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Jennifer Gutscher M.S. student South Dakota State University Nov. 2007
Aquatic Plant Ecology
• • • • • • • • • Habitat Classification Major Families Life History Strategies Seed Ecology Abiotic & Biotic Influences Competition Exotic Species Wetland Plant Adaptations
What are Aquatic Plants?
• “growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content” (Cowardin et al. 1979). Evolved from terrestrial plants, invading water in 50-100 separate events Approximately 60% of aquatic species have ranges on more than one continent – Due to moderate environmental conditions in water habitats – Often on certain latitudes N & S of equator, but not between (waterfowl seed dispersal) More than ½ of world’s wetlands are in tropical or subtropical areas Endemics high in geographically isolated areas
3 Bacopa monnieri
Wetland Plant Benefits • Roots – Stabilize sediments – Can take up metals/pollutants out of sediments – Roots accumulate nutrients from sediments. release into water column • Senescence/decomposition & loss of organic compounds from tissues Leaves – Evapotranspiration returns moisture to atmosphere – Floating-leaved plants can reduce evaporation off water surface Reduce wave erosion on shorelines Habitat & forage for invertebrates Seed production for waterfowl MANY OTHERS!!! 4 Rhynchospora corymbosa • • • • • .
. deeper.• LAKES: – Lacustrine – Larger. shape of basin and # times the water column mixes • WETLANDS: – Palustrine – Smaller. shallow. physiognomy (plant species structure).. sediment types 5 . more permanent – >2 m deep OR. dry out occasionally – Only moist soil – Classified by hydroperiod. – >8 ha in size – Classified by productivity of water zone.
Potamogetonaceae (pond weed). Lentibulariaceae (bladderwort) . some free float in water column 6 • Elodea (waterweed). Potamogetonaceae (pond weed) – Submerged • < 10 m deep • Most rooted. Haloragaceae (water milfoil). Poaceae (grasses). Ceratophyllaceae (hornwort). Typhaceae (cattails) – Floating-leaved attached • < 4 m deep • Nymphaeaceae (water lily). Nelumbonaceae (lotus).Littoral Habitat = Edge to limit of rooted aquatic plants (hydrophytes) Merritt & Cummins (1996) – Emergent • < 2 m deep • Cyperaceae (sedges). Juncaceae (rushes).
Habitat Merritt & Cummins (1996) • Sublittoral – Small zone b/w littoral and profundal zone – Shade-tolerant plants Limnetic – Open water from surface to where light does not penetrate – Free-floating • Lemnaceae (duckweed). Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) Profundal – Deep water from limit of light penetration to bottom substrate • • 7 . Pistia stratoides (water lettuce).
many seeded – Juncus (rush) “Rushes are round” “Sedges have edges” 8 Eleocharis obtusa . Eleocharis (spikerush) • JUNCACEAE = Rushes – Monocot – Inflorescence = terminal – Leaves = flat to rounded with large vein divisions. usually surrounded by leaf-like bracts – Leaves = flat. often reduced or sometimes bladeless – Stem = round. 3 vertical rows. alternate. often all basal. Cyperus (flatsedge/nutsedge). sometimes bladeless – Stem = trigonous. 2 vertical rows. solid – Fruit = achene – Carex (sedge). solid – Fruit = 3-valved capsule. Schoenoplectus (bulrush).Major Aquatic Plant Families • CYPERACEAE = Sedges – Monocot – Inflorescence = spikelets.
or rame – Leaves = flat.wikipedia.wikipedia. 2 vertical rows. Urochloa mutica (California grass). hollow (except at nodes) – Fruit = grain – Agrostis (bentgrass). Erigeron (daisy fleabane) Ray Disk www.Major Aquatic Plant Families • POACEAE = Grasses – Monocot – Inflorescence = terminal. Solidago (goldenrod). Poa (bluegrass) • ASTERACEAE = Asters/Sunflowers – Dicot – Inflorescence = involucrate head (many little flowers = ray &/or disk florets). 1+ series of bracts – Leaves = variable – Fruit = achene with awns/bristles – Achillea (yarrow). alternate – Stem = round.com 9 . spike. either panicle.com www.
