Successlon 07072011

Þage 1 of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
Ln 8AnC
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ30289 March 26ţ 1929
SLkAÞIA DL GALAţ peLlLlonerŴappellanLţ
vsŦ
AÞCLINAkIC GCN2ALLS and SINICkCSC
CNAţ opponenLsŴappellanLsŦ
5omolooqţ lovlJes Ǝ nlloJo fot petltlooetŴ
oppellootŦ
CoJofteJo keyes fot oppooeotŴoppelloot
CoozolesŦ
komoo ulokoo fot oppooeotŴoppelloot
OooŦ
CS1kANDţ Ŧť
Cn november 23ţ 1920ţ Severlna Conzales
execuLed a wlll ln whlch Serapla de Calaţ a
nlece of Severlnaţ was deslgnaLed
execuLrlxŦ 1he LesLaLrlx dled ln novemberţ
1926ţ leavlng no helrs by force of lawţ and
on uecember 2ţ 1926ţ Seraplaţ Lhrough
her counselţ presenLed Lhe wlll for
probaLeŦ Apollnarlo Conzalesţ a nephew of
Lhe deceasedţ flled an opposlLlon Lo Lhe
wlll on Lhe ground LhaL lL had noL been
execuLed ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe provlslons
of secLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
ÞrocedureŦ Cn Aprll 2ţ 1927ţ Serapla de
Cala was appolnLed speclal admlnlsLraLrlx
of Lhe esLaLe of Lhe deceasedŦ She
reLurned an lnvenLory of Lhe esLaLe on
March 31ţ 1927ţ and made several
demands upon Slnforoso Cnaţ Lhe
survlvlng husband of Lhe deceasedţ for Lhe
dellvery Lo her of Lhe properLy lnvenLorled
and of whlch he was ln possesslonŦ
Cn SepLember 20ţ 1928ţ Lhe CourL of llrsL
lnsLance ordered Slnforoso Cna Lo dellver
Lo Serapla de Cala all Lhe properLy lefL by
Lhe deceasedŦ lnsLead of dellverlng Lhe
properLy as orderedţ Slnforoso flled a
moLlon asklng Lhe appolnLmenL of Serapla
de Cala as speclal admlnlsLraLrlx be
cancelled and LhaL heţ Slnforosoţ be
appolnLed ln her sLeadŦ 1he moLlon was
opposed by boLh Apollnarlo Conzales and
by Serapla de Calaţ buL on March 3ţ 1928ţ
lL was neverLheless granLedţ Serapla was
removedţ and Slnforoso was appolnLed
speclal admlnlsLraLor ln her placeţ
prlnclpally on Lhe ground LhaL he had
possesslon of Lhe properLy ln quesLlon and
LhaL hls appolnLmenL would slmpllfy Lhe
proceedlngsŦ
ln Lhe meanLlme and afLer varlous
conLlnuances and delaysţ Lhe courL below
ln an order daLed !anuary 20ţ 1928ţ
declared Lhe wlll valld and admlLLed lL Lo
probaLeŦ All of Lhe parLles appealedţ
Serapla de Cala from Lhe order removlng
her from Lhe offlce of speclal
admlnlsLraLrlxţ and Apollnarlo Conzales
and Slnforoso Cna from Lhe order
probaLlng Lhe wlllŦ
Seraplaƌs appeal requlres buL llLLle
dlscusslonŦ 1he burden of Lhe argumenL of
her counsel ls LhaL a speclal admlnlsLraLor
cannoL be removed excepL for one or
more of Lhe causes sLaLed ln secLlon 633 of
Lhe Code of Clvll ÞrocedureŦ 8uL LhaL
secLlon can only apply Lo execuLors and
regular admlnlsLraLorsţ and Lhe offlce of a
speclal admlnlsLraLor ls qulLe dlfferenL
from LhaL of regular admlnlsLraLorŦ 1he
appolnLmenL of a speclal admlnlsLraLor lles
enLlrely ln Lhe sound dlscreLlon of Lhe
courLŤ Lhe funcLlon of such an
admlnlsLraLor ls only Lo collecL and
preserve Lhe properLy of Lhe deceased and
Lo reLurn an lnvenLory LhereofŤ he cannoL
be sued by a credlLor and cannoL pay any
debLs of Lhe deceasedŦ 1he facL LhaL no
appeal can be Laken from Lhe appolnLmenL
of a speclal admlnlsLraLor lndlcaLes LhaL
boLh hls appolnLmenL and hls removal are
purely dlscreLlonaryţ and we cannoL flnd
LhaL Lhe courL below abused lLs dlscreLlon
ln Lhe presenL caseŦ ln removlng Serapla de
Cala and appolnLlng Lhe presenL possessor
of Lhe properLy pendlng Lhe flnal
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe wlllţ
Lhe courL probably prevenLed useless
llLlgaLlonŦ
1he appellanLs Slnforoso Cna and
Apollnarlo Conzales argue LhaL Lhe wlll ln
quesLlon was noL execuLed ln Lhe form
prescrlbed by secLlon 618 of Lhe Code of
Clvll Þrocedure as amended by AcL noŦ
2643Ŧ 1haL secLlon reads as followsť
no wlllţ excepL as provlded ln Lhe
precedlng secLlonţ shall be valld
Lo pass any esLaLeţ real or
personalţ nor charge or affecL Lhe
sameţ unless lL be wrlLLen ln Lhe
language or dlalecL known by Lhe
LesLaLor and slgned by hlmţ or by
Lhe LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen by
some oLher person ln hls
presenceţ and by hls express
dlrecLlonţ and aLLesLed and
subscrlbed by Lhree or more
credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of
each oLherŦ 1he LesLaLor or Lhe
person requesLed by hlm Lo wrlLe
hls name and Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses of Lhe wlllţ shall also
slgnţ as aforesaldţ each and every
page Lhereofţ on Lhe lefL marglnţ
and sald pages shall be numbered
correlaLlvely ln leLLers placed on
Lhe upper parL of each sheeLŦ 1he
aLLesLaLlon shall sLaLe Lhe number
of sheeLs or pages usedţ upon
whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţ and Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned Lhe
wlll and every page Lhereofţ or
caused some oLher person Lo
wrlLe hls nameţ under hls express
dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe presence of Lhree
wlLnessesţ and Lhe laLLer
wlLnessed and slgned Lhe wlll and
all pages Lhereof ln Lhe presence
of Lhe LesLaLor and of each oLherŦ
1he prlnclpal polnLs ralsed by Lhe appeal
are (1) LhaL Lhe person requesLed Lo slgn
Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlx slgned only Lhe
laLLerƌs name and noL her ownŤ (2) LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause does noL menLlon Lhe
placlng of Lhe LhumbŴmark of Lhe LesLaLrlx
ln Lhe wlllŤ and (3) LhaL Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
wlll had been slgned ln Lhe presence of Lhe
wlLnesses was noL sLaLed ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause buL only ln Lhe lasL paragraph of Lhe
body of Lhe wlllŦ
1he flrsL polnL can besL be answered by
quoLlng Lhe language of Lhls courL ln Lhe
case of Lhe LsLaLe of Marla Salvaţ CŦ 8Ŧ noŦ
26881ť
1

An examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll ln
quesLlon dlsclosed LhaL lL conLalns
flve pagesŦ 1he name of Lhe old
womanţ Marla Salvaţ was wrlLLen
on Lhe lefL hand margln of Lhe
flrsL four pages and aL Lhe end of
Successlon 07072011
Þage 2 of 61

Lhe wlllŦ AbouL ln Lhe cenLer of
her name she placed her LhumbŴ
markŦ AbouL ln Lhe cenLer of her
name she placed her LhumbŴ
markŦ 1he Lhree wlLnesses
llkewlse slgned on Lhe lefLŴhand
margln and aL Lhe end of Lhe wlllŦ
Cn Lhese facLsţ Lhe Lheory of Lhe
Lrlal [udge was LhaL under Lhe
provlslons of secLlon 618 of Lhe
Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ as
amended by AcL noŦ 2643ţ lL was
essenLlal Lo Lhe valldlLy of Lhe wlll
LhaL Lhe person wrlLlng Lhe name
of Lhe maker of Lhe wlll also slgnŦ
under Lhe law prlor Lo Lhe
amendmenLţ lL had been held by
Lhls courL LhaL where a LesLaLor ls
unable Lo wrlLe and hls name ls
slgned by anoLher aL hls requesLţ
ln hls presence and ln LhaL of Lhe
subscrlblng wlLnesses LhereLoţ lL
ls unlmporLanLţ so far as Lhe
valldlLy of Lhe wlll ls concernedţ
wheLher Lhe person who wrlLes
Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLor slgns hls
own or noLŦ (8aruL vsŦ
Cabacungan (1912)ţ 21 ÞhllŦţ 461)Ŧ
8uL hls Ponorţ Lhe Lrlal [udge
emphaslzes LhaL Lhe amendmenL
lnLroduced lnLo Lhe law Lhe
followlng senLenceť ƌ1he LesLaLor
or Lhe person requesLed by hlm
Lo wrlLe hls name and Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses of Lhe
wlllţ shall also slgnţ as aforesaldţ
each and every page Lhereofţ on
Lhe lefL margln Ŧ Ŧ ŦŦƌ 1hls
requlremenLţ lL ls saldţ was noL
llved up Lo ln Lhls lnsLanceŦ
1here lsţ howeverţ an enLlrely
dlfferenL vlew whlch can be Laken
of Lhe slLuaLlonŦ 1hls ls LhaL Lhe
LesLaLrlx placed her LhumbŴmark
on Lhe wlll ln Lhe proper placesŦ
Whenţ Lhereforeţ Lhe law says
LhaL Lhe wlll shall be ƌslgnedƌ by
Lhe LesLaLor or LesLaLrlxţ Lhe law ls
fulfllled noL only by Lhe
cusLomary wrlLLen slgnaLure buL
by Lhe LesLaLor or LesLaLrlxƌ
LhumbŴmarkŦ 1he consLrucLlon
puL upon Lhe word ƌslgnedƌ by
mosL courLs ls Lhe orlglnal
meanlng of a slgnum or slgnţ
raLher Lhan Lhe derlvaLlve
meanlng of a slgn manual or
handwrlLlngŦ A sLaLuLe requlrlng a
wlll Lo be ƌslgnedƌ ls saLlsfled lf Lhe
slgnaLure ls made by Lhe
LesLaLorƌs markŦ (28 8Ŧ CŦ LŦţ ppŦ
116Ŵ117)Ŧ
1he oplnlon quoLed ls exacLly ln polnLŦ 1he
LesLaLrlx LhumbŴmark appears ln Lhe
cenLer of her name as wrlLLen by Serapla
de Cala on all of Lhe pages of Lhe wlllŦ
1he second and Lhlrd polnLs ralsed by
Slnforoso Cna and Apollnarlo Conzales are
sufflclenLly refuLed by quoLlng Lhe lasL
clause of Lhe body of Lhe wlll LogeLher wlLh
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseţ boLh of whlch are
wrlLLen ln Lhe 1agalog dlalecLŦ 1hese
clauses read as followsť
Sa kaLunayang ang kasulaLang lLoţ
na may anlm na dahonţ ay slyang
naglalaman ng aklng hullng
Lagublllnţ aL sa hlndl ko
kaalamang lumagda ng aklng
pangalanţ lplnamanhlk ko sa aklng
pamankln na sl Serapla de Cala na
lsulaL ang aklng pangalan aL
apellldoţ aL sa LapaL ay lnllagda ko
ang LlLlk ng kanang dallrl kong
hlnlalaklţ sa walkas aL sa bawaL lsa
sa anlm (6) na dahon ng
kasulaLang lLoţ aL lLoƌs glnawa
nlya sa kauLusan aL sa harap ko aL
ng LaLlong sakslng nagpapaLuLuo
sa hull ngayon lka dalawang poƌL
LaLlo ng noblembre ng 1920Ŧ
(SgdŦ) SLvL8lnA CCnZALLS
ÞlnaLuLunayan namln na ang
kasulaLang lLo na blnubuo ng
anlm (6) na dahon na plnlrmahan
sa harap namln nl Serapla de Cala
sa kahlllngan nl Severlna Conzales
sa wakas aL sa mga gllld ng bawaƌL
lsa sa anlm (6) na dahon aL
lslnaysay na ang kasulaLang lLo ay
slyang hullng habllln o
LesLamenLo nl Severlna Conzalesţ
ay plnlrmahan namlnţ bllang mga
saksl sa wakas aL sa gllld ng
bawaƌL dahon sa harap aL sa
kahlllngan ng Llnurang LesLadoraţ
aL ang bawaL lsa sa amln ay
pumlrma sa harap ng lahaL aL
bawaL lsa sa amlnţ ngayon lka
dalawang poƌL LaLlo ng novlembre
ng Laong 1920 ng Laong 1920Ŧ
(SgdŦ) LLLu1L8lC nA1lvluAu
!uAn SuMuLCnC
l8AnClSCC nA1lvluAu
1he LranslaLlon ln Lngllsh of Lhe clauses
quoLed reads as followsť
ln vlrLue of Lhls wlllţ conslsLlng of
slx pagesţ LhaL conLalns my lasL
wlshţ and because of Lhe facL LhaL
l cannoL slgn my nameţ l requesL
my nlece Serapla de Cala Lo wrlLe
my nameţ and above Lhls l placed
my rlghL LhumbŴmark aL Lhe end
of Lhls wlll and Lo each of Lhe slx
pages of Lhls documenLţ and Lhls
was done aL my dlrecLlon and ln
Lhe presence of Lhree aLLesLlng
wlLnessesţ Lhls 23rd of novemberţ
1920Ŧ
(SgdŦ) SLvL8lnA CCnZALLS
We cerLlfy LhaL Lhls documenLţ
whlch ls composed of slx (6)
sheeLs and was slgned ln our
presence by Serapla de Cala aL
Lhe requesL of Severlna Conzales
aL Lhe end and on Lhe marglns of
each of Lhe slx (6) sheeLs and was
declared Lo conLaln Lhe lasL wlll
and LesLamenL of Severlna
Conzalesţ was slgned by us as
wlLnesses aL Lhe end and on Lhe
marglns of each sheeL ln Lhe
presence and aL Lhe requesL of
sald LesLaLrlxţ and each of us
slgned ln Lhe presence of all and
each of usţ Lhls 23rd day of
november of Lhe year 1920Ŧ
(SgdŦ) LLLu1L8lC nA1lvluAu
!uAn SuMuLCnC
l8AnClSCC nA1lvluAu
As wlll be seenţ lL ls noL menLloned ln Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx slgned
by LhumbŴmarkţ buL lL does Lhere appear
LhaL Lhe slgnaLure was afflxed ln Lhe
presence of Lhe wlLnessesţ and Lhe form of
Lhe slgnaLure ls sufflclenLly descrlbed and
Successlon 07072011
Þage 3 of 61

explalned ln Lhe lasL clause of Lhe body of
Lhe wlllŦ lL maybe conceded LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause ls noL arLlsLlcally drawn
and LhaLţ sLandlng aloneţ lL does noL qulLe
meeL Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe sLaLuLeţ buL
Laken ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe lasL clause of
Lhe body of Lhe wlllţ lL ls falrly clear and
sufflclenLly carrles ouL Lhe leglslaLlve
lnLenLŤ lL leaves no posslble doubL as Lo Lhe
auLhenLlclLy of Lhe documenLŦ
1he conLenLlon of Lhe appellanLs Slnforoso
Cna and Apollnarlo Conzales LhaL Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe wlll had been slgned ln Lhe
presence of Lhe wlLnesses was noL sLaLed
ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause ls wlLhouL merlLŤ
Lhe facL ls expressly sLaLed ln LhaL clauseŦ
ln our oplnlonţ Lhe wlll ls valldţ and Lhe
orders appealed from are hereby afflrmed
wlLhouL cosLsŦ So orderedŦ
obosooţ 5tteetţ Molcolmţ obosţ
komoolJez ooJ vllloŴkeolţ Ŧţ coocotŦ
















































































































































