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The sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production is under severe scientific and public scrutiny, as antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) are linked with the development of pathogenic bacteria which are antibiotic-resistant. These pathogenic bacteria create health problems (Smith et al., 2003). As a result, the European Union banned on sub-therapeutic usage of AGP in animal production in 2006 (Burch, 2006). Due to impending ban of AGP in livestock and poultry feed, it was compulsory for poultry industry to develop alternatives of AGP. The prebiotics and probiotics seem to be alternate candidates for AGP (Cavazzoni et al., 1998). Prebiotics are the feed ingredients that are not digested by host digestive enzymes instead are fermented by beneficial bacteria and, therefore, are beneficial for host (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Oligosaccharides fall under this category and are believed to affect the gut health of host (Ferket, 2004). Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from yeast cell wall, are not hydrolyzed by the host enzymes and are fermented by intestinal microbiota (Flickinger and Fahey, 2002). Mannan-oligosaccharides provide competitive binding sites for pathogens with mannose-specific type-1 fimbriae such as salmonella and E. coli and decrease their attachment with intestinal wall and are ultimately excreted from the gut (Newman, 1994; Ferket et al., 2002). It has been demonstrated that MOS supplementation constantly increases the cecal populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. (Yang et al., 2009; Oyofo et al., 1989; Spring et al., 2000; Baurhoo et al., 2007). 1
Prebiotics have been shown to have a positive effect on growth performance in poultry. Prebiotics improved body weight and feed conversion efficiency of turkeys (Sims et al., 2004; Fritts and Waldrop, 2003). Hooge et al. (2003) investigated that dietary MOS supplementation has significant improvement in body weight, feed conversion ratio in broilers without any effect on mortality. Prebiotics, especially, oligofructose, gluco-oligosaccharide, and galacto-
oligosaccharide have been found to stimulate absorption of several minerals, particularly magnesium, calcium, and iron in rats (Scholz-Ahrens et al., 2001). Van den Heuvel et al. (1998) investigated the effect of these prebiotics on calcium and iron absorption at a much lower dose in healthy, adult human. Neither inulin nor the fructo- or galactooligosaccharides increased calcium or iron absorption. Coudray et al. (1997) found that inulin increased calcium absorption in man, while had no effect on the other minerals. Ghosh et al. (2008) also reported that MOS had no significant effect on plasma minerals of Japanese quail except Ca level that was higher in MOS-supplemented birds compared to control birds. Very little data is available regarding growth-promoting effects of MOS in Japanese quail and on the mineral absorption. Keeping in view the existing knowledge it is hypothesized that MOS supplementation can enhance mineral absorption and improve growth performance of Japanese quail. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to investigate effects of Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation on production performance, cecal microbial population and mineral absorption in Japanese quail.
CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW
PREBIOTICS Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and /or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria (Gibson et al., 2004). Prebiotics modify the composition of the intestinal microbiota, especially health promoting bacteria, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria which improve the host’s health. In order for a food ingredient to be considered a prebiotic, it must have following properties. • It must be neither hydrolyzed by host enzymes nor absorbed in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. • • • It must be selectively fermented by one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria. It must alter the intestinal microbiota and their activities in the host. It must preferably induce effects that are beneficial to the host health.
(Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995 and Patterson and Burkholder, 2003) The fermentable substances that can acts as prebiotics are non-starch polysaccharides, dietary resistant starch, and non digestible oligosaccharides (Piva et al., 1996; Jacobasch et al., 1999). The most dominant candidates for acting as prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides (Bauer et al., 2006).
Mannose-based oligosaccharides occur naturally in cell walls of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and obtained by centrifugation of lysed yeast culture (Spring et al. The commercially available product Bio-Mos® (Alltech. Mannose is a monosaccharide that forms the building block of Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS).1.MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES Carbohydrates are important structural components of the majority of cell-surface and secreted proteins of animal cells (Osborn and Khan 2000). Oligosaccharides are formed when 2-10 monosaccharide molecules are joined together to form a larger molecule. A proposed mechanism of prebiotic action is given in Fig.. KY) is a source of MOS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls. therefore they arrive at the large intestine intact after ingestion and passage through the small intestine (Strickling et al. More than 10 monosaccharide molecules joined together to make a polysaccharide. 4 . 2003). 2000). 2000).. This product was introduced in 1993 as a feed additive for broiler chickens (Hooge. Inc. Nicholasville..The small intestine does not contain the digestive enzymes required to break down mannanoligosaccharide bonds.
The scientific evidence for the functional effects of NDO is based on animal experiments in which NDO increased the availability of calcium. magnesium.Fig. zinc. 1: A proposed mechanism of prebiotic action to improve health (Crittenden. 1999) Scholz-Ahrens et al. (2001) studied effects of prebiotics on mineral metabolism. This stimulatory effect of some NDO 5 . Non digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) have been found to stimulate absorption of several minerals and to improve mineralization of bone. and iron.
coli. or mash supplemented with either MOS or palm kernel meal (PKM) and 6 . dietary Bio-Mos and Flavomycin improved poult BW and BW gains. especially when they are faced with an E. Within each E. Bio-Mos plus Flavomycin. The effects seem to be specific for the type of carbohydrate and are likely related to the rate of fermentation by the intestinal flora and appear to depend on the ingested dose. Day-of-hatch BUTA (BIG-6) male poults were gavaged orally (1 mL) with approximately 10(8) cfu/mL E. or a control diet. coli composed of four serotypes or sterile carrier broth. A mixture of the same E. coli challenge. When poults were not challenged with E. (2002) conducted different studies to investigate the effects of mash diet. Escherichia coli. During E. coli challenge. coli split plot treatment group. It stimulates the growth and activity of bacteria with beneficial effects on health of the host. poults from hens of different ages were fed diets containing Bio-Mos. It may be concluded that dietary Bio-Mos and Flavomycin can improve the overall performance of poults. These findings were also confirmed in human studies. Cumulative 3-wk BW gains for unchallenged poults from young hens were improved by Bio-Mos and Flavomycin alone and in combination when compared to the control diet. Fernandez et al. coli cultures was added to the poult’s water troughs to attain a concentration of approximately 10(6) cfu/mL on a weekly basis to ensure a continuous bacterial challenge. (2001) studied the effects of hen age. in a randomized complete block design. Flavomycin. Fairchild et al. and dietary Bio-Mos and Flavomycin on poult performance. poults from old hens had improved BW and cumulative BW gains over poults from young hens.is assumed to be mainly due to their prebiotic character. This experiment yielded eight treatments per challenge group.
