception to the general rule?

Answer these questions.

ations
theory of (2)

Responding to generalisations
t h e s e q u e s t i o n s and w r i t e an essay on o n e of t h e m . Your t u t o r s h o w s y o u t w o e x t r a c t s from articles a b o u t personality traits.

Essays

10

P t (4) I New id so became

k while those oing and relaxee rrect, similar


pern and

Courage is the greatest virtue. If you are not brave, the rest are no use. In this day and age, there is no place for the faint-hearted.

Nowadays, it appears that the only thing which will help us survive is our sense of humour. There's absolutely no point in being conscientious when all around you are slacking off. The main thing is that you are able to laugh things off.

Your t u t o r asks you to w r i t e an essay a b o u t t h e m o s t important personality trait in today's w o r l d responding to t h e points raised and giving y o u r o w n v i e w s on t h e matter. W r i t e y o u r essay.
v

to (10)
countries are t h may be imagine the >d wearing "ome to Greece : - can prepare for this c h o i c e b y c o m p l e t i n g t h e s e e x e r c i s e s first. following virtues in ranking order. W r i t e a n u m b e r from I to 7 in t h e space provided. courage - ird work
r

-_:

r behaviour. truth in this


historically md snow, had Mediterranean round, it is

honesty chastity

generosity humility

a sense of h u m o u r

- ; - answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t o help you c o m e u p with a plan for t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . I . judge p e o p l e by o n e virtue a l o n e or a c o m b i n a t i o n ?

wngs come to ople have more


''sons made in

~ . Nevertheless, s o m e virtues a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s .

W h i c h o n e s a n d why?

H : w d o you r a t e c o u r a g e a n d h u m o u r against t h e o t h e r s y o u have m e n t i o n e d ?

p i and the 'om the north


about money, 'If-indulgent

accurate do y o u t h i n k t h e extracts a r e ?

id people ville and being T weather in is a smaller rt times, it Jher and less

Your t u t o r s h o w s you t w o e x t r a c t s from articles a b o u t personal happiness.

'ttTu'k

it is true to say that money can't buy happiness, you can't be happy without a. 1 can anyone be expected to be happy their lot if they haven't got anything? X'hhout the basic necessities, it is unrealistic : expect to be happy.
v

There is nothing more important in the world than one's health. Without it, one's life is at best uncomfortable, at worst a complete misery. One cannot be expected to be happy if in pain, or if one's friends or family are ill. Therefore, the only guarantee to happiness is one's health.

on page 64 sssary.

r x , r t u t o r asks you to w r i t e an essay a b o u t personal happiness responding to t h e points raised and 5 s y v i e w s o n t h e matter. W r i t e y o u r essay.
r u r o w n

points m a d e in t h e e x t r a c t s in a four-paragraph Most people would not immediately answer yes' or 'no' to questions like the ones in this unit. The best way to answer is to find something interesting to say, giving examples from what you know. Do not fill your essay with well-meaning generalisations.

S h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n , indicating y o u r o p i n i o n If money does not make people happy, what does? Define w h a t you think d o e s m a k e t h e m h a p p y . C a n t h e lack o f m o n e y c a u s e u n h a p p i n e s s a n d p r e v e n t p e o p l e from enjoying life? T h i n k of e x a m p l e s . H far are the extracts t r u e ? To w h a t e x t e n t d o e s m o n e y . ntribute to h a p p i n e s s a n d h o w d o e s it do so?

Essays

Providing

information

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e essay b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You have a t t e n d e d a c o u r s e on health and have b e e n asked by y o u r t u t o r to w r i t e an essay on t h e i m p o r t a n c e of diet to g o o d health. You have b e e n to a lecture on t h e subject and have m a d e t h e n o t e s below. W r i t e y o u r essa> using y o u r n o t e s and expressing y o u r o w n opinions. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIET TO GOOD HEALTH

I What should we eat?

Health risks

f i n i m 'j'tinfli

variety most important factor

Mediterranean diet (people live longer)

big meals?

Which meal is most important?

dangers of food poisoning (meat, fruit, seafood)

hygiene (at home and in restaurants)

(1) that diet is essential to good health, choosing the right diet, (2) , depends on a number of factors. (3) , what we eat is obviously important. (4) , we need to consider how often we have a meal and which meals should be the main meals of the day. (5) , even if our diet is suitable, we must do our best to ensure that the food we eat is not contaminated. Even the experts disagree about what constitutes the best diet. There is, (6) , fairly general agreement that a balanced diet like the 'Mediterranean diet', mainly consisting of fruit, vegetables and fish but also including some meat, is the healthiest and, (7) people who follow it live longer. The key to a good diet is really variety, in places where people depend entirely on one kind of food, their diet will lack some vitamins and their health will suffer. We may have our main meal during the day or in the evening but there is no doubt that it is better to have a good breakfast than eat a lot late at night, we need energy at the beginning of a day's work but not when going to bed, when a big meal may lead to indigestion. Regular meals are also important. Young people often get indigestion because they eat sweets, cakes and fast food in between meals and have no appetite when they go home for lunch or dinner. (8) the right diet does not always prevent illness, though we can minimise the risks by insisting on cleanliness in restaurants and refusing to eat anything that is not quite fresh. Some diseases contracted by animals may be passed to human beings eating meat; insecticides sprayed on fruit trees may be poisonous if we eat the fruit raw; some coastal waters are
contaminated and seafood caught there can cause food poisoning. In normal circumstances, however,

the right diet is the essential factor for good health, it can make us strong, keep our weight down and so enable us to live longer.
^ ^ I t : '

Study Connectors and Modifiers on page 70 and c o m p l e t e t h e essay a b o v e with t h e phrases below.
apart from that it goes without saying as a result nevertheless however finally in the first place of course

ion
mportance of 'rite y o u r essay a
n

Providing

information

Essays

11

Essays providing information generally make a n u m b e r of main points, contained in t o p i c s e n t e n c e s . T h e s e are s u p p o r t e d by e x a m p l e s or explanation. Find t h e main points in t h e essay o p p o s i t e and t h e s e n t e n c e s 2 : s u p p o r t t h e m . T h e first has b e e n d o n e for y o u . P a r a g r a p h 1: O n e m a i n p o i n t followed by e x a m p l e s . .VM . PPM'.. Choosing the rjght diet depends on. a..number f .factors.
0

^ompies: b

.#>.?.. t h r e e . sentences. that

follqyy

P a r a g r a p h 2: O n e m a i n p o i n t , followed by a s e n t e n c e of e x p l a n a t i o n .

F a r a g r a p h 3: Two m a i n points, each followed by e x p l a n a t i o n or e x a m p l e .

hygiene T home and in estaurants)

a p h 4 : T w o m a i n points, o n e followed b y e x a m p l e s , t h e o t h e r b y a c o m m e n t .

_->: 2 : the question b e l o w and t h e n d o t h e e x e r c i s e s . Tfou have a t t e n d e d a talk a b o u t alternative m e d i c i n e and t h e value of h o m e o p a t h i c r e m e d i e s in particular, and have m a d e t h e n o t e s below. Your t u t o r has n o w asked y o u to w r i t e an essay on this e c t using y o u r n o t e s .

j ^ ' n d p j e _ of_lTomeopathic remedies - treat whole person not just disease herbal remedies - harmless although not always effective around since 18th century + even Hippocrates, father of medicine rome from plants, can be used without doctor's prescription (must follow instructions) _susgicion about traditional drugs - dangerous side effects eg_p_r Bach's flowers - good for stress, psychological illnesses

a b c d E f S h

W h y are people turning to homeopathic remedies? W h a t is t h e a d v a n t a g e of using t h e m ? W h a t e x a m p l e of a h o m e o p a t h i c r e m e d y is given? W h a t is it u s e d for? H o w long have h o m e o p a t h i c r e m e d i e s b e e n i n u s e ? W h a t principle is b e h i n d h o m e o p a t h i c r e m e d i e s ? W h a t a r e they m a d e f r o m ? W h a t p r e c a u t i o n s m u s t you t a k e if you use t h e m t o t r e a t vourself?

Essays

Providing

information

Read Lucy's essay to s e e

h o w s h e has organised t h e information from her n o t e s into paragraphs.

1(1

(1)

recent years, many people have become suspicious of (2)


drugs prescribed by their doctors because they have read

traditional

tlt (3)
As

number of them have (4)


resuit, they are turning to (6)

dangerous side effects.


alternative medicine

()

and (7)

homeopathy.

(J

herbal remedies have (9)

advantage

of

being

harmless,

even if they do not always cure (10) suffering from. (12) helping (15) stress and (18)

disease (11)

patient is Dr special properties

example of one such remedy is (13) people to overcome (16) symptoms of (17)

Bach's flowers, which are supposed to have (14) similar psychological illnesses.

( )

19

homeopathy is essentially (20)

natural

healing

process,

stimulating (21) ( )
23

body's natural forces to (22)

recovery. plants. illnesses doctor, instructions

remedies used are generally obtained from (24) wide range of (26) consulting (28) right cure, (31)

They are available to treat (25) and can be used without (27) provided (29)

patient chooses (30)

cure that matches his symptoms, and he follows (32) for (33) use very carefully.

Although (34) seem to be (36) remedies (38)


s i n c e

turn towards (35)

alternative medicine would homeopathic existence

recent phenomenon, in fact, (37) people use today have been in (39) eighteenth century. (41)

(40)

principle behind them is


father of (43)

even older and derives from Hippocrates, (42)

medicine, who recognised that it is necessary to treat (44) person, and not just (45) disease he is suffering from.

whole

ms

Alan and the have b e e n left o u t of Lucy's essay. Add t h e m only w h e r e necessary.

Providing
Z - : : se o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an essay.

information

Essays

11

You have been asked by y o u r t u t o r to w r i t e an essay on t h e i m p o r t a n c e of e x e r c i s e to g o o d health. Vrite y o u r essay using t h e n o t e s b e l o w and e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o w n ideas.

THE IMPORTANCE OF EXERCISE TO GOOD HEALTH

exercise programme?

What exercise should we do?

resting
rnioyable

regular exercise

low impact

high impact

obesity

000000
~ded a lecture on t h e .: i c a i c t i o n s and t h e - e i : : n e y p o s e t o g o o d health. " : . - : - t o r has asked you t o - - :e i- essay on t h e subject -g r_-e "ores o p p o s i t e and E : ess -,g -our o w n ideas.

can take many forms: alcohol, smoking, taking drugs, work i_ all can be dangerous to your health some are deadly: lung cancer, cirrhosis of the liver passive smoking I pregnant women can pass their drug addiction on to their
unborn baby

are started by peer pressure, stress/anxiety, curiosity difficult to quit - special support groups & rehabilitation
I programmes (eg Alcoholics Anonymous)

37

Proposals

Applying for funds

Read through t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e proposal b e l o w to g e t a general idea of t h e meaning and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You are a m e m b e r of a s p o r t s club and have b e e n asked by t h e club to w r i t e a proposal to t h e local authorities asking for financial help to d e v e l o p t h e first aid facilities currently available at t h e s p o r t s c e n t r e . It has b e e n s u g g e s t e d that y o u focus on existing facilities, w h a t exactly is required and h o w t h e funds w o u l d benefit t h o s e p e o p l e using t h e s p o r t s c e n t r e . W r i t e y o u r proposal.