Successlon 07072011
Þage of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
Ln 8AnC
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ628S Iebruary 1Sţ 1912
ÞLDkC 8AkU1ţ peLlLlonerŴappellanLţ
vsŦ
IAUS1INC CA8ACUNGANţ L1
ALŦţ opponenLsŴappelleesŦ
Ŧ MŦ lmeoez fot oppellootŦ
komoo Ooetoblo fot oppelleesŦ
MCkLLANDţ Ŧť
1hls case ls closely connecLed wlLh Lhe
case of oostloo cobocooqoo vsŦ leJto
8otot and anoLherţ noŦ 6284ţ
1
[usL declded
by Lhls courLţ whereln Lhere was an
appllcaLlon for Lhe probaLe of an alleged
lasL wlll and LesLamenL of Lhe same person
Lhe probaLe of whose wlll ls lnvolved ln
Lhls sulLŦ
1hls appeal arlses ouL of an appllcaLlon on
Lhe parL of Þedro 8aruL Lo probaLe Lhe lasL
wlll and LesLamenL of Marla Salomonţ
deceasedŦ lL ls alleged ln Lhe peLlLlon of
Lhe probaLe LhaL Marla Salomon dled on
Lhe 7Lh day of novemberţ 1908ţ ln Lhe
pueblo of SlnalLţ llocos Surţ leavlng a lasL
wlll and LesLamenL bearlng daLe March 2ţ
1907Ŧ Severo Agayanţ 1lmoLea lnoseldaţ
CaLallno 8agasaţ and AŦ MŦ !lmenez are
alleged Lo have been wlLnesses Lo Lhe
execuLlon LhereofŦ 8y Lhe Lerms of sald wlll
Þedro 8aruL recelved Lhe larger parL of
decedenLƌs properLyŦ
1he orlglnal wlll appears on page 3 of Lhe
record and ls ln Lhe llocano dlalecLŦ lLs
LranslaLlon lnLo Spanlsh appears aL page
11Ŧ AfLer dlsposlng of her properLy Lhe
LesLaLrlx revoked all former wllls by her
madeŦ She also sLaLed ln sald wlll LhaL
belng unable Lo read or wrlLeţ Lhe same
had been read Lo her by Clrlaco
Concepclon and 1lmoLea lnoselda and LhaL
she had lnsLrucLed Severo Agayan Lo slgn
her name Lo lL as LesLaLrlxŦ
1he probaLe of Lhe wlll was conLesLed and
opposed by a number of Lhe relaLlves of
Lhe deceased on varlous groundsţ among
Lhem LhaL a laLer wlll had been execuLed
by Lhe deceasedŦ 1he wlll referred Lo as
belng a laLer wlll ls Lhe one lnvolved ln
case noŦ 6284 already referred LoŦ
Þroceedlng for Lhe probaLe of Lhls laLer wlll
were pendlng aL Lhe LlmeŦ 1he evldence of
Lhe proponenLs and of Lhe opponenLs was
Laken by Lhe courL ln boLh cases for Lhe
purpose of conslderlng Lhem LogeLherŦ
ln Lhe case before us Lhe learned probaLe
courL found LhaL Lhe wlll was noL enLlLled
Lo probaLe upon Lhe sole ground LhaL Lhe
handwrlLlng of Lhe person who lL ls alleged
slgned Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlx Lo Lhe wlll
for and on her behalf looked more llke Lhe
handwrlLlng of one of Lhe oLher wlLnesses
Lo Lhe wlll Lhan LhaL of Lhe person whose
handwrlLlng lL was alleged Lo beŦ We do
noL belleve LhaL Lhe mere dlsslmllarlLy ln
wrlLlng Lhus menLloned by Lhe courL ls
sufflclenL Lo overcome Lhe unconLradlcLed
LesLlmony of all Lhe wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll
LhaL Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLrlx was
wrlLLen by Severo Agayan aL her requesL
and ln her presence and ln Lhe presence of
all Lhe wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlllŦ lL ls
lmmaLerlal who wrlLes Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLrlx provlded lL ls wrlLLen aL her
requesL and ln her presence and ln Lhe
presence of all Lhe wlLnesses Lo Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlllŦ
1he courL seems ţ by lnference aL leasLţ Lo
have had ln mlnd LhaL under Lhe law
relaLlng Lo Lhe execuLlon of a wlll lL ls
necessary LhaL Lhe person who slgns Lhe
name of Lhe LesLaLrlx musL afLerwards slgn
hls own nameŤ and LhaLţ ln vlew of Lhe facL
LhaLţ ln Lhe case aL barţ Lhe name slgned
below LhaL of Lhe LesLaLrlx as Lhe person
who slgned her nameţ belngţ from lLs
appearanceţ noL Lhe same handwrlLlng as
LhaL consLlLuLlng Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlxţ
Lhe wlll ls accordlngly lnvalldţ such facL
lndlcaLlng LhaL Lhe person who slgned Lhe
name of Lhe LesLaLrlx falled Lo slgn hls
ownŦ We do noL belleve LhaL Lhls
conLenLlon can be susLalnedŦ SecLlon 618
of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedure reads as
followsť
no wlllţ excepL as provlded ln Lhe
precedlng secLlonţ shall be valld
Lo pass any esLaLeţ real or
personalţ nor charge or effecL Lhe
sameţ unless lL be ln wrlLlng and
slgned by Lhe LesLaLorţ or by Lhe
LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen by some
oLher person ln hls presenceţ and
by hls expenses dlrecLlonţ and
aLLesLed and subscrlbed by Lhree
or more credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of
eachŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
1hls ls Lhe lmporLanL parL of Lhe secLlon
under Lhe Lerms of whlch Lhe courL holds
LhaL Lhe person who slgns Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLor for hlm musL also slgn hls own
name 1he remalnder of Lhe secLlon readsť
1he aLLesLaLlon shall sLaLe Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned Lhe wlllţ
or caused lL Lo be slgned by some
oLher personţ aL hls express
dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe presence of Lhree
wlLnessesţ and LhaL Lhey aLLesLed
and subscrlbed lL ln hls presence
and ln Lhe presence of each
oLherŦ 8uL Lhe absence of such
form of aLLesLaLlon shall noL
render Lhe wlll lnvalld lf lL ls
proven LhaL Lhe wlll was ln facL
slgned and aLLesLed as ln Lhls
secLlon provldedŦ
lrom Lhese provlslons lL ls enLlrely clear
LhaLţ wlLh respecL Lo Lhe vollJlty of Lhe
wlllţ lL ls unlmporLanL wheLher Lhe person
who wrlLes Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlx slgns
hls own or noLŦ 1he lmporLanL Lhlng ls LhaL
lL clearly appears LhaL Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLrlx was slgned aL her express
dlrecLlon ln Lhe presence of Lhree
wlLnesses and LhaL Lhey aLLesLed and
subscrlbed lL ln her presence and ln Lhe
presence of each oLherŦ 1haL ls all Lhe
sLaLuLe requlresŦ lL may be wlse as a
pracLlcal maLLer LhaL Lhe one who slgns
Lhe LesLaLorƌs name slgns also hls ownŤ buL
LhaL lL ls noL essenLlal Lo Lhe vollJlty of Lhe
wlllŦ WheLher one parson or anoLher
slgned Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlx ln Lhls
case ls absoluLely unlmporLanL so far as
Lhe valldlLy of her wlll ls concernedŦ 1he
plaln wordlng of Lhe sLaLuLe shows LhaL
Lhe requlremenL lald down by Lhe Lrlal
courLţ lf lL dld lay downţ ls absoluLely
unnecessary under Lhe lawŤ and Lhe
reasons underlylng Lhe provlslons of Lhe
sLaLuLe relaLlng Lo Lhe execuLlon of wllls do
noL ln any sense requlre such a provlslonŦ
lrom Lhe sLandpolnL of language lL ls an
lmposslblllLy Lo draw from Lhe words of
Successlon 07072011
Þage S of 61

Lhe law Lhe lnference LhaL Lhe persons
who slgns Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLor musL
slgn hls own name alsoŦ 1he law requlres
only Lhree wlLnesses Lo a wlllţ noL fourŦ
nor ls such requlremenL found ln any
oLher branch of Lhe lawŦ 1he name of a
person who ls unable Lo wrlLe may be
slgned by anoLher by express dlrecLlon Lo
any lnsLrumenL known Lo Lhe lawŦ 1here ls
no necesslLy whaLeverţ so far as Lhe
valldlLy of Lhe lnsLrumenL ls concernedţ for
Lhe person who wrlLes Lhe name of Lhe
prlnclpal ln Lhe documenL Lo slgn hls own
name alsoŦ As a maLLer of pollcy lL may be
wlse LhaL he do so lnasmuch as lL would
glve such lnLlmaLlon as would enable a
person provlng Lhe documenL Lo
demonsLraLe more readlly Lhe execuLlon
by Lhe prlnclpalŦ 8uL as a maLLer of
essenLlal valldlLy of Lhe documenLţ lL ls
unnecessaryŦ 1he maln Lhlng Lo be
esLabllshed ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlll ls
Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLorŦ lf LhaL
slgnaLure ls provedţ wheLher lL be wrlLLen
by hlmself or by anoLher aL hls requesLţ lL
ls none Lhe less valldţ and Lhe facL of such
slgnaLure can be proved as perfecLly and
as compleLely when Lhe person slgnlng for
Lhe prlnclpal omlLs Lo slgn hls own name as
lL can when he acLually slgnsŦ 1o hold a wlll
lnvalld for Lhe lack of Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
person slgnlng Lhe name of Lhe prlnclpal lsţ
ln Lhe parLlcular caseţ a compleLe
abrogaLlon of Lhe law of wlllsţ as lL re[ecLs
and desLroys a wlll whlch Lhe sLaLuLe
expressly declares ls valldŦ
1here have been clLed Lhree cases whlch lL
ls alleged are ln opposlLlon Lo Lhe docLrlne
whlch we have hereln lald downŦ 1hey
are potte SanLlago (4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 692)ţ
potte Arcenas (4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 700)ţ and
Culson vsŦConcepclon (3 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 331)Ŧ
noL one of Lhese cases ls ln polnLŦ 1he
headnoLe ln Lhe case lasL above sLaLed
glves an lndlcaLlon of whaL all of cases are
and Lhe quesLlon lnvolved ln each one of
LhemŦ lL saysť
1he LesLaLrlx was noL able Lo slgn
lL for herŦ lnsLead of wrlLlng her
name he wroLe hls own upon Lhe
wlllŦ nelJţ 1haL Lhe wlll was noL
duly execuLedŦ
All of Lhe above cases are preclsely of Lhls
characLerŦ Lvery one of Lhem was a case ln
whlch Lhe person who slgned Lhe wlll for
Lhe LesLaLor wroLe hls own name Lo Lhe
wlll lnsLead of wrlLlng LhaL of Lhe LesLaLorţ
so LhaL Lhe LesLaLorƌs name nowhere
appeared aLLached Lo Lhe wlll as Lhe one
who execuLed lLŦ 1he case of
potte Arcenas conLalns Lhe followlng
paragraphť
Where a LesLaLor does noL knowţ
or ls unable for any reasonţ Lo
slgn Lhe wlll hlmselfţ lL shall be
slgned ln Lhe followlng mannerť
ƍ!ohn uoeţ by Lhe LesLaLorţ
8lchard 8oeŤƍ or ln Lhls formť ƍ8y
Lhe LesLaLorŦ !ohn uoeţ 8lchard
8oeŦƍ All Lhls musL be wrlLLen by
Lhe wlLness slgnlng aL Lhe requesL
of Lhe LesLaLorŦ
1he only quesLlon for declslon ln LhaL caseţ
as we have before sLaLedţ was presenLed
by Lhe facL LhaL Lhe person who was
auLhorlzed Lo slgn Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLor Lo Lhe wlll acLually falled Lo slgn
such name buL lnsLead slgnedbls
owo LhereLoŦ 1he declslon ln LhaL case
relaLed only Lo LhaL quesLlonŦ
Aslde from Lhe presenLaLlon of an alleged
subsequenL wlll Lhe conLesLanLs ln Lhls
case have seL forLh no reason whaLever
why Lhe wlll lnvolved ln Lhe presenL
llLlgaLlon should noL be probaLedŦ 1he due
and legal execuLlon of Lhe wlll by Lhe
LesLaLrlx ls clearly esLabllshed by Lhe
proofs ln Lhls caseŦ upon Lhe facLsţ
Lhereforeţ Lhe wlll musL be probaLedŦ As Lo
Lhe defense of a subsequenL wlllţ LhaL ls
resolved ln case noŦ 6284 of whlch we
have already spokenŦ We Lhere held LhaL
sald laLer wlll noL Lhe wlll of Lhe deceasedŦ
1he [udgmenL of Lhe probaLe courL musL
be and ls hereby reversed and LhaL courL ls
dlrecLed Lo enLer an order ln Lhe usual
form probaLlng Lhe wlll lnvolved ln Lhls
llLlgaLlon and Lo proceed wlLh such
probaLe ln accordance wlLh lawŦ
telloooţ cŦŦţ Mopo ooJ cotsooţ
Ŧţ concurŦ

Separate Cp|n|ons
1CkkLSţ Ŧţconcurrlngť
1he underslgned agrees and admlLs LhaL
secLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedure
does noL expressly requlre LhaLţ when Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx ls unable or does noL
know how Lo slgnţ Lhe person whoţ ln Lhe
presence and under Lhe express dlrecLlon
of elLher of Lhemţ wrlLes ln Lhe name of
Lhe sald LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx musL also slgn
hls own name LhereLoţ lL belng sufflclenL
for Lhe valldlLy of Lhe wlll LhaL Lhe sald
person so requesLed Lo slgn Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlx wrlLe Lhe name of elLher ln hls
own handwrlLlngŦ
Slnce Lhls courL began Lo declde cases wlLh
regard Lo Lhe formţ condlLlons and valldlLy
of wllls execuLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ
never has Lhe speclflc polnL [usL above
menLloned been broughL lnLo quesLlonŦ
now for Lhe flrsL Llme ls afflrmed ln Lhe
ma[orlLy oplnlonţ wrlLLen by Lhe learned
and dlsLlngulshed PonŦ !usLlce Morelandţ
LhaLţ noL belng requlred by Lhe sald codeţ
Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe name of Lhe person
whoţ aL Lhe requesL of Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlxţ wrlLes Lhe name of elLher of Lhe
laLLer Lo Lhe wlll execuLedţ ls noL
necessaryŦ
varlous and conslderable ln number have
been Lhe declslons rendered by Lhls courL
ln whlchţ as wlll be seen furLher onţ upon
applylng Lhe sald secLlon 618 of Code of
Clvll Þrocedure and requlrlng lLs
observance ln cases where Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlx ls unable or does noL know how
Lo slgn hls or her nameţ expressly
prescrlbed Lhe pracLlcal meLhod of
complylng wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhe law
on Lhe sub[ecLŦ Among Lhese declslons
several were wrlLLen by varlous [usLlces of
Lhls courLţ some of whom are no longer on
Lhls benchţ as Lhey have ceased Lo hold
such poslLlonŦ
Þaragraph 2 of Lhe syllabus of case noŦ
2002ţ potte uelfln SanLlagoţ
1
concernlng
Lhe probaLe of a wlllţ reads as followsť
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Þage 6 of 61

Jlllsţ ootbeotlcotloo of Ŧ Ÿ
Where a wlll ls noL slgned by a
LesLaLor buL by some oLher
person ln hls presence and by hls
dlrecLlonţ such oLher person
should afflx Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLor LhereLoţ and lL ls noL
sufflclenL LhaL he slgn hls own
name for and lnsLead of Lhe name
of Lhe LesLaLorŦ
Þaragraph 1 of Lhe syllabus of case noŦ
1708ţ potte Arcenasţ
2
ln Lhe maLLer of
Lhe probaLe of a wlllţ sLaLesť
1Ŧ Jlllsţ tepolsltes ofŤ clvll coJeţ
ottlcle tepeoleJŦ Ÿ ArLlcle 693 of
Lhe Clvll ÞrocedureŤ consequenLly
where a LesLaLor ls unable Lo slgn
hls nameţ Lhe person slgnlng aL
hls requesL musL wrlLe aL Lhe
boLLom of Lhe wlll Lhe full name
of Lhe LesLaLor ln Lhe laLLerƌs
presenceţ and by hls express
dlrecLlonţ and Lhen slgn hls own
name ln fullŦ
ln Lhe syllabus of declslon noŦ 2386ţ 1omas
Culson vsŦ Marla Concepclonţ
3
Lhe
followlng sLaLemenLs appearť
JlllsŤ looblllty to slqoŤ slqootote
by oootbetŦ Ÿ 1he LesLaLrlx was
noL able Lo slgn her name Lo Lhe
wlllţ and she requesLed anoLher
person Lo slgn lL for herŦ nelJţ
1haL Lhe wlll was noL duly
execuLedŦ (lollowlng Lx parLe
Arcenas eL alŦţ noŦ 1708ţ AugusL
24ţ 1903Ť potte Arcenas eL alŦţ
noŦ 1708ţ AugusL 24ţ 1903Ť
potte SanLlagoţ noŦ 2002ţ AugusL
18ţ 1903Ŧ)
1he followlng syllabus precedes declslon
noŦ 3907ť
4

ecotloo of wlllsŦ Ÿ Where lL
appears ln a wlll LhaL Lhe LesLaLor
has sLaLed LhaL by reason of hls
lnablllLy Lo slgn hls name he
requesLed one of Lhe Lhree
wlLnesses presenL Lo do soţ and
LhaL as a maLLer of facLţ Lhe sald
wlLness wroLe Lhe name and
surname of Lhe LesLaLor whoţ
sLaLlng LhaL Lhe lnsLrumenL
execuLed by hlm conLalned hls
lasL wlllţ puL Lhe slgn of Lhe cross
beLween hls sald name and
surnameţ all of whlch deLalls are
seL forLh ln a noLe whlch Lhe
wlLnesses forLhwlLh subscrlbed ln
Lhe presence of Lhe LesLaLor and
of each oLherţ sald wlll may be
probaLedŦ
When Lhe essenLlal requlslLes of
secLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedure for Lhe execuLlon and
valldlLy of a wlll have been
complled wlLhţ Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
wlLness who was requesLed Lo
slgn Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLorţ
omlLLed Lo sLaLe Lhe words ƌby
requesL of ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ Lhe LesLaLorţƌ
when wrlLlng wlLh hls own hand
Lhe name and surname of Lhe sald
LesLaLorţ and Lhe facL LhaL sald
wlLness subscrlbed hls name
LogeLher wlLh Lhe oLher wlLnesses
and noL below Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLorţ does noL consLlLuLe a
defecL nor lnvalldaLe Lhe sald wlllŦ
1he followlng sLaLemenL appears ln Lhe
syllabus of case noŦ 4132ţ ln Lhe maLLer of
Lhe wlll of Marla Slasonť
3

