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3GPP Time Line and Evolution R99 2000 UMTS R4 2001 R5 2002 HSPA DL R6 2003 2004 2005 HSPA UL R7 2006 2007 R8 2008 LTE R9 2010 R10 2011 LTE Adv HSPA + 2009 Common IMS MMTel IMS EPC .
LTE Requirement (3GPP TR 25. minimization and packet – based interface . to use transmitter sites that have been used in UTRA / GERAN Throughput increased by 3-4 times and 2-3 time UL = 5. 5. full IP .4 Mbps .7 Mbps) Lower latency : – Radio access network latency ( user plane UE – RNC.4. 3. 10.913) • • • • • • • • • Peak data rate 100 Mbps (DL) and 50 Mbps (UL) to 20 MHz Throughput increased by 3-4 times and 2-3 times for the downlink to uplink from HSDPA Rel 6 ( DL = 14.7 Mbps ) Spectrum efficiency by continuing 6 (DL = 14. Architecture simplification . UL = 5.4 Mbps.UE ) below 10 ms The ability of the use mobility up to 350 km / hour Coverage up to a radius of approximately 5 km Enhance MBMS ( Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service ) efficiency ( 1 bit/s/Hz) as for the downlink to uplink from HSDPA Rel- Flexible use of spectrum (1. 15. 20 MHz) • • Retaining 3GPP RAT ( Radio Access Technology ) which already exist and support internetworking with him.
LTE Architecture In the LTE network is divided into 2 basic network. EPC (Evolved Packet Core) . namely: 1. E UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) 2.
IMS can provide Voice over IP (VoIP) and interconnectivity to legacy circuit switched networks PSTN and ISDN through Media Gateways it controls. For example. .SERVICE The IP Multimedia Sub-System (IMS) is a good example of service machinery that can be used in the Services Connectivity Layer to provide services on top of the IP connectivity provided by the lower layers. to support the voice service.
• EPC consist of : – MME ( Mobility Management Entity ) – SAE GW represents the combination of the two gateways.( Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) EPC • Functionally the EPC is equivalent to the packet switched domain of the existing 3GPP networks. Serving Gateway (S-GW) and Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW) – Home Subscriber Server (HSS) – Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) .
a different view R99 / 4 which is still controlled by the gateway Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) In order to handle QoS as well as control rating and charging. – MME is responsible for selecting SGW (Serving SAE Gateway) which will be used during initial attach EU and the EU time to do intra . – Used for bearer control. At UE in idle state (idle mode).LTE handover. MME is responsible for tracking and paging procedure which includes retransmission therein. and billing .EPC Con’t Mobility Management Entity (MME) – MME is a controller at each node on the LTE access network.
Provides for the UE 's relationship to the network packet . combination AUC and HLR Serving SAE Gateway (SGW) .As a liaison link between the 3GPP LTE technology with the technology (in this case the 2G and 3G) Gateway Packet Data Network (PDN GW) .EPC Con’t Home Subscriber Server (HSS) For management and security subscriber.As an anchor / liaison between the UE and the eNB at the time of the inter handover .Provide a link relationship between LTE technology with technology non 3GPP (WiMAX) and 3GPP2 (CDMA 20001X and EVDO) .Set the path and forwards the data in the form of packets of each user .
mobility management. . so as to reduce operational and maintenance cost of the device other than the simpler network architecture E-nodeB functions : all radio protocols.E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) Role of Radio Access Network (RAN). namely Node B and RNC is replaced with ENB. header compression and all packet retransmissions As a network. E-UTRAN is simply a mesh of eNodeBs connected to neighboring eNodeBs with the X2 interface.
and in these the UE performs as instructed by the network . This includes mobility management functions such as handovers and reporting the terminals location. which signal with the network for setting up.User Equipment Functionally the UE is a platform for communication applications. maintaining and removing the communication links the end user needs.
FREQUENCY & BANDWIDTH IN LTE .
101 .Key Consideration to Spectrum Selection * Band Selection Source: 3GPP TS 36.
Illustration for Spectrum Selection .
Channel Bandwidth Flexibility LTE provides channel bandwidth flexibility for operation in differently-sized LTE supports paired and unpaired spectrum on the same hardware spectrum .
Channel Bandwidth Impact .
OFDM vs Single Carrier Spectral efficiency of OFDM compared to classical multicarrier modulation: (a) classical multicarrier system spectrum. . (b) OFDM system spectrum.