This proposal aims to outline t h e reasons why funding is required by the Five O a k s Sports C e n t r e in order to improve first aid facilities available at the centre. It will also show that these improvements are necessary and will benefit members.

Currently the first aid provisions at the centre are insufficient. T h e r e is a first aid box in t h e reception area and a qualified m e m b e r of staff is on duty to deal with minor injuries and accidents. Unfortunately this m e m b e r of staff has other duties to perform during working hours and is not always easy to locate. Valuable time could be lost trying to track down the individual in the event of an accident of a m o r e serious nature. This is obviously an undesirable situation that needs to be corrected.

In t h e event that funding is m a d e available, the first priority is the creation of a first aid station within the sports centre. This would n e e d to be clearly signposted so people can find it quickly and easily, and fully equipped with the necessary supplies. Secondly, the appointment of qualified, full-time m e m b e r s of staff employed to work within the station is also necessary. T h e r e would only need to be o n e on duty at any one time although other employees who have some first aid training could be on call should they be required. These m e m b e r s of staff would need to be be supplied with beepers, so they could be contacted at any time regardless of where there may be. Finally, telephones connected directly to the first aid centre should be installed to enable people requiring assistance at the site of an accident to p h o n e for that assistance.

At present those people using the sports centre who suffer an injury or b e c o m e unwell are not being properly catered for. If t h e suggestions above were implemented, fast and effective assistance would be readily available at all times. This would benefit our m e m b e r s and t h e public who use t h e centre, increasing the confidence that people have in the Five Oaks Sports Centre.

C h o o s e t h e b e s t heading for each paragraph, w r i t e t h e n u m b e r s 1-4 on t h e d o t t e d lines below, and w r i t e t h e headings in t h e spaces in t h e proposal.

a b c d

H o w funding w o u l d be s p e n t Purpose Existing facilities Benefits

;; :

Ill

38

Applying for funds


: : 2 : :~e p r o p o s a l again and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .

12

sat a r e t h e two s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e first aid facilities c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d e d by t h e Five O a k s S p o r t s C e n t r e ?

Hew m a n y suggestions d o e s t h e p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e ?

-. :hese suggestions?

t i lap e listing four different kinds of proposal. W i t h a partner, l o o k at t h e list of s h o r t c o m i n g s and : ox. C a n you c o m p l e t e t h e table with t h e missing information?

retraining,

re-entering the job market

no local computer facilities except Internet cafes no quiet area for study occupy children

for local community as well as students '<oi>ege games old/damaged equipment

facilities,

reference section - homework,

research

: excess
:'acilities ::-:rs facilities shared with public - rr : : r . i i free to shop

school leavers - further education the unemployed - training/job opportunities no help/advice for school leavers, the unemployed or people wanting to return to work

Proposal
_ - :: :c create a study & cown library with computers 1 2

Existing shortcomings

Benefits

w o r k on own

minding / childcare i-ge shopping c e n t r e

I (children bored - misbehave, shops difficult to navigate with pushchairs, young children, etc)

1 2

: a r e e r advisory service

1 2 3

-nproving sports facilities j community

1 2

m e e t people

39

Proposals

Applying for funds

A proposal n e e d s to be w r i t t e n in a formal style. Look at t h e s e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w and tick ( /) t h o s e that y o u think w o u l d be suitable to include in a proposal. 1 I t h i n k t h a t a p l a c e w h e r e m u m s a n d d a d s can leave t h e i r kids for an h o u r or two is a really g o o d idea. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s p o r t s facilities available a r e i n a d e q u a t e a n d m u c h of t h e e q u i p m e n t is e i t h e r o l d or d a m a g e d . L o t s of p e o p l e d o n ' t w a n t to sit in a smoky, noisy cafe just so t h e y c a n surf t h e net. T h i s p r o p o s a l tries to say why o u r t o w n n e e d s a c a r e e r advisory service. T h e provision of such a service w o u l d leave p a r e n t s free to s h o p in t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t their c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g well l o o k e d after. I'm sure you'll a g r e e t h a t a c o m p u t e r a n d study a r e a is j u s t w h a t o u r t o w n library n e e d s . If t h e s p o r t s c e n t r e is really g o o d a n d c h e a p , lots of p e o p l e will u s e it. T h i s p r o p o s a l o u t l i n e s t h e r e a s o n s why U p p e r C h e s t o n r e q u i r e s funding to c r e a t e a C a r e e r s A d v i s o r y Service t h a t w o u l d be of benefit to local p e o p l e of all ages.

Can y o u rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s from e x e r c i s e 5 that y o u did n o t tick, so t h e y are in a m o r e suitable style?

H P

40

Applying

for funds

Proposals

zse o n e of the q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e a proposal, using t h e information from e x e r c i s e s 4 - 6 to

You w o r k at t h e local library and y o u and y o u r c o l l e a g u e s have d e c i d e d to ask t h e local authority f o r funding t o e x t e n d t h e s e r v i c e s offered. T h e funding w o u l d b e used t o c r e a t e a quiet s u d y ' r e a d i n g area and provide a c o m p u t e r area w h e r e m e m b e r s of t h e public w o u l d be able to j s e t h e c o m p u t e r s and also a c c e s s t h e Internet. W r i t e a proposal outlining w h y t h e s e facilities a.-e n e c e s s a r y and h o w t h e y w o u l d benefit t h e c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e .

You are a qualified child minder and have decided to w r i t e a proposal applying for funds to start up pour o w n business. You w o u l d like to use t h e m o n e y to provide childcare facilities at a shopping c e n t r e in t h e nearby t o w n . It has b e e n suggested that y o u include details of t h e lack of facilities ixesentry available, h o w y o u w o u l d spend t h e m o n e y and h o w y o u r plans w o u l d be of benefit.

a e a youth c o u n s e l l o r and have b e e n asked to w r i t e a proposal to t h e local authority asking for n j n d s to c r e a t e a c a r e e r s advisory s e r v i c e in y o u r t o w n . You should explain w h y this s e r v i c e is - c e d e d and h o w i t w o u l d benefit t h e community.

You are a m e m b e r of t h e Student U n i o n at y o u r university. T h e r e have b e e n a n u m b e r of :: -: a i t s about t h e lack of s p o r t s facilities available to s t u d e n t s and it has b e e n d e c i d e d that t h e versity will apply to t h e local authority for funds to make i m p r o v e m e n t s . You have b e e n asked zz write a proposal outlining t h e existing facilities and explaining h o w t h e m o n e y should be spent.

Proposals
nH i

Assessing choices

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e proposal b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You have read a n o t i c e in t h e local n e w s p a p e r from t h e t o w n council inviting residents to give their opinions on h o w m o n e y raised at a r e c e n t fair could be used. T h e t o w n councillors have m a d e s o m e s u g g e s t i o n s - e x t e n d i n g t h e t o w n library, improving t h e local park or renovating a local building. You d e c i d e to s e n d in a proposal, c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s e possibilities, and stating which idea w o u l d be t h e b e s t for t h e local c o m m u n i t y and why.

Purpose T h e aim of this proposal is to discuss the suggestions which were m a d e by t h e town councillors on how the money raised at t h e 1st A n n u a l S u m m e r Fair should best be spent. Town Library T h e town library, which is very popular with the local residents and is said to be one of the best in the country, is very cramped, with space being at a premium. This is partly d u e to the fact that the new audio section occupies a (1)
;

a m o u n t of space in the main library, which

m e a n s that the wide variety of books available has to be c r a m m e d into a much smaller space than would otherwise be desirable. It is, therefore, logical that some people feel that building an extension would be a (2) St Leonard's Park T h e park on St Leonard's Street has long b e e n a meeting place for old and young alike. However, with the exception of the gardens, which are very well cared for, the p a r k is (3) badly vandalised, and a (4) in n e e d of repair. T h e open-air stage, which was once the venue for many plays and concerts, has been a m o u n t of money will be n e e d e d in order that it be restored. F u r t h e r m o r e , the children's playground is, for want of a better word, a safety hazard, and this must be rectified immediately if the town council is to avoid being held accountable for accidents. The Old Schoolhouse F o r many years now, there has b e e n talk about the renovation of the old schoolhouse in t h e main town square. Unfortunately, this has not yet been brought to fruition. It is (5) However, the cost of renovating such a building would (6) available at this time. Recommendation In conclusion, while all three suggestions would benefit t h e local community in some way, it is my belief that St Leonard's Park deserves our (7) outlined in this proposal will receive your (8) attention. I h o p e that the points consideration. exceed the funds a great pity that this building, which is part of our local heritage, has been allowed to fall into disrepair. way to spend the money raised at the S u m m e r Fair.

Read t h e proposal again and fill t h e gaps using t h e adjectives and adverbs below. M o r e than o n e a n s w e r may be possible.

badly serious

commendable substantial

considerable surely

immediate undoubtedly

J*

Assessing choices

Proposals

Find w o r d s and phrases in t h e proposal which mean t h e s a m e as: a b c d e limited t a k e s up really n e e d s m e n d i n g fixed b l a m e d for carried out d e t e r i o r a t e in c o n d i t i o n be m o r e t h a n

I f

f g h

r e s e Questions a b o u t t h e proposal o n t h e previous page.

, hich p a r a g r a p h d o e s t h e writer s t a t e t h e p u r p o s e of t h e p r o p o s a l ?

-;ch p a r a g r a p h d o e s t h e writer s t a t e which of t h e suggestions he thinks is t h e b e s t ?

_ e> the writer do in t h e first s e n t e n c e s in p a r a g r a p h s 3-5?

: rr a r e a s o n s for s p e n d i n g m o n e y on each of t h e suggestions? n i


To*ra

Library:

St L e o n a r d ' s P a r k : T h e Old Schoolhouse: dertine t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s / e x a m p l e s given for t h e r e a s o n s . A r e t h e r e e x p l a n a t i o n s / e x a m p l e s for all t h r e e W h \ do you think this is?

the three

s g:sinsl wr e, hle ug t >i odh e d o n c : er sa hr p i

starting w i t h t h e o n e t h e writer t h i n k s is t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e , writing t h e you find y o u r answer.

Proposals

Assessing choices

L o o k at t h e s e n t e n c e s below. T h e y are w r i t t e n in t h e active v o i c e . In t h e proposal, find c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n t e n c e s in t h e passive v o i c e and w r i t e t h e m below.

As with all formal writing, the passive voice is used in proposab. This is mainly due to the fact that it is not appropriate to talk directly to the person who is going to read the proposal. This is especially true if blame is being apportioned.

T h e a i m of this p r o p o s a l is to discuss t h e suggestions which t h e t o w n councillors m a d e .

T h e y say t h a t t h e t o w n library is o n e of t h e best in t h e c o u n t r y .

T h e y h a v e to c r a m t h e w i d e variety of b o o k s available into a m u c h s m a l l e r p l a c e .

S o m e o n e h a s badly v a n d a l i s e d t h e o p e n - a i r stage, w h i c h w a s o n c e t h e v e n u e for m a n y plays a n d c o n c e r t s .

Y o u will n e e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of m o n e y in o r d e r t h a t it be r e s t o r e d .