1he reclLal of Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLor as wrlLLen below Lhe wlll
aL hls requesL serves as a
slgnaLure by a Lhlrd personŦ
Moreover among Lhe grounds glven as a
basls for Lhls same declslonţ Lhe followlng
appearsť
ln susLalnlng Lhls form of
slgnaLureţ Lhls courL does noL
lnLend Lo quallfy Lhe declslons
ln potte SanLlago (4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ
692)ţ potte Arcenasţ above
quoLedţ or ln boyo vsŦ 2olometoŦ
ln Lhe Arcenas case Lhe courL
polnLed ouL Lhe correcL formula
for a slgnaLure whlch oughL Lo be
followedţ buL dld noL mean Lo
exclude any oLher for
subsLanLlally equlvalenLŦ
ln Lhe syllabus of declslon noŦ 4434ţ
6

potte Cndevllla eL alŦţ Lhe followlng
appearsť
1he LesLaLrlx was unable Lo slgn
her wlll wlLh her own hand and
requesLed anoLher person Lo slgn
for her ln her presenceŦ 1hls Lhe
laLLer dldţ flrsL wrlLlng Lhe name
of Lhe LesLaLrlx and slgnlng hls
own name belowťnelJţ 1haL Lhe
slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLrlx so
afflxed ls sufflclenL and a wlll Lhus
execuLed ls admlsslble Lo probaLeŦ
( potte Arcenasţ 4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ
700Ŧ)
1he syllabus of declslon noŦ 3149
7
seLs
forLh LhaLť
1he legallLy of a wlll ls noL affecLed by Lhe
lnserLlonţ supposed Lo have been made
subsequenLlyţ of anoLher name before
LhaL of Lhe LesLaLor when such name may
be LreaLed as nonexlsLenL wlLhouL
affecLlng lLs valldlLyŦ
Among Lhe concluslons conLalned ln Lhls
lasL declslon Lhe followlng ls foundť
AlLhough Lhe sald words ƍlor
Slmpllcla de los SanLosƍ be
consldered as lnserLed
subsequenLlyţ whlch we nelLher
afflrm nor denyţ because a
speclflc deLermlnaLlon elLher way
ls unnecessaryţ ln our oplnlon Lhe
slgnaLure for Lhe LesLaLrlx placed
ouLslde of Lhe body of Lhe wlll
conLalns Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLrlx
as lf she slgned Lhe wlllţ and also
Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe wlLness whoţ
aL her requesLţ wroLe Lhe name of
Lhe LesLaLrlx and slgned for herţ
afflrmlng Lhe LruLh of Lhls facLţ
aLLesLed by Lhe oLher wlLnesses
Lhen presenLŦ And Lhls fully
complles wlLh Lhe provlslons of
secLlon 618 of Lhe AcLŦ
lL ls Lrue LhaL ln none of Lhe declslons
above quoLed was Lhe rule esLabllshed
LhaL Lhe person whoţ aL Lhe requesL of Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlxţ slgned Lhe laLLerƌs or
Lhe formerƌs name and surname Lo Lhe wlll
musL afflx hls own slgnaLureŤ buL lL no less
Lrue LhaLţ ln prescrlblng Lhe meLhod ln
whlch Lhe provlslons of Lhe sald secLlon
618 Lo be complled wlLhţ lL was sLaLed
Successlon 07072011
Þage of 61

LhaLţ ln order LhaL a wlll so execuLed mlghL
be admlLLed Lo probaLeţ lL was an
lndlspensable requlslLe LhaL Lhe person
requesLed Lo slgn ln place of Lhe LesLaLor
or LesLaLrlxţ should wrlLe Lhe laLLerƌs or Lhe
formerƌs name and surname aL Lhe fooL of
Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence and under Lhe
dlrecLlon of elLherţ as Lhe case mlghL beţ
and should afLerwards slgn Lhe lnsLrumenL
wlLh hls own name and surnameŦ
1he sLaLemenL LhaL Lhe person who wrlLes
Lhe name and surname of Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlx aL Lhe fooL of Lhe wlll should
llkewlse afflx hls own slgnaLure LhereLoţ
name and surnameţ Lhough lL be
consldered Lo be nelLher a rule nor a
requlslLe necessary Lo follow for Lhe
admlsslon of Lhe wlll Lo probaLeţ yeL lL ls
unquesLlonable LhaLţ ln lnserLlng Lhls lasL
aboveŴmenLloned deLall ln Lhe aforesald
declslonsţ lL was deemed Lo be a
complemenL and lnLegral parL of Lhe
requlred condlLlons for Lhe fulflllmenL of
Lhe provlslons of Lhe lawŦ
lL ls undlspuLable LhaL Lhe laLLer does noL
requlre Lhe sald subscrlpLlon and slgnaLure
of Lhe person requesLed Lo afflx Lo Lhe wlll
Lhe name of Lhe LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx who
ls noL able Lo slgnŤ buL by sLaLlng ln Lhe
declslons herelnabove quoLed LhaL Lhe
name and surname of Lhe sald person
should be afflxed by hlmţ no acL prohlblLed
by law was recommended or suggesLedţ
nor may such a deLall be undersLood Lo be
conLrary or opposed Lo Lhe plaln
provlslons LhereofŦ
ln Lhe precedlng declslon lLselfţ lL ls
recognlzed Lo be convenlenL and even
prudenL Lo requlre LhaL Lhe person
requesLed Lo wrlLe Lhe name of Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx ln Lhe wlll also slgn Lhe
lnsLrumenL wlLh hls own name and
surnameŦ 1hls sLaLemenL lnduces us Lo
belleve LhaLţ ln behalf of Lhe lnhablLanLs of
Lhls counLry and for sake of an uprlghL
admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlceţ lL should be
malnLalned LhaL such a slgnaLure musL
appear ln Lhe wlllţ slnce no harm could
accrue Lo anyone Lhereby andţ on Lhe
conLraryţ lL would serve as a guaranLee of
Lhe cerLalnLy of Lhe acL performed and also
mlghL ellmlnaLe some posslble cause of
conLroversy beLween Lhe lnLeresLed
parLlesŦ
1he underslgned feels lL hls duLy Lo admlL
LhaLţ Lhough convlnced of Lhe compleLe
repeal of arLlcle 693 of Lhe Clvll Code andţ
whlle he conceded LhaLţ ln Lhe
examlnaLlon and quallflcaLlon of a wlll for
Lhe purpose of lLs probaLeţ one has buL Lo
ablde by Lhe provlslons of sald secLlon 618
of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ Lhe sole law
appllcable ln Lhe maLLerţ yeLţ perhaps
lmbued wlLh Lhe sLrongly lmpelled by a
LradlLlonal concepLlon of Lhe laws whlch
he has known slnce youLhţ relaLlve Lo Lhe
form of execuLlon of LesLamenLsţ he
belleved lL Lo be a vary naLural and
common sense requlslLe LhaL Lhe
slgnaLureţ wlLh hls own name and
surnameţ of Lhe person requesLed Lo wrlLe
ln Lhe wlll Lhe name and surname of Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx should form a parL of
Lhe provlslons of Lhe aforemenLloned
secLlon 618Ŧ
Pe undoubLedly LhoughLţ perhaps
mlsLakenlyţ LhaL such a requlslLe of Lhe
slgnaLure of Lhe person before referred Lo
Ÿ a requlslLe deemed Lo be convenlenL
and prudenL ln Lhe ma[orlLy oplnlon Ÿ
formed a parL of Lhe provlslons of Lhe lawţ
slnce Lhe laLLer conLalns noLhlng LhaL
prohlblLs lLŦ 1he aforemenLloned dlfferenL
declslons were drawn up ln Lhe form ln
whlch Lhey appearţ and slgned wlLhouL
dlssenL by all Lhe [usLlces of Lhe courL on
varlous daLesŦ none of Lhem heslLaLed Lo
slgn Lhe declslonsţ noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL lL
was expressly held Lhereln LhaL Lhe person
above menLloned shouldţ besldes wrlLlng
ln Lhe wlll Lhe name and surname of Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlxţ also slgn Lhe sald
lnsLrumenL wlLh hls own name and
surnameŦ
WlLhouL belng undersLood Lo crlLlclze Lhe
provlslon conLalned ln Lhe sald secLlon 618
of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedure lL wlll noL be
superfluous Lo menLlon LhaL Lhe sysLem
adopLed ln Lhls secLlon ls Lhe same as was
ln vogue under Lhe former laws LhaL
governed ln Lhese lslandsţ wlLh respecL Lo
wlLnesses who were noL able or dld noL
know how Lo slgn Lhelr LesLlmony glven ln
crlmlnal or clvll casesţ ln whlch evenL any
person aL all mlghL wrlLe Lhe name and
surname of Lhe wlLness who was unable or
dld noL know how Lo slgnţ aL Lhe fooL of hls
deposlLlonţ where a cross was Lhen drawnţ
andţ Lhls doneţ lL was consldered LhaL Lhe
lnsLrumenL had been slgned by Lhe
wlLnessţ Lhough lL ls Lrue LhaL all Lhese
formallLles were performed before Lhe
[udge and Lhe clerk or secreLary of Lhe
courLţ whlch Lhereupon cerLlfled LhaL such
procedure was had ln accordance wlLh Lhe
lawŦ
1he dlfference ls LhaL ln Lhe wlllţ pursuanL
Lo secLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedureţ Lhe person who wrlLes Lhe
name and surname of Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlx does so by Lhe order and express
dlrecLlon of Lhe one or of Lhe oLherţ and
Lhls facL musL be recorded ln Lhe wlllŤ buL
ln Lhe maLLer of Lhe slgnaLure of a
deposlLlonţ Lhe wlLnessţ who could noL or
dld noL know how Lo slgnţ dld noL need Lo
deslgnaLe anyone Lo wrlLe Lhe deponenLƌs
name and surnameţ and ln pracLlce Lhe
wlLness merely made a cross beslde hls
name and surnameţ wrlLLen by whomever
lL beŦ
WlLh regard Lo Lhe execuLlon of wllls ln
accordance wlLh Lhe provlslons of prevlous
sLaLuLesţ among Lhem Lhose of Lhe Clvll
Codeţ Lhe person or wlLness requesLed by
Lhe LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx who was noL able
or dld noL know how Lo slgnţ
auLhenLlcaLed Lhe wlll by slgnlng lL wlLh hls
own name and surnameţ preceded by Lhe
words ƍaL Lhe requesL of Lhe LesLaLor or
LesLaLrlxŦƍ Þaragraph 2 of arLlcle 693 of Lhe
Clvll Code conLalns Lhe followlng
provlslons bearlng on Lhe sub[ecLť
Should Lhe LesLaLor declare LhaL
he does noL know howţ or ls noL
able Lo slgnţ one of Lhe aLLesLlng
wlLnesses or anoLher person shall
do so for hlm aL hls requesLţ Lhe
noLary cerLlfylng LhereLoŦ 1hls
shall be done lf any one of Lhe
wlLnesses can noL slgnŦ
So LhaLţ prlor Lo Lhe enforcemenL ln Lhls
counLry ln 1901 of Lhe Code of Clvll
procedure prescrlbed by Lhe old laws wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe slgnlng of a wlll by a LesLaLor
or LesLaLrlx who dld noL know how or who
could noL slgnţ conslsLed ln LhaL Lhe person
appolnLed and requesLed by Lhe LesLaLor
or LesLaLrlx Lo slgn ln hls or her sLeadţ such
facL belng recorded ln Lhe wlllţ merely
afflxed aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe wlll and afLer
Successlon 07072011
Þage 8 of 61

Lhe words ƍaL Lhe requesL of Lhe LesLaLorţƍ
hls own nameţ surname and paragraphŦ
lL ls noL aL all sLrange LhaL Lhe aLLorneys of
Lhls counLryţ lmbued wlLh and lnsplred by
Lhese legal provlslonsţ whlch lL may saldţ
are LradlLlonal Lo Lhem ln Lhe ldeas Lhey
have formed of Lhe exlsLlng laws ln Lhe
maLLer of procedure ln compllance
LherewlLh as regards Lhe execuLlon and
slgnlng of a wlllţ should have belleved LhaLţ
afLer Lhe name and surname of Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx had been wrlLLen aL
Lhe fooL of Lhe wlllţ Lhe person who slgned
Lhe lnsLrumenL ln Lhe manner menLloned
should llkewlse slgn Lhe same wlLh hls own
name and surnameŦ
lf ln varlous declslons lL has been lndlcaLed
LhaL Lhe person whoţ under Lhe express
dlrecLlon of Lhe LesLaLor or LesLaLrlxţ wroLe
Lhe laLLerƌs or Lhe formerƌs name and
surnameţ should also slgn Lhe wlll wlLh hls
own name and surnameţ and slnce Lhls
suggesLlon ls noL opposed or conLrary Lo
Lhe lawţ Lhe underslgned ls of oplnlon LhaL
lL oughL noL Lo be modlfled or amendedţ
buL LhaLţ on Lhe conLraryţ lL should be
malnLalned as a requlslLe esLabllshed by
Lhe [urlsprudence of Lhls courLţ lnasmuch
as such a requlslLe ls noL conLrary Lo lawţ
Lo publlc orderţ or Lo good cusLomţ ls ln
consonance wlLh a LradlLlon of Lhls
counLryţ does noL pre[udlce Lhe LesLaLor
nor Lhose lnLeresLed ln an lnherlLanceţ
andţ on Lhe conLraryţ consLlLuLes anoLher
guaranLee of Lhe LruLh and auLhenLlclLy of
Lhe leLLers wlLh whlch Lhe name and
surname of Lhe LesLaLor of LesLaLrlx are
wrlLLenţ ln accordance wlLh hls or her
deslre as expressed ln Lhe wlllŦ
Lven Lhough Lhe requlslLes referred Lo
were noL recognlzed ln [urlsprudence and
were unsupporLed by any legal docLrlne
whaLeverţ yeLţ slnce lL ls ln harmony wlLh
Lhe [urldlcal usages and cusLoms observed
ln Lhls counLryţ lL oughLţ ln Lhe humble
oplnlon of Lhe wrlLerţ Lo be malnLalned for
Lhe beneflL of Lhe lnhablLanLs of Lhe
lslands and for Lhe sake of a good
admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlceţ because lL ls noL
a quesLlon of a dangerous lnnovaLlon or of
one pre[udlclal Lo Lhe publlc goodţ buL a
maLLer of Lhe observance of a convenlenLţ
lf noL a necessary deLallţ lnLroduced by Lhe
[urlsprudence of Lhe courLs and whlch ln
Lhe presenL case has flled a vacancy lefL by
Lhe poslLlve wrlLLen lawŦ
1he foregolng conslderaLlonsţ whlch
perhaps have noL Lhe supporL of beLLer
premlsesţ buL ln Lhe oplnlon of Lhe
underslgnedţ are conduclve Lo Lhe
reallzaLlon of Lhe purposes of [usLlceţ have
lmpelled hlm Lo belleve LhaL Lhe
proposlLlon should be enforced LhaL Lhe
wlLness requesLed or lnvlLed by Lhe
LesLaLor or LesLaLrlx Lo wrlLe hls or her
name Lo Lhe wlllţ should also subscrlbed
Lhe lnsLrumenL by slgnlng LhereLo hls own
name and surnameŤ and Lhereforeţ wlLh
Lhe proper flndlng ln Lhls senseţ and
reversal of Lhe [udgmenL appealed fromţ
LhaL Lhe courL below should be ordered Lo
proceed wlLh Lhe probaLe of Lhe wlll of Lhe
decedenLţ Marla Salomonţ ln accordance
wlLh Lhe lawŦ

Iootnotes
1
noL publlshedŦ
1CkkLSţ IŦţ concurrlngť
1
4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 692Ŧ
2
4 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 700Ŧ
3
3 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 331Ŧ
4
Abaya vsŦ Zalamero (10 ÞhllŦ
8epŦţ 337)Ŧ
3
10 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 304Ŧ
6
13 ÞhllŦ 8epŦţ 470Ŧ
7
Macaplnla vsŦ Allmurong (16 ÞhllŦ
8epŦţ 41)Ŧ



































































Successlon 07072011
Þage 9 of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
ll8S1 ulvlSlCn

GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ32213 November 26ţ 193
AGAÞI1A NŦ CkU2ţ peLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
nCNŦ IUDGL GUILLLkMC ÞŦ VILLASCkţ
Þres|d|ng Iudge of 8ranch Iţ Court of I|rst
Instance of Cebuţ and MANULL 8Ŧ
LUGA¥ţ respondenLsŦ
lool CŦ Cottez fot petltlooetŦ
Motlo uŦ Ottlz fot tespooJeot Moooel 8Ŧ
loqoyŦ