and Lactobacillus spp. Spais et al. Enteritidis compared with week 2.. Enteritidis compared with controls without HCC. while the numbers of aerobes decreased including coliforms and S. while decreasing members of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp.05) improvement in 7 . compared with the mash diet. (2003) studied effect of the mannan-oligosaccharide on broiler performance. on average. S. and their inhibitory effect on Salmonella colonization and the effect over time of diets supplemented with MOS or PKM on S. Chicks dosed with the HCC showed. randomly divided into two groups were used in a feeding trial that lasted 40 days. the HCC and diets supplemented with MOS or PKM affected the bird’s intestinal microflora by increasing the Bifidobacterium spp. In hens. Results showed that chickens in the Bio-Mos fed group exhibited a significant (P<0.. From day 11 of age and thereafter. increased numbers of anaerobes.caecal contents of hens (HCC) fed with mash on the major microflora groups of chicks.5 g/kg of feed. Enteritidis colonization and the microflora of chicks. In chicks fed the MOS-supplemented or PKM-supplemented diets. supplemented diets increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Fourweek-old PKM birds showed an increase in Bifidobacterium spp. compared with mash alone.. while decreasing the Enterobacteriaceae groups. Bio-Mos administration was discontinued and both groups were given the same basal commercial grower and finisher diets.. while the other was given up to day 10 of age the same diet supplemented with the mannan-oligosaccharide Bio-MOS at the level of 1. One of the groups was fed on a basal commercial starter diet. with a decrease in S. They also reduced susceptibility in young chickens to colonization by S. Enteritidis. Enteritidis colonization decreased over time. Generally. A total of 53.040 one day-old Cobb chicks.
feed conversion. VM + MOS shuttle program gave best body weight. Feed intake per bird and feed conversion ratios demonstrated a significant (P<0. There were no treatment effects for feed consumption during trial. In experiment 1. and mortality at 21 and 49 d of 8 . In experiment 2. Parlat et al.05) improved body weight and feed conversion ratio and increased feed expense per bird and net income per bird. 21 to 42. treatment effects were non significant at 21 d. (2003) conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) or Virginiamycin (VM) on the growth performance of Japanese quails. Hooge et al. The quails were assigned to 4 dietary treatments: Control.05) increased body weight for 5 wk. and improved feed conversion ratio for 0-3 and 3-5 and 0-5 wk. without affecting mortality. compared with control group. These results indicate that MOS may be utilized as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter to improve the quail performance.05) significant. Dietary supplemental MOS.body weight compared to control at day 10 and day 40 of age. All treatments significantly (P<0. VM or MOS+VM resulted in improved growth performance of Japanese quails. MOS.05) improvement for the Bio-Mos group. Mortality was recorded when occurred. BMD or MOS significantly (P < 0. there were 6 dietary treatments: The BMD + MOS. however. and 42 to 49 d. Feed phases were 0 to 21. Individual body weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. (2003) conducted a study to compare the efficacy of commercial mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) as an alternative growth promoter to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) followed by virginiamycin (VM). Mortality rate was lower in the Bio-Mos group compared to control. VM or MOS+VM. At 49 d. the difference was not statistically (P>0.
It was concluded that MOS supported live performance equivalent to BMD followed by VM and had an additive effect when combined with the antibiotics. respectively. Hooge (2004) studied the global broiler chicken pen trial reports (1993-2003) and analyze statistically to determine effects of mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) supplemented diets versus negative control (nCON) or antibiotic supplemented positive control (pCON) diets.008) lowered mortality relative to pCON diets. Relative improvements using MOS feeds compared to the pCON diets were non significant. Slightly different answers but similar patterns emerged by these methods. and also decreased the consumption of feed per egg. those of group 2 and 3 received feed enriched with oligosaccharides at a dose of 0. The MOS diets significantly (P = 0. indicating a strong beneficial effect.age resulting in the lowest feed expense and highest net return per bird. No clear influence of the oligosaccharide supplementation was found as far as the blood cholesterol and triglyceride content was concerned and 9 .4 g and 3 g. The birds were divided into three feeding groups (two replications) of 48 female and 16 male birds each. The oligosaccharide-enriched feed reduced the time of maturation. MOS diets improved the BW and lowered mortality compared to nCON diets. increased egg laying capacity and egg weight. (2004) studied influence of oligosaccharides isolated from pea seeds on functional quality of quail. Considering results averaged by trials. Tarasewicz et al. Quail of the first group were fed a standard feed. Results were averaged "by treatments" and "by trials" using Paired T-test to compare nCON and pCON means with corresponding MOS means. The MOS diets improved BW and FCR comparable to those of pCON diets but significantly lowered MORT compared to antibiotic diets.
The product was incorporated in the diet at 1 g/kg and was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 mg total aflatoxin /kg diet on Japanese quail chicks from 10 to 45 days of age. (2004) studied effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide. The BMD or MOS each improved turkey performance. BMD + MOS feed conversion ratio was significantly lower than CON and with BMD and MOS being intermediate. A significant adverse effect of AF on the feed conversion ratio was also 10 . The quail of the groups receiving oligosaccharides had lower bifidobacteria counts in their digestive tracts. Oguz and Parlat (2004) studied effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on performance of Japanese quail affected by aflatoxicosis. The addition of AF alone significantly decreased feed consumption and body weight gain from the first week onwards. The potential of the mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) to ameliorate the effects of aflatoxicosis was examined in growing Japanese quail. exhibited further beneficial effects. Forty 10-d old Japanese quail chicks were assigned in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments to four groups (Control. The BMD and MOS each reduced large intestinal concentrations of Clostridium perfringens at wk 6 but not at wk 18. Sims et al.gammaglobulin in the eggs. MOS. AF plus MOS). At wk 18. or both on the live performance and intestinal microbiology of turkeys. each consisting of 10 quails. The BMD and MOS turkeys were heavier than CON birds. Mortality was not affected by treatment. AF. and when used together. Four dietary treatments were used: one negative control (CON) and other three diets formulated with different levels of MOS and BMD. and those fed the combination were significantly heavier than all other treatments. Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD).
400 broilers to compare the effect of the use of mannan-oligosaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used. or a shuttle program of MOS and VM were fed to Hybrid female turkeys. it was only 2. However. The cumulative body weight gain was 22. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox) in the diet on broiler. VM. feed conversion ratio. Feed intake. but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter. and carcass yield characteristics of large white female turkeys. Parks et al. Diets containing no growth promoter. The addition of MOS to the AF-containing diet significantly reduced these adverse effects of AF on feed consumption. body weight uniformity. and mortality were measured. daily weight gain.observed from week 4 onwards. (2005) studied effects of virginiamycin and a mannanoligosaccharide-virginiamycin shuttle program on growth performance. Body weights and feed consumption were recorded at 3-wk intervals. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannan-oligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet. 2 birds per 11 .3% lower that the control in the birds fed the diet containing the AF plus MOS. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Flemming et al. body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. and mortality and culled birds were recorded daily.0% lower in the quails consuming a diet containing AF without MOS as compared to the control group. (2004) carried out a study with 2. and the obtained data was evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. At the conclusion of the trial.
