Energy Saving in Home Lighting

INTRODUCTION
There's much more to lighting rooms than placing a 60 watt bulb in the middle of the ceiling. There have been such leaps in lighting technology, that an array of fittings and light bulbs needed to produce dramatic effects are available and affordable. There's even lighting that will save you energy and money. So, where do you start ? Begin by thinking about the three functions of light. First, it gives general lighting to a room. Secondly, there is localized or task lighting, that supplies specific, concentrated light for activities such as reading, sewing and cooking. Thirdly, there is accent or mood lighting that creates atmosphere by providing pools of light to highlight certain objects or areas. Major developments are causing a revolution in lighting

technology. Miniaturization and the introduction of electronic lamp circuitry are changing, improving and extending performance parameter of well known lamps.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
Electronics in lighting Electronic lighting, including the incorporation of electronic control makes exciting new lighting concepts possible. These new concepts meet requirements for more flexible, sophisticated and dynamic environments in major application field such as, office lighting, industrial lighting, shop lighting, hotel and home lighting.

Energy conservation The world is becoming increasingly aware that in the not too distant future, energy will become a scarce and an expensive commodity. And. this Upturn might affect the economic development in the next decade. Therefore, it will be prudent for all of us to make optimum use of Energy conservatior advanced light, limited supplies of resources and seek ways to improve the efficiency of energy using processes. In India lighting consumes about 17 pre cent of the total electrical energy (against seven percent to eight percent in advanced European countries with better quality lighting). Out of this

about 37 percentis used for commercial and industrial lighting alone. These days additional generation would be at the estimated cost of Rs 4.5 crore for each megawatt.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
New materials and the introduction of electronics are improving existing lighting technologies and opening up entirely new possibilities. With well over 2000 different lamps having individual characteristics and lighting hardware in the service of reflectors or other forms of control, luminous environments having: desired illuminance; desired colour temperature, desired colour rendering, desired flexibility, desired appearance of the light sources can be created. First of all we see a strong trend to miniaturize the light sources in virtually every member of the light source family.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting

New Light Sources
The high luminance of the filament of halogen incandescent lamps make these lamps very suitable for lighting techniques application in optical systems. Luminance and lifetime depend on the temperature of the filament. Halogen is added to prevent wall blackening. Spectral power distribution of the lamp shows that a great deal of the emitted radiation is in the infrared region. By reducing this infrared radiation, the efficacy of halogen incandescent lamps can be improved. In the past few years the technology for depositing heatresistant high quality interference filters on complex surfaces has been substantially improved. Filters can now be used on halogen incandescent lamps, for instance, to reflect infrared radiation back to the filament. The bulb shapes, the spectral reflection of the filter, and the position of the filament with respect to the reflector, determine the percentage of infrared radiation that is reflected radiation. An improvement in efficacy of upto 40 percent can now be obtained at constant lamps life. Model calculations show that a considerable increase of this percentage must be theoretically possible. Since these interference filters have no absorption, they are highly efficient.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
The techniques for depositing those coatings will certainly be improved in the future. A step up of the production process will lead to cost reduction and consequently to a more general application of the filters. Fluorescent lighting systems:- The advantages of a fluorescent lighting system are : High efficacy, Great variety in colour temperature (2700°-6500°K), short run-up time, Good

maintenance and long life. In the past improvements of fluorescent lighting systems have mainly been achieved by improvement of the fluorescent powder. Compared to the lamps coated with halophosphates, lamps with rare earth oxides have a better maintenance and improved performance. Although halophosphate lamps are still in production, the rare - earth oxide lamps are beginning to supercede these. In the past decade the 38 mm fluorescent lamp has been replaced in many countries by a more efficient 26 mm diameter lamps. The rare gas filled in this lamp is adjusted to reduce the lamp wattage in order to keep the luminous flux constant for lamps of the same length. This results in efficiency improvement of about 10 percent. A further enhancement of the discharge efficiency can be obtained by the introduction of the highfrequency lamp currents using electronic to control gears. The increase in efficiency is mainly the result of a reduction of the electrode losses.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
Recently another major technological breakthrough has led to an introduction of 16 mm diameter lamps. This requires 12.5 percent less energy compared to the conventional lamps. The last decade has also witnessed introduction of several compact fluorescent lamps. In these lamps the tube diameter is reduced to values of 10-12 mm and the discharge tube is bent to achieve a compact construction. This trend of miniaturisation adds to conservation of material and reduction in process energy required in lamp luminaire making.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting

Luminaries
The steady increase in electricity tariff made the housewife more conscious about energy saving lamps and luminaires in home lighting. Instead of using incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and luminaires are being accepted for kitchen, bathroom, passages, dining room, etc. For smaller houses fluorescent lamps arc being accepted even for drawing room and bedroom mainly to save in electricity bill. With the advent of energy saving compact fluorescent lamp, it is possible to reduce the electricity bill further by using CFL 9W or CFL 11W lamps. Smaller size of lamp made it possible to make luminaire more compact, sleek and elegant. The luminaries are suitable for recessed or surface mounting, wall or ceiling mounting with varieties of decorative attachment. There is another trend of "Do-It- Yourself the home owners prefer to have a luminaire and lamp which can be easily installed and maintained by them without calling an electrician.

Manufacturer provides installation instructions for their home lighting range and also the hardwares required for the same in the packing box.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting

Lighting Systems
Lighting is an art as well as a science. So there are no hard and fast rules governing the design process, especially when it comes to your own home where personal taste and style play a leading role. Nevertheless, let's take a look at each room. T h e Fr o n t D o o r With good front door and porch lighting, the door itself, especially the keyhole, the ground immediately in front of your door and the step becomes clearly, visible. Perfect lighting can be achieved using lights from the ceiling or a wall-mounted luminaire where the lamp is properly screened.

Entranc e Hall, Land ings, Passages & Stairca ses Create a welcoming atmosphere by brightly lighting your entrance hall. Use ceiling lights and highlight a painting or sculpture with spotlights. Decor and spotline lamps are a good choice. On landings and in passages, sufficient luminaires should be installed to create relatively uniform lighting on the floor. Downlighting with a wide spread of light is often the best solution. The lighting of staircases is most important in order of prevent accidents. Avoid the mistake of lighting the steps from below, or a person descending the stairs will not he able to properly pick

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
out the edge of each step. If on the other hand, the luminarie is positioned above and somewhat in advance of the topmost tread, short shadows will be created and the edges of the steps clearly defined.

The Living Room The living room is always a beehive of activity reading, writing, watching television, talking and entertaining. The living room is the very heart of the home, which is sufficient reason to light it well. Precisely because of its different uses, the keynotes of living room lighting must be flexibility combined with aesthetics. A balance of all three types of lighting, general background, task and accent lighting will give you the desired effect.

General Lighting When entering the living room at night, general orientation lighting must be present. A single luminarie from ceiling will provide the ambient lighting needed for this purpose. Choose between a single decor lamp on the ceiling or a luminaire with pearl, electronic retrofit lamps.

Reading

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
Reading demands relatively strong light, the correct amount depending on the age of the reader. Equally important is the brightness balance between the reading task and the surroundings. Reading in a small pool of light surrounded by darkness is tiring and unpleasant. So make sure that the reading light is properly supplemented by general lighting. The actual reading light should be placed beside and somewhat behind the reader chair. The traditional floor or standard lamp in all its simplicity is excellent when used with the proper shade.

Writing Whether in the living room or else where, writing demands adequate local lighting. The lamp itself should not throw any light in the direction of the eyes, and cause a glare. Preferably it should be to tally shielded. Avoid the reflected glare from the paper by correctly positioning the luminaire to the side.

Wa t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n Television viewing should never be done in darkness. Make sure there is enough low-level lighting to soften the

contrast that would otherwise be too tiring on the eyes. A spotline will do, because it bounches off light in the opposite direction and does not reflect on the TV screen.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting

Conservation The living room is usually abuzz with

conversation many times of the day. The lighting should therefore facilitate eye contact and model faces in a natural manner. It is not very pleasant to have to talk to a silhoutte. Luminaires with large shades will provide the required lighting harmony in a sitting room. Dimmers can be used to set a level that creates an intimate atmosphere.

Accent lighting The lighting in the living room would not be complete without some highlights on paintings and other arte facts. Apart from its stylish appeal, accent lighting also provides certain amount of ambient light. Spotlights meet the need very well when fitted with incandescent or halogen lamps.