LSGULkkAţ Ŧť
ÞeLlLlon Lo revlew on cettlototl Lhe
[udgmenL of Lhe CourL llrsL lnsLance of
Cebu allowlng Lhe probaLe of Lhe lasL wlll a
LesLamenL of Lhe laLe valenLe ZŦ CruzŦ
ÞeLlLlonerŴappellanL AgaplLa nŦ Cruzţ Lhe
survlvlng spouse of Lhe sald decease
opposed Lhe allowance of Lhe wlll (LxhlblL
ƍLƍ)ţ alleglng Lhe wlll was execuLed
Lhrough fraudţ decelLţ mlsrepresenLaLlon
and undue lnfluenceŤ LhaL Lhe sald
lnsLrumenL was execuLe wlLhouL Lhe
LesLaLor havlng been fully lnformed of Lhe
conLenL Lhereofţ parLlcularly as Lo whaL
properLles he was dlsposlng and LhaL Lhe
supposed lasL wlll and LesLamenL was noL
execuLed ln accordance wlLh lawŦ
noLwlLhsLandlng her ob[ecLlonţ Lhe CourL
allowed Lhe probaLe of Lhe sald lasL wlll
and LesLamenL Pence Lhls appeal by
cerLlorarl whlch was glven due courseŦ
1he only quesLlon presenLed for
deLermlnaLlonţ on whlch Lhe declslon of
Lhe case hlngesţ ls wheLher Lhe supposed
lasL wlll and LesLamenL of valenLe ZŦ Cruz
(LxhlblL ƍLƍ) was execuLed ln accordance
wlLh lawţ parLlcularly ArLlcles 803 and 806
of Lhe new Clvll Codeţ Lhe flrsL requlrlng aL
leasL Lhree credlble wlLnesses Lo aLLesL and
subscrlbe Lo Lhe wlllţ and Lhe second
requlrlng Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe wlLnesses Lo
acknowledge Lhe wlll before a noLary
publlcŦ
Cf Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses
LhereLoţ namely ueograclas 1Ŧ !amaloas !rŦţ
urŦ lranclsco Þanares and ALLyŦ Angel PŦ
1evesţ !rŦţ one of Lhemţ Lhe lasL namedţ ls
aL Lhe same Llme Lhe noLary Þubllc before
whom Lhe wlll was supposed Lo have been
acknowledgedŦ 8educed Lo slmpler Lermsţ
Lhe quesLlon was aLLesLed and subscrlbed
by aL leasL Lhree credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of each oLherţ
conslderlng LhaL Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng
wlLnesses musL appear before Lhe noLary
publlc Lo acknowledge Lhe sameŦ As Lhe
Lhlrd wlLness ls Lhe noLary publlc hlmselfţ
peLlLloner argues LhaL Lhe resulL ls LhaL
only Lwo wlLnesses appeared before Lhe
noLary publlc Lo acknowledge Lhe wlllŦ Cn
Lhe oLher handţ prlvaLe respondenLŴ
appelleeţ Manuel 8Ŧ Lugayţ who ls Lhe
supposed execuLor of Lhe wlllţ followlng
Lhe reasonlng of Lhe Lrlal courLţ malnLalns
LhaL Lhere ls subsLanLlal compllance wlLh
Lhe legal requlremenL of havlng aL leasL
Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnesses even lf Lhe
noLary publlc acLed as one of Lhemţ
bolsLerlng up hls sLand wlLh 37 Amerlcan
!urlsprudenceţ pŦ 227 whlchţ lnsofar as
perLlnenLţ reads as followsť
lL ls sald LhaL Lhere areţ
pracLlcal reasons for
upholdlng a wlll as
agalnsL Lhe purely
Lechnlcal reason LhaL one
of Lhe wlLnesses requlred
by law slgned as
cerLlfylng Lo an
acknowledgmenL of Lhe
LesLaLorƌs slgnaLure
under oaLh raLher Lhan
as aLLesLlng Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe
lnsLrumenLŦ
AfLer welghlng Lhe merlLs of Lhe confllcLlng
clalms of Lhe parLlesţ We are lncllned Lo
susLaln LhaL of Lhe appellanL LhaL Lhe lasL
wlll and LesLamenL ln quesLlon was noL
execuLed ln accordance wlLh lawŦ 1he
noLary publlc before whom Lhe wlll was
acknowledged cannoL be consldered as
Lhe Lhlrd lnsLrumenLal wlLness slnce he
cannoL acknowledge before hlmself hls
havlng slgned Lhe wlllŦ 1o acknowledge
before means Lo avow (!avellana vŦ
Ledesmaţ 97 ÞhllŦ 238ţ 262Ť CasLro vŦ
CasLroţ 100 ÞhllŦ 239ţ 247)Ť Lo own as
genulneţ Lo assenLţ Lo admlLŤ and ƍbeforeƍ
means ln fronL or precedlng ln space or
ahead ofŦ (1he new WebsLer Lncyclopedlc
ulcLlonary of Lhe Lngllsh Languageţ pŦ 72Ť
lunk Ǝ Wagnalls new SLandard ulcLlonary
of Lhe Lngllsh Languageţ pŦ 232Ť WebsLerƌs
new lnLernaLlonal ulcLlonary 2dŦ pŦ 243Ŧ)
ConsequenLlyţ lf Lhe Lhlrd wlLness were Lhe
noLary publlc hlmselfţ he would have Lo
avow assenLţ or admlL hls havlng slgned
Lhe wlll ln fronL of hlmselfŦ 1hls cannoL be
done because he cannoL spllL hls
personallLy lnLo Lwo so LhaL one wlll
appear before Lhe oLher Lo acknowledge
hls parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe maklng of Lhe wlllŦ
1o permlL such a slLuaLlon Lo obLaln would
be sancLlonlng a sheer absurdlLyŦ
lurLhermoreţ Lhe funcLlon of a noLary
publlc lsţ among oLhersţ Lo guard agalnsL
any lllegal or lmmoral arrangemenL
8allnon vŦ ue Leonţ 30 0Ŧ CŦ 383Ŧ) 1haL
funcLlon would defeaLed lf Lhe noLary
publlc were one of Lhe aLLesLlng
lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesŦ lor Lhem he
would be lnLeresLed susLalnlng Lhe valldlLy
of Lhe wlll as lL dlrecLly lnvolves hlm and
Lhe valldlLy of hls own acLŦ lL would place
hlm ln lnconslsLenL poslLlon and Lhe very
purpose of acknowledgmenLţ whlch ls Lo
mlnlmlze fraud (8eporL of Code
Commlsslon pŦ 106Ŵ107)ţ would be
LhwarLedŦ
AdmlLLedlyţ Lhere are Amerlcan
precedenLs holdlng LhaL noLary publlc mayţ
ln addlLlonţ acL as a wlLness Lo Lhe
execuLlve of Lhe documenL he has
noLarlzedŦ (Mahllum vŦ CourL Appealsţ 64
0Ŧ CŦ 4017Ť 17 SC8A 482Ť Sawyer vŦ Coxţ 43
lllŦ 130)Ŧ 1here are oLhers holdlng LhaL hls
slgnlng merely as noLary ln a wlll
noneLheless makes hlm a wlLness Lhereon
(lerguson vŦ lergusonţ 47 SŦ LŦ 2dŦ 346Ť ln
8e uouglas Wlllţ nŦ ?Ŧ SŦ 2dŦ 641Ť 8agsdal vŦ
Plllţ 269 SŦ WŦ 2dŦ 911ţ 1yson uLLerbackţ
122 SoŦ 496Ť ln 8e 8aybeeƌs LsLaLe 160 nŦ
900Ť WŦ Merlll vŦ 8oalţ 132 AŦ 721Ť5ee
olso 1renwlLh vŦ Smallwoodţ 13 SoŦ 1030)Ŧ
8uL Lhese auLhorlLles do noL serve Lhe
purpose of Lhe law ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon or
are noL declslve of Lhe lssue hereln
because Lhe noLarles publlc and wlLnesses
referred Lo aforeclLed cases merely acLed
Successlon 07072011
Þage 10 of 61

as lnsLrumenLalţ subscrlblng aLLesLlng
wlLnessesţ and noL
as ockoowleJqloq wlLnessesŦ Pe Lhe noLary
publlc acLed noL only as aLLesLlng wlLness
buL also acknowledglng wlLnessţ a
slLuaLlon noL envlsaged by ArLlcle 803 of
Lhe Clvll Code whlch readsť
A81Ŧ 806Ŧ Lvery wlll musL
be ockoowleJqeJ befote
o oototy pobllc by tbe
testotot ooJ tbe
wltoessesŦ 1he noLary
publlc shall noL be
requlred Lo reLaln a copy
of Lhe wlll or flle anoLher
wlLh Lhe offlce of Lhe
Clerk of CourLŦ żLmphasls
supplledŽ
1o allow Lhe noLary publlc Lo acL as Lhlrd
wlLnessţ or one Lhe aLLesLlng and
acknowledglng wlLnessesţ would have Lhe
effecL of havlng only Lwo aLLesLlng
wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll whlch would be ln
conLravenLlon of Lhe provlslons of ArLlcle
80 be requlrlng aL leasL Lhree credlble
wlLnesses Lo acL as such and of ArLlcle 806
whlch requlres LhaL Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe
requlred number of wlLnesses musL
appear before Lhe noLary publlc Lo
acknowledge Lhe wlllŦ 1he resulL would beţ
as has been saldţ LhaL only Lwo wlLnesses
appeared before Lhe noLary publlc for or
LhaL purposeŦ ln Lhe clrcumsLancesţ Lhe
law would noL be duly ln observedŦ
lC8 ALL 1PL lC8LCClnCţ Lhe [udgmenL
appealed from ls hereby reversed and Lhe
probaLe of Lhe lasL wlll and LesLamenL of
valenLe ZŦ Cruz (LxhlblL ƍLƍ) ls declared noL
valld and hereby seL asldeŦ
CosL agalnsL Lhe appelleeŦ
Mokollotolţ cŦŦţ costtoţ 1eebookeeţ
Mokoslot ooJ Moñoz lolmoţ Ŧţ coocotŦ




























































































































Successlon 07072011
Þage 11 of 61


8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
Ln 8AnC
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ2S69 Iebruary 26ţ 1926
MANULL 1CkkLSţ peLlLlonerŴ
appellanL and
LU2 LCÞL2 DL 8ULNCţ appellanLţ
vsŦ
MAkGAkI1A LCÞL2ţ opponenLŴappelleeŦ
tooeto Ǝ 2otoqozo fot oppellootŦ
MotcolJoţ coplll Ǝ Ocompo ooJ 1bomos
coty Jelcb fot oppelleeŦ
MALCCLMţ Ŧť
1hls case concerns Lhe probaLe of Lhe
alleged wlll of Lhe laLe 1omas 8odrlguez y
LopezŦ
1omas 8odrlguez dled ln Lhe ClLy of Manlla
Þhlllpplne lslandsŦ Cn lebruary 23ţ 1924ţ
leavlng a conslderable esLaLeŦ ShorLly
LhereafLer Manuel 1orresţ one of Lhe
execuLors named ln Lhe wlll asked LhaL Lhe
wlll of 8odrlguez be allowedŦ CpposlLlon
was enLered by MargarlLa Lopezţ Lhe flrsL
cousln of Lhe deceased on Lhe groundsť (1)
1haL Lhe LesLaLor lacked menLal capaclLy
because aL Lhe Llme of seolle Jemeotlo and
was under guardlanshlpŤ (2) LhaL undue
lnfluence had been exerclsed by Lhe
persons beneflLed ln Lhe documenL ln
con[uncLlon wlLh oLhers who acLed ln Lhelr
behalfŤ and (3) LhaL Lhe slgnaLure of 1omas
8odrlguez Lo Lhe documenL was obLalned
Lhrough fraud and decelLŦ AfLer a
prolonged Lrlal [udgmenL was rendered
denylng Lhe legallzaLlon of Lhe wlllŦ ln Lhe
declslon of Lhe Lrlal [udge appearedţ
among oLhersţ Lhese flndlngsť
All Lhls evldence Laken LogeLher
wlLh Lhe clrcumsLances LhaL
before and aL Lhe Llme 1omas
8odrlguez was caused Lo slgn Lhe
supposed wlll LxhlblL Aţ and Lhe
coples Lhereof Lhere already
exlsLed a flnal [udgmenL as Lo hls
menLal condlLlon whereln he was
declared physlcally and menLally
lncapaclLaLed Lo Lake care of
hlmself and manage hls esLaLe
shows ln a clear and concluslve
manner LhaL aL Lhe Llme of slgnlng
Lhe supposed wlll of 1omas
8odrlguez dld noL possess such
menLal capaclLy as was necessary
Lo be able hlm Lo dlspose of hls
properLy by Lhe supposed wlllŦ
8uL even supposlng as conLended
by peLlLlonerƌs counsel LhaL
1omas 8odrlguez was aL Lhe Llme
of execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ
compeLenL Lo make a wlllţ Lhe
courL ls of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe
wlll cannoL be probaLed for lL
appears from Lhe declaraLlon of
Lhe aLLesLlng wlLness Lllas 8onoan
LhaL when Lhe legaLee Luz Lopez
presenLed Lhe supposed wlllţ
LxhlblL Aţ Lo 1omas 8odrlguezţ
she Lold hlm Lo slgn sald LxhlblL A
because lL was a documenL
relaLlve Lo Lhe complalnL agalnsL
one CasLlLoţ whlch LxhlblL 4ţ Lhen
pendlng ln Lhe [usLlce of Lhe
peace courLţ and for Lhe furLher
reason LhaL sald 1omas 8odrlguez
was Lhen under guardlanshlpţ due
Lo hls belng menLally and
physlcally lncapaclLaLed and
Lherefore unable Lo manage hls
properLy and Lake care of hlmselfŦ
lL musL also be Laken lnLo accounL
LhaL 1omas 8odrlguez was an old
man 76 years of ageţ and was slck
ln Lhe hosplLal when hls slgnaLure
Lo Lhe supposed wlll was
obLalnedŦ All of Lhls shows LhaL
Lhe slgnaLure of 1omas 8odrlguez
appearlng ln Lhe wlll was
obLalned Lhrough fraudulenL and
decelLful represenLaLlons of Lhose
who were lnLeresLed ln lLŦ (8ecord
on Appealţ pŦ 23)
lrom Lhe declslon and [udgmenL aboveŴ
menLloned Lhe proponenLs have appealedŦ
1wo errors are speclfledţ vlzť (1) 1he courL
below erred ln holdlng LhaL aL Lhe Llme of
slgnlng hls wlllţ 1omas 8odrlguez dld noL
possess Lhe menLal capaclLy necessary Lo
make Lhe sameţ and (2) Lhe courL below
erred ln holdlng LhaL Lhe slgnaLures of
1omas 8odrlguez Lo Lhe wlll were obLalned
Lhrough fraudulenL and decelLful
represenLaLlonsţ made by persons
lnLeresLed ln Lhe execuLlons of sald wlllŦ
1he record ls volumlnous Ÿ close Lo Lwo
Lhousand LypewrlLLen pagesţ wlLh a varled
assorLmenL of exhlblLsŦ Cne brlef conLalns
Lwo hundred sevenLyŴfour pagesţ Lhe
oLher four hundred flfLeen pagesŦ 1he
usual oral argumenL has been hadŦ 1he
courL musL scale Lhls mounLalns of
evldence more or less relevanL and of
argumenL lnLense and prollflc Lo dlscover
Lhe ferLlle valleys of facL and prlnclpleŦ
1he Loplcs suggesLed by Lhe asslgnmenLs
of error Ÿ 1esLamenLary CapaclLy and
undue lnfluence Ÿ wlll be Laken up
separaLely and ln orderŦ An aLLempL wlll be
made under each sub[ecL flrsL Lo make
flndlngs of facL qulLe separaLe and aparL
from Lhose of Lhe [udge and second Lo
make flndlngs of law and Lhe law by
renderlng [udgmenLŦ
lŦ 1LS1AMLn1A8? CAÞACl1?
AŦ octsŦ Ÿ lor a long Llme prlor Lo
CcLoberţ 1923ţ 1omas 8odrlguez was ln
feeble healLhŦ Pls breakdown was
undoubLedly due Lo organlc weaknessţ Lo
advanclng years and Lo an accldenL whlch
occurred ln 1921 (LxhlblL 6)Ŧ ulLlmaLelyţ on
AugusL 10 1923ţ on hls lnlLlaLlveţ 1omas
8odrlguez deslgnaLed vlcenLe lŦ Lopez as
Lhe admlnlsLraLor of hls properLy (LxhlblL
7)Ŧ
Cn CcLober 22ţ 1923ţ MargarlLa Lopez
peLlLloned Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance of
Manlla Lo name a guardlan for 1omas
8odrlguez because of hls age and
paLhologlcal sLaLeŦ 1hls peLlLlon was
opposed by ALLorney Cregorlo AraneLa
acLlng on behalf of 1omas 8odrlguez for
Lhe reason LhaL whlle 8odrlguez was far
from sLrong on accounL of hls yearsţ he
was yeL capable of looklng afLer hls
properLy wlLh Lhe asslsLance of hls
admlnlsLraLorţ vlcenLe lŦ LopezŦ 1he
deposlLlon of 1omas 8odrlguez was Laken
and a perusal of Lhe same shows LhaL he
was able Lo answer nearly all of Lhe
quesLlons propounded lnLelllgenLly (LxhlblL
3Ŵg)Ŧ A Lrlal had aL whlch conslderable oral
LesLlmony for Lhe peLlLloner was recelvedŦ
AL Lhe concluslon of Lhe hearlngţ an order
was lssued by Lhe presldlng [udgeţ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 12 of 61