grower and finisher diets. In each trial a total of 1500 broiler chicks were obtained.pen were randomly chosen for carcass yield analysis. control. after which no 12 . Processing yields or weight of various parts were also unaffected by treatment. Bacitracin Methylene Disalycilate (BMD) or mannan oligosaccharide (MOS). Feed consumption at 14 d was greatest for BMD intermediate for MOS and lowest for CON. possibly influenced by an unplanned cold stress. Birds were fed starter. Diets and water were ad libitum and light was 23D:1L. Built-up litter was used throughout with one flock reared on the litter prior to trial initiation and experimental groups were maintained on litter from the same treatments with no top dressing between flocks. Results from combined data analysis indicate highly significant (P < 0. Birds and feed were weighed at 14. There were no treatments effects on overall feed consumption. Feeding VM alone significantly increased body weight compared with control fed birds during all periods. 28 d and at a target weight of 2.10). but MOS and BMD showed numerically greater improvements in body weight. Birds fed VM had superior (P < 0. The MOS-VM shuttle program resulted in early growth depression for birds less than 3 wk of age. but better growth than the non medicated control birds after 6 wk of age. Diets were corn-wheat soybean meal based to include 30% wheat and 600 units/ton xylanase. Coban was used in starter and grower diets. Blake et al. mortality. which persisted until 14 wk (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio from 0 to 3 wk.0009) improvements in BW with MOS and BMD over CON at 14 d. These differences diminished by 28 and 37 d. uniformity. Broilers were subjected to three treatments. (2006) conducted a series of four consecutive studies on built-up litter to compare efficacy of a commercial mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) and BMD when broilers were fed wheat based diet. or cull rate.2 kg.
Poults were fed a standard control unmedicated turkey starter diet or the same diet supplemented with Alphamune. however. Poults were weighed on d 7 and 21.05) than those fed the other dietary treatments. Results indicate that the addition of Bio-Mos to the diet had an influence in promoting bodyweight increases over the control diet early in the growing period. but feed conversion was not affected by dietary treatments. no differences were observed on d 21. Dietary treatments included an antibiotic-free diet (CTL–). 13 .differences in FCR were noted. typically from the 0-14 d period. BW was higher for the poults given the Alphamune treatments compared with control poults. Cecal contents were assayed for Escherichia coli. and an antibiotic-free diet containing Bio-Mos or Alcell lignin. The combination of continued use and long-term effects indicate that cumulative improvements in performance may be attributed to the use of specific feed additives such as Bio-Mos. Birds fed MOS had greater lactobacilli numbers than those fed the CTL+ diet and also increased the populations of bifidobacteria in the ceca. coli load was lower in birds fed MOS than in birds fed the CTL+ diet. (2007) conducted a study to evaluate lignin and mannan oligosaccharides as potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers.and 21-d-old turkey poults. a positive control (CTL+). Baurhoo et al. and the litter was analyzed for E. Salmonella. Body weight and feed conversion were recorded weekly. Litter E. mannan-oligosaccharide in turkey poults. Birds fed the CTL– diet were heavier (P < 0. Solis et al. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune on gut maturation of 7. On d 7. Broiler performance was similar in birds fed antibiotics or antibiotic-free diets containing either MOS or lignin. coli and Salmonella. and bifidobacteria. lactobacilli. (2007) studied effect of Alphamune.
live weight gain compared to control (C). The MOS supplementation has improved BW gain compared with the negative control in early life. Control (Co) birds were given a standard basal diet. a positive control (Zn Bacitracin). Total anaerobic bacteria. morphological and functional aspects of small intestine in broiler chickens at different ages. Organic acid salts with MOS improved gut health by reducing bacterial load compared to control and other groups. and Clostridium perfringens were not affected by the supplementation of MOS.Ghosh et al. Yang et al. 14 . In the current study conducted under hygienic experimental conditions. Statistical analysis reveals that OAS supplementation increased live weight. Coliform bacteria were increased in young birds treated with MOS.Cumulative feed intake was not significantly affected due to dietary treatments. (2007) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of organic acid and mannon-oligosaccharide on the performance and gut health of Japanese quail. Superior results in term of feed conversion ratio (FCR) and performance index (PI) were found in MOS supplemented groups compared to others. Three dietary treatments were used: a negative control without MOS. Day old chicks of Japanese quail (n=280) were randomly assigned into seven dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. the addition of MOS did not show a clear positive effect on performance of broilers. lactic acid bacteria. and 2 g of MOS/kg of diet. and diets for T1-T6 birds will be formulated with different levels of MOS (prebiotic) and organic acid salts (OAS). (2007) conducted a trial to study influence of MOS on growth performance and bacteriological.
(2008) studied effects of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance. (2008) studied effects of mannan-oligosaccharide on the growth performance and digestive system. The addition of MOS modulated the development of gut microflora.Yang et al. the numbers of mucosa-associated coliforms along the small intestine were decreased. Similar results were obtained for ZnB treatment. From day 7 to day 21. Statistical analysis showed that dietary MOS had positive effects on body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of the challenged birds compared to the negative control. Yang et al. Dietary MOS improved the growth performance of birds given the wheat-based diet compared to that of birds given the corn-based diet during 7-21 days of age. The experiment lasted for 3 weeks and zinc bacitracin (ZnB) was used as a positive control. The addition of MOS reduced the number of mucosa-associated coliforms in the jejunum of the challenged birds on d 7. The number of Clostridium perfringens in the gut lumen was reduced by only ZnB. nutrient digestibility and gut development of broilers given a corn or a wheat-based diet over a 21-day experimental period. Dietary MOS also reduced the counts of coliforms and Clostridium perfringens in the ceca of birds by 21 days of age. All these changes were dependent on the type of cereal and the age of the birds. In conclusion. coli challenge as well as the age of birds. whereas the numbers of mucosaassociated lactobacilli were increased by MOS. which may be involved in the observed different growth-improving effects of the tested dietary additives. the effects of MOS on the composition and activities of gut microflora and mucosal morphology of birds were related to E. 15 . particularly gut microflora using 1-d-old birds in an Escherichia coli challenge model.
and 2 SAF-Mannan treatments.35g/kg) while another diet was supplemented with both 16 . Day old chicks of Japanese quail (n=280) were randomly assigned into seven dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. whereas results for Feed consumption was lower from 0 to 21 d in the SAF-Mannan treatments compared with other treatments. basal diet with MOS (1g/kg) and basal diet +Enramycin (0.Ghosh et al. each at 2 levels of inclusion on live performance. and treatments included a control. BioMos or SAF-Mannan. No significant differences were found for feed conversion or mortality for any of the treatments. Bio-Mos had a greater effect on bird BW compared with the other variables measured. Mohamed et al. 2 Bio-Mos treatments. Benites et al. and diets for T1-T6 birds were formulated with different levels of MOS and organic acid salts. Four treatment groups were made which are. (2008) conducted a trial on broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) from either of 2 commercial products. (2008) conducted an experiment to determine the influence of organic acid salts (OAS) and MOS on carcass traits and plasma minerals of Japanese quail. Birds fed Bio-Mos diets had significantly greater BW at 42 d than birds fed control or SAF-Mannan-supplemented diets. a diet of no supplement served as a control. Diets were fed in 3 phases. Statistical analysis reveals that OAS and MOS had non-significant effect on carcass traits and plasma minerals except calcium level which is varied significantly among the experimental groups due to dietary treatments. Overall. (2008) performed an experiment in which natural growth promoter (MOS) was compared with an antibiotic growth promoter (enramycin) on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. Control birds were given a standard basal diet.