axillary clusters – Leaves = simple. alternate – Stems = swollen nodes with papery sheath – Fruit = trigonous or biconvex achene – Polygonum (smartweed) • LEMNACEAE = Duckweed – Inflorescence = rarely seen. tiny – Leaves = elliptic to oblong – Roots = hang into water column – Small to tiny plant – Free-floating – Lemna (duckweed). terminal panicle. annual – Inflorescence = raceme.Major Aquatic Plant Families • POLYGONACEAE = Smartweeds – Dicot. Wolffia (watermeal) Polygonum punctatum Lemna aequinoctialis (large) & Wolffia globosa (small) 10 .
images. Dicot 11 www.Flowering Plants: Monocot vs.encarta.msn .
MONOCOTS Spikerush Eleocharis obtusa Nutsedge/Flatsedge Cyperus polystachos Climbing dayflower Commelina diffusa 13 .
DICOTS Primrose willow Ludwigia octovalvis Valley redstem Ammania coccinea Water hyssop Bacopa monnieri 15 .
EFFECTS OF MOWING GROWING POINT AT BASE GROWING POINT AT TIP MONOCOTS DICOTS 16 .
Reproductive Strategies • Annuals – Early-successional species – Colonize disturbed areas devoid of vegetation – Complete life cycle in one year – Reproduce entirely by seed – Prolific! – Seeds remain in seed bank for many years – Bidens (beggarstick). Echinochloa (barnyard grass). Cyperus (flatsedge) Cyperus difformis 17 .
Reproductive Strategies • Perennials – Survive few . Boltonia (aster). Sparganium (burreed) 19 Sagittaria latifolia . or both • Shorter-lived species may reproduce entirely by seed • Most longer-lived species may reproduce by both seed and vegetative means – Colonize new areas by seed – Then. Schoenoplectus (bulrush). vegetative means. Sagittaria (arrowhead).many years – Reproduce by seed. spread extensively by vegetative reproduction – Many can tolerate extended flooding • Aerenchyma tissues • Adventitious roots – Typha (cattail).
fish. disperse seeds Sedimentation buries seeds deeper. Schoenoplectus (bulrush)...Seed Bank • All viable seeds and/or propagules present on or in the soil or associated litter (Simpson et al. # of spp. some decompose – Seedlings from large seeds can push through soil better than small seeds 21 • • • • .. water.lots of variation b/w wetlands – Most seeds are long lived • Polygonaceae (smartweed). Typha (cattail). birds.. 1989). in seed bank reflects community diversity better than just what’s growing – Older wetlands tend to have more total seeds • BUT!. etc. Chenopodium (goosefoot) Cyclic hydrology (rather than stability) increases seed bank diversity Wind.
abiotic conditions • Temp.D. allow germination in diff. – I..Seed Bank • What’s in my seed bank? – Take soil cores. etc. seeds from samples – Good to know for restoration projects • Inaccuracy – Some quickly predated – Microorganism attack • Bacteria • Fungi – Dispersal dependants decompose easily • Phragmites australis (common reed) – Many plants depend mostly on rhizomes/other asexual reprod. drawdown rate... methods 22 .
798 759 .253 1.8.230 42.862 .576 RANGE (m²) 10.943 3.392 SPECIES RICHNESS 45 50 21 34 41 59 LOCATION IOWA IOWA NEW JERSEY MANITOBA ONTARIO SOUTH CAROLINA UTAH REFERENCE VAN DER VALK AND DAVIS (1978) VAN DER VALK AND DAVIS (1979) MCCARTHY (1987) PEDERSON (1981) KEDDY AND REZNICEK (1982) SCHNEIDER AND SHARITZ (1986) KADLEC AND SMITH (1984) 23 191 50 .24.19.000 17.4.000 11.875 .089 2.753 110.430 93 .455 .Size & Diversity of Wetland Seed Banks WETLAND TYPE FRESH FRESH TEMPORARY BRACKISH LAKESHORE RIVERINE SWAMP SALT DENSITY (x/m²) 29.255.430 3 ADAPTED FROM LECK (1989) .577 10.36.000 .
