A fair cup
towards better tea buying
On a good day Agnes and John earn between Ksh. We are still oppressed. Life will become as hard as a rock. for four years. they get Ksh. 579 (£4. But on other farms. John feels consumers of tea should try paying a good price so that workers are paid enough. She has not heard about Kenya’s minimum wage. as a casual employee. which means less pay. close to Lake Victoria. An average family needs around 100 Ksh. He sacked all of us. she remembers. That’s not a good place to be”.
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 2
. The farm provides her with housing even when she is ‘in between’ jobs. clothing. “Maybe they are paying a good price but we don’t know because they are far.27)). I have been here a year and the pay has not gone up. 4. its Ksh. there is the cost of cooking fuel. 386 (£2. On top of this. The pay she says. In the low season – which can be three and a half months of the year – it could be as little as Ksh.
John Masinde* travelled from western Kenya to close to Nairobi to look for “riziki” (sustenance) because after completing primary school “there was no more money”. The owner heard we wanted to join a union. “Then you pick as little as 9 kgs”. “your strength determines your pay”. So we left. he observes. I came here from another farm. soap. and other essentials. medical fees. “But if they buy at a low price our condition will just get worse. Like many in his industry he works six days a week from 6am. He brought about five lorries of soldiers who surrounded us and asked us to vacate the houses. As he puts it. She is from a province in the far west of Kenya. 6.87) and Ksh. 43 (32 pence).83 (4 pence) per kg of green tea leaf picked and when production is high can pick over 100 kgs per day. “The only days I don’t come are when I’m sick. He is paid Ksh 4. This is however countered by the dry seasons. (73p) per day purely for food. “is not good. Agnes is a casual worker. school books. They didn’t even pay us our dues”. That is all”. “Every two months we are fired for two weeks. Nairobi. He has been working mainly on this farm.83 (4 pence) per kilo.in their own words
Agnes Onyango* works in a medium sized tea farm not far outside the Kenyan capital.Tea workers .” Time off is a real problem because it translates to fewer kilos picked. then we are hired again by the same person”.
Tea supply chain
Small farmer Collector
(70% of the world’s tea)
(30% of the world’s tea)
Food service/ catering company
Restaurants. hospitals and work places
Buy tea largely from the tea companies for sale to canteens. Many of the larger tea companies have their own buyers based in the major tea buying centres of the world or they employ trading companies to make purchases on their behalf.for example at work. Tea is produced by either small farmers on their own land or on large plantations sometimes owned by tea companies. tariffs. hospitals and schools. The quality of tea plucking is a critical factor in determining the final quality of the tea. These agents and buyers have instructions as to what quality and quantity of tea is required. Sell tea at auction on behalf of the factories. and are given maximum prices they are authorised to pay for particular grades of tea.Who’s who – where are you?
Workers Tea plantations and small tea farmers employ thousands of workers to help pluck tea. prune and maintain the tea bushes. Workers often have to work in difficult weather (extreme temperatures and heavy rain) because any delays will affect tea quality. tea consuming regulatory standards. auction regulations and countries national labour standards. some are owned by a tea company and some are owned by the farmers. storage. and in others the farmers deliver directly to buying centres or factories. cafés . competition policies as well as by holding companies countries accountable for their practices and impacts overseas. Factories employ significant numbers of workers on varying shift patterns. These companies manage the buying. In the UK tea is mainly sold by supermarkets and convenience stores who may sell their own-label teas. investment policies. Process green tea leaves into green or black tea of different grades within hours of picking. as well as the major brands from the tea companies. and when. In some instances collectors employed by the factory collect the tea leaves from the farmers. Investors Can inﬂuence the practice of major UK companies. Large tea plantations are often in isolated places and workers are very dependent on the infrastructure (such as schools or medical facilities) provided by the company. Some factories are independent. blending and packing of their own or supermarket own-label teas. in cafés or restaurants. Governments in Can shape the tea market through taxes or other restrictions on imports’. Drink tea at home bought from a retail outlet as well as ‘out of home’ . transport. especially the large retailers and food service companies.
Page 4 A fair cup: towards better tea buying
Brokers Buying agents
Tea companies Retailers Food service companies and caterers Consumers
Governments in Can shape the tea market in their countries through a range of policies tea producing including VAT on inputs. as well as apply fertilisers or pesticides as necessary.