MOS and Enramycin. The dietary treatments were fed to four replicates of 15 chicks each. The results indicated that addition of MOS, enramycin or the combination of both did slightly improve body weight gain compared to the control diet. Feed conversion ratio were significantly improved by the addition of MOS, enramycin or the combination of both. No significant effects on liver, heart and gizzard weight were detected. It is concluded, that MOS might be used as an alternative to growth-promoting enramycin in broiler diets. Sahin et al. (2008) carried out an experiment to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of combiotics (probiotics + prebiotics +makrotone) on body wt gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. A total of 264 daily Japanese quail chicks (coturnix coturnix japonica) were used in the experiment. They were divided in 1 control and 3 treatment groups each containing 66 chicks. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Control group was fed with supplemental basal diet. 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5g/kg combiotic was added to diet of treatment groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. At the end of experiment, the effects of combiotic supplementation to diet on the BWG, FC and carcass yield of quail were not statistically significant among the groups (p>0.05). Bozkurt et al. (2008) investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) and two prebiotics; mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and dextrin oligosaccharide (DOS), respectively, on growth performance of broilers. One thousand and two hundred day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to the four treatment groups. The four treatments were as Basal diet, Basal diet + antibiotic, Basal diet + mannan oligosaccharide (1 g/kg diet), Basal diet + dextran oligosaccharide (1 g/kg diet). Body weight of birds given MOS supplemented diet was significantly higher than
those birds fed with AGP and DOS added diets. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio of birds were not affected by dietary treatments. The results obtained in the present experiment showed that birds fed with AGP, MOS and DOS supplemented diets exhibited higher body weight gain. Bozkurt et al. (2009) conducted an experiment in which the effects of some alternative feed additives for antibiotic growth promoters on performance and some slaughter characteristics were examined in broilers. A total of 2160 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six groups with six replicate pens per treatment. The treatments were the basal diet (Control), and the basal diet supplemented with an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); a prebiotic, mannan-oligosaccharide (BioMos, MOS); an essential oil of oregano (Herb-Mos Oregano, HMO); a plant extract of hop (Herb-Mos Hops, HMH) or a mixture of Herb-Mos Oregano and Herb-Mos Hops (HMOH). There were significant effects of dietary treatments on body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. The addition of all experimental additives to the diet resulted in significantly higher body weights as compared to the control treatment. Feed intakes and feed conversion ratios were significantly better at 0 - 21 d, but not during the 0 - 42 d period. These results showed that AGP, MOS and herbal feed additive supplementation to a diet provided significant advantages on broiler growth performance through a 42-d growth period. However, the combined supplementation of HMO and HMH did not exert either synergistic or additive benefits on the live performance of the broilers. Baurhoo et al. (2009) conducted an experiment in which the effects of 2 levels of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters
on growth performance, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included Basal diet (control), basal diet +VIRG (virginiamycin), basal diet +BACT (bacitracin), LMOS (basal diet + 0.2% MOS), and HMOS (basal diet + 0.5% MOS). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Body weight and feed conversion ratio did not differ among treatments. Bifidobacteria concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in LMOS- and HMOS-fed birds at all time points. Birds and litter from all treatments were free of Salmonella. In comparison to birds fed control, BACT, LMOS, and HMOS significantly reduced (P < 0.05) cecal E. coli concentrations, Litter bacterial counts were not altered by dietary treatments. In conclusion, under conditions of this study, MOS conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving its morphological development and microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage. Markovic et al. (2009) performed an experiment to study effects of different growth promoters on broiler performance and gut morphology. A total of 240 Hybro broilers were divided into 4 groups. These groups were fed a complete soybean based diet with and without addition of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, Flavomycin), direct feed microbial (DFM, All-Lac) and mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-MOS). At day 42 of trial, all broilers were conventionally sacrificed in a slaughter plant and slaughter performances were measured. At the end of the trial, body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) of broilers fed the diet containing Bio-MOS, AGP and DFM were
Eleftherios et al. pharmacological and economic advantages over antibiotic growth promoters. They took 300. one-day old Japanese quail and divided into four groups with three subgroups. or 1 g/kg MOS or 1 g/kg MOS plus 6 g/kg CP. or a basal diet with 6 g/kg CP. In conclusion. feed conversion ratio and mortality of the birds were calculated at weekly intervals. each were fed a basal diet that served as control. The results of the experimentation showed that the addition of MOS in the feed of growing quail significantly increased the body weight on second week and the feed consumption on second and fourth weeks. The body weight.significantly higher and lower FCR than in birds of the control group. No adverse effects from the dietary addition of MOS or CP or both were observed on the performance or the carcass quality of the growing quail. while it decreased the liver to live weight percentage. (2010) conducted a trial to see the effect of the dietary supplementation of Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and the acidifier Calcium Propionate (CP) on the performance and carcass quality of the Japanese quail. feed consumption. BioMOS® and DFM exhibited nutritional. 20 .
CHAPTER-3 MATERIAL AND METHOD The study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS). A trial was conducted at the Avian Research and Training Centre. The initial temperature of the house was maintained at 37oC during first week of the experiment and was gradually reduced according to normal management practice (1-2oC/week) to 32 °C in the fifth week. or 0.2). or the same basal diet supplemented with MOS either at 1% (Group B).280 day-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks.1. Experimental Birds and Management A total of 1. Diet in group A was in accordance with the nutritional requirements of Japanese quail as specified in NRC (1994) and was considered as control (Table 3. Inc. Chicks were maintained on a 24hr constant light schedule during the 35 day experimental period. USA) on the growth performance of Japanese quails. University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. C and D).5% (Group C) or 0. The birds were weighed weekly until the end of the experiment. Feeding & Diets Birds were fed a corn-based basal diet. No coccidiostats or 21 . (Bio-Mos® by Alltech. 3. Pakistan. B. Each group was consisting of 320 birds and further replicated into eight groups (n = 40) in a completely randomized design.1% (Group D) levels. Lahore. The birds were housed in wire-bottomed battery equipped with bulbs for light during the 35 days of experimental period. procured from the hatchery of Avian Research and Training Centre and randomly divided into 4 groups (A. Jute bags were used as bedding material during day 1 to day 12. The trial was conducted in a closed shed with proper ventilation.
