Advanced Fibre Information System

INTRODUCTION

In textile industry raw material and the most dominant factor as it contributes 50-75% in total manufacturing cost. In quality conscious scenario, quality of raw material plays a vital role. But the quality of raw material is decided by measuring its properties. Now measurement through conventional techniques is very laborious, time consuming. Hence the researchers focus their attention towards the inventions of such instrument, which gives accurate and quick result and one of the wonderful development is AFIS - Advanced fibre information system.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

BASICS PRINCIPLE
The AFIS method is based on aeromechanical fibre processing, similar to opening and carding, followed by electro-optical sensing and then by high speed microprocessor based computing and data reporting as shown in Fig 1.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

A fibre sample is introduced into the system and is processed through a fibre individualizer, which aeromechanically separates the sample into three components consisting of cleaned fibre, microdust and trash. Each of these component is transported in a separate pneumatic path and may be analysed electro-optically or by other means. The data processing and reporting are handled by an industrialized PC. AFIS provides basic single fibre information and is distinguished from earlier and existing methods by providing distributions of the basic fibre properties. These distribution measurements provide more accurate, precise and basic information about fibre.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF INSTRUMENT
Fibre individualizer

The fibre individualizer (Figure 2) uses unique cleaning and separating techniques to present the fibres pneumatically to the electro-optical sensor. The fibres are opened and cleaned using specially designed, pinned and perforated cylinders, which are similar to open end spinning beaters and stationary

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Advanced Fibre Information System

carding flats. Airflow into the perforations of the cylinder allows for thorough engagement and efficient dust and trash removal. A specimen of fibre is hand teased into a sliver-like strand and is inserted into the feed assembly. It passes between a spring-loaded feed roll/feed plate assembly and is engaged by the pinned and perforated cylinder. The fibres are combed and carded; dust is released and removed through the perforations in the cylinder. Trash is released after the carding action by the "counter flow" separation slot. Heavy trash particles are separated from fibres and transported out of the system, whereas, the smaller dust and fibres are returned to the cylinder aerodynamically by the air drawn into the slot, thus the term "counter flow slot". A secondary stationary flat is used to further clean and comb the fibres. They are then directly transferred to a second cylinder. A second "counter flow" slot removes additional trash. Its counter flow air is used to transport fibres out of the system after a final combing from a third stationary carding flat. The separated components (cleaned fibre, microdust and trash) are transported along three different production paths.

Fibre individualizer motor/Motor controller Versions 3 and 4 units have a separate drive motor for fibre individualizer. These brushless DC motors are noiseless in operation, allow for

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Advanced Fibre Information System

direct monitoring and control of the motor speed, and are easier to service and replace. The brushless DC motor has its own motor controller board which monitors and controls and motor speed. The motor speed can be adjusted by a potentiometer located on the board.

Feed motor/Motor controller Versions 3 and 4 units feed belts and feed rollers are driven via worm gear with a stepper motor. The motor speed is variable from 140 steps/sec to 1116 steps/sec. The feed motor controller is a motor driver that accepts pulses and direction information from the control board. The initial direction of the stepper is determined by the orientation of the motor's 7-pin plug on the controller. If the direction is "backward" after installation, reverse the plug.

Sliver detector The sliver detector is located between the feed tray and feed plate. Its function is to signal the control system when sliver is being presented to the individualizer and when sliver is no longer present. The sliver detector consists of an infrared LED source and detector. During operation, the sliver (fibre specimen) passes between the source and detector 'breaking" the beam which signals the control board to slow

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Advanced Fibre Information System

the feed rate to the sampling speed. When the trailing end of the sliver passes through the source/detector the beam is "made" once again. A 15 second delay is triggered to allow the remaining sliver to continue processing through the system before the "end of sample" sequence is initiated by the control board.

Electro-optical sensors The electro-optical (E-O) sensors consist of three basic elements tapered entrance and exit nozzles (on Version 4 lint sensor a single piece accelerating nozzle beam forming and collection optics. The detection circuitry (Figure 3).