plumes. Viscous material colored seed coat Comments Sticks to fur/feathers Eaten by birds Dustlike seeds Wings. Oil Submerged transport Float until wetted Float long distances 25 . Unwettable Air spaces. Balloons Up to Millions/plant Balloons uncommon Hairs or slime Small Size. Cork.Dispersal Mechanisms of Seeds Dispersal Agent & Adaptations Animal Chemical attractant Clinging Structures Wind Size reduction High Surface/Volume Ratio Water Resistance to sinking Uses surface tension Low specific gravity Modification Hooks.
700 1.000 550 80 80 >30 >30 <10 <10 Naturally Preserved + + + + + Natural Field Conditions Location Yukon Territory Scandinavia Manchuria.000 1.Seed Longevity Species Lupinus arcticus (Arctic Lupin) Chenopodium album Spergula arvensis Nelumbium nucifera (Indian lotus) Canna compacta Rumex crispus (Curled dock) Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) Amaranthus retroflexus Setaria media Agrostis vulgaris Grindelia squarrosa Age (years) 10.700 100 – 3. Tokyo. Great Britain Argentina Michigan + + + + + + Michigan Michigan Michigan Michigan Virginia Virginia 26 .
Depth of burial • 3 cm deep • Can bring up seeds from inactive depths through tilling/discing/scraping 28 .
What you see is not always what you have! .
Seed Bank & Standing Veg. Species Diversity Wetland type Fresh Temporary Brackish Lakeshore Riverine Swamp Salt Seed Bank 45+ 21 29+ 41 59 9 Veg 34 29 18 45 49 14 Total 48 31 35 50 73 15 Location Iowa New Jersey Manitoba Ontario S Carolina Utah Reference Van Der Valk & Davis (1978) McCarthy (1987) Pederson (1981) Keddy & Reznicek (1982) Schneider & Sharitz (1986) Kadlec & Smith (1984) 30 .
2. Presence of seeds of preferred species Suitable conditions for germination and establishment of preferred species are met Absence of seeds of unwanted species. or these seeds are uncommon Conditions for germination and establishment of unwanted species are not met 31 3.Using Seed Banks to Your Benefit Seed banks can be exploited to promote desirable vegetation communities Success depends on: 1. 4. .
i.Hydrologic Germination Requirements • Each species responds to a unique combination of abiotic and biotic factors to break dormancy and/or germinate – Requirements can be very different from what mature plants can handle Drawdown – Most all emergents – Potamogeton (smartweed). Sparganium (burreed) – Most all submergents – Najas guadalupensis (Southern naiad) Wet meadow hardest to reestablish – Generally poor dispersers – PLUS.e. can’t persist in seed bank – Carex (sedge) 32 • • Fimbristylus littoralis • . Fimbristylus littoralis (fimbry) Flooding – A few emergents.
Rock Succession Weathering & Erosion Ferns Grasses Forbs Annuals Perennials • Germination sets in motion a pathway of succession Lichen & Moss • IF NO DISTURBANCE: – Lower Seed Production – More Perennials – More Woody Vegetation Shrubs Seedlings Trees 33 .
Influences on Aquatic Plant Communities • • • • • • • • • Position in Landscape Hydrology Soils Light Temperature Water chemistry Seed bank Competition Other Biota 34 .
.. Relationship with Hydrology Recharge Discharge Flow Through 35 .Wetlands in the Landscape.
Recharge Wetland Types Discharge Flow-through 36 .