Y o u m u s t rectify this i m m e d i a t e l y if t h e t o w n council is to avoid s o m e o n e h o l d i n g t h e m r e s p o n s i b l e for accidents.

Rewrite the following sentences using the passive voice w h e r e possible. a S o m e o n e m u s t h i r e a b u s w h e n t h e h o c k e y t e a m plays away from h o m e .

U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we will n o t raise a lot of m o n e y for t h e field trip.

T h e y said t h a t t h e science lab at this college is t h e best in t h e country.

S o m e o n e n e e d s t o l o o k after t h e e m p l o y e e s ' c h i l d r e n while e m p l o y e e s a r e w o r k i n g .

44

Assessing choices
s h o u l d b u y a c o o k e r or a m i c r o w a v e oven for p e o p l e to h e a t up food.

Proposals

uld set up a gym in t h e b a s e m e n t , which n o b o d y uses.

5sal on o n e of t h e following q u e s t i o n s . Do t h e e x e r c i s e s before y o u begin writing to help y o u . ': - ege has b e e n given funding by a f a m o u s f o r m e r s t u d e n t and t h e Student C o m m i t t e e has m a d e : : ~ e s u g g e s t i o n s - a n e w s c i e n c e lab, a n e w mini-bus or a field trip abroad. You d e c i d e to s e n d in a : :: zn . c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s e possibilities, and stating which idea w o u l d be t h e b e s t and why.

i ': o w i n g q u e s t i o n s to c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan.

- :-oduction:

W h a t is t h e a i m of y o u r p r o p o s a l ?

p a r a g r a p h 2:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n you t h i n k of for building a n e w science l a b ?

p a r a g r a p h 3:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n y o u t h i n k o f for a n e w m i n i - b u s ?

a r a g r a p h 4:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n you t h i n k of for a field trip a b r o a d ?

ion:

W h a t is your recommendation?

ny you w o r k for has been given funding to improve working conditions. T h e board of directors iree suggestions - childcare facilities, cooking facilities or building a gym. Employees have b e e n nd in proposals c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s e possibilities, stating which idea would be t h e b e s t and your proposal.

o w i n g q u e s t i o n s t o c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan.

rroduction:

W h a t is t h e aim of y o u r p r o p o s a l ?

a r a g r a p h 2:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n y o u t h i n k of for c h i l d c a r e facilities?

P a r a g r a p h 3:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n y o u t h i n k o f for c o o k i n g facilities?

Paragraph 4:

W h a t r e a s o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n / e x a m p l e c a n y o u t h i n k of for a b u i l d i n g a gym?

Conclusion:

W h a t is your recommendation?

Proposals

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e proposal b e l o w and do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You are a m e m b e r of t h e local tourist association which recently held a m e e t i n g on t h e problem of t h e reduction in t h e n u m b e r of visitors t o t h e area. You a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g and have b e e n asked to w r i t e a proposal for t h e local authorities evaluating t h e situation and making s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , using t h e n o t e s y o u t o o k a t t h e meeting.

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w W W W W W Problem: drop in tourism in 5 yrs hotels, restaurants and shops had to shut down 10% more people out of work

Solutions: _ 1 advertising 2. clean up beaches _3 appeal to different tourists

Purpose T h e purpose of this proposal is to discuss the problems the local tourist industry faces and to p u t forward measures that could be taken to improve t h e situation. C u r r e n t Situation U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o u r t o w n is c o n f r o n t e d by t h e s a m e p r o b l e m t h a t is crippling t h e rest of t h e country. T h e fall in the n u m b e r of tourists visiting our town is having a devastating impact on the local community. In just five years, local tourism has declined by 3 0 % , forcing many businesses to close. As a result, local u n e m p l o y m e n t has increased by 1 0 % . O u t l i n e d below are s o m e suggestions that could help rectify this situation. Recommendations 1 Many of our m e m b e r s feel that the key to increasing local tourism is to diversify into other kinds of tourism. Perhaps the local council should consider different ways of p r o m o t i n g our town as a holiday resort by providing financial assistance to those who wish to invest in our a r e a . If g r a n t s w e r e given to investors to set up n e w v e n t u r e s , such as specialist holiday companies, t h e r e would be m o r e variety which would encourage different sorts of tourists to visit our area. 2 In o r d e r to attract visitors to o u r area, it is essential t h a t we have attractive b e a c h e s a n d coastlines. This would entail clearing beaches of rubbish, and making sure that all beach bars and seaside restaurants are attractive to look at, unlike some of the monstrosities which are spoiling t h e coastline at present. Providing this m e a s u r e is taken, the visitors who c o m e h e r e on beach holidays would be encouraged to return, and our r e p u t a t i o n as a beach resort would improve. 3 A n o t h e r answer to the problem would be to launch an international advertising campaign. If local government funds were m a d e available for such a campaign, t h e local tourist association would do its utmost to m a k e a sizable contribution. This would be an excellent way to p r o m o t e the region and encourage tourism. H a d we d o n e this earlier, we may have b e e n able to avoid the unfortunate situation in which we find ourselves today. Conclusion It is i m p e r a t i v e t h a t s o m e t h i n g is d o n e to e n s u r e t h e revival of local t o u r i s m . It is o u r firm conviction that the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the suggestions above would m a k e a significant contribution to this.

Evaluating a situation

Proposals

a s e s in t h e proposal which are similar in meaning to t h e o n e s below. S o m e t i m e s m o r e than ble.

r. _r.:rv

j : r'.e are o u t o f w o r k mendations beaches m and t h e proposal again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . phi s) d o e s t h e writer: g e n e r a l situation at t h e t i m e of writing? n m e n d a t i o n b a s e d o n i n f o r m a t i o n given i n t h e n o t e s ? aim of the p r o p o s a l is to evaluate the situation a n d m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ? ir r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s will h e l p i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n ? he recommendation can be implemented? i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m given i n t h e n o t e s ? ortance of m e a s u r e s b e i n g t a k e n ? the result of t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n will b e ?

Don't use the same words and phrases in your writing that are in the question. Try to use synonyms, or paraphrase as far as possible.

and.

and ,

and ,

: ::s one. you are trying to persuade someone to take action. Therefore, mouM do your best to make them understand how important something is.
:

:-. r = s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using t h e w o r d s in bold. U s e b e t w e e n t w o and five w o r d s . You may wish to l o o k :~zze 'or help with t h e structures n e e d e d . i ~-; : - :hat business is b a d is having a h u g e effect on t h e local c o m m u n i t y .
s

business

on t h e local c o m m u n i t y .

Imr p e o p l e feel t h a t giving g r a n t s to n e w b u s i n e s s e s is t h e way to i n c r e a s e t r a d e . . fee that the ! :s might like to think a b o u t ways to tidy up the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . . i . r .::horities cleaning up t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . to give g r a n t s to n e w businesses.

;. e a p e o p l e m u s t be t r a i n e d p r o p e r l y if we a r e to r e d u c e t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t level. people are trained properly.

c-^ntial"
aider t o r e d u c e the u n e m p l o y m e n t level, T h i s is h o w best to e n c o u r a g e business in t h e area, c \ : 111 e n t to e n c o u r a g e business in t h e a r e a . f We must do s o m e t h i n g b e f o r e it's t o o late, imp* r a t h e d o n e b e f o r e it is t o o late. 47

Proposals

Evaluating a situation

Look at Reference section 4a, b and e on pages 6 4 - 6 5 and Reference section 11 on page 67 and then c o m p l e t e t h e proposal b e l o w with t h e c o r r e c t form o f t h e verbs in brackets or using would w h e r e necessary.

00 00 000
Problem:

college wants to stop publishing


You are head e d i t o r of t h e college n e w s p a p e r and y o u recently a t t e n d e d a staff m e e t i n g a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m of l o w readership. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a proposal for t h e Principal evaluating t h e situation and outlining s o m e suggestions, using t h e n o t e s y o u t o o k at t h e staff meeting. college newspaper not popular enough local advertisers want to pull out _ Solutions: 1 2 3 make appearance. more up-to-date make available in other areas of college special features on local events

Purpose T h e purpose of this proposal is to discuss the problems the college newspaper faces and to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s which (1) (improve) the situation.

Current Situation Unfortunately, our newspaper is in grave danger of being closed down. T h e college is seriously c o n s i d e r i n g w i t h d r a w i n g its f u n d i n g , o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t c i r c u l a t i o n i s n o t high e n o u g h . F u r t h e r m o r e , local advertisers are contemplating withdrawing from the newspaper for the same r e a s o n . O u t l i n e d below are s o m e suggestions that (2) situation. Recommendations 1 In o r d e r to increase the circulation of the college newspaper, it is imperative that there are a n u m b e r of points of sale apart from t h e English D e p a r t m e n t , where it is sold at present. This (3) U n i o n (4) (entail) persuading other m e m b e r s of staff on the newspaper to give (be) another suitable location. (5) up s o m e of their t i m e in o r d e r to sell p a p e r s at t h e m a i n college e n t r a n c e . T h e S t u d e n t s ' (help) rectify this

(this/think of) sooner, we may already have been making a profit.


2 Some m e m b e r s of staff believe that the key to increasing circulation is to bring the newspaper into the 21st century. Perhaps the design d e p a r t m e n t could create a new concept for t h e paper. I f t h e n e w s p a p e r l o o k e d m o r e m o d e r n , s t u d e n t s (6) (undoubtedly find) it m o r e attractive. 3 A n o t h e r answer to t h e p r o b l e m would be to have new features and articles which students want to find out about. F o r example, a ' W h a t ' s O n ' section could be included, with details of local cinemas, concerts, etc. This (7) students to buy the newspaper on a regular basis. Conclusion It is vital t h a t s o m e t h i n g is d o n e to p r e v e n t t h e c o l l e g e n e w s p a p e r b e i n g c l o s e d d o w n . If suggestions such as the ones above (8) newspaper can be saved. (take) seriously, we believe that t h e (be) an excellent way to encourage

Evaluating a situation
: r~~ ; . e s : on and t h e proposal again and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan.

- z- :: . zz on:

discuss newspaper's problems and suggest improvements

Z . i~ : 5 t - a t i o n : G o e r i sanation? itbout the p r o b l e m ?

lations:
I?

pitmen t?

2?

art?
_ . i!r\ii".:on 3? |Hwii^knient?

Z :<-<:json:
--..-.r.ce o f m e a s u r e s b e i n g t a k e n , xir r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s will i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n .

- r r e "'c c w i n g proposal using t h e n o t e s below. t a i H-= a - e mper of t h e local business p e o p l e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h recently held a m e e t i n g on t h e ; ack of business in t h e area. You a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g and have b e e n asked to write Z "Z Z -z ie local authorities evaluating t h e situation and outlining s o m e suggestions, using t h e mceii zn

00 00 000

Reviews

Reviewing a book

Look at t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and read Julia's review that follows. T h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. A magazine which regularly reviews b o o k s has invited its readers to s e n d in a review of a b o o k in which c o u r a g e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n play an important role. W r i t e a review for t h e magazine saying w h a t you learnt from it.