34 % 0.30% 0.0 25.1: Ingredient Composition of Experimental Diet Ingredients Maize Rice polish Canola meal Soybean meal Corn gluten 60 % Rice tips Lime stone D-L Methionine L-Lysine Threonine Soy oil DCP Vitamin Premix Molasses Ingredients % (Diet A control ) 30.20 0. Water and feed were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment.00% 0.00 10.85 1.00 14.80% 0.antibiotics were added in the feed.0 8. Table 3.15 1.65% 4.0 5.00 0.00 Table 3.38% 22 .2: Nutrient Composition of Experimental Diet Nutrients ME Kcal/kg CP Ca Available P Phytate P Total P Crude fiber Nutrients % (Diet A control ) 2900 24.50 0.0 1.20 3.10 0.
Feed consumed FCR = Body weight gain SLAUGHTERING AND SAMPLING 23 .Linoleic acid Methionine Lysine ZOOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Feed Consumption 1. Feed Conversion Ratio Recorded feed consumption and average body weight gain estimated on weekly basis were utilized to calculate feed conversion ratio (FCR) according to the following formula.00% 0. Residual feed and left over feed was recorded to determine weekly feed consumption of each group.50% 1. At the end of experiment the overall feed consumption was calculated by adding weekly feed consumption. At the end of experiment the total body weight gain was also calculated.30% The weighed quantity of feed was offered to each experimental group. Body Weight Gain The day-old chicks were weighed on day-1 and later subsequently on weekly basis to calculate weekly body weight gain. The weekly weight gain was calculated by subtracting the body weight of previous week from the body weight of next week.
After the removal of digesta from gizzard and cecum. copper and iron were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer. 2001). blotted and then weighed again. Similarly. Weights of gizzard. The cecal digesta was collected in glass tubes in an ice beaker for enumeration of bacteria. × 100 24 . ceca and small intestine were recorded with or without digesta.On 35th day. 16 birds (2 per replicate per group) were randomly selected. magnesium. weighed and slaughtered for sampling. Blood samples were collected in heparinized vacutanors and centrifuged at 3000 x g for 10 minutes to collect serum. PARAMETERS STUDIED WEIGHT AND LENGTH OF VISCERAL ORGANS Weights of liver heart. ceca. with and without digesta were determined. The small intestine was eviscerated to measure its length. length of small intestine was recorded with or without digesta. Serum samples thus collected were stored in aseptic plastic tubes at -20OC. A Analyst-100) following the method described by Sandal (1950) and modified by Arenza et al. the tissues were washed thoroughly with ice-cold water. Weights obtained thus were utilized to calculate relative weight of organ by dividing it with the live weight of that bird as Weight of Organ Relative weight = Live weight of bird MINERAL ESTIMATION Serum levels of calcium. gizzard and small intestine were recorded immediately after slaughtering. The weights of the heart. and the liver were determined immediately after slaughtering. The weights of gizzard and ceca. (1997) while Phosphorous analyzed by using spectrophotometer (AOAC.
Culture of media For enumeration of Clostridium perfringens.5g digesta and results were presented as log 10. Reinforced clostridial medium.MICROBIAL POPULATIONS OF CECAL DIGESTA Cecal digesta thus collected was utilized for enumeration of bacteria. 20ml of media was poured in autoclaved Petri plates. Colonies of microorganisms were counted and multiplied with the dilution factor to get number of live bacteria present in 0. Spain) was used to prepare culture medium. Colonies were counted on electric Escherichia coli culture Medium preparation 25 . 1 ml of this solution was transferred to next tube and so on to make 1:10 dilution as described by Miles and Misra (1938) with some modification. A sample of 0. Laboratories CONDA. Madrid. 100μl dilution was taken from third and fourth dilution (1:1000 and 1:10000 respectively) and spread on RCM media Plates and incubated in 5% CO2 at 37OC for forty-eight hours. Cat: 1007. 38g and 2g of agar were dissolved in 1 liter of de-ionized water in conical flask by maintaining pH at 6. Clostridium perfringens culture Medium preparation Reinforced clostridial medium (RCM.5g of cecal material was added to saline solution and mixed.8 and autoclaved at 121OC for 15min.
A probability value at P < 0. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical program SPSS for window (Version 13 SPSS Inc. Illinois. For this purpose 37.5g of EMB agar was mixed in one liter of de-ionized water. E. USA) was used for data analysis..M. coli colonies gave green-metallic sheen on EMB agar and were counted on electric colony counter. Chicago. incubated aerobically at 37OC for twenty-four hours. coli.05 was considered to be significant. Lab: 61. pH was maintained at 6. Feed Consumption 26 . The S-N-K test was used to test the normal distribution of the data. Culturing media For enumeration of Escherichia coli 100μl dilution was taken from third and fourth dilution (1:1000 and 1:10000 respectively) and spread on EMB media plates.E. The group differences were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (Duncan. 20 ml media was poured in autoclaved petri plates. Data were expressed as Means ± S. 1955). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Lab M Ltd.8 and autoclaved at 121 O C for 15 minutes. CHAPTER-4 RESULTS GROWTH PERFORMANCE 1.Eosin Methylene Blue agar (EMB. United Kingdom) was utilized for growth E. Lancashire.
4). However. overall FCR did not change among control and MOS supplemented groups during rest of the experimental period (Table 4. Relative Weights of Visceral Organs Relative weights of visceral organs of quails have been presented in Table 4. Body Weight The body weights of the MOS supplemented quails were non-significantly different compared to the control group.1).3). However.2). However. The body weight gain was significantly lower in group D compared to control and group B. the body weight gain did not change among control and MOS supplemented groups during rest of the experimental period. The FCR of group D was significantly higher compared to control and group B. 5.05) in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed during the first week of age among control and MOS supplemented groups.05) in the body weight gain of quails was observed during the first week of age among control and MOS supplemented groups. 2. Body Weight Gain A significant difference (p<0. The overall body weight gain was statistically similar among control and MOS supplemented groups (Table 4.The results revealed that weekly based and overall feed consumption did not change in control and MOS supplemented groups (Table 4. 4. body weight of group C was significantly lower compared to other MOS supplemented groups (Table 4. Feed Conversion Ratio A significant difference (p<0.5. 3. The results revealed that dietary supplementation of MOS did not affect the relative 27 .
The results revealed that dietary supplementation of MOS did not significantly affect the relative lengths of small intestine and ceca compared to control group. 6. Relative Length of Visceral Organ The relative length of small intestine with or without digesta of quails has been presented in Table 4. 7. The relative weight of liver was significantly higher (p<0.8).7). 28 . Mineral Profile The results revealed that dietary supplementation of MOS did not affect the calcium.5).05) in group D compared to control group (Table 4. 8. magnesium. phosphorus.6.weights of visceral organs except liver. Microbial Populations of Cecal Digesta The results revealed that MOS supplementation did not affect microbial populations of the cecal digesta (Table 4. copper and iron concentrations of blood serum (Table 4.