3 • Creating jobs and incomes.20057
Fast tea facts
• Major producers. poor purchasing practices may undermine the very stability and efﬁciency of the suppliers’ businesses on which buyers depend. Buyers who work for tea companies or retailers are key actors within the supply chain. And all is not well. Behind each cup of tea is a complex supply chain bringing together some of the world’s most powerful companies with some of its most vulnerable farmers1. More responsible purchasing practices can make a huge difference to the livelihoods of farmers and their workers. responsibilities.All about tea
Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water.6 • Stable prices. In India the tea industry is the second largest employer with just over one million permanent workers and a further three million dependent on the industry. Tea farmers and their workers are often in a very weak position in relation to others in the tea industry and reap the lowest rewards. At the heart of the debate is the question of balancing risks.2
US Dollar Cents 250
200 Sri Lanka 150 North India Kenya Average Indonesia South India Malawi
Average annual auction prices 1996 . India.4 • Top tea drinkers.5 • Rising production. The major producers are China. traceable tea which consumers can trust. Kenya is the world’s largest exporter and tea contributes 17 per cent of the country’s export earnings and employs 10 per cent of the population.
Thousand metric tons 3500 Production
3000 Apparent Consumption 2500
1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
World production and apparent consumption of tea 1987-20068
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 5
. Prices range from as little as £0. The UK is the third largest tea importer globally and has the third highest consumption per head. Tea is a tropical product and is produced in some of the world’s poorer countries. Conversely. This can mean pitifully low and often erratic levels of pay. and beneﬁts between the different parts of the supply chain. This report will outline how the decisions of those who purchase tea in the UK to sell or serve to the UK public can better recognise the critical contribution made by tea farmers and workers while delivering good quality.30 to £3 for a box of eighty tea bags. Kenya and Sri Lanka which together account for almost three quarters of global production. Globally tea production is rising slightly faster than consumption creating a situation of oversupply. The producer price of tea has plummeted by nearly 40 per cent in real terms since 1980. The retail price of tea in the UK has remained fairly constant in real terms over the past ten years.
with a 50% rise between 2002 and 2004. In order to marry these objectives they source different teas from around the world to get the right appearance and taste at the right price. The value of tea sales in the UK declined by 12% between 1999 and 2004.11 Across Europe over one ﬁfth of all hot beverages are consumed out of home – particularly in the workplace. Buyer’s challenge The competition between tea companies is increasing. right down the supply chain. Standards and traceability New and increasingly stringent standards apply to tea – including HACCP (hazard control system). buyers for UK tea companies and for the supermarket own-labels have to be able to get tea onto supermarket shelves at a competitive price while ensuring the quality and the unique taste of their brand.13 In 2006.
Up to 25% Assam (brings a malty ﬂavour) Up to 25% Ceylon (brings a ﬂowery taste and citrus tang)
Up to 50% Kenya (brings a bright.
Each country’s tea is often substituted for cheaper alternatives
There are a number of trends in the UK tea market which are posing new challenges for tea company buyers.9 Growth in speciality tea Speciality teas (such as single estate) are booming. to work towards improved traceability and to raise quality. ISO 22000 (new Food Safety Management System) and the European Union’s new pesticide residue levels. Often this will mean as many as 30 different teas from several countries are blended together in a single tea bag. Supermarket power is growing rapidly as they consolidate. just four large grocery retailers (Tesco.14
Page 6 A fair cup: towards better tea buying
. including the Ethical Tea Partnership and Fair Trade.”10 Price pressures led by own-label Supermarket own-label teas have grown rapidly and are often on the shelf at low prices.Tea company buyer – trends and dilemmas
In a competitive ﬁeld.
Tea companies are under pressure to cut costs . Tetley’s (27%). Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate (Yorkshire Tea) and Associated British Foods (Twinings and Jackson’s of Piccadilly).
The UK’s favourite brew
• • • Ninety-six per cent of tea in the UK is bought as tea bags and 165 million cups of tea are drunk each day. novel.
There is a need to ensure greater product differentiation.12 Five companies dominate the UK market. giving each a larger market share. Unilever Best Foods which has PG Tips brand (25%). speciality and premium products are the “bright young things of the UK hot drinks market. stealing the limelight from the stalwarts.
Tea trends Declining market UK tea consumption is declining with consumers preferring soft drinks or bottled water.
New standards put pressure on tea company buyers to ensure a greater level of traceability. According to Euromonitor. Fair Trade teas continue to grow rapidly in both the in and out of home markets. golden colour)
Components of a Typical English Breakfast Tea Bag.one obvious way is by securing the cheapest possible source of tea supply. Apeejay Group (Typhoo). ASDA. Sainsbury’s and Morrisons) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all grocery sales. At the same time there is a trend towards standards that encompass social concerns.