• Wet conditions – Submerged, floating-leaved, emergent plants, and algae Dry conditions – Emergents, mud-flat annuals What makes conditions change? – Yearly/cyclical fluctuations in water quantity – Hydrologic disturbance of nearby river, lake, etc... – Floods • Can bring in new sediment, remove the old change vegetation community – Hurricanes/Tornados • Can create patchy network of vegetation – Water quality Like pushing “reset” button on succession
Typical Zone Vegetation
• Aquatic – Nearly continuous flooding at low elevations – Potamogeton (pondweed) Marsh – Most flooded for majority of growing season – Fimbristylus (fimbry) Wet Meadows – Occasional flooding kills woody plants – Cyperus (nutsedges/flatsedges) Shrubs • Shrubs/Forested Wetlands – Periodic flooding (part of year – multiple years) – Not enough flooding to kill woody vegetation – Salix (willows) Aquatic Wet Meadow Marsh Amplitude of long-term water fluctuations
38 Adapted from Cronk & Fennessy 2001
Wetland Hydrologic Controls
• Stabilizing water levels (2 - 3+ yrs) can reduce plant species and community diversity – Significantly reduce emergent vegetation cover – Increase open water – Increase # & dominance of exotics/aggressive perennials • Typha (cattail) and Urochloa mutica (California grass) – Allow monospecific vegetation stands &/or one structural type – Decrease species richness – Decrease fungal or pollinator mutualistic relationships – Reduce or eliminate wet meadow and/or marsh zone
Shrubs Wet Meadow Marsh Aquatic
Adapted from Cronk & Fennessy 2001
Amplitude of long-term water fluctuations Aquatic
Riverine Hydrologic Controls • Tropical rivers flood during “rainy season” – Riparian plant community composition dependant on physical disturbance Intermediate disturbance hypothesis (Cronk & Fennessy 2001) – Too little disturbance “competitive exclusion tends to reduce diversity” – Too much disturbance “only highly tolerant species are able to persist” Plant diversity also dependant on: – River discharge velocity – Stream order – Soils – Microtopographic relief – Upstream plant diversity • • 40 .
tight clay • Soil moisture – Capillary fringe • Rises higher with tighter pores • Found w/in 12” of soil surface = wetland – High organic content slippery feel. easily deformed 41 .Soils • Soil temperature – Affects germination Soil Color – Can change with redox reactions • Microbes obtain O2 from mineral oxides = reduction – Indicates hydric soils Soil Texture – Ribbon test – Gritty sand • • loamy silt soft.
light weight. porous.Soils • Organic Content – Black. smelly • Methane & sulfide are smelly!!! hydric redox rxn hydric soil • Residual Plant Material – Anoxic conditions slow plant decomposition Soil Stratigraphy – Cognizant of horizons Mineral composition helps control hydrology & water chemistry – Clay soils hold water – Sand lenses transmit water laterally – Hard Fe (iron) precipitate in HI bogs can cause ponding Hydric soils – get down 45 cm (18”) to test Soils become hypoxic within a few days of flooding anoxic 42 • • • • .
i. and UV light • 44 . blue – 100 m – Humic and tannic acid absorb blue. green – 50 m. 10 m Submerged plants need red and blue light for photosyn.Light • • • • Most important factor for submerged plant distribution <50% incident natural sunlight penetrates 1 m of pure water Most light reflected when “long light”. yellow – 10 m.e. winter months Photic zone = Surface to depth where 1% of surface light reaches into water column – Approx. sunrise/sunset. violet. – Red – 1 m.
dissolved organic and inorganic compounds – Scatter light & absorb heat – Boat traffic. high wind action Heavy periphyton coating can reduce productivity Shading by other vegetation Residual plant material Time of Year – Day length – Intensity of light • • • • 45 . shoreline erosion.Light • Suspended solids. bottom feeding fauna.
exhale O2 Soil – Increase in temp. chemicals. Lemna spp. • Aquatic plants.. O2. • Plants – Increase ET • Lose more H2O when open pores to intake CO2. aquatic insects. Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort/coontail) – High specific heat of water thermal stability – Solar radiation only reaches the uppermost few meters & affects.. (duckweed). fluctuations can incite germination • 47 ..Temperature • Water – Fluctuations much less rapid and extreme • Increases “cosmopolitan species” – Phragmites australis (common reed). etc..