75 ± 6.87 ± 6.57 137.12 ± 3.62 ± 18.24 Overall 584.49 97.87 ± 4.74 132.12 ± 6. Week 5 168.50 ± 14.E.62 ± 12.1: Mean feed consumption (g) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.36 167.75 ± 5.TABLE 4. TREATEMENT FEED CONSUMPTION (g) Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 GROUPS A 33.00 ± 3.62 ± 3.75 ± 3.96 135.77 104.83 141.75 ± 4.88 D 36.17 Values represent the Mean ± S.00 ± 0.76 134.75 ± 6.37 ± 4.34 100.98 575.59 TABLE 4.12 ± 11.38 590.2: Mean body weight gain (g) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails 29 .37 ± 1.37 173.36 104.62 ± 1.00 ± 4.25 ± 4.63 C 35.81 135.87 ± 1.05 171.93 B 33.12 ± 5.28 576.87 ± 4.45 145.88 137. of four groups of quail chicks.
98 45.35a C 11.86 ± 0.18b Values represent the Mean ± S.31ab D 10.3 with no common Overall 184.19ab superscripts are 32.36 ± 1.39 32.TREATEMENT GROUPS Week 1 Week 2 A 12.73ab 186.95 40. Values within columns 30 .86 ± 1. BODY WEIGHT GAIN (g) Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 43.91 ± 0.83 ± 1.55 ± 2.03 44.76 ± 1.52 51.20 ± 1.13 ± 0.08 ± 1.40 49.51 ± 0.87 ± 2.78b 184.88 ± 0.84 48.93 49.68 ± 0.08 ± 2.95 33.22 ± 1.36 34.85 46.11 ± 1.23 a-b four groups of quail chicks.73 ± 2.30 ± 1.05).21 ± 1.18a B 11.52 48.E.06 ± 1.78 44.76 ± 2.92 ± 0. of significantly different (P<0.93 ± 0.18a 180.88 40.
33 3.63 ± 0.89 ± 0.TABLE 4.16 3.14 4.16 3.19 ± 0.33 3.18 3.05b 3.76 ± 0.70 ± 0. 31 .09 b B 2.a-b Values within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (P<0.3: Mean feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.16 3.06 a D 3.04 ± 0. TREATEMENT FEED CONVERSION RATIO (g Feed/g BWG) Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Overall GROUPS A 2.07 Values represent the Mean ± S.07 C 3.17 3.16 2.05).16 ± 0.37 ± 0.87 ± 0.09 3.35 ± 0.09 ± 0.17 ± 0.22 3.21 2.16 2.17 ± 0.72 ± 0.95 ± 0.05 ± 0.37 ± 0.15 2.17ab 3.15 4.E.80 ± 0.12 2.14 3.71 ± 0.14 ± 0.19 ± 0. of four groups of quail chicks.14 2.10 ± 0.87 ± 0.11 ± 0.
MOS) 7.18±1.4: Mean body weights (g) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.8±0. GROUPS INITIAL BODY WEIGHT(g) BODY WEİGHT(g) A (control) 7.46a Values represent the Mean ± S.E.97±0.TABLE 4.30b D (0.93±0.1 %-MOS) 8.12 191.18 193.08±0.10 193.05).34a C (0.25±2.75±1.87±1. of four groups of quail chicks a-b Values within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (P<0.28ab B (1.5 %. 32 .09 187.0 %-MOS) 7.
49 ± 0.45 ± 0.16 3.27 ± 0.82 ± 0.22 Gizzard without digesta 2. of four groups of quail chicks.1% MOS).98 ± 0.31 ± 0.71 ± 0.15 Small Intestine without digesta 2.72 ± 0.45 ±0.02 0.54 ±0.54 ± 0.51 ± 0.11 2.02 0.11a Values represent the Mean ± S.09 2.09ab 2.6: Mean relative visceral organs length (cm) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.E.02 0.13 3.Group A (control) Group B (1% MOS).49 ± 0.80 ± 0.56 ± 0.07 2.03 Liver 2.47 ± 0.09 ± 0.85 ± 0.11b 2.01 0.50 ± 0.12 2.06 2.05).41 ± 0. Group C (0.11 Cecum with digesta 0.13 3. RELATIVE WEIGHTS TREATEMENT GROUPS A B C D (g/g BW) Small intestine with digesta 3.01 Gizzard with digesta 3.a-b Values within rows with no common superscripts are significantly different (P<0.10ab 2.58 ± 0.04 0.04 0.86 ± 0.51 ± 0.42 ± 0. BW=body weight.59 ± 0.18 3.30 ± 0.91 ± 0.82 ± 0.04 Cecum with out digesta 0.79 ± 0.5: Mean relative visceral organs weight (g) of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.29 ± 0.04 0.15 3.TABLE 4.02 0.09 2.74 ± 0.12 4.44 ± 0.03 0.5% MOS) or Group D (0. TABLE 4.16 Heart 0. RELATIVE LENGTHS TREATEMENT GROUPS 33 .
62 digesta Values represent the Mean ± S.46 ± 0. ATTRIBUTES TREATEMENT GROUPS A B C D Ca (mg/dl) 10.5% MOS) or Group D (0.40 ± 0.78 31.17 2.36 ± 0.91 ± 0.39 ± 0.28 Mg (mg/dl) 3.83 9.11 P (mg/dl) 4.39 ± 1.7: Mean serum mineral concentrations of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.22 ± 0.34 Fe (ppm) 3.02 0.92 ± 0.38 ± 0.E.93 ± 0.91 9.60 32.65 30.44 5.03 0.63 29.11 ± 0.32 ± 0.12 ± 0.12 4.19 3.18 Cu (ppm) 0.79 ± 0.03 0. of four groups of quail chicks.75 31.16 ± 0.32 ± 0.27 ± 0.34 ± 0.02 34 .79 32. BW=body weight TABLE 4.15 3.35 ± 0.28 ± 0.57 ± 0.69 ± 0.39 5.33 ± 0.77 ± 0. Group C (0.32 3.37 ± 0.80 ± 1.16 2. Group A (control) Group B (1% MOS).29 11.(cm/g BW) Small intestine with digesta Small Intestine without A B C D 30.1% MOS).30 3.63 32.80 ± 0.81 ± 0.