This process is sometimes run through e-auctions.instructs agent to buy from cheapest source. Similarly in a declining market the increasing price pressures . but each of these has knock-on effects further down the supply chain which may be at odds with the company’s efforts to source more responsibly. the price it makes or where next order coming from.
Enabling supply chain
Consumer gets good quality tea from a source they can trust. Some supermarket buyers may also have to balance the need to give their customers choice with the pressure to promote own-label products. Low wages and very poor working conditions and standards of living.Shared responsibilities – the role of retail and out of home buyers
Buyers who work for the supermarkets. Factory as ‘price taker’. This can create a worrying disconnect between company policy and buyer behaviour. Instructs agent to buy from known source. as at short notice they could lose their business with a big institution or retailer.
Tea company forced to cut costs and has no security to plan or build relationships . Bids are often live which drives the price down and the lack of face to face contact makes discussion of issues other than price difﬁcult.may be directly felt by the tea factories at the end of the supply chain. Because the tea market is declining it is increasingly difﬁcult for tea retail buyers to achieve growth from their ‘section’. This practice can make tea companies vulnerable. enjoy decent living conditions and are productive. But because the tea company often has to pay the cost of the price cut.
Buyer builds relationship with certain suppliers to ensure a quality product and traceability.
Buyer has no relationship with tea factory. Pay sustainable price. there is a drive to pass these costs further down the supply chain on to the factory and farmer. Factory has the information necessary to improve their quality and negotiate a reasonable price with buyer.in part led by own-label . Has to cut costs. other retail outlets (such as convenience stores) or for food service companies supplying the ‘out of home’ market have to consider: • Keeping prices competitive and matching promotions of other retailers • Providing a range of products to respond to customer demand • Ensuring maximum product availability • Supporting innovation and growth of new products in their category to help differentiate themselves. Tea consumption declines.
Retailers support their suppliers through a contract specifying a notice period.
Retailer demands low prices. In turn this provides a disincentive for tea companies to build longer-term relationships with their suppliers.
Risk and costs passed on to farmers. No bargaining power with factory. Given the concentration in the supermarket sector this could mean large and sudden losses for the tea company. out to tender.
Tea company willing to pay a good price in return for a high quality product.
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 7
. If a supermarket buyer needs to cut costs they may put the whole of their tea range. Price promotions are common in tea. farmers have good understanding of the tea trade. Usually these are set out in advance so tea companies are able to plan for them. frequent promotions and offers no security of tenure. or a sub-sector within it.
Disabling supply chain
Consumer gets cheap but mediocre tea posing possible health and reputation risk for tea company and retailer. There are a number of techniques that they can try. The lack of security of tenure that tea companies have with many retailers is particularly problematic. No idea where tea goes. Tea consumption increases.
Receive prices below what is needed to survive. The standards are locally appropriate and relate to issues that farmers ﬁnd important.
Standards are imposed from the outside focusing on protecting the buyer’s reputation. Middlemen/collectors (sometimes called leaf agents) take a large slice of the factory price. are unable to provide education for their children or eat a sufﬁcient diet. It also covers the costs of meeting quality and traceability standards and of making other business improvements. Factories have to comply with a multiplicity of confusing.
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. There is an established relationship with buyers which enables factories to plan ahead and invest.Impact on lives
Despite their importance in determining the quality of tea. Factories with cash ﬂow problems make direct ‘distress’ sales of tea at very low prices. and are not supported to improve quality. rather than on issues that matter to farmers and workers. They have no idea who buys it. there are delays in collection and the resulting costs not compensated.they are kept waiting at buying centres. and are helped to make business improvements . translating into increased risk. Farmers do not understand why the prices they are offered vary so widely. In Kenya more than 52% of the population live below the poverty line and life expectancy is just 47. In the worst scenario this means that pluckers and workers have limited medical care. so farmers and workers do not have the social security support Farmers/factories in the best position… Farmer relationship with factory Farmers either own. Helpful standards Standards are jointly agreed between buyers and factories/farmers.whether to the quality of their tea or through social programmes such as improved water supplies or better safety equipment. their workers and their dependents. In India nearly half of all children under ﬁve are malnourished. Farmers/factories in the worst position… Farmers and their workers are ‘price takers’ . farmers are the most vulnerable in the supply chain.