Dining Room Not only Should the table itself and the dishes on it receive direct lighting, but the faces of the diners should be included as well. A luminaire is suspended above the table is a good solution. Decor lamps in luminaires with glass or fabric shades,

providing direct lighting on the faces. However, keep the brightness low

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
in the direction of the faces. The positioning of the luminaire is very

important. Too high - and there is the risk of seeing the lamp. Too low and the luminaire will obstruct eye contact. The correct height is usually about 60 cms above the table top. To help retaining the lighting level, to suit the occasion or task, or simply to leave the table corner lighted when not in use, as part of the living room landscape, use a diffused light with a dimmer. Alternately, use a decorative lamp for its aesthetic appeal.

The Kitchen The key in the kitchen is to have shadow free general and local lighting on every surface that you use, including the sink, stove and working platforms. This light should reach all surfaces, not only the horizontal work surfaces, but also the vertical ones, to facilitate the task of finding things in cupboards. General lighting grom the ktichen ceiling

ensures a good view - overall and into cupboards. Under-cupboard luminaires with fluorescents provide good lighting on work surfaces. Lighting must also be such as to make it easy to discern even slight color differences in the food. This means of course, that all the lamps used should show colours naturally. In the kitchen where works goes on for many hours each day, it is advisable to make the fullest possible use of energy saving lamps.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting

The Bedroom General lighting in a large bedroom can be best provided by a centrally located lamp with a luminaire that spreads the light around comfortably. As in the other rooms, general lighting is needed in the bedroom for orientation purposes and in order to find things in cupboards. Contrary to what one does in other rooms, this ambient lighting should be switched off when reading in bed with the aid of a reading light installed at the bed head. A mirror type luminaire or an adjustable Iuminaire or an adjustable luminaire with a Spotline lamp are ideal for bedheads, while milky lamps are best suited for general lighting.

The Children's Room In the children's room however, lighting must be slightly different. Children learn only gradually that their environment is full of dangers. And as their eagerness to explore extends over all objects and areas within their reach, it is best that their room is brightly and uniformly lit. Long, harsh shadows as well as glaring, unscreened lamps should be avoided. Similarly, narrow beam spotlights, which are often used to provide decorative effects in other areas of the home should be avoided.

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
Children like a lot of light, although they in fact need loss than their parents for a given activity. Dim light, often considered relaxing by older people, might, be frightening for young children. Keep in mind that most young children like some kind of night lamp in the room. One or more ceiling a diffusing confer can provide the

right lighting all over the room. Opt for CFLs.

The Bathroom The bathroom, like the kitchen, poses a lighting challenge. General lighting is needed for orientation and to allow one to find things in cupboards. It should be diffused (a large luminaire as in the kitchen), and yet strong enough to penetrate the shower curtain. Additional local lighting is required at the mirror, where for shaving or make-up activities the smallest details have to be discerned. The aim is to cast light on the face and not on the mirror itself. It is best to arrange for the light to come from two sides and, ideally, from above and below as well. Excellent results are obtained when large-surface, linear luminaries are mounted vertically on both sides of the mirror. Tubular

incandescents, fluorescent provide uniform illumination, revealing the most critical details. Garden Lighting

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
If a person is fortunate enough to have a garden, you can achieve stunning effects by highlighting attractive areas and features using weather-proof floodlight luminaires with incandescent reflector lamps. For the best effect, conceal the light source behind a wall or a tree, directing the light upwards. Fittings in the ground like Bollards are ideal for low-level lighting to display rockeries, lawns and flowerbeds. Patios and paved areas look great bathed in the white light of halogen floodlights. A warm atmosphere can be created by installing decorative wall fittings or tall post top lanterns along pathways, fitted with CFLs.

Maintenance
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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
Using the most energy effective light and sources

efficient luminaires will not serve the purpose if they are not

properly maintained. The effective maintenance criteria of lighting installation should be set as part of the lighting design. The cost of

maintenance, the availability of financial and manpower resources, reliability, the impact on safety at home, energy management and therefrom, the overall cost, are the factors that should be embraced by the lighting technique adopted. While selecting and installing the luminaires due attention should be given towards the ease of

maintenance. Better maintenance not only improve the lighting but also improve the interior decor and the total environment at home

Conclusion

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Energy Saving in Home Lighting
The new developments are contributing to

reduction in the cost of conserving energy and making lighting system more comfortable and productive. Lighting load being around 17 percent, the energy consumption is high as compared to the international scene and there is dire need to arrest this trend of squandering of resources. The lighting design process should optimise the energy usage and use it effectively to meet quantitative goals. To achieve this, lighting design process should begin with user perception, behaviour, performance and end with management of non renewable energy sources.

Reference Electrical India ( 15 th May 2000 )

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