Not Without My Daughter w a s r e c o m m e n d e d to me as t h e a m a z i n g t r u e story of o n e w o m a n ' s c o u r a g e a n d love for h e r d a u g h t e r in a p a r t i c u l a r l y difficult a n d d a n g e r o u s p e r i o d of h e r life. B e t t y M a h m o o d y , t h e a u t h o r , (1) was betrayed b y h e r h u s b a n d , D r Sayyed B o z o r g M a h m o o d y ( M o o d y ) a n d i m p r i s o n e d w i t h o u t rights, w i t h n o m e a n s o f r e t u r n i n g t o h e r o w n c o u n t r y . D e s p i t e t h e t e r r i b l e t r e a t m e n t a n d h a r d s h i p s s h e (2) endured, w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b r o k e n m a n y a strong-willed p e r s o n , s h e (3) determined to e s c a p e w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r , M a h t o b . T h e b o o k (4) began inside an a e r o p l a n e which (5) was making its d e s c e n t into h e r h u s b a n d ' s h o m e l a n d . O n b o a r d (6) were Betty, M o o d y a n d M a h t o b . E v e n a t this stage o f t h e b o o k t h e r e a d e r s (7) understood t h a t Betty (8) was having misgivings a b o u t h e r j o u r n e y to a c o u n t r y which, at t h e t i m e , so d e s p i s e d A m e r i c a a n d its citizens. H o w e v e r , s h e (9) felt t h a t she (10) had to allow h e r d a u g h t e r to visit h e r h u s b a n d ' s family b e f o r e b e i n g e n r o l l e d in school b a c k in t h e States. T h e story (11) unfolded to reveal t h a t Betty's w o r s t n i g h t m a r e (12) had come t r u e : s h e a n d h e r b e l o v e d d a u g h t e r (13) had become p r i s o n e r s at t h e m e r c y of h e r h u s b a n d a n d his often cruel family. B e t t y (14) couldn't come to t e r m s with h e r fate a n d (15) vowed to e s c a p e a n d r e t u r n to A m e r i c a . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , s h e (16) was unwilling to do so w i t h o u t M a h t o b b u t (17) found, to h e r h o r r o r , t h a t t h e p e o p l e s h e (18) met (19) couldn't or (20) wouldn't h e l p her. Finally she (21) came into c o n t a c t with A m a h l , w h o (22) was able to a r r a n g e h e r e s c a p e across t h e b o r d e r . T h e story (23) ended with a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of B e t t y a n d M a h t o b ' s t r e a c h e r o u s t r e k t h r o u g h t h e m o u n t a i n s d u r i n g a s n o w s t o r m a n d their final arrival in T u r k e y , from w h e r e t h e y (24) travelled b a c k to A m e r i c a . As well as b e i n g well-written, this e x t r a o r d i n a r y b o o k is also t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g . I f o u n d I w a s u n a b l e to p u t it d o w n , a n d finished r e a d i n g it within 48 h o u r s of starting it. A l t h o u g h it is u p s e t t i n g at t i m e s , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g love of a m o t h e r for h e r child (25) was a p p a r e n t on e a c h p a g e . I realised t h a t n o t e v e r y o n e in this w o r l d h a s a safe a n d peaceful existence; s o m e t h i n g t h a t m a n y p e o p l e , myself i n c l u d e d , often t a k e for g r a n t e d . It will r e m a i n an u n f o r g e t t a b l e a c c o u n t of c o u r a g e , love a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d b e a n i n s p i r a t i o n t o u s all.

Read t h e review again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . I n which p a r a g r a p h ( s ) d o e s Julia: a b c d give h e r r e a c t i o n to t h e b o o k ? give us a brief overview of t h e p l o t ? m e n t i o n t h e title a n d a u t h o r of t h e b o o k ? s u p p o r t h e r c h o i c e of b o o k while e x p a n d i n g on t h e p l o t ? , and

Reviewing a book

Reviews

-. Reference section I2f on pages 6 8 - 6 9 . Julia w r o t e her review as a past t e n s e narrative. Change t h e e-rs in italics into t h e t e n s e s that should be used to w r i t e a b o u t a b o o k .

Introduction I 3 Paragraph 2
4

6 8 9 1 Paragraph 3

II
12
U

14 15 14 17 15 19

i: a r e questions b e l o w and c h o o s e o n e . W r i t e a paragraph plan using Julia's review as a guide. Expand . z i- 'zo a review practising p r e s e n t t e n s e s . - - i g a z ne is running a feature in which they review b o o k s . : m a k e g o o d presents for a friend. They are inviting e - - e a c e r s to send in reviews on b o o k s t h e y think w o u l d z-z s - -_ao.e. W r i t e a review of a b o o k y o u think w o u l d make a i : - - - explaining w h y z : . ; e o n g t o a b o o k club and have b e e n asked t o w r i t e a , . I. I i z :~e n e x t n e w s l e t t e r r e c o m m e n d i n g a b o o k to --z e ~ o e r s . W r i t e a review of a b o o k which has had an - : ; : : a - y o u r life.

HJjJ
U u i Whenyou write a review, do not get caught up in just retelling the story. Instead, concentrate on the main points that explain why you
c h o s e t h l s b o o k t o r e v i e w a n d

your reaction to it. '

jto tte ci n il?


author? brief overview of p l o t ? " a . - Body main points of the plot that s u p p o r t y o u r choice?

Conclusion

reaction':

51

Reviews
mmm

Reviewing a film

Read t h e question and t h e review b e l o w and do t h e exercises which follow. A popular monthly magazine, which regularly reviews films, has invited its readers to write a review of a film recently released on video for the magazine. W r i t e your review of a film recently released on video and say what you consider to be t h e disadvantages of watching a film on video rather than at t h e cinema.

Castaway, which (1) v i d e o , (2)

(just/release) on ( b e ) o n e of t h e biggest b l o c k b u s t e r s of ( n o t see) it ( d e c i d e ) to get it o u t on v i d e o . A l t h o u g h I (5) ( r e g r e t ) n o t having s e e n it on t h e big screen. ( b e ) a F e d E x executive w h o (8) (live)

2000. F o r s o m e s t r a n g e r e a s o n , I (3) at t h e c i n e m a , so I (4) ( b e ) very glad I did, I n o w (6) C h u c k N o l a n d ( T o m H a n k s ) (7) b y t h e clock a n d (9) as his w o r k frequently (10) party, C h u c k (11) C h u c k ' s p l a n e (12) ( c r a s h ) a n d C h u c k (14) He (15) wits a n d instinct, N o l a n d (16)
a e

( n o t s p e n d ) e n o u g h t i m e with his girlfriend Kelly ( H e l e n H u n t ) , ( t a k e ) h i m to t h e four c o r n e r s of t h e e a r t h . At a C h r i s t m a s ( P g ) a n d m u s t leave i m m e d i a t e l y for Asia. D u r i n g t h e flight, (hit) a t e r r i b l e t h u n d e r s t o r m , t h e p l a n e (13) ( b e ) t h e only survivor. (float) in a life raft to a d e s e r t island s o m e w h e r e in t h e Pacific. R e l y i n g on his ( c r e a t e ) a makeshift h o m e . He (17) ( t u r n i n t o ) w e e k s , his

(face) a s s o r t e d c h a l l e n g e s , including l e a r n i n g h o w to crack o p e n c o c o n u t s a n d h o w to m a k e a fire by r u b b i n g o n e p i e c e o f w o o d against a n o t h e r . A s t h e days (18) h o p e s of b e i n g r e s c u e d (19) C h u c k ' s a d v e n t u r e (20) (21) C h u c k (23) (26) all t h e way h e (28) T h e film (29) (dwindle). ( b e ) a lonely, d e s o l a t e o n e : a fact which is constantly (build) a raft a n d (22) ( m a k e ) a final a t t e m p t at e s c a p e .

r e a f f i r m e d by shots of t h e massive o c e a n a n d starry skies. A f t e r four y e a r s of lonely existence, C h u c k ( b a t t l e ) with t h e w a v e s for h o u r s o n e n d a n d (24) ( s p o t ) by a c a r g o ship a n d ( n o t b e ) at ( t a k e b a c k ) to civilisation, w h e r e things (27) (imagine) them to be. ( b e ) very impressive, b u t it w o u l d h a v e b e e n even m o r e so on t h e big

(give u p ) h o p e of b e i n g r e s c u e d w h e n he (25)

s c r e e n . A s with all a c t i o n scenes w a t c h e d o n a T V screen, justice c a n n o t h a v e b e e n d o n e t o t h e p l a n e crash, which m u s t h a v e b e e n terrifying w h e n s e e n ( a n d h e a r d ) a t t h e c i n e m a . Similarly, t h e scenery m u s t h a v e b e e n b r e a t h t a k i n g , a n d t h e v a s t n e s s o f t h e sea a n d sky w o u l d h a v e m a d e C h u c k ' s loneliness even m o r e painful to watch. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , this (30) v i d e o r a t h e r t h a n t h e 'real thing'. ( b e ) t h e p r i c e o n e has to p a y for w a t c h i n g a

Study Reference section I2f on pages 6 8 - 6 9 and fill in t h e blanks in t h e review with t h e c o r r e c t t e n s e of t h e verbs in brackets. Underline any w o r d s and phrases used in t h e review to s h o w w h e n something happened, or t h e passing of time.

When describing the plot of a film or book, it is important that the reader knows the order in which the main events occur. To do this effectively, you should use a variety of time expressions in your writing.

Reviewing a film

Reviews

sd on t h e review on t h e previous page, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order. W r i t e c^rjon, Main Body, Conclusion.

S t a t e y o u r g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n t o t h e film. C o m m e n t o n t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f w a t c h i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r film on v i d e o a n d discuss t h e g e n e r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s of films on v i d e o . S t a t e t h e title of t h e film a n d give a r e a s o n for w a t c h i n g t h e film on v i d e o . I n d i c a t e t h a t w a t c h i n g films on v i d e o has its d i s a d v a n t a g e s . Briefly d e s c r i b e t h e p l o t . M e n t i o n a s p e c t s of t h e film which exemplify y o u r o p i n i o n of w a t c h i n g films on v i d e o .

r. : - e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w , think of a film for each o n e and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans which follow with

I (live) Hunt), iristmas ht.

Dopular film magazine has invited its readers to w r i t e a r e v i e w for t h e magazine. W r i t e a review of a > - c < b u s t e r and say w h a t y o u c o n s i d e r to be t h e essential qualities that make a blockbuster.

-troduction

title? r e a s o n for w a t c h i n g t h e b l o c k b u s t e r ? I n d i c a t e t h a t b l o c k b u s t e r s h a v e essential qualities.

" a n Body on his y


k

plot? e x a m p l e s of b l o c k b u s t e r qualities?

his

Conclusion

your general reaction? qualities of film? g e n e r a l qualities of b l o c k b u s t e r s ?

aopular monthly magazine, which regularly reviews films, has an awards c e r e m o n y every year. Readers : a a e e n invited to n o m i n a t e a film for t h e c a t e g o r y ' C o m e d y of t h e Year'. W r i t e a review a b o u t a film : _ : - - < d e s e r v e s t o win t h e award and say w h a t you c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e essential qualities that make a =coc c o m e d y film.

-foduction

title? r e a s o n for w a t c h i n g t h e c o m e d y ? I n d i c a t e t h a t c o m e d i e s h a v e essential qualities.

Main Body

plot? e x a m p l e s of qualities of c o m e d i e s ?

