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Power Generation

Presently power generation is being done at 11 KV . The power generated
at 11 KV is stepped up to 220 KV or 132 KV or in recent trends to 400 KV
Power Transmission

The power at stepped voltages is transmitted to predominant load centers
located at major towns, district head quarters or industrial centers where power
is reduced to 132 KV. The energy at 132 KV voltage is transmitted to some
predominant areas in each district , the 132 KV voltage is then transmitted to 33
KV / 11 KV sub-station.
Power Distribution

The power received at 33 KV sub-station is transIormed into 11 KV and
transmitted to villages and towns which are remote. The 11 KV is Iurther
stepped down to 433 V to the consumers Ior utilization.

Factors influencing the power system

It is a general experience that evens the illiterate power consumer
complaints oI low voltage, Irequent interruption oI power. The low voltage
problem is increasing day by day, due to increased consumption. Apart Irom the
above two problems known to the common man, the increased T&D losses also
become a matter oI concern to Power Engineer.

While transmitting or transIorming power the transmission /transIormation

system will have certain inherent characteristics and utilize certain amount oI the
energy. Thus the energy available Ior utilization aIter transmission / transIormation
will be less than the total energy generated or available beIore transmission /
transIormation. This energy utilized Ior transmission / transIormation is termed as
'T & D losses.

On average, the power system losses ( T & D ) were oI the order 20
in 1960, came down to 6 in Japan. While in India, the losses raised Irom 18
to 28 during the same period. At present they are about 23 .

The present level oI T & D losses in Indian power system is about 23 and
out oI it Transmission losses are about 4 . The Iollowing shows statistical data oI
T & D losses oI Various countries across the globe.

The loads in rural area are predominantly pump sets used Ior liIt irrigation.
The loads have low power Iactor and low load Iactor. Further load density is low
due to dispersal oI loads. The existing distribution system consist oI three phase
11 KV lines and considerable size 3 phase 11 KV /433 volts distribution
transIormers with lengthy LT lines.

Disadvantages of Existing LT Distribution System:

Line Losses:
The long LV lines oI small conductor size cause high line losses. The low
voltage network energy losses alone are estimated to be 8 to 10 oI total
energy handled. In other words, the LV network contributes to about 30 oI
total energy losses

Voltage Drop:
The voltage drop in LVDS is very high as the lines are long and conductor
sizes are small. The sample studies made in Andhra Pradesh Distribution system
indicated that 50 oI LV Ieeders have more than 10 voltage drop and another
25 have 5-10 voltage drop
Failure of Distribution transformers:
The present Iailure rate oI three phase Distribution TransIormers is
19.91. The major contributing Iactors Ior this high Iailure rate are LT line
Iaults and indiscriminate loading oI TransIormers over and above its capacity.
The lengthy LT lines in LVDS coupled with poor construction standards are the
cause Ior large number oI LT Iaults. Further the Iault current due to a Iault at tail
end oI lengthy Ieeders may not be adequate, enough to cause protective device
operation and it reIlects as load on the network. Thus these Iaults cause Irequent
Iailure oI transIormers
Theft of Energy :
TheIt oI energy by direct tapping oI long LT lines passing through
Agricultural Iields in rural areas and colonies in urban area has become a menace
in recent years. It is estimated to be as high as 25 oI total number oI services

End Equipment Efficiency:
The high voltage drops in the LV network results in low voltages at
customers premises particularly, Agricultural pump sets. This has resulted in
large scale burning oI pump set motors
Voltage fluctuations :
Due to high voltage drop on LV line the consumers are subjected to wide
voltage Iluctuations with variation oI load. All the modern electrical and
electronics equipment are sensitive to voltage variations and consumers are
Iorced to use stabilizers to provide stable supply
Reliability oI the Distribution System is largely dependent on the
perIormance oI the distribution TransIormers. The existing Distribution
TransIormers are Iully over loaded. The overloading is due to non-location oI
transIormers at load centers and extension oI LT lines haphazardly. This has
resulted in poor voltage levels, high distribution losses and Iailure oI distribution
transIormers. Replacement oI a Iailed distribution transIormer consumer`s

precious time in terms oI unwarranted interruptions to consumers and the
company`s revenue also gets aIIected due to non sale oI power till the time the
Iailed transIormer is replaced with healthy transIormer, besides expenditure
towards repairs oI Iailed distribution transIormers.