Na+ 49 . Mg2+. richness – pH • Increases during day use CO2 less carbonic acid (H2CO3) • Decreases at night opposite rxn. CO32-.Water Chemistry • Soil & bedrock composition is huge influence • Higher pH. conductivity higher site fertility more spp. SO4-. Cl-. • Higher in urbanizing areas – Conductivity (μS/cm) • Total dissolved salts (TDS) or total dissolved ions • Increases with more evaporation (concentrates salts) • Bigger watershed more contact with soil before entering water more ions • Too many accumulated ions can be toxic – Ca2+. HCO3-.
or anoxic soils – Most plants require soil O2 levels high enough for respiration in order to germinate – Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) can germinate in anoxic conditions • Floating vegetation mats vegetation/phytoplankton • Decomposition heavy shading reduces O2 reduces submerged increased O2 demand by bacteria reduced O2 – CO2 sometimes limiting factor in submerged communities 50 . hypoxic.Water Chemistry • Dissolved gases – O2 • Oxidated.
orthophosphate.5% (Cronk & Fennessy 2001) • [P] = 0.Leptochloa fusca Water Chemistry • Salinity – Brackish = 0. chloride – Can change vegetation community Batis maritima • • 51 .13% – Nitrates common in fertilizers/runoff Pollutants – More in human land use areas – Ammonia.5 ppt (1.4% seawater) – Fresh water hard to obtain – Necessary ion uptake more difficult – CO2 uptake difficult (opening stomata incurs water loss) – Reduces plant productivity – Toxic to freshwater plants • Can be used to your advantage! Nutrients – Phosphorus tends to be limiting nutrient in oligotrophic systems • [N] = 1.
allowing others to outcompete Nesting materials – Wider less strands needed – Tougher less likely to break down – More aerenchyma floatation Droppings increase plant productivity USFWS • • • Can increase open water habitat 52 .Biotic Influence • • Trails form open water pathways Forage – Plant often dies b/c oxygen supply is cut off – Can change plant community • Decreases amount of certain species.
. high nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) decreases spp. richness – Exotics often win this competition • Increasing MICROtopography.. – Increases heterogeneity – Increases # individual plants – Increases biomass – Reduces competition 53 .Plants Compete Too! • The better competitors: – Make more biomass – Can gather nutrients when they’re at low levels (& still survive!) • However.
. Typha (cattail) • Nutrients – Ability to assimilate nutrients faster is advantage Nymphaea capensis 54 .Plants Compete Too! • Light – Floating-leaved plants can shade out submerged spp. esp. shade out submerged/floating • Carex (sedge). Cyperus (flatsedge/nutsedge). if high turbidity • Nymphaea (water lily) – Submerged spp. can form mats to shade out new growth from bottom • Ceratophyllum (hornwort) – Some emergent monocots reproduce vegetatively.
Schoenoplectus (bulrush). Eleocharis (spikesedge).Schoenoplectus juncoides Plants Compete Too! • Space – Dense. Typha (cattail) – Skinny. wide leaves 55 . tall leaves can be better in deep water than short. of Nymphaea (water lily). monospecific stands produced by vegetative growth • Myriophyllum (water milfoil) – Fire • Increases space less aboveground standing stock reduces competition • Increases nutrient availability through oxidation (from plants to free in soil) • Maintains current stage or resets succession • Was it a part of natural regime? • Deep water – Diffusive O2 flow to roots outcompeted by pressurized O2 ventilation • Pressurized in some spp.
disperse! • Stress-tolerators – High disturbance – Low productivity habitat 56 – Low reprod. short life Annuals . fast growth. ability. high growth rate Capture available resources well • Biomass storers – Low disturbance – Low productivity/low light/high salinity – High vegetative reproduction – Rhizomes/tubers store biomass and nutrients Elodea (waterweed) Typha (cattail) Carex echinata (star sedge) Polygonum punctatum (dotted smartweed) • Ruderals – – – – High disturbance (not competitive) High productivity habitat High reprod. ability. low growth rate . ability.• Competitors – – – – Low disturbance High productivity habitat Low reprod.
Allelopathy • Secondary metabolic compounds – Root exudates – Leached from leaves or litter Thought that chemicals are “expensive” to make. Nuphar (water lotus) • • 57 Nuphar (water lotus) . Eleocharis (spikesedge). chemicals only produced under crowding stress Cyperus (flatsedge). Polygonum (smartweed). so usually “compete using only its physiological adaptations” (Cronk & Fennessy 2001) – Therefore.
– Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) can double areal extent in 3.Why are Exotic Species so Competitive? • Rapid regeneration through prolific seeds & vegetative reproduction – “The vegetative spread of submerged or floating species is most rapid in the tropics and where water levels remain constant” (Cronk and Fennessy 2001).5 days Pests/herbivores not evolved to attack/consume exotic plant Little competition from other plants – Native plants evolved to exploit separate niches – Exotics’ competitors rarely present in new range – Can grow quickly by capturing resources & light • • 58 .
Why are Exotic Species so Competitive? • • Aquatic environment is relatively uniform Wide ecological tolerances (generalists) – Can become dominant most anywhere if given the chance Many are cosmopolitan (occur across the world) – Pistia stratoides (water lettuce) Some resistant to fire. flood. drought • • 59 Pistia stratoides (water lettuce) .
on Islands – Proportion of exotics on islands. flood... drought.....Exotic Species.up to 50% • Proportion of exotics on continents. • .up to 20% – Hawaii • Few plants colonized mostly evolved once they got here • Generally no frost would eliminate many exotics • Transportation stop b/w Asia & N.on Disturbed areas – Very susceptible to invasion – Natural Fire. biota – Human • Damming/impoundment • Fragmentation • Urbanization • Pipes/irrigation/drains that change salinity • Climate change – Coastal areas – Weather pattern changes – Veg.A. movement towards poles • 60 ... ...
Invasive Infestation • Change community structure – Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) planted on Oahu • Shade out natives • Dense root system altered animal movements & community • Altered soil O2 Hybridize with natives – Can be more adapted. but just as invasive Reduce seed bank diversity Draw water level down with high evapotranspiration rates – Surface & ground water • • • 61 .
plant is fire-tolerant 62 . plants • Accumulate heavy metals & toxic compounds ingestion can kill animal – Hard for chicks to maneuver • Alters fire regimes – Dry leaves of Arundo donax (Spanish reed) catch fire easily • BUT.Invasive Infestation • Thick submergents – Provide refuge for fish fry. invertebrates.. • Dense floating mats – Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) • Inhibit O2 diffusion into water kill fish.. allowing high survival stunting – Hard for predator fish to hunt overpopulation.
Invasive Plant Growth Requirements Species American Lotus Common Reed Reed Canarygrass Broadleaf Cattail Narrowleaf Cattail Salinity Tolerance None Low Low Low Medium pH range 4.50 Propagated Seed Sprig Seed and Sprig Sprig Seed and Sprig 63 .0 5.50 – 8.70 – 8.0 5.40 4.50 – 8.59 – 7.50 – 7.50 3.
580 7.060 10.060 16.225 65 .Nuphar rhizome Biomass of Vegetatively Reproducing Perennials • Need to consider below ground biomass more! Mowing to cut off meristematic tissue is often not enough Must grub/scrape/dig to disrupt rhizomes/tubers Production (lb/acre) Species Phragmites Typha Nuphar Common name Common reed Cattail Water lotus Above 9.580 5.400 Below 64.
O2. and O2 – Prop & drop roots on red mangrove plants • Covered with lenticels for O2/CO2 exchange • Stability – Buttressed trunks • Jurassic Park • Stems – Elongation to access light. Rumex (dock) – Shallow rooting • Allows access to NO3.(nitrate). CO2 • Sagittaria latifolia (arrowhead) 66 .Adaptations • Roots – Adventitious = laterally from main stem base into soil surface • In positions they normally don’t occur • Replace deep roots that die b/c anoxia Sagittaria latifolia • Stabilize & increase O2 to roots • Salix (willow).