Motivation for OFDM Approaches • Advantages – Efficient in the use of frequencies – Highly scalable – Overcome delay spread. and ISI • Weaknesses – Frequency Offset – Nonlinear Distortion (PAPR) PAPR illustration . multipath & frequency selective fading.
OFDM Concept • • • • Multicarrier modulation/multiplexing technique Available bandwidth is divided into several sub-channels Data is serial-to-parallel converted Symbols are transmitted on different sub-channels .
OFDM Block Diagram (Tx) Diagram Block Contents: • S/P Serial to Parallel Converter • Sub-Carrier Modulator • IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform • P/S Parallel to Serial Converter • DAC Digital to Analog Converter .
OFDM Block Diagram (Rx) Diagram Block Contents: • S/P Serial to Parallel Converter • Sub-Carrier Modulator • IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform • P/S Parallel to Serial Converter • DAC Digital to Analog Converter .
Cyclic Prefix • Useful for multipath delay spread • Guard Interval (cyclic prefix) : short & long .
Type of Cyclic Prefix .
OFDMA & SC-FDMA .
Definition OFDMA is a multiple access technique based on OFDM as the modulation technique. It is used for DL transmission in LTE SC-FDMA is a hybrid UL transmission scheme in LTE which has singlecarrier transmission systems with the long symbol time and flexible frequency allocation of OFDM. OFDMA vs. SCFDMA .
.SC-FDMA Diagram Block SC-FDMA frequency-domain transmit processing (DFT-S-OFDM) showing localized and distributed subcarrier mappings.
64 QAM symbol Pilot sub-carrier – It is used to facilitate channel estimation and coherent demodulation at the receiver Null sub-carrier – Guard sub-carrier – DC sub-carrier . 16 QAM.Type of OFDMA Sub-Carrier Data sub-carrier – Carry QPSK.
104 Npilot NFFT-Point .Nsubcarrier data .Subcarrier Mapping (Npilot -2)/2 Nsubcarrier data / 2 BW PILOT Nsubcarrier data / 2 Npilot /2 Nsubcarrier data See slide #19 or 3GPP TS 36.
MULTI ANTENNA TECHNIQUE .
Multiple Antenna Technique Existing Tech Smart Antenna MIMO Antenna .
Multiple Antenna Technique Two popular techniques in MIMO wireless systems: Spatial Diversity: Increased SNR • Receive and transmit diversity mitigates fading and improves link quality Spatial Multiplexing: Increased rate • Spatial multiplexing yields substantial increase spectral efficiency .
16d (2x2 Alamouti STBC). • Receive SNR increase about linearity with diversity order NrNt • Provide diversity gain to combat fading • Optional in 802.Spatial Diversity Transmit Diversity • Space-time Code (STC): Redundant data sent over time and space domains (antennas). used in 3G CDMA .
Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Multiplexing • Data is not redundant – less diversity but less repetition • Provides multiplexing gain to increase data-rate • Low (No) diversity compared with STC .
LTE SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES HARQ AMC .
HARQ HARQ or retransmission scheme in LTE use stop-andwait retransmission system. .
Adaptive Modulation SNR-CQI Mapping for BLER 10% Adaptive Modulation Illustration .
Constellation Diagram QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM .
Adaptive Modulation and Coding Standard for CQI mapping .
control and clearing the connection protocol. User Plane User plane (U-plane) is a protocol used directly in the transfer of user data from the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) to the other end-users. or between nodes in the network to conveying required information to set.Control Plane Control Plane (C-Plane) is use to describe the protocols that convey information from the DTE to the end user (the control) of a node. In the user plane used approach layer . and include all relevant mechanisms of information transfer such as flow control and error recovery. Uplane provides the function of delivery or transfer user information. .
CONTROL PLANE .
USER PLANE .
LTE Layer Mapping
• Radio Link Control Layer (RLC) > Retransmission > Segmentation • Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) > Uplink and downlink scheduling at the eNodeB > HARQ • Physical Layer (PHY) > Modulation/demodulation > Coding/decoding
LTE Downlink Channel Mapping .