03 3.Values represent the Mean ± S. Group C (0.5% MOS) or Group D (0.f.u / g cecal contents) Group A (control) Group B (1% MOS).60 2.60 c. Group A (control) Group B (1% MOS). TABLE 4.82 ± 0.f.60 2. Group C (0.1% MOS).33 ± 0.59 1.03 4. 35 . of four groups of quail chicks.02 ± 0.u /g 4.54 ± 1.54 ± 1.1% MOS).98 ± 1.8: Mean change in cecal digesta of control and MOS supplemented groups of quails.5% MOS) or Group D (0.E.34 ± 0.03 4.97 cecal contents) Clostridium Perfringens (x103 2.88 ± 0. ATTRIBUTES TREATEMENT GROUPS A B C D 6 Escheria coli( x 10 c.
egg production and livability in poultry species (Shane. Prebiotics have 36 . reduction in turnover rate of the intestinal mucosa and modulation of the immune system in the intestinal lumen.CHAPTER-5 DISCUSSION Prebiotics are the carbohydrates which are not digested by the digestive enzymes of the host and are fermented by the beneficial intestinal bacteria and thus are beneficial for host (Gibson and Roberfroid. Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS). 1995). feed efficiency. 1999). These properties have the potential to enhance growth rate. a prebiotic is derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is commercially available as a feed supplement included in diets as a beneficial compound. The benefits of MOS are based on specific properties that include modification of the intestinal microflora.
Rosen (2007a. 2003) and broilers (Hooge et al. 2003). Flemming et al. (2007) reported 37 . Ghosh et al.05) in the body weight gain of quails was observed after the first week of age among control and MOS supplemented groups. 2008. Feed Consumption The results of the present study revealed that the MOS supplementation did not affect feed consumption. Fritts and Waldrop. 2008) and in quails (Parlat et al... In contrast.. Ghosh et al. the MOS supplementation tended to improve BWG in early life of broiler chicks. 2007)..been shown to improve body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in turkeys (Sims et al. Similar findings have been reported in the broilers (Midilli et al. 2008. Cakir et al. (2010) and Oguz and Parlat (2004) who reported that in quails. feed consumption increased significantly. 2003.These results did not support the findings of Eleftherios et al. Yang et al... Similar results were reported by Ammerman (1989) and Waldroup et al. whereas. 2007b) in two comparative studies reported lower feed consumption for birds fed MOS versus controls. It is considered that due to the presence of Mannan-oligosaccharides. however. (1993). Jung et al.. undesirable microorganisms from the gastrointestinal tract are eliminated that results in reduction of the stress on the mucosa caused by pathogens and dietary nutrients are absorbed in a normal way. Body Weight Gain In the present study a significant difference (p<0. (2004) also found that MOS has improved the BWG in broilers. the overall body weight gain was statistically similar among control and MOS supplemented groups. In contrast with present results. 2004.. (2007) studied the effects of Mannan-oligosaccharide on growth performance of broiler and reported that there were no significant differences in BWG among treatments.
Similarly. (2003) reported that feeding MOS improved overall feed conversion ratio for 0-5 wks of age in Japanese quails. FCR remained unchanged.that MOS supplementation did not increase body weight gain in quail. Parlat et al. during rest of the experimental period. pathogens from the gastrointestinal tract are eliminated that results in reduction of the stress on the mucosa caused by pathogens. Similarly. however. (2010). Thus absorption and utilization of the dietary nutrients increased that result in higher body weight gain. This improvement in FCR is in agreement with the findings of Parks et al. Similar results were reported by Eleftherios et al. (2007) found lower FCR for birds fed MOS. reported that Bio-Mos decreased FCR by an average of 1. Hooge (2004) based on a meta-analysis of 24 broiler pen trials. (2001). It is considered that due to the presence of Mannan-oligosaccharides. These results are in contrast with Midilli et al.039. a significant difference in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed during the first week of age among control and MOS supplemented groups. Savage and Zakrzewska (1997) in turkeys and Waldroup et al. (2008) who found that inclusion of prebiotics improved the feed conversion ratio in broilers. Guclu (2003) and Ghosh et al. Feed Conversion Ratio In the present study.99% compared with the control group. who reported that the addition of MOS resulted in a tendency for higher FCR in Japanese quails during the fourth week which was not significant. who found that MOS-supplemented diets showed a lower FCR of the birds. (2003) in broilers reported that MOS supplementation 38 . Rosen (2007) from statistical evaluation of 82 comparisons with negative control diets found that Bio-Mos diets reduced FCR by 0.
b) also reported that feed composition did not affect the 39 . (2001) in turkeys observed higher body weight in birds that consumed MOS. Similarly. Whereas. cecum and small intestine (both filled and empty). Guclu (2003) and Eleftherios et al. Body Weight In the present study. who found that inuline did not affect the relative weight and length of the small intestine in broilers. Parlat et al.b). Ghosh et al. Yalqnkaya et al. (2008) who found that dietary MOS has no effect on the relative weights of heart and gizzard of broilers. (2008) who reported that MOS supplementation did not significantly affect relative weight of liver in broilers. (2008) found the same results in broilers. Similar results were found in the study of Rehman et al. body weights of the MOS supplemented quails were nonsignificantly different compared to the control group. (2007) and Sarica et al. gizzard. (2007a. relative weight of liver was significantly higher in MOS supplemented group D compared to control group. Hooge (2004) and Bentes et al.improved FCR significantly. Oguz and Parlat (2004). Flemming et al. (2008) found that Mannanoligosaccharides did not affect the feed conversion ratio in broiler. In present study. The results of present study are similar to other studies done by Mohamed et al. whereas. (2007a. (2009) did not observe any significant difference in body weight among MOS supplemented and control groups in quails. (2010) in quails and Frittis and Waldroup (2003) and Parks et al. Relative Weights and Lengths of Visceral Organ Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of MOS did not affect the relative weights of heart. Rehman et al. the results of the relative weight of liver are in contrast with the findings of Mohamed et al. (2003). whereas. (2004). In contrast to present findings.
2008) and increase the population of useful bacteria (Ghosh et al. Changing intestinal pH.weight of liver in broilers. Reduction of the competition between bacteria and host for the starch and sugars... dietary supplementation of MOS did not affect the calcium. Baurhoo et al. Bozkurt et al. (2002) and (2004) who reported that different oligosaccharides have no effects on the length or weight of the small intestine in turkeys. 2008).. Ferket (2004) relates that the best performance of the birds fed with Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) diets is due to the: • • • Increase of the resistance to the intestinal pathogenic microorganisms. copper and iron concentrations of blood serum. magnesium.. It is generally accepted that the positive effect of feed growth promoters are more obvious when animals are not offered good quality feed or are reared in non-optimum conditions or even bids are kept in un-hygienic or in stress conditions (Sims et al. Whereas. The growth promoting effect of MOS is due to their ability to limit the growth of pathogens in the digestive tract of animals (Bozkurt et al. Thus.. Eleftherios et al. functions more efficiently and more nutrients are absorbed. (2010) reported that MOS supplementation decreased the liver to live weight percentage in quails. that ultimately suppresses the explosion of pathogenic bacteria. The lack of significant improvement in the performance of the birds that was found in our experiment may be the result of the proper feed composition and the optimum rearing conditions. the digestive tract remains healthy. phosphorus. 2007. 2007). 2004. These results 40 . Results of the relative length of small intestine are similar with the study of Juskiewicz et al. Serum Minerals In the present study.