CO2 – Swelling at stem base to enhance aeration – Some invertebrates tap into this to respire • Coleoptera larvae (Donacia sp.Chrysomelidae) • Diptera larvae (Mansonia sp. O2. . – Culicidae & Chrysogaster sp. – Syrphidae) • Schoenoplectus juncoides 67 . Typha (cattail) Aerenchyma = tissue with large intercellular spaces (lacunae) – O2 to roots.Adaptations • Rhizomes – Larger carbohydrate storage allows more ATP production for cell metabolism • More ATP needed in anoxia – Phragmites australis (common reed). brings CO2 from roots & out stomata – May be 50-60% of root area in flood-tolerant plants – Stem floating to access light. Schoenoplectus (bulrush).
Arundo donax (giant reed).Ludwigia palustris Adaptations • Leaves – Some float off long stems. many submergents 68 . Colocasia esculenta (taro) • Against invertebrates: Ceratophyllum (hornwort). CO2 – Heterophylly • Emergent leaves ovate/elliptic/rounded • Submerged leaves ribbon-like/dissected • Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox). spread out to access light. O2. Sagittaria (arrowhead) • Chemical defenses – Herbivory • Nymphaeaceae (water lily).
takes carbohydrates from roots – N-fixing bacteria in root nodules • Sesbania (legumes). leaf shedding. rhizomes. P. bulbs • Energy for start up next growing season 69 . tubers. N. grey. 85% of all aquatic plants • Increases water. and red mangrove plants – Move nutrients from aboveground tissues to roots. leaf/shoot succulence • Nutrients – Mycorrhizae = symbiotic fungi • Approx.Adaptations • Salinity – Increase internal solutes freshwater comes in Batis maritima – Exclude or secrete salts. K+ available for plant. white. Alnus (alder).
– Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) • • 70 . O2.Submergence Adaptations • Leaves – Chloroplasts in epidermis – Ribbon-like or highly dissected • More light to chloroplasts • More surface area for gas & nutrient exchange Shoots can absorb water & nutrients • • • • Less xylem & lignification Thin cuticle No stomata – Gas exchange through diffusion Recycle CO2 from respiration into photosyn. CO2 – More gas transport Dissolved bicarbonate (HCO3-) in photosyn. – Elodea nuttallii (western waterweed) • More aerenchyma – Buoyancy for proximity to light.
depend on wetlands • 30 T&E wetland plants in Hawaii alone Hydrologic alterations – Agriculture – Groundwater drawdown – Flood control – Stabilized water levels Altered topography Pollution • • • 71 .S.S. mainland – 1/3 T&E plant spp. in U.Threats • Wetland loss – 50% loss on U.
A. estimates 15-34 cm sea rise in next century (65 cm possible) 72 . exotic biota introduced to HI/year – Monocultures less biodiversity – Extirpation of native species – Alter nutrient cycles – More invasives with more ecosystem degradation Urochloa mutica • Global climate change – Some wetlands will dry up (i.P.Threats • Exotic species – 20 spp. others will expand – E.e. seasonal).
Gee .Strategy • • • • Monitoring Limit Exotics & Perennials Multiple Treatments PATIENCE 73 H.
dicots) – Herbicides • Consider impacts on desired species • Get down to mineral soil 74 . other fauna – Tilling/Discing • Consider high degree of substrate disturbance – Mowing • Consider meristematic tissue (monocots vs.HOW??? • Set Back Succession – Flooding/Drawdowns • Gradual basin slope ideal – Small drops in water level can expose large areas • Must understand water budget before flood/drawdown • Impact on invertebrates. waterfowl.
THANK YOU!!! jennifer.edu 75 .gutscher@sdstate.
Cummins. HI. Gary. Vol. Aquatic Plants. FL. IA. 1992. and M. A. Ward. R. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 1. Fennessy. Inc. and C. 2001. 1996. SD. 3rd ed. W. K. J. • • • • 76 ***Thanks to Hugo Gee for many of the vegetation pictures . S. Puttock. W. Boca Raton. Wetland Plants: Biology and Ecology. V. T. 2006. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. J. F. Aquatic insect ecology. New York. Larson. Brookings. Erickson. South Dakota State University. Merritt. & K. NY.. Bess Press Books.. Hawaii Wetland Field Guide. 2005. Lewis Publishers. Dubuque.. John Wiley & Sons. Honolulu.Literature Cited • Cronk.