Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment. into the atmosphere.[1] Pollutants Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas . particulate matter. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Schematic drawing. (5) increased ground level ozone concentration. (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.Before flue gas desulfurization was installed. they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. or gases. such as ash from a volcanic eruption. causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect.[2] Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. In addition. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is. . Usually. liquid droplets. A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles. they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. (4) acid rain. (3) increased UV radiation. Rather. the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. (2) particulate contamination. they may be natural or man-made. primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process.

[4] and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.[5] In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water.[3] Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution. and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States. oceans and groundwater). 45 percent of assessed stream miles. lakes. Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. 47 percent of assessed lake acres. but also to the natural biological communities. rivers.[2] An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.000 people daily.g.Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e. and 1.[1][2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14. Introduction Millions depend on the polluted Ganges river. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well.[6] .

animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes. hearing loss. aircraft noise and rail noise. such as drinking water. and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. Noise pollution A Boeing 747-400 passes close to houses shortly before landing at London Heathrow Airport Noise pollution is excessive. Categories Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources. storms.Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use. displeasing human. groundwater can also feed surface water sources. The unwanted sound is called noise. hypertension. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems. and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution. since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Conversely. although they are interrelated. meaning seasickness. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Health Effects [edit] Human health Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas. including motor vehicle noise.[7] Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater. tinnitus. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression. such as fish. high stress levels. algae blooms. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. sleep .

Wildlife health Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals. allows diseases and pests to spread and. destroy property. The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment. exploitation of minerals. mollusks. weeds. and other harmful effects. birds. as hedgerows and copses disappear. stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems. led to the increased number of roads and all the infrastructure that goes with them. as it happens. antimicrobial. it quickly exhausts all the natural resources in an area. When crops are harvested. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. The chemical fertilizers in the soil cause its infertility. will deplete the soil of nutrients. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides. and interfering the use of the sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness. plant pathogens. . Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing. causing diseases in both humans and other species of animals. This is unnatural. biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria). As the demand for food has grown exponentially with the increase of the human population. spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes. A pesticide may be a chemical substance.[3][4][5][6] Furthermore. Increased mechanization The major increase in the concentration of population in cities. severe depression and at times panic attacks. fish. Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. there are also drawbacks. Pests include insects.BY DAvard Delancy Pesticides and herbicides A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest.disturbances. such as potential toxicity to humans and other organisms. and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Another consequence of more intensive agriculture is the move to monoculture. The increase in field size makes it economically viable for the farmer but results in loss of person and shelter for wildlife. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. there is an increase in field size and mechanization. nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food. increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance. the naked soil is left open to wind after it has been compacted by heavy machinery. along with the internal combustion engine. causing the introduction of chemical fertilizers and foreign substances to the soil that poisons it. mammals. disinfectant or device used against any pest.

45% of the special waste was in liquid form and 18% was asbestos . n Scotland in 1993. the aquatic life. soils.5% were exported to be disposed of or recycled.radioactive waste was not included. animals. There are 900 disposal sites in Scotland. and polluted water.000 tons was toxic waste and 260. . 1. Mining also affects ground and surface waters.5% was burned in incinerators and 1. 90% of controlled waste was buried in landfill sites and produced 2 million tons of methane gas. However some areas are contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons (500 cubic meters). Acid mine drainage can cause damage to streams which in return can kill aquatic life. 22% from industry. as there are few traditional heavy industries or coal/mineral extraction sites. 48% came from the demolition of buildings. 17% from households and 13% from business . There are very few vacant or derelict land sites in the north east of Scotland.000 tons was controlled waste from other parts of Britain and abroad. damaged landscapes. 14 million tons of waste was produced.Mining     Modern mining projects leave behind disrupted communities.only 3% were recycled. Of the controlled waste. vegetation. The vast variety of toxic chemicals released by mining activities can harm animals and aquatic life as well as their habitat. 100. and the human health.

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