Factories sell their tea through brokers or middlemen at auction. Price matters Whether selling through auction or through direct sales. There is limited support or extension from the factory. to protect them against such shocks and risks.15 This table identiﬁes key areas where buyers affect the tea factories’ position and in turn that of the farmers. The farmers’ and factories’ investment in meeting standards is recognised in the price paid.5 years. competing and time-consuming standards which add cost and threaten their businesses’ viability without the guarantee of sales. manage or are sufﬁciently well organised to be able to negotiate effectively with factory management. The implications of this are serious as most tea producing regions in the world are poor. This can translate directly into unsafe working conditions such as long hours or inadequate protective equipment.
No support from buyers at all as no relationship exists.
Relationship with buyers Factories know who their principal buyers are and what quality and quantity of produce is required. whether the sale is made directly or through an auction. the factory receives a sustainable price in return for a consistent supply of good quality tea. This ensures a living wage to pluckers and factory workers which can provide decent health care and schooling for children. higher costs and lower returns for farmers.
Support from buyers Factories are provided with market information by their buyers. where it goes next or the price it makes. Pressures originating higher up are pushed down.
34 (5 pence) per kilo picked. pay becomes bad. it’s like pain entering my head. If I hear my children want to become tea pickers.700 (£5. Despite higher wages than non-unionised workers. We are paid Ksh. 6. I work 6 days a week for 8 hours a day starting at 6am.” Newton eats only one main meal a day and is only able to afford to eat meat twice a month.
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 9
. “I pray God helps me to work and save so if they pass primary. I have heard of the minimum wage and I save Ksh. “I am housed though I am temporary. Newton likes taking his children for bird walks in a nearby forest. I earn all my income here. Newton feels that most of the proﬁt is made by the owner of the farm.20) every month”. But when the grade (tea quality) is good. I can pay for secondary (school). the price cannot go above what was agreed.Dreaming of a better future
Newton Nyambane* has worked as a casual tea plucker on a large estate in Kenya’s Rift Valley for eight years. or join the army”. I would prefer them to be mechanics. I am a union member. I have struggled in this job for a while. On his free Sunday. “When the bosses say prices are bad at Mombasa (tea auction).
Work together Tea factories. for example through improved agricultural extension work • support improved working conditions for farmers and factory workers • provide market information or training to enable factories and farmers to understand the supply chain • provide clear communications about pricing decisions. • help factories to add value to their tea through local blending and packing operations. loyalty and makes it easier to make positive long term investments. retail and out of home buyers. tea farmers and their workers are important partners in delivering a quality tea product. This facilitates trust. As well as helping with traceability. This will give some security of tenure to the companies and enable them to invest in building positive relationships with their suppliers. own-label.
Improves traceability Facilitates quality improvements Avoids reputational problems
Facilitates trust and loyalty Improvements in consistency of quality and supply
Allows longerterm planning and investment Enables investment in social improvements
It is important to develop an understanding of the tea supply chain and how your decisions or those of the tea companies you deal with impact on farmers and workers. business and social improvements Reduces the risk of supply chain disruptions Avoids potential reputational problems
Helps farmers improve quality and achieve a higher price for their tea Leads to better run. Developing a more secure relationship with tea companies and paying a reasonable price can enable those companies to develop more supportive ways of working with their partners further down the supply chain. once you know who your suppliers are you are in a better position to understand their problems and work together towards improvements. Retail/out of home buyers Beneﬁt to buyer Beneﬁt to factory and farmer
Builds trust and commitment Improves transparency and clarity about exactly what product is required
1. This is a discussion document and we would welcome comments on the following recommendations to tea company. You could develop speciﬁc programmes that: • support business or management improvements at the factory • help improve tea quality. more efﬁcient factories Improves working conditions for tea pluckers and factory workers
Page 10 A fair cup: towards better tea buying
. Develop a relationship with your supplier Whether buying tea directly or through the auction system.
The following recommendations seek to identify ways to improve purchasing practices to meet the ultimate goal of ensuring that good working conditions and basic human rights are respected Tea company/own-label buyers throughout the supply chain. Be clear about the terms and length of the relationship Develop a contract or memorandum of understanding with the factories you buy from specifying the length of the relationship or notice period required for termination of the relationship. it is important to develop a relationship with the individual factories you buy from. The more you can work together the better. Agree a contract with the tea companies you buy from specifying the notice period.