declarlng 1omas 8odrlguez lncapaclLaLed
Lo Lake care of hlmself and Lo manage hls
properLy and namlng vlcenLe lŦ Lopez as
hls guardlanŦ (LxhlblL 37)Ŧ
lnasmuch as counsel for Lhe appellee make
such of one lncldenL whlch occurred ln
connecLlon wlLh Lhe guardlanshlp
proceedlngsţ lL may as well be menLloned
here as laLerŦ 1hls eplsode concerns Lhe
efforL of depuLy sherlff !oaquln Carcla Lo
make servlce on 1omas 8odrlguez on
CcLober 31ţ 1923Ŧ We wlll leL Lhe wlLness
Lell ln hls own words whaL happened on
Lhe occaslons ln quesLlonť
l found hlm lylng down on hls
bedŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ And when lL (Lhe cleanlng
of hls head) was flnlshedţ l agaln
enLered hls roomţ and Lold hlm
LhaL l had an order of Lhe courL
whlch l wanLed Lo read as l dld
read Lo hlmţ buL afLer readlng Lhe
order he asked me whaL Lhe order
meanLŤ ƌl read lL Lo you so LhaL
you may appear before Lhe courLţ
undersLandţƌ Lhen l read lL agalnţ
buL he asked whaL Lhe order saldŤ
ln vlew of LhaL facL l lefL Lhe order
and deparLed from Lhe houseŦ (SŦ
8Ŧţ pŦ 642Ŧ)
1o reLurn Lo our narraLlve Ÿ posslbly
lnsplred by Lhe laLLer porLlon of Lhe order
of !udge ulazţ 1omas 8odrlguez was Laken
Lo Lhe Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLal on
november 27ţ 1923Ŧ 1here he was Lo
remaln slck ln bed unLll hls deaLhŦ 1he
physlclan ln charge durlng Lhls perlod was
urŦ Lllas uomlngoŦ ln Lhe cllnlcal case
record of Lhe hosplLal under Lhe Loplc
ƍulagnosls (ln full)ţƍ we flnd Lhe followlng
ƍSenlllLyŤ Pernla lngulnalŤ uecublLusƍ
(LxhlblL 8)Ŧ
Cn Lhe door of Lhe paLlenLƌs room was
placed a placard readlng Ÿ ƍno vlslLorsţ
excepL faLherţ moLherţ slsLersţ and
broLhersŦƍ (1esLlmony of head nurse
physlclanţ Lhere were permlLLed Lo vlslL
Lhe paLlenL only Lhe followlng named
personsť SanLlago Lopezţ Manuel 8amlrezţ
8omana Lopezţ Luz Lopez de 8uenoţ
8emedlo Lopezţ 8enlLa Lopezţ 1rlnldad
vlzcarraţ Apolonla Lopezţ AnLonlo Pamanţ
and Cregorlo AraneLa ((LxhlblL 9)Ŧ 1he llsL
dld noL lnclude Lhe names of MargarlLa
Lopez and her husband AnLonlo venLuraŦ
lndeed Lhe lasL named persons
experlenced conslderable dlfflculLy ln
peneLraLlng ln Lo Lhe room of 8odrlguezŦ
SanLlago Lopez sLaLes LhaL on one occaslon
when he was vlslLlng 1omas 8odrlguez ln
Lhe hosplLal ţ 8odrlguez expressed Lo hlm a
deslre Lo make a wlll and suggesLed LhaL
Lhe maLLer be Laken up wlLh vlcenLe lŦ
Lopez (SŦ 8Ŧţ pŦ 330)Ŧ 1hls lnformaLlon
SanLlago Lopez communlcaLed Lo vlcenLe
lŦ Lopezţ who Lhen lnLervlewed Maxlmlno
Mlnaţ a pracLlclng aLLorney ln Lhe ClLy of
Manllaţ for Lhe purpose of securlng hlm Lo
prepare Lhe wlllŦ ln accordance wlLh Lhls
requesLţ !udge Mlna conferred wlLh 1omas
8odrlguez ln Lhe hosplLal ln uecember
16Lh and uecember 29LhŦ Pe ascerLalned
Lhe wlshes of 8odrlguez and wroLe up a
LesLamenL ln rough drafLŦ 1he aLLorney
expecLed Lo reLurn Lo Lhe hosplLal on
uecember 31sL Lo have Lhe wlll execuLed
buL was unable Lo do so on accounL of
havlng Lo make a Lrlp Lo Lhe provlncesŦ
Accordlnglyţ Lhe papers were lefL wlLh
SanLlago LopezŦ
ln corroboraLlon of Lhe above sLaLemenLsţ
we Lranscrlbe a porLlon of !udge Mlnaƌs
LesLlmony whlch has noL been challenged
ln any wayť
A8AnL1Ať CŦ Wlll you please Lell
your moLlve for holdlng an
lnLervlew wlLh vlcenLe Lopez?
MAxlMlnC MlnAť AŦ 1hen l
arrlved ln Lhe house of vlcenLe
Lopezţ afLer Lhe usual greeLlng
and oLher unlmporLanL Lhlngsţ he
consulLed me or presenLed Lhe
quesLlon as Lo wheLher or noL uŦ
1omas could make hls wlllţ havlng
announced hls deslre Lo do soŦ l
Lold hlm LhaL lL seemed LhaL we
were noL called upon Lo declde or
glve an oplnlon as Lo wheLher or
noL he can make a wlllŤ lL ls a
quesLlon Lo be submlLLed Lo Lhe
courLţ buL as he had announced
hls deslreţ lL ls our duLy Lo comply
wlLh lLŦ 1hen he requesLed me Lo
do whaL was necessary Lo comply
wlLh hls wlshesť l Lold hlm l was Lo
see hlmŤ Lhen we agreed LhaL on
Lhe mornlng nexL Lo Lhe followlng
evenlng LhaL ls on Lhe 16Lhţ l
should go Lo Lhe Ceneral PosplLal
and so l dldŦ
CŦ uld you go Lo Lhe hosplLal ln
Lhe evenlng of Lhe 16Lh? Ÿ AŦ
?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uld you meeL uŦ 1omas? Ÿ AŦ
?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uld uŦ 1omas Lell you hls deslre
Lo make a wlll?
CCAMÞCť LeadlngŦ
A8AnL1Ať l wlLhdrawŦ WhaLţ lf
anyLhlngţ dld uŦ 1omas Lell you on
LhaL occaslon when you saw hlm
Lhere? Ÿ AŦ Pe Lold me LhaLŦ
CŦ Þlease Lell us whaL
conversaLlon you had wlLh uŦ
1omas 8odrlguez? Ÿ AŦ 1he
conversaLlon l had wlLh hlm LhaL
evenlng Ÿ accordlng Lo my besL
recollecLlon Ÿ l cannoL Lell Lhe
exacL words and perhaps Lhe
orderŦ AfLer Lhe usual greeLlngsţ
Cood evenlngţ uŦ 1omasţ ƌ Cood
evenlngţƌ Pow are youţƌ ƌ Pow do
you do? very wellţ [usL came here
ln Lhe name of uŦ vlcenLe Lopez
why does he noL comeŦ Pe cannoL
come because he has many Lhlngs
Lo doţ and besldes lL ls hard for
hlm and makes hlm Llredţ so he
Lold me Lo comeŦƌ Mlnaţ your
LenanLţ aLLorneyŦƌ Are you an
aLLorney? ?esŦƌ Where do you
llve? l llve ln CulapoŦƌ Chţ ln
Culapoţ a good dlsLrlcLţ lL ls gay a
commerclal place you musL have
some buslness Lhere because LhaL
ls a commerclal placeŦ
unforLunaLelyţ l have noneţ uŦ
1omasŦƌ Wellţ you musL be have
because Lhe professlon alone
does noL glve enoughŦ Where ls
your offlce? l work ln Lhe offlce of
MrŦ ChlcoLeŦ 1haL MrŦ ChlcoLe
musL be rlchţ lL seems Lo me LhaL
he lsŦ 1he professlon glves almosL
noLhlng lL ls beLLer Lo have
properLlesŦ l am an aLLorney buL
do noL depend upon my
professlonŦ l lnLerrupLed uŦ 1omas
Successlon 07072011
Þage 13 of 61

saylngţ slnce you wanL Lo make a
wlllţ when and Lo whom do you
wanL Lo leave your forLune? 1hen
he saldţ 1o whom else? 1o my
cousln vlcenLe Lopez and hls
daughLer Luz LopezŦ Whlch
properLles do you wanL Lo glve Lo
your cousln and nlece? All my
properLlesţ WonƌL you speclfy Lhe
properLy Lo be glven Lo each of
Lhem? WhaL for? All my properLyŦ
uonƌL you have any oLher
relaLlves? ?esţ slr l haveŦ WonƌL
you glve any Lo Lhose relaLlves?
WhaL for? was hls answerŦ Wellţ
do you wanL Lo speclfy sald
properLlesţ Lo say whaL Lhey are?
and he agaln saldţ WhaL for? Lhey
know Lhemţ he ls my aLLorneyŴlnŴ
facL as Lo all properLyŦ l also saldţ
Well and as legacy wonƌL you glve
properLy Lo oLher persons?
answersţ l Lhlnkţ someLhlngţ Lhey
wlll know lLŦ AfLer belng askedţ
Whom do you Lhlnkţ would you
wanL Lo be your execuLor? AfLer
heslLaLlng a llLLleţ 1hls 1orresţ
Manuel or SanLlago Lopez alsoŦ
1hen l asked hlmţ WhaL ls your
rellglon? Pe answeredţ 8oman
AposLollc CaLhollcţ and Lhen he
also asked meţ and your? Also
8oman AposLollc CaLhollcţ Where
have you sLudled?ƌ ƌln Lhe
unlverslLy of SanLo 1omasŦƌ ƌlL ls
convenlenL Lo preserve Lhe
CaLhollc rellglon LhaL our
descendanLs have lefL usŦ And
youţ whaL dld you have anyLhlng
more Lo say as Lo your
LesLamenLary dlsposlLlons? noţ he
answeredŦ 1hen l remlnd hlmţ
ƌ?ou know LhaL vlcenLe Lopez has
senL me Lo geL Lhese dlsposlLlons
of yoursţ and he saldţ ?esţ do lLŦƌ l
asked hlmţ When do you wanL lL
done? LaLer onţ l wlll send for
youŦ AfLer Lhls bellevlng Lo have
done my duLyţ l bade hlm goodŴ
byeŦ
CŦ uld you have any oLher
occaslon Lo see hlm? Ÿ AŦ ?esŦ
CŦ When? Ÿ AŦ Cn uecember 29ţ
1923ţ also ln Lhe evenlngŦ
CŦ Why dld you go Lo see hlm? Ÿ
AŦ 8ecause as l had noL recelved
any message elLher from vlcenLe
Lopez or 1omas 8odrlguezţ as l
had recelved noLlces ln
connecLlon wlLh Lhe few cases l
had ln Lhe provlnces parLlcularly
ln 1ayabasţ whlch compelled me
Lo be absenL from Manlla unLll
!anuary 1sL aL leasLţ for l mlghL be
Lhere for several daysţ so l wenL
Lo Lhe Ceneral PosplLal of my
own accord Ÿ slnce l had noL
recelved any messages from Lhem
Ÿ wlLh a rough drafL whlch l had
prepared ln accordance wlLh whaL
he had Lold me ln our
conversaLlonŦ AfLer Lhe greeLlngsţ
l Lold hlmţ Pere l am uŦ 1omasŤ
Lhls ls Lhe rough drafL of your wlll
ln accordance wlLh your former
sLaLemenLs Lo me ln order Lo
submlL lL Lo youŦ uo you wanL Lo
read lL?ƌ ƌÞlease do me Lhe favor
of readlng lLŦ l read lL slowly Lo
hlm ln order LhaL he could
undersLand lL Ŧ AfLer readlngţ ls lL
all rlghLţ LhaL ls Lhe wayţŸ few
words Ÿ you see lL Lakes only a
few mlnuLesŤ now l can execuLe
Lhe wlllŦ We can do lL Lakes only a
few mlnuLesŦƌ ln vlew of LhaL
sLaLemenL of hlsţ l called hls
aLLenLlonţ ƌ 8uL we donƌL have
wlLnessesţ uŦ 1omasŦƌ l looked ouL
Lhrough Lhe door Lo see lf l could
call some wlLnesses buL lL was
laLe Lhen and lL was LhoughL
beLLer Lo do lL on Lhe 31sL of
uecemberŦ 1hen we Lalked abouL
oLher Lhlngsţ and he agaln askedŦ
Where were you born? l Lold hlm
ln CulapoŦ Ahţ good dlsLrlcLţ and
especlally now LhaL Lhe flesLa of
Culapo ls comlng nearţƌ and Lhen l
lnLerrupLed hlmţ ?esţ Lhe flesLa of
Lhe Poly Chlld and of Cur Lady of
MounL Carmelƌ because we also
Lalked abouL Lhe flesLa of San
SebasLlanŦ l agaln remlnded hlm
LhaL we could noL do lL because
Lhe wlLnesses were noL Lhere and
he explalnedţ Cood ChrlsLmas
presenLţ lsnƌL lL?ƌ l dld noL Lell hlm
anyLhlng and ln vlew of LhaL l dld
noL deem lL necessary Lo sLay
Lhere any longerŦ
CŦ WlLh whom dld you make Lhe
arrangemenL Lo make Lhe wlll on
Lhe evenlng of Lhe 31sL of
uecember Ÿ you sald LhaL lL was
agreed LhaL Lhe wlll be execuLed
on Lhe evenlng of uecember
31sL? Ÿ AŦ WlLh SanLlago Lopez
and uon 1omasŦ
CŦ Was Lhe wlll execuLed on Lhe
31sL of uecember? Ÿ AŦ WhaL
happened ls Lhlsť ln vlew of LhaL
agreemenLţ l flxed up Lhe drafL
whlch l hadţ daLlng lL Lhe 31sL of
uecemberţ puLLlng everyLhlng ln
orderŤ we agreed LhaL SanLlago
would meeL me on 31sL day
beLween flve and slx ln Lhe
evenlng or a llLLle beforeţ buL lL
happened LhaL before Lhe arrlval
of LhaL daLe SanLlago Lopez came
and Lold me LhaL l need noL
Lrouble abouL golng Lo Lhe
Ceneral PosplLalŤ because lL could
noL be carrled ouL for Lhe reason
LhaL cerLaln requlslLes were
lacklngŦ ln vlew of Lhls and
bearlng always ln mlnd LhaL on
Lhe followlng day l had Lo go Lo
Lhe provlncesţ l Lold SanLlago
Lopez LhaL l would leave Lhe
papers wlLh hlm because l mlghL
go Lo Lhe provlncesŦ
CŦ WhaL may be Lhe meanlng of
Lhose words good ChrlsLmas
presenL? Ÿ AŦ 1hey are glven a
ChrlsLmas presenL when
ChrlsLmas comes or on Lhe
occaslon of ChrlsLmasŦ
CŦ l show you Lhls documenL
whlch ls marked LxhlblL Aţ Lell me
lf LhaL ls Lhe wlll or copy of Lhe
wlll whlch you dellvered Lo
SanLlago Lopez on uecember 21ţ
31ţ 1923? Ÿ AŦ WlLh Lhe
excepLlon of Lhe words ƌ3 de
enero de 1924ƌ lL seems Lo be
llLerally ldenLlcalŦ (SŦ 8Ŧ ppŦ 244Ŵ
249Ŧ)
As Lhe wlLness sLaLedţ Lhe wlll whlch was
prepared by hlm ls ldenLlcal wlLh LhaL
slgned by Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe aLLesLlng
wlLnesses wlLh Lhe slngle excepLlon of Lhe
change of Lhe daLe from uecember 31ţ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 1 of 61

1923ţ Lo !anuary 3ţ 1924Ŧ 1wo coples
besldes Lhe orlglnal of Lhe wlll were madeŦ
1he wlll ls brlef and slmple ln LermlnologyŦ
lor purposes of recordţ we copy Lhe wlll as
here LranslaLed lnLo Lngllshť
CnL? ÞACL
ln Lhe ClLy of Manllaţ Þhlllpplnes
lslandsţ Lhls !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ lţ
1omas 8odrlguezţ of age and
resldenL of Lhe ClLy of Manllaţ
Þhlllpplne lslandsţ do freely and
volunLarlly make Lhls my wlll and
LesLamenL ln Lhe Spanlsh
language whlch l knowţ wlLh Lhe
followlng clausesť
llrsL l declare LhaL l am a 8oman
AposLollc CaLhollcţ and order LhaL
my body be burled ln accordance
wlLh my rellglonţ sLandlng and
clrcumsLancesŦ
SecondŦ l name my cousln vlcenLe
lŦ Lopez and hls daughLer Luz
Lopez de 8ueno as my only
unlversal helrs of all my properLyŦ
1hlrdŦ l appolnL uŦ Manuel 1orres
and uŦ SanLlago Lopez as my
prosecuLorsŦ
ln wlLness whereof l slgn Lhls
LypewrlLLen wlllţ conslsLlng of one
slngle pageţ ln Lhe presence of Lhe
wlLness who slgn belowŦ
(SgdŦ) 1CMAS 8Cu8lCuLZ
(LefL marglnal slgnaLuresť)
1CMAS 8Cu8lCuLZ
LLlAS 8CnCAn
vŦ LŦ LLCA8uA
AŦ uL ASlS
We hereby cerLlfy LhaL on Lhe
daLe and ln Lhe place above
lndlcaLedţ uon 1omas 8odrlguez
execuLed Lhls wlllţ conslsLlng of
one slngle LypewrlLLen pageţ
havlng slgned aL Lhe boLLom of
Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence of us who
saw as wlLnesses Lhe execuLlon of
Lhls wlllţ we slgned aL Lhe boLLom
Lhereof ln Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLor and of each oLherŦ
(SgdŦ) vŦ LŦ LLCA8uA
LLlAS 8CnCAn
AŦ uL ASlS
(LxhlblL AŦ)
Cn Lhe afLernoon of !anuary 3ţ 1924 Lhere
gaLhered ln Lhe quarLers of 1omas
8odrlguez ln Lhe Þhlllpplne Ceneral
PosplLalţ SanLlago Lopez and urŦ AŦ ue
Aslsţ aLLesLlng wlLnessŤ and urŦ Lllas
lernando Calderonţ urŦ Lllas uomlngo and
urŦ llorenLlno Perreraţ physlclansţ Lhere
for purposes of observaLlonŦ (1esLlmony of
Lllas 8onoanţ SŦ 8Ŧţ pŦ 8 of vlŦ Legardaţ SŦ 8Ŧ
pŦ 34Ŧ ) Þosslbly also MrsŦ Luz Lopez de
8ueno and MrsŦ nena Lopez were presenLŤ
aL leasL Lhey were hoverlng ln Lhe
backgroundŦ
As Lo whaL acLually happenedţ we have ln
Lhe record Lwo absoluLely conLradlcLory
accounLsŦ Cne emanaLes from Lhe
aLLesLlng wlLnessţ uocLor 8onoanŦ 1he
oLher ls Lhe unlLed LesLlmony of all
remalnlng persons who were LhereŦ
uocLor Lllas 8onoan was Lhe flrsL wlLness
called aL Lhe LrlalŦ Pe LesLlfled on dlrecL
examlnaLlon as Lo formal maLLersţ such as
Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe slgnaLures Lo Lhe
wlll ŦCn crossŴexamlnaLlonţ he raLher
sLarLed Lhe proponenLs of Lhe wlll by
sLaLlng LhaL Luz Lopez de 8ueno Lold
1omas 8odrlguez Lo slgn Lhe documenL lL
concerned a complalnL agalnsL CasLlLo and
LhaL nobody read Lhe wlll Lo Lhe LesLaLorŦ
uocLor 8onoanƌs LesLlmony along Lhls llne
ls as followsť
CuLS1lCnSŦ
MA8CAluA ť CŦ Why were you a
wlLness Lo Lhe wlll of 1omas
8odrlguez?
AraneLať l ob[ecL Lo Lhe quesLlon
as belng lmmaLerlalŦ
CourLť Cb[ecLlon overruledŦ
urŦ 8onoanť AŦ 8ecause l was
called up by MrsŦ Luz by
Lelephone Lelllng me Lo be ln Lhe
hosplLal aL 3 oƌclock sharp ln Lhe
afLernoon of Lhe 3d of !anuaryŦ
CŦ Who ls LhaL Luz whom you
have menLloned? Ÿ AŦ Luz Lopezţ
daughLer of vlcenLe LopezŦ
CŦ WhaL dayţ !anuary 3ţ 1924? AŦ
?esţ slrŦ
CŦ When dld Luz Lopez Lalk Lo you
ln connecLlon wlLh your golng Lo
Lhe hosplLal? Ÿ AŦ Cn Lhe
mornlng of Lhe 3d she called me
up by LelephoneŦ
CŦ Cn Lhe mornlng? Ÿ AŦ Cn Lhe
mornlngŦ
CŦ 8efore !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ when
Lhe wlll of 1omas 8odrlguez was
slgnedţ dld Luz Lopez Lalk Lo you?
AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Pow many days approxlmaLely
before was lL? Ÿ AŦ l cannoL Lell
Lhe dayţ lL was approxlmaLely one
week beforeţ Ÿ on LhaL occaslon
when l was called up by her abouL
Lhe deceased vlcenLe LopezŦ
CŦ WhaL dld she Lell you when
you wenL Lo Lhe house of vlcenLe
Lopez one week approxlmaLely
before slgnlng Lhe wlll? Ŵ AŦ 1haL
1omas 8odrlguez would make a
wlllŦ
CŦ uonƌL you know where Lhe wlll
of 1omas 8odrlguez was made? Ŵ
AŦ ln Lhe Ceneral PosplLalŦ
CŦ Was LhaL documenL wrlLLen ln
Lhe hosplLal? Ÿ AŦ l have noL seen
lLŦ
CŦ When you wenL Lo Lhe Ceneral
PosplLal on !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ who
were Lhe persons you meL ln Lhe
room where Lhe paLlenLs was ? Ÿ
AŦ l meL one of Lhe nleces of Lhe
deceased 1omas 8odrlguezţ MrsŦ
nena Lopez and unaŦ Luz LopezŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 1S of 61