Conclusion

your general reaction? qualities of film? g e n e r a l qualities of c o m e d i e s ?

a is
"';!^ jina
e

''

"

- := a -eview in a n s w e r to o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o v e , using y o u r paragraph plan, and taking t h e things y o u mm learnt in this unit into c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

53

Reviews

Reviewing a restaurant/hote

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e review b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You are e m p l o y e d in a large c o m p a n y w h o s e manager is retiring. T h e c o m p a n y w a n t s to organise a leaving party as a t o k e n of its appreciation for t h e manager's many years of s e r v i c e . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a review of a restaurant in y o u r area that y o u c o n s i d e r suitable for t h e o c c a s i o n . You should include details of seating capacity, cuisine and any o t h e r s e r v i c e s y o u feel w o u l d make this a suitable v e n u e .

The Willows, (1) h a s a r e p u t a t i o n for providing top-quality, t r a d i t i o n a l English cuisine t o g e t h e r with high-class

service. It also h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g able to p r o v i d e a private dining a r e a t h a t c a n be h i r e d for a n e v e n i n g o r l u n c h t i m e event. T h e r e s t a u r a n t i s set i n t h e a t t r a c t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e h o t e l w h e r e guests a n d t h o s e using t h e r e s t a u r a n t a r e able to enjoy a walk t h r o u g h t h e extensive g a r d e n s , (2) , d o w n to t h e lake t h a t gives t h e h o t e l its n a m e . T h e p r i v a t e dining r o o m itself, (3) , p r o v i d e s seating for a m a x i m u m of 100 p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e is a d a n c e floor a n d DJ a r e a if r e q u i r e d . In this event, seating w o u l d be r e d u c e d to a m a x i m u m o f 80. S h o u l d a D J b e r e q u i r e d , t h e h o t e l can o r g a n i s e this o r t h o s e hiring t h e r o o m can do so. If a DJ is n o t r e q u i r e d , t h e n t h e h o t e l will a r r a n g e for s o m e p l e a s a n t b a c k g r o u n d m u s i c in k e e p i n g with t h e event. T h e waiting staff at The Willows, (4) , do their

u t m o s t to m a k e o n e ' s visit enjoyable a n d t h e chefs a r e r e n o w n e d for their skill a n d t h e variety in t h e dishes they c r e a t e . T h e m a n a g e r suggests a set m e n u for an occasion such as a r e t i r e m e n t party, a n u m b e r of which a r e available, varying in price according to w h a t is chosen. She assures me that vegetarians a n d o t h e r dietary n e e d s can be c a t e r e d for, providing a d v a n c e d notification is given. As The Willows is s i t u a t e d on t h e o u t s k i r t s of T o n b r i d g e , (5) t h o s e using p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t s h o u l d n o t e n c o u n t e r difficulties i n r e a c h i n g t h e r e s t a u r a n t . T h e r e i s also a m p l e p a r k i n g for t h o s e w h o w o u l d b e driving. I w o u l d n o t h e s i t a t e to r e c o m m e n d The Willows as an ideal location for Mr W i t h e r t o n ' s r e t i r e m e n t party. It offers excellent service a n d g o o d f o o d in a relaxed, p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t c a n be conveniently r e a c h e d by m e m b e r s of o u r staff.

Look at Reference section 7 on page 66 and study t h e e x a m p l e s t h e r e before c o m p l e t i n g t h e review with t h e phrases below.
a large nearby town a beautiful, wood-panelled room overlooking the grounds friendly and professional individuals lovingly maintained since they were planted at the turn of the twentieth century the well-known restaurant situated in the grounds of The Lake Hotel

/1hotl
: : : :

Reviewing a restaurant/hotel

; - -ases in t h e review that mean t h e following:

nd b e l o n g i n g to a n d s u r r o u n d i n g a building

Ut f e a view

o f a: ite-.ery best
Mlfci I B ml ntzrm '
: c

Hi

= -. : :s e:

again and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t it. : te r e s t a u r a n t h a s t h e writer focused o n ? h

m ati : in is given in direct a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n set?

her

ifr an n mt o i o

is given in s u p p o r t of this v e n u e ?

-.is *ve paragraphs. W h i c h of t h e headings : : : - :s to e a c h of t h e five paragraphs? . J - e ^ s I-5 o n t h e d o t t e d lines t o indicate

stlt ad ffiy n .. i g, sai g ad -rn s et n n hi g t e vne in h eu e o rcm edtn f eo mna o i


parking

music arrangements

iarv

Reviews

Reviewing a restaurant/hotel

Look at Reference section 2c on page 64 and c o m p a r e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s : T h e dining r o o m has w o o d p a n e l s .

It is a w o o d - p a n e l l e d d i n i n g r o o m .

R e w r i t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s , c o n v e r t i n g t h e m from o n e form t o a n o t h e r ,

T h e h o t e l has twenty b e d r o o m s .

It is a glass-roofed s w i m m i n g p o o l .

T h e building has t h r e e floors.

T h e y a r e all d a r k - h a i r e d w a i t e r s .

She is a w e l l - m a n n e r e d r e c e p t i o n i s t .

C o m p l e t e t h e table with t h e adjectives b e l o w that can be used to d e s c r i b e f o o d , staff and hotels/restaurants.

delicious inefficient rude

elegant surroundings luxurious shabby spacious

extortionate (x2) neglected tasteless overcooked

first<lass

fresh

friendly polite welcoming

inattentive professional well-presented

overpriced (x2) varied

unhelpful

Hotels/Restaurants

Reviewing a restaurant hotel

Reviews

17

: w o m o r e q u e s t i o n s . C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans b e l o w t h e m with n o t e s t o help y o u organise l'-.s and ideas for each review. T h e n c h o o s e o n e review to w r i t e , following y o u r plan and practising he v o c a b u l a r y y o u m e t in e x e r c i s e s 3, 6 and 7. - a v e b e e n reading an issue of Out on the Town, a magazine to do with e n t e r t a i n m e n t . You s a w a d v e r t i s e m e n t and have decided to a n s w e r it. W r i t e a review for t h e magazine r e c o m m e n d i n g a a _ r a n t in y o u r area, explaining w h y it w o u l d be a g o o d c h o i c e .

We are looking for restaurants that would be suitable venues for a

21st birthday celebration. Do


you have any ideas?

-t-oduction

name, location of restaurant?

a -

Body

food available? staff? atmosphere? cost, o t h e r facilities?

Conclusion

Sum up your recommendation.

~'i 3 : j d e n t Union at t h e university you attend is organising a c o n f e r e n c e for s t u d e n t s from a n u m b e r a- e f f e r e n t universities. It has asked for suggestions of h o t e l s in t h e area w h e r e t h e c o n f e r e n c e can be ~ a. W r i t e a review of a suitable hotel, including details of w h a t it has to offer, w h e r e it is located ar-d any o t h e r information y o u feel is relevant.

-:roduction

name, location of hotel?

Main B o d y

facilities for c o n f e r e n c e ? capacity? cost/special r a t e s ? o t h e r r e l e v a n t facilities/information?

Conclusion

Sum up your recommendation.

Reports

Assessing facilities

Marina w o r k s for a travel agency and stays in h o t e l s in o r d e r to a s s e s s their facilities. Afterwards s h e w r i t e s a report. L o o k at her c o m m e n t s on t h e Majestic Hotel and put a tick beside positive c o m m e n t s and a c r o s s beside negative c o m m e n t s .

OOOOO000000
\a
b

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hall porter very heJgfuMJooked \ theatre tickets, gave directions.


Long queue at breakfast. Took 20^ minutes_to find a free table. No separation between smoking and non-smoking tables. Room old fashioned. Mattress uncomfortable, couldn't sleep.

_d

Receptionist barely polite, no smile. Couldn't find my reservation. Did not offer to help with luggage, gave me the wrong key. Bathroom spotlessly clean, modern, shower, .useful toiletries. Room service forgot my order of sandwiches. Had to ring three times. Excellent menu at lunch, first-class service, fine cuisine. TV only offered local channels. Reception very poor.

e f g jh

Read Marina's r e p o r t o p p o s i t e . C o m p a r e it to t h e c o m m e n t s s h e m a d e and find t h e paragraph w h e r e s h e has used each of t h e c o m m e n t s . W r i t e t h e c o r r e c t letter (a-h) in t h e s p a c e s below. Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3: P a r a g r a p h 4: . and. , and , . and,

To make a r e p o r t as clear as possible, information is separated into paragraphs, each of which is given a heading. C h o o s e t h e b e s t heading for each paragraph, w r i t e t h e n u m b e r s 1-5 on t h e d o t t e d lines b e l o w and t h e headings in t h e s p a c e s in Marina's report.

a b c d e

Staff a n d service on offer Introduction R e s t a u r a n t facilities Accommodation Conclusion

Reports

John Pettiman Marina Sanches T i e Majestic Hotel " J a n u a r y 2003

ctlines mv assessment of the Majestic Hotel, where I stayed overnight on the 18th January 2003. - . . . mmodation and restaurant facilities t h e hotel offers.

: Majestic was mixed. While s o m e of t h e hotel staff w e r e very helpful - the hall p o r t e r n o t theatre tickets for m e , b u t also gave me precise directions for getting to t h e t h e a t r e - others . .. ptionist on arrival m a d e an especially p o o r impression. He did not greet me with a s t e a d was barely polite. He t o o k a long time to find my reservation and w h e n he did find it, a key. which t u r n e d out to be t h e wrong one, and instead of getting a p o r t e r to h e l p me with ;arr\ it myself. I have no complaint to m a k e of the c h a m b e r m a i d s but the room and inefficient. I o r d e r e d a sandwich but h a d to ring t h r e e times before it was b r o u g h t : . had forgotten my order.

. pleasant but the furniture was rather old-fashioned and the bed was a nightmare; the p> and uncomfortable that I couldn't sleep. T h e r e was a TV but it only offered local . . ;eption was very poor. This failure to consider the needs of foreigners was reflected in - not supplied with t h e newspaper I asked for t h e next morning because I had m a d e my n abroad and the c o m p u t e r automatically excluded my request. T h e one good thing about the m. It was spotlessly clean, h a d a m o d e r n shower, and was provided with useful _ . :ien forget to bring like combs a n d a sewing kit. .

t h e p o o r r o o m service, I had breakfast the next morning in the breakfast room, but this was : . arge enough for the n u m b e r of guests. I had to stand in a long q u e u e for twenty minutes -.. - _ - a r t e a table; the one I was given, non-smoking, was so close to the smoking tables that I T - T j, : : - -~ :. all through my breakfast. In contrast, the restaurant, where I had lunch, was by far mmtXMM- T h e r e was an excellent m e n u , the meal was very well cooked and t h e waiter service was first class.
r

the Majestic H o t e l cannot claim to be majestic as there are rather m o r e criticisms to be a c points to be raised in its favour.

: v a - e o o r t s b e l o w , using Marina's r e p o r t as a guide. ":. zz zz.z:: : : :a - ' a - a chain of d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s and visit different s t o r e s i~e - facilities and s e r v i c e . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a a- - e a d office on a n e w d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e which has just assess ng t h e facilities available and c o m m e n t i n g on t h e : - = ' e d . W i r e y o u r report.