This channel is used for UEs having no RRC connection with the network. This channel is used for paging when the network does not know the location cell of the UE Provides system information to all mobile terminals connected to the eNodeB. A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information • Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) > > • Common Control Channel (CCCH) > > Channel for transmitting control information between UEs and network. .LTE Downlink Logical Channels • Paging Control Channel ( PCCH) > > A downlink channel that transfers paging information and system information change notifications.
etc. handover. e.g.. for controlling actions including power control. . for one or several MTCHs. This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS • Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) > > > A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network. Used by UEs having an RRC connection This control channel is used for carrying user-specific control information.LTE Downlink Logical Channel Con’t • Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) > > > A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS Control information from the network to the UE.
A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink .LTE Downlink Logical Channel Con’t • Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) > A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data > from the network to the UE. dedicated to one UE. for the transfer of > user information. This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS • Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH ) > A point-to-point channel.
LTE Downlink Transport Channel • Paging Channel ( PCH) > > > Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell. • Broadcast Channel ( BCH ) > The LTE transport channel maps to Broadcast Control (BCCH) Channel > > Fixed. pre-defined transport format Broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell . Mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traffic/other control channels.
> Supports semi-static resource allocation e. > Optionally supports beam forming > Supports both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation > Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving > Supports MBMS transmission • . > Supports MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells. It is used by many logical channels.g.LTE Downlink Transport Channel Con’t • Multicast Channel ( MCH) > Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell. coding and transmit power > Optionally supports broadcast in the entire cell. with a time frame of a long cyclic prefix Downlink Shared Channel ( DL-SCH ) > Main channel for downlink data transfer. > Supports Hybrid ARQ > Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation.
16-QAM.LTE Downlink Physical Channel • Physical Downlink Shared Channel ( PDSCH) > This channel is used for unicast and paging functions > > Carries the DL-SCH and PCH QPSK. and Hybrid ARQ information related to DL-SCH Carries the uplink scheduling grant QPSK Modulation . and 64-QAM Modulation • Physical Downlink Control Channel ( PCSCH) > > > Informs the UE about the resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH.
Uplink Physical Channels • Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) > Used to report the Hybrid ARQ status > > Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to uplink transmissions. > QPSK Modulation . QPSK Modulation • Physical Braodcast Channel (PBCH) > This physical channel carries system information for UEs requiring to access the network.
LTE Uplink Channels .
Uplink Physical Channels • Physical Radio Access Channel ( PRACH) > for random access functions • Physical Uplink Shared Channel ( PUSCH) > > Carries the UL-SCH QPSK. 16-QAM. and 64-QAM Modulation • Packet Uplink Control Channel ( PUCCH) > > > > Sends Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs Carries Scheduling Request (SR) Carries CQI reports BPSK and QPSK Modulation .
Uplink Transport Channels • Random Access Channel (RACH) > > Channel carries minimal information Transmissions on the channel may be loss due to collisons • Uplink Shared Channel ( UL–SCH ) > Optional support for beam forming > Support HARQ .
Uplink Logical Channels • Common Control Channel ( CCCH) > > Channel for transmitting control information between Ue and network. dedicated to one UE. . • Dedicated Traffic Channel ( DTCH) > A point-to-point channel. This channel is used for UEs having no RRC connection with the network. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink. Used by UEs having an RRC connection. • Dedicated Control Channel ( DCCH) > > > A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network. for the transfer of user information.
FDD ( Frequency division duplex) 2.5 ms > BW RB = 180 KHz > BW Subcarrier = 15 kHz .LTE FRAME STRUCTUR > Functions System can maintain synchronization and manage the different type of information that need to be carried between the eNodeB and UE > LTE frame structure consist of 1. TDD ( Time division duplex ) > A radio frame has duration of 10 ms > A resource block spans 12 subcarriers over a slot duration of 0.
FDD Frame structure .
.TDD Frame Structure DwPTS : Downlink Pilot Time Slot GP : Guard Period UpPTS : Uplink Pilot Time Slot.
LTE TDD Sub Frame Allocations D : sub frame for downlink transmission S :"special" sub frame used for a guard time U : sub frame for uplink transmission .
Planning Coverage .
Ue Noise Figure f. Receiver Sensitivity i. Tx Antenna Gain c. Rx antenna gain l. Tx Power b. Control Channel Overhead k.7 e k*T*B g e+f+g i j k l d-h-i-j+k-l .UE e.eNodeB a. Body Loss MAPL Downlink Link Budget LTE Unit Value kbps 1000 dBm dB dB dBm 46 18 3 61 Info a b c a+b+c dB dBm dB dBm dB dB dBi dB dB 7 -102.7 -5 -100. Thermal Noise g. SINR h. Interference Margin j.7 3 1 0 0 157. Loss System d.MAPL Calculation Data Rate Transmitter . EIRP Receiver .