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Advanced Fibre Information System

Individualized fibres (and neps) are transported pneumatically from the fibre individualizer by an air stream. They enter the E.O. sensor through an accelerating nozzle which straightens, separates, and aligns the fibres in proper orientation to the source detector. The fibres penetrate a collimated beam of light and scatter and block that light in proportion to their optical diameter and in direct relation to their time of flight through the sampling volume. Generally, rectangular waveforms are produced by the light scattered by individual fibres (Figure 4a). Nep signals are much greater in magnitude and duration and generate a characteristic nep "spike" (Figure 4b). Trash particles produce smaller spiked waveforms, which are distinguishable from neps in magnitude and duration. From these waveforms, which are microseconds in duration, the pertinent data are acquired, analyzed and stored in the host computer. Distributions based on size, length or diameter can be generated.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

DATA ANALYSIS
I) Lengths by number (n)

Fibre length by number is the length of the individual fibres. This method measures the length of each fibre and places them into length categories. These categories are added together to obtain the length measurement for short fibre and average or mean length. Length by number measurements are pure

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Advanced Fibre Information System

measurements that are not influenced by the weight of the fibres. Typically this means that the length by number results are always shorter than the same sample tested using the by weight method. In textile processing it is recommended that the length by number be used to determine machine and equipment settings and also to determine fibre damage as represented by short fibre content. Instrument such as the AFIS is capable of providing the length by number information. II) AFIS Trash data Analysis Table : AFIS trash data analysis Term Total count Trash count Dust count Total foreign Matter (TFM) Size Definition All particles counted All particles larger than 500 microns All particles less than 500 microns Calculation of total foreign matter Average size of all particles in microns

The AFIS trash data printout report all the information listed in Table. In addition it has a histogram that classifies the particles into 50 micron channels. The graph has darker coloured bars for the trash particles that are larger than 500 microns. The trash count is given for each particles size channel. There is also a cumulative percentage given to show how many particles are in each of the channels from 0 to 100%. The histogram is the typical AFIS Trash module printout.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

The Advanced Fibre Information System (AFIS) was developed to measure traditional fibre neps (entanglements) often times called mechanical neps. A recent breakthrough development has furthered the technology for classifying neps into two categories fibre neps and seed coat neps. AFIS nep classification is the newest addition to the modular AFIS system providing a more detailed summary of nep type imperfections from ginned cotton through carded and combed sliver.

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Advanced Fibre Information System

III) Seed coat nep detection method:

As illustrated in Figure , the fibre individualizer separates the sample into three main components: lint, trash and dust. The lint channel contains fibres, short fibres, mechanical neps and seed coats with fibres attached. The trash channel contains trash, dust, some fibre fragments and very large seed coats with little or no attached fibre. The seed coats, which, remain with the fibre during

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Advanced Fibre Information System

opening are termed seed coat neps by the AFIS. These are masses that are most likely to remain with the good fibre during the textile opening, cleaning, carding and combing processes. Large seed coats, termed seed coat fragments, are

collected in the trash port of the AFIS and are more easily removed from the fibre. The AFIS nep classification module counts and sizes seed coat neps. The

classification module is able to identify the distinct electrical waveforms produced by fibres, fibre clumps, seed coat neps, etc. This improved nep module uses a digital signal processor (DSP) to classify all incoming waveforms and to calculate nep size. Figure illustrates a typical nep waveform and the values extracted by the standard nep module. Figure illustrates the same signal analyzed by the DSP system. The DSP system is capable of recording and analyzing all information contained in the nep signal, therefore providing better information about the sample characteristics. The classification software compares each sampled

waveform to a standard waveform to determine which classification it most resembles. These standard waveforms are based on models of seed coat neps and mechanical neps traveling through the sensor and are verified on numerous simulations using manually introduced fibre neps and seed coat neps.

AFIS APPLICATIONS
(1) Card nep analysis :-

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Advanced Fibre Information System

Neps are created by mechanical handling and cleaning of cotton fibres. Due to fibre individualizer provided inside the machine we can analyze neps hence we can check nep in carded or combed sliver. (2) Card wire maintenance analysis :We can judge the grinding frequency required for card wires by appropriate checking of sliver quality on AFIS instrument. (3) Length applications :(4) Length analysis of comber to DIF:This instrument provides the data on histogram i.e. in form of fibre distribution so it will give accurate idea about length. (5) Trash application :By using this instrument we come to know the exact amount of trash present in material so that we can decide the material is suitable for processing or not.

ADVANTAGES
1. High degree of accuracy, which gives precise results.
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Advanced Fibre Information System

2. Testing speed is high. 3. It avoids laborious time work needed for measurement of nep count. 4. The results are free from human and machine error. 5. It can analyze process performance.

CONCLUSION
21st century will be ruled by quality and cost consciousness for survival and progress. Every mill will have to follow the path of quality. It is only possible y using advance, effective, reliable as well as quick testing instrument and as the name suggest, advance fibre testing instrument surely fulfils all these requirement.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Ton Yarkey & Gordon Williams, "fibre testing mill applications of USTER AFIS" 2. J. E. Booth - textile testing
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Advanced Fibre Information System

3. Fibre testing - ATI March - 1998.

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