CŦ Were Lhose Lhe only persons?
Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ WhaL Llme approxlmaLely dld
you go Lo Lhe Ceneral PosplLal on
!anuary 3d? Ÿ AŦ A quarLer Lo 3Ŧ
CŦ AfLer youţ who came? Ÿ AŦ
AnLonlo de Aslsţ uocLor Perreraţ
laLer on uocLor Calderon arrlved
wlLh uocLor Lllas uomlngo and
lasLly SanLlago Lopez came and
Lhen MrŦ LegardaŦ
CŦ When you enLered Lhe room of
Lhe paLlenLţ uŦ 1omas 8odrlguezţ
ln Lhe Ceneral PosplLal ln whaL
poslLlon dld you flnd hlm?Ÿ AŦ Pe
was lylng downŦ
CŦ uld you greeL uŦ 1omas
8odrlguez? AŦ l dldŦ
CŦ uld uŦ 1omas 8odrlguez
answer you? Ÿ AŦ unaŦ nena
lmmedlaLely answered ln advance
and lnLroduced me Lo hlm saylng
LhaL l was Lhe broLher of hls
godsonŦ
CŦ uld oLher persons whom you
have menLlonedţ vlzţ MessrsŦ
Calderonţ Perreraţ uomlngoţ ue
Asls and Legarda greeL 1omas
8odrlguez?
A8AnL1Ať l ob[ecL Lo Lhe quesLlon
as belng lmproper crossŴ
examlnaLlonŦ lL has noL been Lhe
sub[ecL of Lhe dlrecL examlnaLlonŦ
CCu81ť Cb[ecLlon overruledŦ
A8AnL1Ať LxcepLlonŦ
AŦ noţ slrţ Lhey [olned usŦ
CŦ WhaL was uŦ 1omas Lold when
he slgned Lhe wlllŦ? Ÿ AŦ 1o slgn
lLŦ
CŦ Who Lold uŦ 1omas Lo slgn Lhe
wlll? Ÿ AŦ Luz LopezŦ
CŦ WhaL dld Luz Lopez Lell 1omas
8odrlguez ln order LhaL he should
slgn Lhe wlll? Ÿ AŦ She Lold hlm Lo
slgn Lhe documenLŤ Lhe deceased
1omas 8odrlguez before slgnlng
Lhe documenL asked whaL LhaL
was whlch he was Lo slgnŦ
CŦ WhaL dld anybody answer Lo
LhaL quesLlon of uŦ 1omas? Ÿ AŦ
Luz Lopez Lold hlm Lo slgn lL
because lL concerned a complalnL
agalnsL CasLlLoŦ uŦ 1omas saldţ
ƌWhaL ls Lhls?ƍ And Luz Lopez
answeredţ ƌ?ou slgn Lhls
documenLţ uncle 1omasţ because
Lhls ls abouL Lhe complalnL
agalnsL CasLlLoŦ
CŦ 1hen 1omas 8odrlguez slgned
Lhe wlll? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Who had Lhe wlll? Who was
holdlng lL? Ÿ AŦ MrŦ vlcenLe
Legarda had lL hls own handsŦ
CŦ Was Lhe wlll slgned by 1omas
8odrlguez lylng downţ on hls feeL
or seaLed? Ÿ AŦ Lylng downŦ
CŦ Was Lhe wlll read by 1omas
8odrlguez or any person presenL
aL Lhe Llme of slgnlng Lhe wlllţ dld
Lhey read lL Lo hlm? Ÿ AŦ nobody
read Lhe wlll Lo hlmŦ
CŦ uld noL uŦ 1omas read Lhe wlll?
Ÿ AŦ l have noL seen lLŦ
CŦ Were you presenL? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ
slrŦ ( SŦ 8Ŧ pŦ 8)
As lL would be qulLe lmpracLlcable Lo
Lranscrlbe Lhe LesLlmony of all Lhe oLhers
who aLLended Lhe maklng of Lhe wlllţ we
wlll leL vlcenLe LŦ Legardaţ who appears Lo
have assumed Lhe leadlng roleţ Lell whaL
LransplredŦ Pe LesLlfled ln parLť
A8AnL1A ť CŦ Who exhlblLed Lo
you Lhose documenLsţ LxhlblLs Aţ
AŴ1ţ and AŴ2?
LLCA8uAť AŦ SanLlago LopezŦ
CŦ uld he show you Lhe same
documenL? Ÿ AŦ llrsL LhaL ls Lo
say Lhe flrsL documenL he
presenLed Lo me was a rough
drafLţ a LenLaLlve wlllţ and lL was
daLed uecember 31sLţ and l called
hls aLLenLlon Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
daLe was noL uecember 31ţ 1923ţ
and LhaL lL was necessary Lo
change Lhe daLe Lo !anuary 3ţ
1924ţ and lL was doneŦ
CŦ And lL was Lhenţ was lL noL
when LxhlblLs Aţ AŴ1ţ and AŴ2
were wrlLLen? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uo you any know where lL was
wrlLLen? Ÿ AŦ ln Lhe Ceneral
PosplLalŦ
CŦ uld any Llme elapse from your
maklng Lhe suggesLlon LhaL Lhe
documenL whlch you dellvered Lo
SanLlago Lopez be wrlLLen unLll
Lhose Lhree LxhlblLs Aţ AŴ1ţ and AŴ
2 were presenLed Lo you? Ÿ AŦ
AbouL nlne or Len mlnuLes
approxlmaLelyŦ
CŦ 1he Llme Lo make lL clean? Ÿ
AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Where were you durlng LhaL
Llme? Ÿ AŦ ln Lhe room of uŦ
1omas 8odrlguezŦ
CŦ Were you Lalklng wlLh hlm
durlng LhaL LlmeŦ Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ AbouL whaL Lhlngs were you
Lalklng wlLh hlm? Ÿ AŦ Pe was
asklng me abouL my healLhţ LhaL
of my famlly how my famlly was
my glrlţ wheLher we were llvlng ln
Þasayţ he asked me abouL Lhe
sLeamer lldefonsoţ he sald LhaL lL
was a plLy LhaL lL had been losL
because he knew LhaL my faLherŴ
lnŴlaw was Lhe owner of Lhe
sLeamer lldefonsoŦ
x x x x x x x x x
CŦ When Lhose documenLsţ
LxhlblL Aţ AŴ1ţ and AŴ2ţ LhaL ls Lhe
orlglnal and Lwo coples of Lhe wlll
slgned by uŦ 1omas 8odrlguez
were wrlLLen cleanţ wlll you
Successlon 07072011
Þage 16 of 61

please Lell whaL happened? Ÿ AŦ
When SanLlago Lopez gave Lhem
Lo me cleanţ l approached uŦ
1omas 8odrlguez and Lold hlmť
uon 1omasţ here ls Lhls wlll whlch
ls ready for your slgnaLureŦ
CŦ WhaL dld uŦ 1omas do when
you sald LhaL hls wlll you were
showlng Lo hlm was ready? Ÿ AŦ
1he flrsL Lhlng he asked wasť Lhe
wlLnesses? 1hen l called Lhe
wlLnesses Ÿ CenLlemenţ please
come forwardţ and Lhey came
forwardţ and l handed Lhe
documenLs Lo uŦ 1omasŦ uŦ 1omas
goL up and Lhen Look hls
eyeglassesţ puL Lhem on and as he
saw LhaL Lhe elecLrlc lamp aL Lhe
cenLer was noL sufflclenLly clearţ
he saldť ƌ1here ls no more llghLŤƌ
Lhen somebody came forward
brlnglng an elecLrlc lampŦ
CŦ WhaL dld uŦ 1omas do when
LhaL elecLrlc lamp was puL ln
place? Ÿ AŦ 1he eyeglasses were
ad[usLed agaln and Lhen he began
Lo readţ and as he could noL read
much for a long Llmeţ for he
unexpecLedly felL Llred and Look
off Lhe eyeglassesţ and as l saw
LhaL Lhe poor man was Llredţ l
suggesLed LhaL lL be read Lo hlm
and he sLopped readlng and l
read Lhe wlll Lo hlmŦ
CŦ WhaL happened afLer you had
read lL Lo hlm? Ÿ AŦ Pe sald Lo
meţ ƌWellţ lL ls all rlghLŦ lL ls my
wlsh and my wlllŦ uonƌL you have
any pen?ƌ l asked a pen of Lhose
who were Lhere and handed lL Lo
uŦ 1omasŦ
CŦ ls lL Lrue LhaL 1omas 8odrlguez
asked aL LhaL Llme ƌWhaL ls LhaL
whlch l am golng Lo slgn?ƌ and Luz
Lopez Lold hlmť ƌlL ls ln connecLlon
wlLh Lhe complalnL agalnsL
CasLlLo?ƌ Ÿ AŦ lL ls noL Lrueţ noţ
slrŦ
CŦ uurlng Lhe slgnlng of Lhe wlllţ
dld you hear Luz Lopez say
anyLhlng Lo 1omas 8odrlguez? Ÿ
AŦ noţ Slrţ she sald noLhlngŦ
CŦ Accordlng Lo youţ 1omas
8odrlguez slgned of hls own
accord? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uld nobody Lell hlm Lo slgn? Ÿ
AŦ nobodyŦ
CŦ WhaL happened afLer Lhe
slgnlng of Lhe wlll by 1omas
8odrlguez? Ÿ AŦ l called Lhe
wlLnesses and we slgned ln Lhe
presence of each oLher and of
1omas 8odrlguezŦ
CŦ AfLer Lhe slgnlng of Lhe wlllţ dld
you have any conversaLlon wlLh
1omas 8odrlguez? Ÿ AŦ uocLor
Calderon asked uŦ 1omas
8odrlguez some quesLlonsŦ
CŦ uo you remember Lhe
quesLlons and Lhe conversaLlon
held beLween uocLor Calderon
and uŦ 1omas afLer Lhe slgnlng of
Lhe wlll? Ÿ AŦ l remember LhaL
afLerwards uocLor Calderon
Lalked Lo hlm abouL buslnessŦ Pe
asked hlm how Lhe buslness of
maklng loans aL 18 per cenLŦ lL
seems LhaL 1omas 8odrlguez
answeredť 1haL loan aL 18 per
cenL ls lllegalţ lL ls usuryŦ (SŦ 8Ŧţ pŦ
38Ŧ)
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe sLaLemenLs under oaLh
made by MrŦ Legardaţ an archlLecL and
englneer ln Lhe 8ureau of Þubllc Works
and professor of englneerlng and
archlLecLure ln Lhe unlverslLy of SanLo
1omasţ sufflce lL Lo say LhaL Luz Lopez de
8ueno denled caLegorlcally Lhe sLaLemenLs
aLLrlbuLed Lo her by uocLor 8onoan (SŦ 8Ŧţ
pŦ 368)Ŧ ln Lhls sLandţ she ls corroboraLed
by uocLor Calderonţ uomlngoţ and
Perreraţ Lhe aLLendlng physlclansŦ Cn Lhls
polnLţ uocLor Calderon Lhe ulrecLor of Lhe
Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLal and uean of
Lhe College of Medlclne ln Lhe unlverslLy
of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ LesLlfledť
MrŦ A8AnL1Ať CŦ WhaL have you
seen or heard wlLh regard Lo Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlll?
urŦ CALuL8Cnť AŦ MrŦ Legarda
handled Lhe wlll Lo uŦ 1omas
8odrlguezŦ uŦ 1omas asked for hls
eyeglassţ wanLed Lo read and lL
was exLremely hard for hlm Lo do
soŦ MrŦ Legarda offered Lo read
Lhe wlllţ lL was read Lo hlm and he
heard LhaL ln LhaL wlll vlcenLe
Lopez and Luz Lopez were
appolnLed helrsŤ we also saw hlm
slgn LhaL wlllţ and he slgned noL
only Lhe orlglnal buL also Lhe
oLher coples of Lhe wlll and we
also saw how Lhe wlLnesses
slgned Lhe wlllŤ we heard LhaL uŦ
1omas asked for llghL aL LhaL
momenLŤ he heard LhaL uŦ 1omas
asked for llghL aL LhaL momenLŤ he
was aL LhaL Llme ln a perfecL
menLal sLaLeŦ And we remalned
Lhere afLer Lhe wlll was execuLedŦ
l asked hlmţ ƌPow do you feelţ
how are you? Well l am wellţ ƌ he
answeredŦ ƌ Pow ls Lhe buslness?
1here ls a crlsls aL Lhere ls one
good buslnessţ namelyţ LhaL of
maklng loans aL Lhe raLe of 18 per
cenLţ ƌand he answeredţ ƌ1haL ls
usuryŦŤ When a man answers ln
LhaL wayţ ƌ 1haL ls usury lL shows
LhaL he ls all rlghLŦ
CŦ Were you presenL when MrŦ
Legarda handed Lhe wlll Lo hlm?
Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uld any person Lhere Lell uon
1omas LhaL was a complalnL Lo be
flled agalnsL one CasLlLo? Ÿ AŦ
noţ slrţ l have noL heard anyLhlng
of Lhe klndŦ
CŦ lL was sald here LhaL when Lhe
wlll was handed Lo hlmţ uŦ 1omas
8odrlguez asked whaL LhaL was
whlch he was Lo slgn and LhaL Luz
Lopez answeredţ ƌ1haL ls buL a
complalnL ln connecLlon wlLh
CasLlLoŦƌ ls LhaL Lrue? Ÿ AŦ l have
noL heard anyLhlng of Lhe klndŦ
CŦ Pad anybody Lold LhaL Lo Lhe
deceasedţ would you have heard
lL? AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Was Luz Lopez Lhere? Ÿ AŦ l
donƌL remember havlng seen herŤ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 1 of 61