VD System

This system is based on North American Practice where 3-ph or 1-ph
HV line Is taken as near the load as possible and a distribution transIormer oI
appropriate capacity is installed to Ieed one or small group oI loads, such that the
length oI the LV lines is minimum or eliminated altogether.

This system is best suited to meet the scattered loads oI low load
density, incident in developing countries like India. In this system the present
distribution transIormers oI 63 KVA and 100 KVA Capacities are proposed to be
replaced with smaller capacity transIormers oI 16 / 25 KVA. The existing L.T.
lines are converted as 11 KV lines by replacing the supporting Insulators and
cross arms using the existing supports. The L.T. supply to the end user i.e., to the
consumer is provided directly Irom the transIormer and thus eliminating L.T. line
totally (440 V line).

Importance in Switching Over To VDS :-

HVDS (High Voltage Distribution System) is based on North American

system Where 3-ph or 1-ph HV line is taken as near the load as possible and a
distribution TransIormer oI appropriate capacity, either 1-ph or 3-ph are installed
to Ieed one or a small Group oI loads, such that the length oI low voltage line is
minimum or is eliminated altogether. This system is best suited to meet the
scattered loads oI low density, normally incident in the developing countries like
India. The existing system in Andhra Pradesh is based on European practice and
is called Low Voltage Distribution System (LVDS). The characteristics oI this
system are installation oI 3-ph transIormer oI considerable capacity (100 KVA
/63 KVA) and extension oI long low voltage lines to cater a group oI loads. This
system is best suited to meet the concentrated loads oI high load density normally
incident in European countries.
The adoption oI this system to Ieed scattered loads oI low density has
resulted in serious problems oI low voltage, high losses, poor reliability and theIt
oI energy etc., thereIore it has become necessary to restructure the existing
distribution system as HVDS to overcome the problems Iaced in LVDS.

General Advantages in VDS

1. The registered customers will Ieel ownership and take responsibility and
not allow others to meddle with L.T. network.
2. Failure will be minimum because oI no over loading and no meddling oI
LT lines.
3. Considerable reduction inline loss and savings in power purchase.
4. In the event oI Iailure only 2to 3 customers will get aIIected instead oI 25
to 30 customers.

5. Less burnt out motors because oI good voltage proIile and less Iluctuations
in power supply.
6. Accidents due to touching oI conductors reduced due to the Iact that
breaker trips at substation since the line are at 11 KV potential.
7. High quality oI supply since there is negligible voltage drop.

Metering Equipment

1. Location : The location that needs to be metered at the L.T lines and
11 KV lines Ior a circle need careIul consideration Irom
the point oI energy Accounting, such accounting should
be done Ieeder wise.
. Type : All energy meters shall be tamper prooI , static energy
meters having data storage and remote transmitting Iacility
shall be provided
1. On the 33 KV and 11 KV Ieeders so as to enable
down loading
2. On the sub-station computer.
3. On all HT consumers.

Static energy meters are 3 processor based. Their programmability has
became a useIul tool to incorporate diIIerent Ieatures like tamper data, import,
export, time, date oI metering, load patterns, analysis oI remote meter reading etc.

The Work to be done is

1. Replacing the damaged supports.
2. Insertion oI poles iI required where there are lengthy spans.
3. Replacing the existing cross arms where ever required.
4. Providing oI top cleat Ior Iixing pin insulator.
5. Replacing the existing pin insulators & shackles with 11 KV pin insulators &
11 KV disc insulators including pins or metal parts.
6. Providing stays where ever required.
7. Restringing the existing conductor including the removing the bindings &
rebinding and clamping with disc insulators.
8. Erection oI small capacity distribution transIormers including 11 KV HG Iuse
set providing earths etc.
9. Laying L.T. aerial bunched cable Irom the pole to the pump.
10.Connecting the converted line to 11 KV Ieeder. Series AB switches is erected
to the spur lines Irom the main line.

Reference book
Technical ReIerence Book - A.P.S.E.B.