-or a chain of restaurants and visit different restaurants d i e chain to a s s e s s their facilities, s e r v i c e and quality of You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t on a n e w restaurant -as ast o p e n e d , assessing t h e facilities available, t h e s e r v i c e : : a : - g o n t h e quality o f cuisine. W r i t e y o u r report.
-

In answering this sort of question in an examination, don't make the mistake of only concentrating on negative points; mention both the good and bad points.

Reports

Assessing suitability
e x c u r s i o n s to places of historical interest for groups of place locally (a m u s e u m , castle, e t c ) and have b e e n asked to place offers visitors, w h y it w o u l d be interesting historically for foreign visitors.

L o o k at t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e r e p o r t below. T h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You w o r k for a c o m p a n y that organises foreign visitors. You w e n t to visit such a w r i t e a r e p o r t giving details of w h a t t h e and saying w h e t h e r it w o u l d be suitable

To: From: Subject: Date:

Mr Jenkins Jane Hendle T h e Jorvik Viking C e n t r e , York 12th February 2003

Introduction This report relates to my recent visit to T h e Jorvik Viking Centre in the historic city of York. T h e purpose of my visit was to determine the centre's historical interest and also its suitability for foreign visitors. T h e centre has been built on the archaeological site where many artefacts relating to everyday life in Viking times were uncovered. The Exhibition Visitors travel a r o u n d the main exhibition in vehicles called magic timecars. (1) , they are transported back in time to the streets of a busy m a r k e t town in 948 AD and experience t h e sights, sounds and smells of that time! Visitors t h e n go through other areas such as a Viking h o m e and the h a r b o u r which are all recreated to be typical of England at that time. This visually stimulating exhibition is fascinating to all ages, even the very young, as they can experience the everyday life of our ancestors in Viking England. (2) , it would appeal to foreign visitors because commentary, via audio cassette, is available in five languages. T h e next section of the centre is m o r e m o d e r n and focuses on t h e excavation of the site in the 1980s. Visitors see and hear what the site looked and sounded like. T h e r e are also n u m e r o u s objects recovered from the site on display, including tools, pots and jewellery. T h e exhibition itself does not b e c o m e crowded because visitors are confined to their timecars, which are carried along at a constant pace. (3) , other areas of the centre were fairly busy on t h e day I visited d u e to a n u m b e r of school visits on that day. Facilities (4) the Jorvik Viking Centre has a small caf where visitors can buy refreshments and snacks, I was unable to use it as there were too many people queuing to m a k e purchases or waiting for free tables. (5) , it would be advisable for a group of visitors to m a k e other arrangements at one of the nearby cafs or restaurants in York. T h e r e is also a souvenir shop which sells postcards, posters and gifts, (6) Conclusion (7) , the Jorvik Viking Centre would certainly be of interest to visitors historically as it is an unusual and m e m o r a b l e experience providing an insight into Viking England. It is also suitable for foreign visitors as information is provided in a n u m b e r of languages. (8) , attempts should be m a d e to arrange visits at times when other group visits have not been booked. t h e choice is limited.

Study Connectors and Modifiers A on page 70 and then c o m p l e t e the report with t h e s e connecting w o r d s and phrases.

, , & ( ^ to sum up
a h h o u x

,,

, , nevertheless consequently first of all moreover however

Assessing suitability

Reports

s h o u l d have a c l e a r i n t r o d u c t i o n explaining t h e p u r p o s e of t h e r e p o r t and a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c u e s t i o n . Read t h e beginnings a n d e n d i n g s b e l o w t h a t have c o m e from v a r i o u s r e p o r t s . M a t c h t h e w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d u n d e r l i n e w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s t h a t h e l p y o u identify: ; p o r t was written. cation for why t h e w r i t e r d o e s or d o e s n o t r e c o m m e n d a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e . ons TIC <jbject of this r e p o r t is t h e L a n g t o n Wildlife Park. T h e r e p o r t aims to outline what the p a r k its visitors in general as well assessing its suitability for families with y o u n g children. : this r e p o r t is to o u t l i n e t h e suitability of A l t o n T o w e r s T h e m e P a r k as t h e

sane for this y e a r ' s school trip in M a y . A c c e s s , facilities a n d cost have b e e n c o n s i d e r e d . the r e p o r t c o m m i s s i o n e d by A & M T r a v e l to assess t h e value of including C a n t e r b u r y . n the list of excursions c u r r e n t l y available at this travel agency. _ r e p o r t on t h e n e w l y - o p e n e d G a t e w a y A r t Gallery, which I visited last w e e k . ':des i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e gallery, its o w n e r a n d t h e exhibits. T h e gallery o p e n e d nonths a g o in H a v e n S t r e e t a n d is p r o v i n g to be very p o p u l a r .

Z : - : -i ons : t h e p o i n t s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , this c a t h e d r a l w o u l d p r o v e t o b e p o p u l a r . T h e b u i l d i n g of historical interest even to t h o s e w h o a r e not religious. In a d d i t i o n to t h e s t u n n i n g ire a n d g r o u n d s , t h e inside of t h e building c o n t a i n s m a n y interesting features as well as on r e g a r d i n g its history. p. despite t h e interest s h o w n by t h e public, I feel t h a t s o m e t h i n g is missing. As a result of ng. the s h o w r o o m s d o not d o t h e w o r k s o n display justice. A l t h o u g h t h e r e m a y b e o n e o r ings w o r t h y of n o t e , t h e majority of exhibits s e e m to be of p o o r quality. ide. the p a r k is extremely well-organised and offers v a l u e for m o n e y , especially if visitors ntage of t h e special offers that a r e available. sion, this a t t r a c t i o n , which is c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d , w o u l d s e e m to be a suitable v e n u e , i t h e cost of e n t r a n c e d o e s a p p e a r to be high, u n l i m i t e d use of t h e rides is included, tore, t h e o t h e r facilities on offer w o u l d m a k e this an enjoyable day o u t for all.

be conclusions is n o t r e l a t e d to t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n set?

-. : - i i' i " e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w a n d w r i t e y o u r r e p o r t . ":. ~ : - i t o u r i s t office t h a t w a n t s to increase t h e variety of t o u r s and ; . -. : - s t i - ' e r s c u s t o m e r s . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t a b o u t a i _ -ecently visited. You should give details of w h a t kind of m u s e u m it is, r - e - : t e i c- offer and say h o w suitable it w o u l d be for visitors of various ages. : t ege s having a g r o u p of foreign visitors to stay for a w e e k . T h e principal w=- :t_ : e n t s to w r i t e r e p o r t s on a cultural festival t h a t t h e y think t h e mmors w o u l d enjoy. W r i t e a r e p o r t giving information a b o u t t h e festival ; ; a: t h e /isitors w o u l d learn from it a b o u t y o u r c o u n t r y ' s c u l t u r e .

Remember that your introduction should outline what your report will cover and make sure your conclusion sums up your findings and that it answers the question.

61

20
[

Reports

Giving information

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e m o d e l r e p o r t b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. As s e c r e t a r y of t h e college film club, y o u have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t for t h e club's annual meeting. W r i t e y o u r report, c o m m e n t i n g on m e m b e r s h i p , activities and special e v e n t s which have taken place o v e r t h e past year, and m e n t i o n any plans which have b e e n discussed for n e x t year.

Purpose T h e purpose of this report is to outline the progress m a d e by the film club this year, its first year of existence, and to discuss its plans for the future. The Members Although we did not start off as well as expected, the situation improved as the year went on and students learnt m o r e about what the film club is all about. To date, our m e m b e r s n u m b e r forty, which is quite r e m a r k a b l e considering the lack of publicity. Activities As well as our weekly meetings to discuss film in general, the club has developed special interest groups where people meet, d e p e n d i n g on their interests in different genres. This has proved to be quite popular, and the discussions a r e carrying on into o u r n o r m a l meetings, which is stimulating t h e interest of o t h e r m e m b e r s . However, the most successful aspect of the club is the film-making meetings; which, quite frankly, have been phenomenally popular. Special Events T h e series of lectures by young directors which were held in January was a resounding success. According to those who attended, t h e quality of t h e lectures was second to n o n e . Unfortunately, the film festival held in M a r c h was not as successful as we has anticipated, due to circumstances beyond our control. T h e film b u r e a u proved to be unreliable, and the organisers were forced to change the p r o g r a m m e without notice on a n u m b e r of occasions. Future Plans It has been agreed that funding must be found for m o r e equipment, due to t h e popularity of the film-making lessons, and a new series of lectures is already being investigated. F u r t h e r m o r e , some m e m b e r s have suggested that the lack of initial interest and the failure of the film festival were mainly due to lack of publicity, so this is also being looked into. It has also been decided that we must find a m o r e reliable film b u r e a u to work with. Conclusion On t h e whole, it would be fair to conclude that, although a n u m b e r of setbacks have b e e n encountered, the Film Club has m a n a g e d to establish itself as a popular extra-curricular activity, and is here to stay.

Read t h e r e p o r t again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . a In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , a p a r t from stating t h e p u r p o s e of t h e r e p o r t , t h e w r i t e r gives a p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n . W h a t is it?

In p a r a g r a p h 2, w h a t is m e n t i o n e d a p a r t from t h e n u m b e r of m e m b e r s ?

W h a t a r e t h e t h r e e m a i n activities m e n t i o n e d in p a r a g r a p h 3?

62

Giving information

Reports

eriine any extra i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h is given a b o u t t h e s e activities. i e two special events m e n t i o n e d in p a r a g r a p h 4?

. anv extra i n f o r m a t i o n which is given a b o u t t h e s e activities. r t m e n t i o n s n e g a t i v e p o i n t s a s well a s p o s i t i v e o n e s . C i r c l e t h e s e p o i n t s i n t h e m o d e l . W h e r e d o e s _ - c o m m e n t on w h a t can be d o n e to avoid t h e m in t h e f u t u r e ?

: i

es t h e writer m e n t i o n in this p a r a g r a p h ?

e : ag-am plan of t h e m o d e l r e p o r t using t h e w o r d s below.

--an festival

film-making meetings

lectures

special meetings

weekly meetings

FUTURE PLANS

o w n d o g r a m plans for b o t h o f t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e o n e o f t h e r e p o r t s .

~--_~ze - of t h e Entertainment C o m m i t t e e at y o u r college, which is organising a fancy : ;: : : - behalf of a local charity. W r i t e a progress r e p o r t for a m e e t i n g with t h e chanty, wemng w h a t a r r a n g e m e n t s have b e e n m a d e regarding f o o d and drink, music and tickets, and . - - ~ done.
e 1 s e

n<*

o" responsible for wheelchair access in t h e t o w n , write a progress report for - e e t i n g , c o m m e n t i n g on w h a t has already been achieved concerning public : : - dings and private businesses and s h o p s and describing w h a t remains to be d o n e .

Reference Section
A an
An is used before a vowel sound: an elephant, an umbrella, an aeroplane; but not when u is pronounced like 'you': a useful book. It is also used before h w h e n h is not pronounced: an h o n e s t man. W h e n we mention something for the first time, we normally use a/an; w h e n that thing is referred to again, we use the definite article t h e , because by n o w it is understood which o n e we mean:
A p h o t o g r a p h e r took his photograph without permission. He got so angry that he broke the

b c d e

An intelligent young man (mental ability-age) A large round ball (size-shape) A green cotton dress (colour-material)
A

German car factory

(nationality/origin-purpose) c C o m p o u n d adjectives C o m p o u n d adjectives are s o m e t i m e s made an adjective and a noun plus an - e d ending, meaning is usually w i t h or h a v i n g :

He's a red-haired, broad-shouldered man.