By working with local actors (such as NGOs or trade unions) you can develop veriﬁcation methods which are appropriate to local needs • Consider working with other companies to rationalise the number of standards required – moving towards best practice and those most locally relevant • Under pressure to cut costs or source sufﬁcient quantities. make sure these are translated into the way buyers actually purchase from tea companies. In a declining tea market.the type of improvements that the standards are designed to bring about. As a retailer or out of home buyer make sure you are aware of the number and nature of the different food safety and social standards schemes operating. ‘loyalty payments’ etc) on actors further down the supply chain. including their impact and credibility. farmers and their families
4. Avoids reputational risk Allows companies to show consumers steady.Tea company/own-label buyers
Retail/out of home buyers
Beneﬁt to buyer
Beneﬁt to factory and farmer
Improves product quality. At the moment some company buyers simply instruct their agents to get the range of teas needed in their blend at the lowest price – but this may mean prices and therefore wages below the cost of living. buyers sometimes buy from outside the standards they require.
Quality improvements Reputational advantage
If your company has guidelines around responsible sourcing. together with your chosen tea factories: • Work out what would be a minimum sustainable price to ensure that the factory meets its costs of production. has sufﬁcient capital for investment and can ensure that farmers receive a living wage • Instruct your agent to honour this price in direct contracts or to top up auction price as required. Are they designed to beneﬁt farmers and their workers by addressing real needs or are they designed purely to avoid reputational risk? • If you are insisting on social standards. meaningful and veriﬁable improvements for tea farmers and their workers
Standards help rather than hinder real quality and social improvements
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 11
. As a buyer there are a number of issues related to standards you should consider: • Ensure that the investment made by suppliers in complying with your standards is reﬂected in the price you pay particularly if you are asking them to make major investments of capital • Assess the impact of your standards. management and business performance Leads to more sustainable livelihoods for workers.rather than support . Instead. leading to mistrust of standards or a temptation to ‘fake’ compliance. Instead work to maintain and improve the integrity of your standards. standards which place signiﬁcant additional cost on factories and tea farmers may serve to undermine .
Greater consumer trust in standards.
Consider the impacts of your price demands (as well as demands for promotions. social standards. undermining trust and conﬁdence. This causes social hardships as well as posing reputational risks. This will ensure they address issues that are important to them and do not inadvertently disadvantage smaller growers. Pay a sustainable price for your tea Paying a sustainable price reinforces positive trends and allows for real social improvements for farmers and their workers. Standards which help rather than hinder Tea producers already receive the lowest share of beneﬁts in the supply chain. develop and review these in consultation with your suppliers. This sabotages the whole relationship.
And despite the declining UK tea market. improve quality and in Uganda supporting a factory to develop local tea packaging facilities. This allows them. suppliers and working on yearly forecasts that allow suppliers to plan. Teadirect has been supporting its partners’ factories over many years in a variety of ways to strengthen their business capabilities and skills. helping them to adjust production techniques to what works.if a factory produces exactly the right type of tea for them they are paid a price premium.
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. to support those factories to produce the type of tea Yorkshire needs for its blend. There are clear commercial beneﬁts for Yorkshire Tea to this way of doing business.Teadirect is growing at over seven per cent year on year. In fact all partners/suppliers now hold ﬁve per cent of shares of the parent company and their representatives sit on the Board to shape strategy. Some recent examples are assisting factories’ efforts to become HACCP compliant. Teadirect operates in a number of innovative ways. They only buy from factories where they have built up good relationships. This allows them to plan for the growth of their brand. In addition to buying directly only from known. Yorkshire Tea is growing in value and volume year on year. There are no quick ﬁx solutions or easy answers. Even when they buy through auction they inform that factory what they have bought from them when they next visit. Their emphasis is on building relationships. Tasting with the growers is particularly important as it allows buyers to discuss requirements directly with those involved in production. the company holds workshops annually to review and set a locally appropriate minimum price based on the cost of sustainable production. However. Together with suppliers. This approach is delivering tangible beneﬁts . buyers are important players in the chain with considerable power and opportunity to improve conditions. Some businesses are already practicing more responsible purchasing and are reaping the beneﬁts. They believe that their success is intrinsically linked to that of the grower and they are happy to put their money where their mouth is. despite being a relatively small buyer.
Teadirect: A shift in attitude
Teadirect is the tea brand of the UK Fairtrade company Cafédirect plc. They have concrete quality incentives .