Similar findings were reported by Coudray et al. • Enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products. copper and iron. Van den Heuvel et al. Griffin et al. (1998). • Increased expression of calcium binding proteins. Mechanism The mechanism involved numerous factors that contribute in mineral absorption which includes: • Increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids through increased supply with substrate. 41 . (1999) who found that prebiotics stimulated the absorption of calcium in humans. Scholz-Ahrens et al. or other nondigestible oligosaccharide (NDO) did not affect calcium or iron absorption in humans. the content of calcium in the diet. Reporting of conflicting results regarding mineral absorption may be due to the experimental design because the effect of NDOs depends on the dose. These results are in contrast with findings of Abrams et al. chiefly lactate and butyrate.support the findings of Van den Heuvel et al. (2002). Ellegard et al. (2006) who reported that prebiotics like inulin. (2005). (1997) in healthy human adults and added that inulin increased calcium absorption and had no effect on the metabolism of the other minerals like magnesium. the time of administration. Tahiri et al. Similarly. and the age of the subjects studied. oligofructose. phosphorous. particularly calcium and magnesium in adult rats. (2001) also reported that inuline stimulate absorption of several minerals. Ghosh et al. (2003) and Lopez-Huertas et al. (1997). (2008) also found that MOS treated groups exhibited significantly higher Ca compared to control group in Japanese quail.
2003) Microbial Populations of Cecal Digesta The results of the present study revealed that MOS supplementation did not affect Escherichia coli. Fairchild et al. Similar findings were also reported by Spring et al.. 2003. (2003) who reported that Mannan-oligosaccharide did not significantly reduce the concentrations of cecal pathogens in broilers. in cecal contents of turkeys. The results of the present study are in contrast with some of the findings of the previous studies stating that MOS also resulted in a major reduction in Escherichia coli. (2007) reported that reduction of the cecal concentration of total Escherichia coli due to MOS supplementation was more pronounced in Escherichia coli -challenged birds... (2001) also reported the similar results and added that MOS provides protection to chicks by reducing some of the pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli. (2005) reported that birds receiving MOS had more Escherichia coli compared with the antibiotic treatment. who reported that Clostridium perfringens were not affected in broilers by the supplementation of MOS. Coudray et al. 2001 and 2002. (2008) also reported that dietary MOS also reduced the counts of Clostridium perfringens in the ceca of birds. 42 . and Clostridium perfringens populations of the cecal digesta.. (2007). Finucane et al. Cashman et al. However. Young et al.(Scholz-Ahrens et al. (2000) and Ceylan et al. Baurhoo et al. Brzoska et al. (1999) also reported that there was no significant difference in the level of Clostridium spp. These results favour the findings of Yang et al.
serum calcium. 43 . Feed consumption. it was necessary to find out an alternative of antibiotics. therapeutic and growth-promoting agents in poultry production. a 35 day long feeding trial was conducted.CHAPTER-6 SUMMARY Long term use of antibiotics has side effects like antibiotic resistance and drug residues in meat that ultimately harm the humens.1% (Group D) levels. or 0.5% (Group C) or 0. relative weights and lengths of visceral organs. Keeping in view the present scenario. To avoid such hazards. total body weight. Birds were fed a corn-based basal diet (Group A) or the same basal diet supplemented with MOS either at 1% (Group B). magnesium. Prebiotics are considered as an alternative to antibiotics as prophylactic. body weight gain. A total of 1320 day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=320) with 8 replicates (n=40). FCR.
Sci. (1989). I.phosphorus. Results showed that body weight gain. CHAPTER-7 LITERTURE CITED Arenza. serum calcium. G. AOAC. Darlington and K. copper and iron and microbial population of ceca were the parameters considered. phosphorus.Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides on performance and carcass yield of male broilers. Singh and P. Ammerman. copper & iron and cecal microbial populations were not influenced by treatments. L. Abrams. USA. 1. Whereas.05) different and Final body weights were non-significantly (p>0.Status of some microminerals in neonantal buffalo calves and their mothers. J. Griffin.. feed consumption. Ind. D. 6th Ed. S. S. Hawthorne. Liang. 68:167. N. Arlington. A. K. S. Dair. C.and long-chain inulin-type 44 . Gunn. Quarles and P. J. magnesium. J.05) different compared to control group. relative weights of other visceral organs. International. Ellis (2005). V. 30:255. K.A combination of prebiotic short.) AOAC. (1995). J. Vol. Twining Jr.. Verma (1977). FCR and relative weight of liver of the MOS supplemented quails were significantly (p<0. Poult. Hathi.(Abstr..Official method of the association of official analytical chemists. M. B. E. S. Sci.
London.. S. J. Int.William. Alltech Inc. U. Sliwinski and K. Elsevier.). Zentek. K. Poult. Ani. J.. Bozkurt. Blake. Mosenthin. R.. W. Buluchevskij. Growth performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens fed with antibiotic. Sci. A. Clin. 7:969-977.Effect of dietary Mannanoligosaccharide with or without oregano essential oil and hop extract supplementation on the performance and slaughter characteristics of male broilers. B. Mannanoligosaccharide and Dextran oligosaccharide supplemented diets. B. T. M. KY. J. K. Mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) supplementation of wheat based diets for 45 . J. potential dietary modulators of intestinal physiology. In: Biology of nutrition in growing animals. Afri. Preliminary study of the microbial spectrum of the digestive tract in broilers fed diets with and without antibiotic supplementation. J.. U. F. Fermentable carbohydrates. B..82:471–476. Bio-Mos Product Specifications (1997). Kucukyilmaz.. Kocher (2006). S. Hess. Stecka (2005). Cinar (2008). Mosenthin (2006). J. S. A. Nutr. Verstegen and R. Anim. Bio-Mos Poultry Dossier. J. Cinar (2009). 39:223-232. P: 33-63. Sefton and A. Brzoska. Feed Sci.fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. E. Maklin. Zebrowska. S. Bauer. M. Catli and M. A. Kucukyilmaz. Catli and M. P. Sci. Nicholasville. Bozkurt.. A. Bilgili. E. A. K. (ed. microbiology and immunity in pigs. Am. 14:431–434. F. B. M.
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E. Tehsil & District Layyah. Habib Rehman. UVAS. 2010. Lahore.Mail: email@example.com Contact No: 0300 8121182 EDUCATION Master of Philosophy: PHYSIOLOGY. Cecal Microbial Population and Mineral Absorption in Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica). Advisor: Dr.VITA MUHAMMAD ANWAR IQBAL PERMANENT ADDRESS: Ward # 6 Chowk Azam. 59 . Dissertation Title: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Mannan-Oligosaccharides on Growth Performance. June. Ph.D.
Bachelor of Science: ANIMAL SCIENCES. 60 .Master of Science: ZOOLOGY. September. Multan. Multan. BZU. Thesis Title: Effects of Exercise on Lipid profile on healthy volunteers of Baha-u-ddin Zakaryya University Multan. BZU. Advisor: Dr. June. 2004.D. Tassawar Hussain Khan. Ph. 2001.