(He's a man with red hair and broad should

photographer's

camera.

We also use a / a n in numerical expressions (for example, in expressions of frequency or quantity):


She has classes three times a week. Petrol costs about sixty pence a litre here.

Adverbs of frequency
a Adverbs of frequency, like a l w a y s and o f t e n and other single-word adverbs of indefinite ti like r e c e n t l y , generally go before the main v but after forms of b e : Margaret is never late; Jane never comes
late, either.

(See also t h e , u s e a n d o m i s s i o n )

Adjectives
a Position 1 Adjectives generally c o m e before the noun or as a c o m p l e m e n t after be and s o m e other verbs ( l o o k , s e e m , f e e l etc.) She's a pretty girl. She looks very pretty. 2 W h e n we use m o r e than o n e adjective before a noun we do n o t usually write a n d b e t w e e n the adjectives. We use c o m m a s if the combination is not usual, but not if it is very c o m m o n . Compare: He's a nice little man. ( c o m m o n ) She's a shy, secretive woman, ( n o t usual) We use a n d w h e n the adjectives are a c o m p l e m e n t after b e , s e e m , f e e l , etc.: He's short and fat./She seems charming and b

They usually go b e t w e e n an auxiliary and the main verb or after the first auxiliary if there t w o o r more: / have never seen such a good film.

She must sometimes have wondered if she


made the right decision.

Conditional sentences
a Present and future We generally use the present tense for the condition and a future t e n s e for the main clau but n o t e the alternative with the imperative:

If I see him tomorrow, I'll give him your message If you see him tomorrow, give him my message.
Modals may also be used in the main clause: If you go out, you must put on your coat. It's a b Imaginary situations in p r e s e n t or futun We use the past tense for the condition and t conditional t e n s e ( w o u l d + infinitive) for the main clause. W i t h the verb b e , we usually use w e r e for all persons: If I were (was) rich, I'd buy a house by the sea.

intelligent.
With three adjectives, we usually put a c o m m a after the first: We were cold, wet and tired. b Order In normal usage, we prefer to put s o m e adjectives before others: He's a nice little man (NOT little nice). The rule is that general adjectives like n i c e or p r e t t y c o m e before m o r e precise o n e s . N o t e t h e s e examples: a I've read the first hundred pages. (ordinal-cardinal) c

If we offered you the job, would you accept it.


Past situations In talking about the past, we usually use the p perfect tense for the condition and the conditional perfect ( w o u l d h a v e + past

Reference section

ntal

aanJciple) for the main clause: f d k n o w n what was wrong, I would have told you.

Indirect speech: paraphrase


S o m e verbs can be used in indirect s p e e c h to indicate t h e way things are said and t h e purpose of w h a t w a s said. In t h e table below, n o t e the purpose of the verb from the example in direct speech, and the constructions possible with the verbs we can use instead of s a y and t e l l in indirect speech: Purpose Verb D i r e c t s p e e c h and paraphrase accusation accuse 'You stole it, didn't you?' I accused him of stealing it 'Yes, I took it' admission admit He admitted having taken it. 'You should take more exercise.' advise advice He advised her to take more exercise. He advised taking more exercise. '/ think you're right' agreement agree She agreed with me/the idea. 'All right I'll help you' She agreed to help me. 'That's the best method.' We agreed that it was the best method. We agreed on the best method. apologise 'I'm sorry I arrived late.' apology He apologised for arriving late. complaint complain 'You should have done the job better.' He complained that they should have... 'I wish he wouldn't do that.' She complained to me about him. 'I didn't steal it' deny denial He denied t h a t he had s t o l e n it. He denied having s t o l e n it. 'Would you like to come to invitation invite the party?' He invited her ( t o c o m e ) to the party. 'I'll help you, shall I?' offer offer She offered to help m e . 'I won't do it' refuse refusal He refused to do it. 'I wish I hadn't broken it' regret regret She regretted having broken it. She regretted t h a t s h e had b r o k e n it. 'Don't forget to post it' reminder remind She reminded him to p o s t it. 'Why don't you go with her?' suggestion suggest He suggested t h a t I should go with her. 'Let's go for a walk!' She suggested g o i n g for a walk, threaten 'If you don't go away, I'll call the threat police.' He threatened to call the police if they didn't go away. 'Be careful. The roads are icy.' warning warn He warned h e r to be careful. He warned h e r of/about the icy roads. He warned her t h a t the roads were icy.

material)

But if the present situation is a direct result of : _--_iIfllled condition in the past, the main d studied more when I was at school, I would a better job today. AA_SE may be in the conditional tense:

ves made witl d ending. Th 1 red man. id shoulder:

Permanent condition : : e d i t i o n is always true we use the present :=-= " both parts of the sentence: - r r e s n ' t rain, the rivers dry up and the - : : die of thirst. Variations 3 aternatives t o a w e can suggest that the
A

i and o f t e n indefinite tir the main ver comes

: : : : : ay is not very likely: x should s e e him, will you give him my R:.\-ife? (please give him my message) ~ - e r e is also a formal variation of this: S h o u l d you see him,...

uy and the ry if there are

- : a : ves to b are: r" e were to offer you the job, would you accept it? Were we to offer you the job,... ~ - e s s suggest that t h e offer is unlikely.

ered if she ho: I s-.teatives to c are: Hod known, I would have informed you. ~- : s more formal than: tf e for the le main clause mperative: four message, my message. ain clause: ir coat. It's comL lit or f u t u r e I ndition and ths ive) for the e usually use x by the sea. au accept it? had known ...

e t q e t n : w r od r r c u si s od r e o
a.ESTIONS, the question uses t h e ; a - -EGATIVE, not interrogative form: the is ALWAYS subject before verb. If the : - -as no question w o r d , the indirect JIM-NCR =s after i f / w h e t h e r ; if it has a question marz. ~iz < : : s repeated in the indirect question: JNE M I S ID know iflwhether you are English. - :- - - F - E / will be tomorrow. : - - . : ~ a - G S - 'orm in the present and past k speak English?) Ask him iflwhether he : ac -e ar." .-.onder what he said.

if 7m a - E S B O N WORD is ALREADY the subject in the APSOTFLHBSNON, THE WORD ORDER will not change JIIIERA ARE iPllhia S be:
7

By use the pas: id the + past

N f f - " ' J next ) Tell me what happened next : - re' *ho she is.

Reference section

Phrases in apposition
O n e way of giving additional information about a person or thing is to use a phrase in apposition (instead of a relative clause with a relative pronoun and a form of b e ) . Mr Taylor, (who is) the team manager, said... The cathedral, (which is) the oldest building in the city, was built... b

They aren't here. They must be in the cinema. (inside the building) On the screen (surface), on the radio, on into, onto, out of, off W i t h verbs of m o v e m e n t , we generally use and o n t o , though in and on are c o m m o n : He fell intolin the water. He got ontolon his bicycle. O u t o f indicates the opposite m o v e m e n t t o i n t o and off the opposite m o v e m e n t t o o n t (See in and on in a above, for the idea of bei 'inside' or 'on a surface'. Compare: He took the knives and forks out of the drawer. (opposite of i n t o / i n ) We'll have to take the tyre off the wheel. (opposite o f o n t o / o n )

Prepositions of place
a at, in, on At is used: for particular points: at the end of the road, at number 27. for places w h e n we are c o n c e r n e d with their purpose or location, n o t their size or shape: at the station, at the supermarket. She works at the post office. (Compare: She's in the post office, buying some stamps (= inside).) for places (small t o w n s , villages etc.) the speaker d o e s n o t consider very important or d o e s not know very well: at Melton Mowbray, Melton In suggests: 'inside' or a situation with three dimensions: in the kitchen, in the High S t r e e t (but USA = on Main Street) because of the houses on both sides, a large area, like a country, province, city: in New Zealand, in Kent, in Manchester. a town near Leicester. Mowbray.) (Someone w h o lived there would probably say: / live in

Prepositions of t i m e
at, in, on U s e this list as a check: at for exact periods of time: at five o'clock, dinner time, New Year. at present (= now) at this moment. at Easter, at at for festivals: at Christmas,

others are: at night (but during the day), at weekends,

on for days and dates: on Monday, on June Sunday IOth, on Christmas Day (compare at f on Friday night the festive period), on summer evenings, on morning

in for longer periods of time: in August, in spring, in 1985, in the nineteenth century, i in the past, in the future at present) t h e Middle Ages, (compare

O n suggests: a surface: on the wall, on Earth, on a small island. a line: on the coast, on the River Thames, on the road, on the way to left-hand side of the street. on t h e

in for periods of time within which or at the of which something may happen: in the morning, in five minutes, in a week's time.

10
Also note the following: They're sailing in their boat on the lake. She's swimming in the lake. In the corner of the room (= inside) but atlon the corner of the street (= outside). He's at the cinema (he's g o n e to s e e a film). /'// meet you at the cinema, (outside, or near the door)

Reported speech
a Statement W h e n w e convert direct speech t o reported speech and the introducing verb is in the past, the t e n s e changes. Expressions of time and pla also change unless the speaker is still in the sa place on the same day ( h e r e is still h e r e , and t o d a y is still t o d a y ) . U s e the conversion tabl

: - - " " E ' E N C E and note that in all cases t o l d me : Direct "w working hard. travel by train. *TT g o i n g to change :: "I s e e ,ou on '-me - E . E R seen it : ; : <e :: him on I com run faster
_

Orders and requests T h e s e are made with the imperative in direct speech. In reported speech we use the object +

I : E said: Reported She said she was working train. She said she was going to change ... She said she would see ... hard, She said she travelled by

infinitive after t e l l (for orders) and a s k (for requests): Direct D o n ' t worry. Please keep quiet! Reported She told him not to worry. She asked them to keep quiet. W h e n we do not reproduce the actual w o r d s used in

She said she had never seen... She said she had spoken ... She said she could run ... She said the train might arrive... She said she had to go ... She said she would have
to go ...

direct speech we can paraphrase w h a t was said by using o t h e r verbs (offer, s u g g e s t , etc.) (See Indirect speech: paraphrase) II a Should should a n d ought to S h o u l d and o u g h t t o indicate obligation o r advice. W e prefer o u g h t t o i f w e are doubtful that the obligation will be m e t or the advice will be taken: You've got a bad cough. You should/ought to see a doctor. You ought to see a doctor, but I don't suppose you will. The past forms are s h o u l d / o u g h t to h a v e + past participle. They are used to e x p r e s s regret in the first person, blame or criticism in the second and third: / shouldn't have said that to her. It was very unkind, (regret) You should have been more careful. Then you wouldn't have broken it. (blame or criticism) b Should a n d would S h o u l d and w o u l d can both be used for the first person in t h e conditional t e n s e , and as the

* E ~z - may must go to the

ar^rre " E . Ml "'jr. "


IRREARWIG)

-.: future

Other changes -e~ r : i: *5sce-riay there that then the day before, the previous day following day :: eethe w e e k before, the previous week i -. * E E K i i: THE w e e k after, the next week, the following w e e k before

: - - : - -: the day after, the next day, the

ARE ORD order of indirect questions (see I n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s ) . T h e t e n s e changes in - R E C I T E D questions are the same as for - . ; : I - r - - . s Isee table in a above). Direct -eve .
_

past of s h a l l for the first person in reported speech. But they have separate meanings and usage. (For w o u l d s e e Conditional s e n t e n c e s 4 b , 4 c and 4 e . ) W h e r e they are often seen in combination is w h e r e s e n t e n c e s of advice or regret/blame (see s h o u l d a) are followed by conditional sentences: these fires They shouldn't wouldn't (would have (should not) not) start. allow

seen

Reported She asked me if I had seen ... She asked me where he lived.

r f ~~ Where does ve We?

motor cycles in the forest. If they kept them out, You should have taken my advice. If you had, this wouldn't (would not) happened.