55loghT )logd CM • LTE – 2600 MHz – SUI Lp 109.9 6.55 log hB] log d • LTE – 2100 MHz – Cost 231-Hatta Lp 46.78 47.9 log (d/100) .CH [44.16 log f – 13.82 log hB .Propagation Model • LTE – 700 MHz – Okumura-Hatta Lp 69.55 26.3 33.9 (logfc ) 13.9 – 6.82 loghT a(hR ) (44.
Pathloss SUI Lp = 109.9 d 100 x10( Lp109.78 + 47.78) / 47.9 log( d / 100) Lp 109.78) / 47.78 log( d / 100) ( Lp 109.9 (157.78) / 47.9 (d / 100) 10( Lp109.78) / 47.9 log (d/100) 47.00042 d 100x10 d 1000.966 meters .9 d 100 x10 1.7 109.
6 d2 L = 1.6 .Radius Calculation L = 2.6 .95 . d2 L = 1. 2. 2.3 . d2 .
6 x (1) L 5.Radius Calculation For Omni directional For trisectoral L = 2.6 x (1)2 L 2.6 d2 L = 1.07 km2 2 .95 .6 km2 L 1. 2.6 .95 x 2. d2 L 2.
Number of eNodeB • Urban Area (Trisector) – total area 242.07 – N eNodeB 48 .928 / 5.928 km2 – NeNodeB 242.
PLANNING CAPACITY .
2. Number of user User density Services and Type Penetration : building. pedestrian BHCA and call duration OBQ Site calculation . 6. 3. 5. vehicular. 7.Calculation steps: 1. 4.
Number of User Un = Uo (1 + gf)n Uou = u x UoN Uosub = sub x UoN Uo is Uou or Uosub Where: UoN = a x b x d x N • • • • • • • • • Un Uo a b d N gf n u/sub : num of user on year ‘n’ : initial num of user (based on urban/sub-urban) : percent of cellular user (%) : penetration of operator A (%) : Percent of LTE user : num of civilian in the object area : num of user growth factor : planned year : urban or sub-urban penetration (%) .
05 )5 assumption fp=5% = 73814 user .Customer Prediction Parameter Ex : • Population • Cellular penetration • LTE penetration • LTE provider A penetration Population Customer cellular (80%) Customer LTE (10%) = 1445892 people = assumption 80% = assumption 10 % = assumption 50 % 1445892 1156713 115671 people user user Customer LTE provider A (50%) 57835 user User prediction in 5th years • U5 = 57835 ( 1 + 0.
Example User Calculation Ex : • • • • urban penetration suburban penetration Urban user = 73814 x 60 % Suburban user = 73814 x 40 % = assumption 60 % = assumption 40 % = 44288 user = 29525 user .
User Density Lu = L x u Lsub = L x sub • Lu : urban area wide • Lsub : sub-urban area wide • L : object area wide Cu = Un/ Lu Csub = Un/Lsub • Cu : Urban area density • Csub : sub-urban area density .
31232 user/km2 = 121.928 km2 : 242.Example User Density Calculation Ex : • urban area penetration • suburban area penetration • Openarea => Urban area wide (Lu) Sub-urban area wide (Lsub) = assumption 40 % = assumption 40 % = assumption 20 % : 242.928 Csub = 29525 / 242.54155 user/km2 .928 km2 => Cu = 44288 / 242.928 = 182.
Services and Type • Services (Rb) – VoIP : 64 kbps – FTP : 1000 kbps – Video : 384 kbps • Type (c) – Building – Vehicular – Pedestrian : 50 % : 30 % : 20 % .
g: BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 0.008 BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 0.g: BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 0.• Penetration (p) per type per service e.008 • Call duration (h) per type per service (ms) e.g: BUILDING VoIP usage penetration = 60 BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 50 PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 50 .3 • BHCA (B) per type per service e.009 PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 0.4 PEDESTRIAN Video usage penetration = 0.5 BUILDING FTP usage penetration = 0.