l am noL sureŤ uŦ SanLlago Lopez
and Lhe Lhree wlLnesses were
LhereŤ l donƌL remember LhaL Luz
Lopez was LhereŦ
CŦ Pad anybody Lold LhaL Lo Lhe
deceasedţ would you have heard
lL? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uo you remember wheLher he
was glven a pen or he hlmself
asked for lL? Ÿ AŦ l donƌL knowŤ lL
ls a deLall whlch l donƌL remember
wellŤ so LhaL wheLher or noL he
was glven a pen or he hlmself
asked for lLţ l do noL rememberŦ
CŦ 8uL dld he slgn wlLhouL
heslLaLlon ? Ÿ AŦ WlLh no
heslLaLlonŦ
CŦ uld he slgn wlLhouL anybody
havlng lndlcaLed Lo hlm where he
was Lo slgn? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ wlLhouL
anybody havlng lndlcaLed lL Lo
hlmŦ
CŦ uo you know wheLher uŦ
1omas 8odrlguez asked for more
llghL before slgnlng? Ÿ AŦ Pe
asked for more llghLsţ as l have
sald beforeŦ
CŦ uo you remember LhaL deLall?
Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ 1hey flrsL llghLed Lhe
lampsţ buL as Lhe llghL was noL
sufflclenLţ he asked for more llghLŦ
CŦ uo you remember very well
LhaL he asked for llghL? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ
slrŦ (SŦ 8Ŧ pŦ993)Ŧ
A clear preponderance of Lhe evldence
exlsLs ln favor of Lhe LesLlmony of vlcenLe
Legardaţ corroboraLed as lL ls by oLher
wlLnesses of Lhe hlghesL sLandlng ln Lhe
communlLyŦ 1he only explanaLlon we can
offer relaLlve Lo Lhe LesLlmony of uocLor
8onoan ls LhaL posslbly he may have
arrlved earller Lhan Lhe oLhers wlLh Lhe
excepLlon of Luz Lopez de 8uenoţ and LhaL
Luz Lopez de 8ueno may have made some
sorL of an efforL Lo lnfluence 1omas
8odrlguezŦ 1here ls however no posslble
explanaLlon of Lhe sLaLemenL of uocLor
8onoan Lo Lhe effecL LhaL no one read Lhe
wlll Lo 8odrlguez when aL leasL flve oLher
persons recollecL LhaL vlcenLe Legarda
read lL Lo hlm and recall Lhe deLalls
connecLed wlLh Lhe readlngŦ
1here ls one curlous occurrence whlch
Lransplred shorLly afLer Lhe maklng of Lhe
wlll whlch should here be menLlonedŦ lL ls
LhaL on !anuary 7ţ 1923 (1924)ţ Luz Lopez
de 8ueno slgned a documenL ln favor of
uocLor 8onoan ln Lhe amounL of one
Lhousand pesos (Þ1ţ000)Ŧ 1hls paper reads
as followť
8e lt koow by tbese pteseotť
1haL lţ Luz Lopez de 8ueno ln
conslderaLlon of Lhe servlces
whlch aL my lnsLance were and
wlll when necessary be rendered
by urŦ Lllas 8onoan ln connecLlon
wlLh Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlll of
my uncleţ uon 1omas 8odrlguez
and Lhe due probaLe Lhereofţ do
hereby agree Lo pay sald docLorţ
by way of remuneraLory
donaLlonţ Lhe sum of one
Lhousand pesos (Þ1ţ000)ţ
Þhlllpplne currencyţ as soon as
sald servlces shall have been fully
rendered and l shall be ln
possesslon of Lhe lnherlLance
whlch ln sald wlll ls glven Lo meŦ
ln wlLness whereofţ l slgn Lhls
documenL whlch was freely and
sponLaneously execuLed by me ln
Manllaţ Lhls !anuary 7ţ 1923Ŧ
(SgdŦ) LuZ LCÞLZ uL
8uLnC
(LxhlblL 1)
1here ls a sharp confllcL of LesLlmonyţ as ls
naLural beLween uocLor 8onoan and Luz
Lopez de 8ueno relaLlve Lo Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe above documenLŦ We shall noL
aLLempL Lo seLLle Lhese dlfferences as ln
Lhe flnal analysls lL wlll noL affecL Lhe
declslon one way or Lhe oLherŦ 1he mosL
reasonable supposlLlon ls LhaL Luz Lopez
de 8ueno lmprudenLly endeavored Lo
brlng over uocLor 8onoan Lo her slde of
Lhe race by slgnlng and glvlng Lo hlm
LxhlblL 1Ŧ 8uL Lhe evenL cannoL easlly be
explalned awayŦ
1omas 8odrlguez passed away ln Lhe
Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLalţ as we sald on
lebruary 23ţ 1924Ŧ noL even prlor Lo hls
demlse Lhe Lwo acLlons ln Lhe Lopez famlly
had prepared Lhemselves for a flghL over
Lhe esLaLeŦ 1he Luz Lopez facLlon had
secured Lhe servlces of uocLor uomlngoţ
Lhe physlclan ln charge of Lhe ueparLmenL
of lnsane of San Lazaro PosplLal an
AsslsLanL Þrofessor of nervous and MenLal
ulseases ln Lhe unlverslLy of Lhe
Þhlllpplnesţ as aLLendlng physlclanŤ as
assoclaLed wlLh hlm for purposes of
lnvesLlgaLlon urŦ lernando Calderon Lhe
ulrecLor of Lhe Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLal
and urŦ llorenLlno Perreraţ a physlclan ln
acLlve pracLlce ln Lhe ClLy of ManllaŤ and
had arranged Lo have Lwo members of Lhe
medlcal fraLernlLyţ uocLors ue Asls and
8onoan as aLLesLlng wlLnessesŦ 1he
MargarlLa Lopez facLlon had Laken equal
precauLlons by calllng a wlLnesses ln Lhe
guardshlp proceedlngs urŦ SlxLo de los
Angeles Þrofessor and Chlef of Lhe
ueparLmenL of Legal Medlclne ln Lhe
unlverslLy of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ and urŦ
Samuel 1leLzeţ wlLh long experlence ln
menLal dlseasesŤ LhereafLer by conLlnulng
uocLors de Los Angeles and 1leLze Lo
examlne 1omas 8odrlguez and by
assoclaLlng wlLh Lhem urŦ Wllllam 8urkeţ a
wellŴknown physlclan of Lhe ClLy of ManllaŦ
Skllled lawyers were avallable Lo ald and
abeL Lhe medlcal experLsŦ CuL of such
slLuaLlonsţ do wlll conLesLs arlseŦ
An examlnaLlon of Lhe cerLlflcaLes made by
Lhe Lwo seLs of physlclans and of Lhelr
LesLlmony shows LhaL on mosL facLs Lhey
concurŦ 1helr deducLlons from Lhese facLs
dlsclose a subsLanLlal dlvergence of
oplnlonŦ lL ls a hopeless Lask Lo Lry Lo
reconclle Lhe vlews of Lhese dlsLlngulshed
genLlemen who honesLly arrlved aL
deflnlLe buL conLradlcLory concluslonsŦ 1he
besL LhaL we can do under Lhe
clrcumsLances ls Lo seL forLh Lhe flndlngs of
Lhe Calderon commlLLed on Lhe hand and
of Lhe ue Los Angeles commlLLee on Lhe
oLherŦ
uocLors Calderonţ uomlngo and Perrera
examlned 1omas 8odrlguez lndlvldually
and [olnLly before Lhe daLe when Lhe wlll
was execuLedŦ All of Lhemţ as we have
noLlced wereţ presenL aL Lhe slgnlng of Lhe
wlll Lo noLe Lhe reacLlons of Lhe LesLaLorŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 18 of 61

Cn Lhe same day LhaL Lhe wlll was
accompllshedţ Lhe Lhree docLors slgned
Lhe followlng cerLlflcaLeť
1he underslgnedţ ursŦ of
Medlclneţ wlLh offlces ln Lhe ClLy
of Manllaţ and engaged ln Lhe
pracLlce of Lhelr professlon do
hereby cerLlfyť
1haL Lhey have [olnLly examlned
MrŦ 1omas 8odrlguezţ conflned ln
Lhe Ceneral PosplLalţ floor noŦ 3ţ
room noŦ 361 on Lhree dlfferenL
occaslon and on dlfferenL days
and have found LhaL sald paLlenL
ls sufferlng from anemlaţ hernla
lngulnalţ chronlc dyspepsla and
senlllLyŦ
As Lo hls menLal sLaLe Lhe resulL
of Lhe dlfferenL LesLs Lo whlch Lhls
paLlenL was submlLLed ls LhaL hls
lnLellecLual faculLles are soundţ
excepL LhaL hls memory ls weakţ
whlch ls almosL a loss for recenL
facLsţ or evenLs whlch have
recenLly occurredţ due Lo hls
physlcal condlLlon and old ageŦ
1hey also cerLlfy LhaL Lhey were
presenL aL Lhe Llme he slgned hls
wlll on !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ aL 1ť23
pŦmŦ and have found hls menLal
sLaLe ln Lhe same condlLlon as
was found by Lhe underslgned ln
Lhelr former examlnaLlon and LhaL
ln execuLlng sald wlll Lhe LesLaLor
and full knowledge of Lhe
conLenLs LhereofŦ
ln LesLlmony whereofţ we slgn ln
Manlla Lhls !anuary 3ţ 1924Ŧ
(SgdŦ) lLC8Ln1lnC PL88L8A
1uberlas 1264
Culapo
(SgdŦ) urŦ lL8nAnuC
CALuL8Cn
Ceneral PosplLal
Manlla
(SgdŦ) urŦ LLlAS uCMlnCC
613 8emedlos
MalaLe
(LxhlblL L ln relaLlon wlLh LxhlblLs
C and uŦ)
uocLor Calderon whlle on Lhe
wlLnessŴsLand expressed a
deflnlLe oplnlon as Lo Lhe
menLallLy of 1omas 8odrlguez
WhaL follows ls posslbly Lhe mosL
slgnlflcanL of Lhe docLorƌs
sLaLemenLsť
urŦ CALuL8Cn LesLlfylng afLer
lnLerrupLlonť
AŦ l was naLurally lnLeresLed ln
flndlng ouL Lhe Lrue menLal sLaLe
of 1omas 8odrlguez and LhaL was
Lhe chlef reason why l accepLed
and gave my cooperaLlon Lo
MessrsŦ Lllas uomlngo and
llorenLlno Perrera because had l
found LhaL 1omas 8odrlguez and
llorenLlno Perrera because had l
found LhaL 1omas 8odrlguez was
really lnsaneţ l should have
ordered hls Lransfer Lo Lhe San
Lazaro PosplLal or Lo oLher placesţ
and would noL have lefL hlm ln
Lhe Ceneral PosplLalŦ ÞursuanL Lo
my deslreţ l saw 1omas 8odrlguez
ln hls room alone Lwlce Lo have
lnLervlews wlLh hlsţ he begglng a
person whom l knew slnce several
years agoŤ aL Lhe end of Lhe
lnLervlews l became convlnced
LhaL Lhere was noLhlng wrong
wlLh hlmŤ l had noL seen anyLhlng
lndlcaLlng LhaL he was lnsane and
for Lhls reason l accepLed Lhe
requesL of my companlons and
[olned LhemŤ we have been on
flve dlfferenL occaslons examlnlng
1omas 8odrlguez [olnLly from Lhe
physlcal sLandpolnL buL chlefly
from Lhe sLandpolnL of hls menLal
sLaLeŤ l have been Lhere wlLh
MessrsŦ Perrera and Lllas
uomlngoţ examlnlng 1omas
8odrlguez and submlLLlng Lo a
menLal LesL on Lhe 28ţ 29ţ 10 and
31 of uecember and Lhe 22nd of
!anuaryţ 1924 Ÿ flve consecuLlve
days ln whlch he have been
LogeLher besldes my parLlcular
vlslLsŦ
CŦ Wlll you place sLaLe Lhe resulL
of Lhe observaLlon you made
alone before Lhose made by Lhe
Lhree of you [olnLly? Ÿ AŦ l asked
1omas 8odrlguez some quesLlons
when l wenL alone Lhereţ l asked
hlm were he was llvlng formerly
and he well remembered LhaL ln
lnLramurosţ Calle 8ealŤ l asked
hlm wheLher he remembered one
Calderon who was llvlng ln Lhe
upper floor of Lhe house and Lhen
he Lold me yesŤ Lhan l asked hlm
abouL hls LenanL by Lhe name of
AnLonlo !lmenez and he Lold me
yesţ Ÿ now l remember LhaL he
had Lwo daughLersţ MaLllde and
ÞazŦ 1hen l Lold hlm LhaL l had
been llvlng ln Lhe house of Lhe
genLlemenţ AnLonlo !lmenez
already dead Ÿ ln Lhe upper sLory
of Lhe house belonged Lo 1omas
8odrlguezŤ l Lold hlm LhaL AnLonlo
!lmenez was hls LenanL of Lhe
upper sLoryţ LhaL ls LhaL he was
llvlng on Lhe ground floor and
AnLonlo !lmenez upsLalrs and he
remembered all of Lhls l also
began Lo Lalk of my broLherţ
lellpe Calderonţ who he sald of
course LhaL he knewŤ he
remembered hlm because he was
hls companlon and was a
successful aLLorneyŦ 1hls was
when l had an lnLervlew wlLh hlmŦ
1hen ln order Lo observe beLLer
and Lo be sure of my [udgmenL or
oplnlon abouL Lhe menLal sLaLe of
1omas 8odrlguezţ l saw hlm agaln
and we began Lo speak of
someLhlng whlch l donƌL
remember nowŦ ln flneţ we Lalked
of Lhlngs of lnLeresL and as l had
flnally accepLed Lhe requesL of
ursŦ Lllas uomlno and llorenLlno
Perrera Lo [oln Lhen Lhe flrsL and
second Llme LhaL Perreraţ
uomlngo and myself wenL Lhereţ
no sLenographlc noLes were Laken
of whaL happened LhereŦ
CŦ So LhaL before [olnlng uocLors
Perrera and uomlngo you had
already pald Lwo vlslLs Lo Lhe
paLlenL? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 19 of 61

CŦ lrom Lhe resulL f Lhe
conversaLlon you had wlLh 1omas
8odrlguez on Lhose Lwo vlslLs
whaL ls your oplnlon as Lo hls
menLal capaclLy? Ÿ AŦ 1haL he
was slckŤ LhaL he was weakţ buL l
have found absoluLely no
lncoherence ln hls ldeasŤ he
answered my quesLlons well and
as l was observlng hlm Lhere were
Llmes when he dld noL remember
Lhlngs of Lhe presenL Ÿ because
Lhls musL be admlLLed Ÿ buL on
Lhe oLher hand he had a
wonderful memory of pasL
evenLsŤ ln Lalklng wlLh hlmţ you
would noL noLlce ln Lhe
conversaLlon any alLeraLlon ln hls
mlnd nor LhaL man had losL Lhe
reasonlng power or loglcŦ
CŦ uld you noLlce any loss of
memoryţ or LhaL hls memory was
weakenlng abouL Lhlngs of Lhe
pasL? Ÿ AŦ AbouL Lhlngs of Lhe
pasLţ l mean LhaL you Lalk Lo hlm
now abouL speclflc maLLersţ and
afLer abouL flve or Len mlnuLes he
no longer remembers whaL had
been Lalked ofŦ
x x x x x x x x x
CŦ uo you remember Lhe
conversaLlon you had wlLh hlm
for Lhe flrsL Llme when Lhe Lhree
of you pald a vlslL Lo Lhe paLlenL?
Ÿ AŦ l donƌL remember Lhe
deLallsţ buL l do remember Lhe
quesLlons l puL Lo hlmŦ l asked uŦ
1omas 8odrlguezť ?ou are an old
man agedţ slckť ?esţ l am Lhlnklng
Lo make a wlllŦ 8uL why donƌL you
declde? 1here ls no hurry Lhere ls
Llme Lo make a wlllţ ƌhe saldŦ 1hen
ln case you declde Lo make a wlllţ
Lo whom are you golng Lo leave
your properLy? uonƌL you have
any relaLlves? l have a relaLlveţ
vlcenLe Lopezţ my flrsL couslnţ
and MargarlLa Lopez my flrsL
cousln Lhey are broLhersŦƌ ln LhaL
caseţ Lo whomţ do you wanL Lo
leave your properLy? Whyţ l donƌL
have muchţ very llLLleţ buL l am
declded Lo leave lL Lo my couslnţ
vlcenLe Lopez and hls daughLer
Luz LopezŦ Why would you noL
glve anyLhlng Lo MargarlLa Lopez?
no because her husband ls very
badţ ƌLo use hls exacL language ls
very badŦƌ
CŦ uld you Lalk wlLh hlm on LhaL
occaslon abouL hls esLaLe? Ÿ AŦ
?esţ slrţ he Lold me LhaL he had
Lhree esLaLesţ Ÿ one on Calle
Magallanesţ anoLher on Calle
Cablldo and Lhe Lhlrd on Calle
!uan Luna and besldes he had
money ln Lhe MonLe de Þledad
and Pogar llllplnoŦ
x x x x x x x x x
CŦ lrom Lhe quesLlon made by
you and Lhe answers glven by MrŦ
1omas 8odrlguez on LhaL
occaslonţ whaL ls your oplnlon as
Lo hls menLal capaclLy? Ÿ AŦ 1he
followlngť 1haL Lhe memory of
1omas 8odrlguez somewhaL
falled as Lo Lhlngs of Lhe presenLţ
buL ls all rlghL wlLh regard Lo
maLLers or facLs of Lhe pasLŤ LhaL
hls ldeas were lncoherenLŤ LhaL
Lhe LhoughL wlLh loglcţ argued
even wlLh power and generally ln
some of Lhe lnLervlews l have
arrlved aL Lhe concluslon LhaL
1omas 8odrlguez had an lnlLlaLlve
of hls ownţ dld noL need LhaL
anybody should make hlm any
suggesLlon because he answered
ln such a way LhaL lf you permlL
me now Lo show you my
sLenographlc noLesţ Lhey wlll
prove Lo you concluslvely LhaL he
had an lnlLlaLlve of hls own and
had no need of anybody maklng
hlm any quesLlonŦ (SŦ 8Ŧ pŦ 72Ŧ)
uocLor Lllas uomlngoţ who was Lhe
aLLendlng physlclan for 1omas 8odrlguez
LhroughouL all Lhe Llme LhaL 8odrlguez ln
Lhe hosplLal had examlned hlmţ was
llkewlse cerLaln LhaL 8odrlguez possessed
sufflclenL menLallLy Lo make a wlllŦ Among
oLher Lhlngsţ uocLor uomlngo LesLlfledť
A8AnL1Ať CŦ Pave you known uŦ
1omas 8odrlguez?
urŦ uCMlnCCť AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ uld you aLLend uŦ 1omas
8odrlguez as physlclan? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ
slrŦ
CŦ When dld you begln Lo aLLend
hlm as physlclan? Ÿ AŦ Cn
november 28ţ unLll hls deaLhŦ
CŦ Cn november 28 or CcLober
28ţ 1923ţ do you remember? Ÿ
AŦ l had been aLLendlng hlm as
physlclan from november 28Lh
alLhough lL Lrue LhaL l had
opporLunlLles Lo see and examlne
hlm durlng Lhe monLhs of CcLober
and novemberŦ
CŦ WhaL was Lhe ob[ecL of your
vlslLs or aLLendance durlng Lhe
monLhs of CcLober and
november? Ÿ AŦ lL was for Lhe
purpose of observlng hls menLal
sLaLeŦ
CŦ uld you really examlne hls
menLal condlLlon or capaclLy
durlng Lhe monLhs of CcLober and
november? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Pow many Llmes dld you vlslL
hlm? Ÿ AŦ l donƌL remember
exacLly buL l vlslLed hlm abouL flve
or slx LlmesŦ
x x x x x x x x x
CŦ Þlease Lell us Lhe resulL of your
examlnaLlon durlng Lhose monLhs
of CcLober and november? Ÿ AŦ l
examlned hlm physlcally and
menLallyŤ l am noL golng Lo Lell
here Lhe physlcally resulL buL Lhe
resulL of Lhe menLal examlnaLlonţ
and LhaL lsť Ceneral ConducLť ln
mosL of Lhe Llmes LhaL l have seen
hlm l found hlm lylng on hls bedţ
smoklng a clgareLLe and asked for
a boLLle of lemonade from Llme Lo
LlmeŤ l also observed LhaL he was
very careful when Lhrowlng Lhe
ash of Lhe clgareLLeţ seelng Lo lL
LhaL lL dld noL fall on Lhe blankeLsŤ
he also was careful noL Lo Lhrow
Lhe sLub of Lhe clgareLLe ln any
place Lo avold flreŤ l made more
Successlon 07072011
Þage 20 of 61