Tenses
a Present tenses The present simple t e n s e is used for actions that occur repeatedly or at any time, often with adverbs of frequency like a l w a y s and time expressions like e v e r y d a y . The question form and negative are formed with do as auxiliary: She lives in the country but she doesn't work there. Do you ever wonder what's going to happen in the future? Everything comes to those who wait, so they say. The present simple t e n s e can be used to refer to future time. The present continuous t e n s e is used for actions that are going on at present and for temporary situations. The t e n s e is formed by the verb be + present participle: Look! They're waving at us! What is she doing these days? She's writing a novel. The present continuous t e n s e can be used to refer to future time. b Present perfect and past t e n s e s The present perfect t e n s e s are used: 1 to talk about actions or situations that began in the past and are still going on, s o m e t i m e s with a time expression which refers to the present: I've been working hard this year. 2 to talk about actions which have taken place repeatedly up to the present: I've seen that film six times. 3 with for, s i n c e and expressions like all m y life: I've lived in the village for ten years, but my husband has lived here all his life. They are n o t used with past time expressions, which always require a past tense. Compare: / h a v e n ' t seen her recently/for a long time. I saw her yesterday/three days ago. We use the present perfect for questions and answers referring to past events without a time reference, but the past must be used w h e n a time is mentioned: Have you seen the film at the Palace? No, I haven't/Yes, I saw it on Saturday.

Past simple and continuous The past simple is used to refer to past acti in the order they occurred, but also for customary or continuing actions in past time: He spent his childhood in London, and did not move to the country until he got married at age of twenty-five. The past continuous is used for continuing actions in past time in relation to a main acti in the past simple. He m e t his wife in the city; at that time he was studying at the university, (before and after he met her) In everyday situations, we usually find t h e s e t e n s e s in three combinations: 1 a s e q u e n c e of completed actions (past simple): She c a m e in, took off her hat and coat, a sat 2 down.

an action taking place before and possibly after a c o m p l e t e d action (past continuous and simple): / was talking to my father on the phone when she came in.

t w o actions continuing side by side in pas time (past continuous): While he was talking to me I was looking out of the window.

Past and past perfect t e n s e s W e use the past perfect t e n s e s w h e n w e are already talking about the past and want to ref to a previous time: When he finally arrived, him for over three hours. Until he met her, he had never been in love. we had been waiting

Past and conditional t e n s e s We use the conditional t e n s e ( w o u l d + infinitive) in combination with the past w h e n we refer forward in time in a narrative: / h o p e d that she would soon feel better. (Compare: / h o p e you will soon feel better.)

T e n s e s in 'timeless' t i m e We do not normally use the present t e n s e s as the main narrative t e n s e s unless we are dealin with what always happens - for example, 'a typical day in s o m e o n e ' s life' or in describing

Reference section

what happens in books, films, etc. N o t e the use ;f tenses in this kind of narrative: ^amlet' takes place in Denmark. When Hamlet comes on stage he is mourning his father, who died before the play began, but the audience have a -eady seen his ghost appear to Hamlet's friends. Seen afterwards, they will come to tell him what REY have seen (or saw the night before). c

4 5

mountains: E v e r e s t , A c o n c a g u a . meals and clock times: She has breakfast at eight o'clock.

gerunds: She likes getting up early.

U s e and omission W e use t h e w h e n referring t o something specific, not w h e n we are talking in general terms; something specific includes something previously mentioned. Compare the following: We want peace, (a specific war) T h e is not used unless the noun is followed by a clause that modifies it; for example, a relative clause, or a phrase containing of that modifies it. N o u n s modified by adjectives before t h e m or prepositional phrases after them do n o t require t h e : Life is hard. Modern life is more complex than life in the nineteenth the life century. of our ancestors. The life that we lead today is more complex than not war.

r>e. use and omission


~ i e _se of the definite article in English often differs J - -sage i n other languages. Check each example qprirst your o w n language. a Use * e use t h e w h e n talking about: weights and measures: Petrol is sold by the litre, (but: It's sixty pence a litre.) I 3 musical instruments: She can play the violin. groups or classes of people: the young, the blind (NOT the youngs) but the verb form is plural: The young/Young people today are very 14 different from my generation. * rivers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges (but not mountains o r lakes): t h e T h a m e s , t h e Mediterranean, t h e Atlantic, t h e Alps. 5 unique objects and points of the compass: t h e world, t h e sun, t h e m o o n , t h e n o r t h . The moon is the earth's moon, though there may be others. W e say t r a v e l n o r t h (direction) but t r a v e l t o t h e n o r t h (compass point, area). 3 Omission Ve do not use t h e w h e n speaking about :- a 'a owing: games and sports: She plays tennis and goes 1 skiing.

The war in that distant country is still going on.

Used to used to a n d would

Used to, followed by the infinitive, refers to what habitually happened in the past in contrast to what happens now. The negative is either u s e d n o t t o o r d i d n o t u s e t o . U s e d t o has no present form. For customary actions in the present, we use the present simple tense: / u s e d to live in London, but now I live in Bristol. We usually prefer w o u l d + infinitive for repeated actions in past time in a c o n t e x t already established by a verb in the past simple t e n s e or u s e d t o . It d o e s n o t always indicate a contrast with present time but rather 'Whenever!Every time this happened...'. When I was a child, we used to visit my grandmother every Sunday. The whole family would put on their best clothes and we would walk to her house.

subjects of study: She studies history and geography.

anguages: She can speak English. ( N o t e that we talk about t h e E n g l i s h (the people as a group, as in a3 above), but nationality has no article: I'm English.)

Appendix
CONNECTORS AND MODIFIERS
Expressing opinion in modern English depends to a considerable e x t e n t on the correct use of connecting w o r d s and ph that help the reader or listener to understand what is being said. Such w o r d s or phrases can be used to s h o w h o w an argument is organised, to prepare the reader for what is coming next or to convey the t o n e of what is being said. In completing a writing task, above all o n e that requires you to organise an argument or express an opinion, use this Appen for reference. It is also worthwhile, w h e n e v e r you c o m e across any of the w o r d s or phrases listed b e l o w in this b o o k or your general reading, to make a note of it and s e e h o w it is being used. 3 Balance This can be established by clauses using whil In presenting opposing arguments of equal strength, use O n t h e o n e h a n d and O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . To indicate that you are reachi balanced conclusion, use O n b a l a n c e .

DEVELOPING

AN

A R G U M E N T

Sequence Making a list of points: Point I : I n t h e first p l a c e , T o b e g i n w i t h , T o s t a r t w i t h , F i r s t o f all, F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t (when it is the m o s t important point). Point 2 : S e c o n d l y , I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e (used if there are further reasons to come); In a d d i t i o n to t h a t (usually the second and final reason); A p a r t f r o m t h a t , W h a t i s m o r e (conversational), M o r e o v e r (formal) (used for second reasons of a different kind, but tending towards the same conclusion as the first); B e s i d e s (for a second reason so strong that it makes the first almost irrelevant). Final point: Finally, Lastly; A b o v e all (only used if the last point is the m o s t important). Conclusion: I n c o n c l u s i o n , T o s u m u p (usually at the beginning of the last paragraph, not at the end of a list); T a k i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n t o a c c o u n t , All t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d , All i n all (reaching a conclusion, w h e t h e r or not the points listed agree); In brief, In s h o r t , In a w o r d (the last t w o conversational) (only used if what you say is brief).
B

Result
To s h o w the result of an action, or to indica the logical development of an argument from examples you have given, use As a r e s u l t , In consequence, Consequently.

ESTABLISHING FACTS

I n fact, T h e fact o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t . . . ; A s m a t t e r of f a c t (indicating that the hearer may be surprised by it). A t first s i g h t , O n t h e f a c e o f i t (used i n c o n t r to In f a c t to s h o w the difference b e t w e e n appearance and fact). In p r a c t i c e , used in contrast to In t h e o r y , In p r i n c i p l e to establish what happens in reality; In e f f e c t , close to In f a c t in meaning, suggests 'for practical purposes'.
C EXPRESSING PERSONAL OPINION

Contrast This can be established by clauses with but or concession clauses with although, in spite of etc. C o n n e c t o r s are also available, however, to s h o w that a point contradicts or limits the previous point(s) made to s o m e extent: H o w e v e r , N e v e r t h e l e s s , All t h e s a m e , A t t h e s a m e t i m e ; A f t e r all ( a strong argument against previous points that has apparently not been considered); In c o n t r a s t (a direct contrast t o what has g o n e before); O n t h e o t h e r h a n d (used for balance - s e e b e l o w but also alone to indicate an alternative point of view).

In my opinion, In my view, To my mind, As I s e e i t (conversational); P e r s o n a l l y , F o r m y p a (contrasting the individual view with that of the majority); A s far a s I'm c o n c e r n e d (conversational) = 'In so far as it affects me'.
D MODIFYING

General statements G e n e r a l l y , In g e n e r a l , As a r u l e , As a g e n e r a l rule, On t h e w h o l e , In t h e main, For t h e m o s t part. Partly c o r r e c t To s o m e extent, To a certain extent, Up to a point.

Lank of knowledge A s far a s I k n o w , T o t h e b e s t o f m y w w l e d g e ; F o r all I k n o w (conversational) . ti-::i g-orance.

Especially I n p a r t i c u l a r , E s p e c i a l l y . N o t e that e s p e c i a l l y appears as an adverb, not as a c o n n e c t o r at the beginning, like c l e a r l y , obviously.

A c c o r d i n g t o ...; B y all a c c o u n t s (indicating -5SCC-S Dility lies w i t h a number of people).

REPHRASING

In o t h e r w o r d s , T h a t is to say.
_ ter. validity

U n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , A s i t is, T h i n g s - g =s t h e y a r e (conversational) (what is : :- y valid in present circumstances, n o t in : : "jmstances).

REFERRING

TO A S U B J E C T OR P E R S O N

A s r e g a r d s ..., W i t h r e g a r d t o ..., I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , A s f a r a s ... i s c o n c e r n e d .


H TERMINATING DISCUSSION

5 - - SG

I n a n y c a s e , A n y w a y , A t a n y r a t e (the last t w o Obviously d e a r l y . Obviously, Of course, N e e d l e s s to say As everyone knows, It g o e s without JJfiig m o r e conversational). All t h e s e suggest 'whatever happens', 'whatever t h e facts are', and in effect imply that nothing else can be said or needs to be said.