008 0.009 Pedestrian 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.008 .008 Vehicular 0.5 0.009 0.Voip Video FTP type building pedestrian vehicular call duration (h) voip 60 60 60 video 40 50 40 Penetrasi User (p) Building Pedestrian Vehicular 0.3 service ftp 50 70 80 BHCA (B) VoIP FTP Video net user bit rate (Rb) 64000 1000000 384000 Service Voip Video FTP Building 0.008 0.007 0.2 0.008 0.009 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.
. Pedestrian) Note: if T= pedestrian. etc. T x pT x RbVid x BT x hT T : Type (Building. Vehicular. “BT “ is pedestrian BHCA. then “OBQT “ is pedestrian OBQ.• VoIP OBQT = cT x Cu. T x pT x RbFTP x BT x hT OBQ (Offered Bit Quantity) • Video OBQT = cT x Cu. T x pT x RbVoIP x BT x hT • FTP OBQT = cT x Cu.
OBQ cont’d OBQ total = OBQVoIP + OBQFTP + OBQVideo Where: OBQVoIP = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian OBQFTP = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian OBQVideo = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian .
940333094 16.98779 .2505948 8.74860049 13.74860049 + 13.5600634 5.260936 OBQtotal= 20.400158616 2.000793 ∑ 20.97825 + 8.260936 = 42.252029 1.OBQ cont’d OBQ Service Voip Video FTP Building 1.40810878 Pedestrian 0.1675919 Vehicular 0.97825 8.008114 7.
4 Mbps 67.6 Mbps 16 QAM 4.6 Mbps 50.8 Mbps 25.eNodeB Capacity N symbol per subframe bit PeakBitRat e[ Mbps] xN subcarriers x Hz 1ms Bandwidth (MHz) 1.048 Mbps 15.2 Mbps 50.2 Mbps 33.032 Mbps 10.4 Mbps 75.6 Mbps 100.08 Mbps 16.2 Mbps 64 QAM 6.12 Mbps 25.4 Mbps 16.8 Mbps .04 Mbps 8.8 Mbps 33.016 Mbps 5.4 3 5 10 15 20 Modulation QPSK 2.
4 x 3) / 42.6 / 1.98779 = 3.5 = 0.4 Mbps ---> (asumption: using 64 QAM 1/1.95) ^ 0.• Site (L) L Site Calculation km2 = (50.832912489 km .4 x 3) / OBQtotal = (50.6 / 1.95) ^ 0.5172778 50. BW = 10 MHz) • Radius (d) d = (L / 2.5 = (3.5172778 / 2.
06704366 We use “Lu” JUST IN CASE we count urban capacity only .928 km2 / 3.Site Calculation Con’t • Number of eNodeB (M) M = Lu / L = 242.5172778 km2 = 69.
LTE Simulation Using Atoll .
Getting Started with Atoll New -> From a Document Template Choose LTE workspace .
Setting Project Area It is used to display the project area from the map raster. To set the coordinate type and the area displayed on the worksheet. .
Raster consist of clutter map.Import Raster Map raster is a contour map based on the topography of the area. height map and vector map .
Import Raster Map Con’t Clutter index -> Clutter Classes Height index -> Altitude Vector index -> Vectors .
org .Frequency Band frequency bands and can be seen in the LTE specification 3GPP.
Antenna Polarization Model add the appropriate antenna used .
Antenna Polarization Model .
Setting Feeder To setting feeder & connector loss at eNode B equipment .
set the transmitter frequency as the frequency and morpho class used .Setting Transmitter Frequency Band after determining the frequency band.
Setting Transmitter Frequency Band Con’t .
Environtment Delete user Delete environtment .
Delete User Profile Delete service then setting service type .
Services Delete service then setting service type Edit Service .
VoIP Video FTP
Add User Profile
Assumption throughput user = 50 kbps
Add User Profile
Add Environtment .
Plotting eNode B eNode B can be in place based on planning calculation or the use of existing nodeB or BTS .
Make a Prediction make predictions based on measured fill of the receiver sensitivity specification Click calculate .
Coverage by Signal Level .
Result Histogram and CDF Chart .
 Holma. Coverage and Capacity Estimation of 3GPP Long Term Evolution radio interface.Reference  Abdul Basit. TS 36. . Harri and Antti Toskala.XXX “LTE TS Group Series”. Dimensioning of LTE Network Description of Models and Tool. 2009.  Coverage and Capacity Dimensioning Recommendation: Ericsson.  3GGP. WCDMA for UMTS – HSPA Evolution and LTE. 2009. John Willey and Son: 2007. Syed. 2009.
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