Yorkshire Tea: Quality approach pays
Yorkshire Tea is part of Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate – a family-run business.Responsible purchasing in practice
It is not easy for buyers to ensure that they have a positive impact on the farmers and workers who produce the tea they sell. The company sees its suppliers clearly as ‘supply chain partners’ leading to a more equitable sharing of risks and responsibilities as well as beneﬁts from the tea trade. mostly smallholder. They have tailor-made quality product from producers who they know and trust. ﬁnd new markets. In terms of working together and demonstrating long-term commitment.
including mechanisms such as supply management and greater value-addition in-country.Wider recommendations
All the different actors in the tea supply chain have a role to play in making sure that risks and opportunities are more fairly balanced. • Support the initiative that African countries’ have taken at the WTO to improve policies for producers of primary commodities. Individual consumers • Ask questions at work or in cafes about how tea is purchased. buying inputs or negotiating prices. • Ask the tea company you buy from to tell you where and who they buy their tea from. report on. and are held accountable for. • Ensure that aid programming does not contribute to the global oversupply of tea. consumer choice and on international development targets such as the Millennium Development Goals. their actions overseas. With enough pressure from consumers.
A fair cup: towards better tea buying Page 13
. Do they chop and change depending on where they can get the cheapest deal or do they commit to a group of suppliers over a longer time period? • Demand more information from the tea companies about their pricing policies – especially if its cost less than 1p a tea bag! Ask them to publish what they pay and how much tea workers are paid. • Investigate the impact that the concentration of buying power in the hands of a few retailers and a few brands has on competition. If you are not happy with their practices. • Demand more information from tea companies and retailers about the impact of their efforts to be more responsible – has this just added to the pressures that factories and farmers face or has it brought real benefits? • Put pressure on the UK Government to implement the recommendations below. UK Government • Support tea farmers to have a stronger voice in international bodies as well as in EU or private sector standards setting. supermarket and tea company practices will start to change. • Ensure UK companies understand. • Support initiatives which help farmers to organise themselves into groups to help with joint marketing. consider moving your investment. Investors • Understand and take into consideration the impact that the purchasing and pricing practices of the companies you invest in have on the viability and profitability of their supply chain partners – on whom they depend for the final product.
org Mintel Tea and Herbal Tea Market report February 2005 UK Competition Commission. whether green tea or black tea.uk
The publication of this report has been funded the Department for International Development
. IEC Strategy Ltd. researchers. This report is part of The Responsible Purchasing Initiative’s work to improve the purchasing practices of EU companies so that minimum human rights standards are realised by the workers and farmers in the developing countries involved in producing products. Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2006 Food and Agriculture Organisation “The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets” 2004 International Tea Committee. Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2006 Tea Board of India. In collaboration with local partners we work to create opportunities for poor people to harness the benefits of trade. Tea and Herbal Tea. Traidcraft also aims to use the experience of its sister fair trade company. January 2007 United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 2006
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Traidcraft Exchange Unit 306 16 Baldwin’s Gardens London EC1N 7RJ UK Tel: +44 (0)207 242 3955 Fax: +44 (0)207 242 6173 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
We would like to thank all those businesses.org.org. investors and NGOs who have helped in compiling this report. Please e-mail your comments direct to: responsible-purchasing@traidcraft. The report draws on research conducted for Traidcraft by Jacob Omolo of IPAR in Kenya.org. websites 2007 International Tea Committee.Buying Matters
Traidcraft Exchange is the UK’s only development charity specialising in making trade work for the poor. We would welcome your feedback on this report. Tea made from fruit or herbs is not included. Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2006. In Kenya we would particularly like to thank Jacob Omolo of IPAR for the initial research and Ian Gatere of IEC Strategy Ltd for researching and writing the case studies. Emerging Thinking.outofhome. Throughout this report ‘tea’ is used to refer to products made from the shrub camellia sinensis.traidcraft. helping them to develop sustainable livelihoods and offering them hope for a better future. see www. Traidcraft plc. Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2006 International Tea Committee. Mintel.uk Or visit our website www.uk www. UK Market report February 2005 Euromonitor “Hot Drinks in the UK” Executive Summary August 2006. International Tea Committee. All other photos by Charles Kamau.
* 1 2 Names have been changed and faces blurred to protect the identity of these workers. “Impact of UK Purchasing Practices on Small and Medium Business in Kenya” September 2006. Speciality tea figures from Mintel 2005 as above UK Tea Council website 2007 UK Food and Drink Federation Out of Home Group various. to improve wider trade practices. Please note these figures are approximate and are based on the assumption that all tea retained in producer countries and all imports into countries have been consumed.
Cover photo by Shailan Parker. Tea Board of Kenya.responsible-purchasing.