observaLlons as Lo hls general
conducL and l found LhaL
someLlmes uon 1omas could
move wlLhln Lhe place alLhough
wlLh cerLaln dlfflculLyŦ Cn Lwo
occaslons l found hlm seaLedţ
once seaLed aL Lhe Lableţ seaLed
ln Lhe chalrţ and oLher on a
rocklng chalrŦ l also examlned hls
manner of Lalklng and Lo all
quesLlons LhaL l puL Lo hlm he
answered wlLh a coherence and
ln a relevanL mannerţ alLhough
someLlmes he showed eagerness
and cerLaln delayŦ l based Lhese
polnLs of my declaraLlon on Lhe
quesLlons whlch are usually asked
when maklng a menLal
examlnaLlon for lnsLance l asked
hlmţ WhaL ls your nameţ ƌand he
correcLly answered 1omas
8odrlguezŤ l asked hlm lf he was
marrled and he answered ƌnoŤƌ l
asked hlm hls professlon and he
answered LhaL formerly he was an
aLLorney buL LhaL aL Lhe Llme l
was maklng Lhe examlnaLlon he
was noL pracLlslng Lhe professlonŤ
l asked hlm wlLh whaL he
supporLed hlmself and he sald
LhaL he llved upon hls lncomeţ he
sald verbaLlmţ ƌl llve on my
lncomeŦƌ l also asked hlm whaL
Lhe amounL of hlm lncome was
and he answered LhaL lL was
abouL Þ900Ť l asked hlm whaL Lhe
source of Lhls lncome was and he
sald LhaL lL came from hls
properLyŦ
CŦ uld you ask hlm abouL hls
properLy? Ÿ AŦ noţ aL LhaL LlmeŦ
CŦ ÞroceedŦ Ÿ AŦ l also observed
hls emoLlonal sLaLus and
effecLlvlLyŦ l found lL raLher
superflclalţ and he ofLenLlmes goL
angry due Lo hls physlcal dlseaseŤ
l asked hlm lf he had any relaLlves
and he answered correcLly saylng
LhaL he hadŦ Pe menLloned
vlcenLe Lopezţ MargarlLa Lopezţ
and Luz LopezŦ As Lo hls memoryŦ
Pls memory of Lhe pasLŦ Pe very
easlly remembered pasL evenLs
and when he descrlbed Lhem he
dld lL wlLh such pleasure Lhe he
used Lo smlle afLerwards Ÿ lf lL
was a facL upon whlch one musL
smlleţ Pls memory of recenL facLs
was very much lessenedŦ l say Lhls
because on varlous occaslons and
noL havlng known me when he
had a beLLer memoryţ afLer l had
seen hlm Lhrlce he remembered
my name and he recognlzed meŦ
lnslghL and [udgmenLŦ l arrlved aL
Lhe concluslon LhaL he had falr
knowledge of hlmself because he
knew LhaL he was slck and could
noL be movlng wlLh easeţ buL he
belleved LhaL he could perform
wlLh sufflclenL ease menLal acLsŤ
hls [udgmenL was also all rlghL
because l asked hlm Lhls quesLlonť
ƌSupposlng LhaL you could flnd a
blll of Þ3 ln Lhe vesLlbule of a
hoLelţ whaL would you do wlLh lL
?ƌ Pe Lold me LhaL he would Lake
Lhe blll and glve lL Lo Lhe manager
ln order LhaL Lhe laLLer may look
for Lhe owner lf posslbleŦ Pls
reasonlngŦ l found LhaL he showed
a moderaLed reLardaLlon ln Lhe
flow of hls LhoughLţ especlally
wlLh regard Lo recenL evenLsţ buL
was qulLe all rlghL as Lo pasL
evenLsţ Pls capaclLyţ Pe belleved
LhaL he was capable of Lhlnklng
properly alLhough whaL dld noL
permlL hlm Lo do so was hls
physlcal decreplL condlLlonŦ 1he
concluslon ls LhaL hls memory ls
losL for recenL evenLs Lho noL
LoLally and dlmlnuLlon of hls
lnLellecLual vlgorŦ 1hls ls ln few
words Lhe resulL of my
examlnaLlonŦ
1omas 8odrlguez was llkewlse examlned
Lhoroughly by uocLors ue los Angelesţ
1leLzeţ and 8urkeŦ uocLor ue los Angeles
had been a wlLness ln Lhe gurardlanshlp
proceedlngs and had seen Lhe paLlenL of
november 6 and 7ţ 1923Ŧ uocLor 1leLze
had also been a wlLness ln Lhe
guardlanshlp case and had vlslLed Lhe
paLlenL on november 9 and 12ţ 1923ţ and
on !anuary 13ţ 1924Ŧ uocLors 1leLze and
8urke LogeLher examlned 8odrlguez on
!anuary 17ţ 20ţ and 24ţ 1924Ŧ 1he Lhree
physlclans conducLed a [olnL examlnaLlon
resulLţ on March 13ţ 1924ţ Lhey prepared
and slgned Lhe followlngť
MLulCAL CL81lllCA1L
ln Lhe MaLLer of 1omas 8odrlguez
y Lopezţ maleţ 76 years of ageţ
slngle and resldlng or belng
conflned ln Lhe Þhlllpplne Ceneral
PosplLalŦ
Weţ Lhe underslgned uocLorsţ
SlxLo de los Angelesţ WŦ 8Ŧ 8urkeţ
and Samuel 1leLzeţ do hereby
cerLlfy as followsť
1Ŧ 1haL we are physlclansţ duly
reglsLered under Lhe Medlcal AcLţ
and are ln Lhe acLual pracLlce of
Lhe medlcal professlon ln Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ
2Ŧ 1haL on !anuary 27Lh and 28Lhţ
and lebruary 10Lhţ 1924ţ aL Lhe
Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLalţ we
Lhree have wlLh care Lhe dlllgence
[olnLly and personally examlned
Lhe person of sald 1omas
8odrlguez y LopezŤ and prevlous
Lo Lhese daLedţ we have
separaLely and parLly [olnLly
observed and examlned sald
paLlenL on varlous occaslonsŤ urŦ
SlxLo de los Angelesţ aL Lhe
paLlenLƌs homeţ 246 Magallanes
SLŦţ Manllaţ on november 6Lh and
7Lh ţ 1923Ť urŦ Samuel 1leLzeţ aL
Lhe paLlenLƌs home on november
9Lh and 12Lhţ 1923ţ and aL Lhe
Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLal no
!anuary 17Lhţ 20Lhţ and 24ţ 1924Ť
and as a resulL of Lhe medlcal
examlnaLlons and Lhe hlsLory of
Lhe case we found and hereby
cerLlfy Lo Lhe followlng
concluslonsť
(a) 1haL he was of unsound mlnd
sufferlng from seolle Jemeotloţ or
of menLal lmpalrmenL exceedlng
Lo a paLhologlcal exLenL Lhe
unusual condlLlons and changes
found Lo occur ln Lhe lnvoluLlonal
perlod of llfeŦ
(b) 1haL he was under Lhe
lnfluence of Lhe above condlLlon
conLlnuouslyţ aL leasL from
novemberţ 1923ţ Llll Lhe daLe of
Successlon 07072011
Þage 21 of 61

our [olnL reexamlnaLlonţ !anuary
27Lh and 28Lhţ and lebruary
10Lhţ 1924Ť and LhaL he would
naLurally have conLlnued wlLhouL
lmprovemenLţ as Lhese cases of
lnsanlLy are due Lo organlc
paLhologlcal changes of Lhe bralnŦ
1hls form of menLal dlsease ls
progresslve ln lLs paLhologlcal
Lendencyţ golng on Lo progresslve
aLropy and degeneraLlon of Lhe
bralnţ Lhe menLal sympLomsţ of
courseţ runnlng parallel wlLh such
paLhologlcal baslsŦ
(c) 1haL on accounL of such
dlsease and condlLlons hls mlnd
and memory were so greaLly
lmpalred as Lo make hlm unable
Lo know or Lo appreclaLe
sufflclenLly Lhe naLureţ effecLţ and
consequences of Lhe buslness he
was engaged lnŤ Lo undersLand
and comprehend Lhe exLenL and
condlLlon of hls properLlesŤ Lo
collecL and Lo hold ln hls mlnd Lhe
parLlculars and deLalls of hls
buslness LransacLlons and hls
relaLlons Lo Lhe persons who
were or mlghL have been Lhe
ob[ecLs of hls bounLyŤ and Lo free
hlmself from Lhe lnfluences of
lmporLunlLlesţ LhreaLs and
lngenulLlesţ so LhaL wlLh a
relaLlvely less reslsLanceţ he mlghL
had been lnduced Lo do whaL
oLhers would noL have doneŦ
3Ŧ We have dlagnosed Lhls case
as seolle Jemeotlol of Lhe slmple
Lypeţ approachlng Lhe
deLerloraLed sLage upon Lhe
followlng deLalled menLal
examlnaLlonť
(a) ulsotJet of memotyŦ Ÿ 1here
was almosL an absoluLe loss of
memory of recenL evenLsţ Lo Lhe
exLenL LhaL Lhlngs and
occurrences seen or observed
only a few mlnuLes prevlously
were compleLely forgoLLenŦ laces
and names of person lnLroduced
Lo hlm were noL remembered
afLer a shorL momenL even
wlLhouL leavlng hls bedslde Ŧ Pe
showed no comprehenslon of Lhe
elemenLal rouLlne requlred ln Lhe
managemenL of hls properLlesţ
lŦeŦť who were Lhe lessees of hls
housesţ whaL renLs Lhey were
paylngţ who was Lhe
admlnlsLraLor of hls properLlesţ ln
whaL banks he deposlLed hls
money or Lhe amounL of money
deposlLed ln such banksŦ
8egardlng hls personal relaLlonţ
he forgoL LhaL MrŦ AnLonlo
venLura ls Lhe husband of hls
nearesL woman couslnŤ Lhe MrsŦ
MargarlLa Lopez was marrledţ
saylng LhaL Lhe laLLer was slngle
or splnsLerţ ln splLe of Lhe facL
LhaL formerlyţ durlng Lhe pasL
LwenLyŴflve yearsţ he was aware
of Lhelr marrlage llfeţ Pe dld noL
know Lhe names of Lhe sons and
daughLers of MrŦ vlcenLe Lopezţ
one of hls nearesL relaLlvesţ even
falllng Lo name MrsŦ Luz Lopez de
8uenoţ a daughLer of sald vlcenLe
Lopezţ and who now appears Lo
be Lhe only llvlng beneflclary of
hls wlllŦ Pe also sLaLed LhaL MrŦ
vlcenLe Lopez frequenLly vlslLed
hlm ln Lhe hosplLalţ Lhough Lhe
laLLer dled on !anuary 7Lhţ 1924Ŧ
Pe dld noL recognlzed and
remember Lhe name and face of
uocLor uomlngoţ hls own
physlclanŦ Poweverţ Lhe memory
for remoLe evenLs was generally
goodţ whlch ls a characLerlsLlc
sympLom of seolle JemeotloŦ
(b) ulsotleototloo of tlmeţ ploce
ooJ petsoosŦ Ÿ Pe could noL
name Lhe daLe when asked (day
or monLh)Ť could noL name Lhe
hosplLal whereln he was conflnedŤ
and falled Lo recognlze Lhe facL
LhaL uocLor uomlngo was hls
physlclanŦ
(c) ulsotJets of petceptlooŦ Ÿ Pe
was almosL compleLely lndlfferenL
Lo whaL was golng on abouL hlmŦ
Pe also falled Lo recognlze Lhe
Lrue value of ob[ecLs shown hlmţ
LhaL ls he falled Lo recognlzed Lhe
ƌSaLurday Lvenlng ÞosLƌ nor would
he deny LhaL lL was a wlll when
presenLed as suchŦ Pe also falled
Lo show normal lnLellecLual
percepLlonŦ Maklng no efforL Lo
correlaLe facLs or Lo undersLand
maLLers dlscussed ln Lhelr proper
llghLŦ
(d) motloool JetetlototlooŦ Ÿ
1he paLlenL was noL known durlng
hls Llme of physlcal lncapaclLy Lo
express ln any way or lamenL Lhe
facL LhaL he was unable Lo en[oy
Lhe happlness LhaL was due hlm
wlLh hls wealLhŦ As a maLLer of
facLţ he showed compleLe
lndlfferenceŦ Pe showed loss of
emoLlonal conLrol by furlous
ouLbreaks over Lrlfllng maLLer and
acLually behaved llke a chlldŤ for
exampleţ lf hls food dld noL arrlve
lmmedlaLely of when hls clgar
was noL llL soonţ he would
becomes abuslve ln hls language
and show marked emoLlonal
ouLbursLŦ lf Lhe servanLs dld noL
lmmedlaLely answer hls callţ he
would break down and cry as a
chlldŦ
(e) 5ymptoms of JecteoseJ
lotellectool copocltyŦ Ÿ 1here was
a laxlLy of Lhe lnLernal connecLlon
of ldeasŦ 1he paLlenL has shown
no lnslghL regardlng hls own
condlLlonŦ Pe dld noL appreclaLe
Lhe aLLlLude of Lhe parLles
concerned ln hls caseŤ he would
on several occaslon become
susplclous and fall Lo comprehend
Lhe purpose of our examlnaLlonŦ
Pe was lnconslsLenL ln hls ldeas
and falled Lo grasp Lhe meanlng
of hls own sLaLemenLsŦ When
quesLloned wheLher he would
make a wlllţ he sLaLed Lo uocLor
1leLze LhaL he lnLended Lo
bequeaLh hls money Lo San !uan
de ulos PosplLal and Posplclo de
San !oseŦ When Pe was lnformedţ
howeverţ LhaL he had made a wlll
on !anuary 31ţ 1924ţ he denled
Lhe laLLer sLaLemenLţ and falled Lo
explaln Lhe formerŦ AlLhough for a
long Llme conflned Lo bed and
serlously lll for a long perlodţ he
expressed hlmself as sound
physlcally and menLallyţ and ln
Lhe false bellef LhaL he was fully
Successlon 07072011
Þage 22 of 61

able Lo admlnlsLer hls buslness
personallyŦ
Pls lmpalrmenL of Lhe lnLellecLual
fleld was furLher shown by hls
lnablllLyţ desplLe hls knowledge of
world affalrsţ Lo appreclaLe Lhe
relaLlve value of Lhe sLaLemenL
made by uocLor 1leLze as followsť
ƌWe have here a cheque of Þ2ţ000
from Lhe klng of Afrlca payable Lo
you so LhaL you may deposlL lL ln
Lhe bankŦ uo you wanL Lo accepL
Lhe cheque?ƌ Pls answer was as
followsť ƌnow l cannoL glve my
answerŦ lL may be a surprlseŦƌ
Such answer glven by a man afLer
long experlence ln buslness llfeţ
who had handled real esLaLe
properLyţ well versed ln Lhe
LransacLlon of chequesţ cerLalnly
shows a breaklng down of Lhe
above fleldŦ no proper quesLlon
were asked why Lhe cheque was
glven by Lhe klngţ who Lhe klng
wasţ why he was selecLed by Lhe
klng of Afrlcaţ or lf Lhere ls a klng
of Afrlca aL presenLŦ Pe furLher
shows doubL ln hls menLal
capablllLy by Lhe followlng
quesLlons and answersť
ƍMA8CAluAť ÞŦ 1lene usLed
acLualmenLe algun asunLo en los
Lrlbunales de [usLlcla de Manlla? Ŵ
Ŵ 8Ŧ no recuerdo en esLe
momenLoŦ
ƍÞŦ ue Lener usLed algun asunLo
proplo en los Lrlbunales de
[usLlcla de Manllaţ a que
abogado conflarla usLed la
defensa del mlsmo?ŴŴ8Ŧ Al SrŦ
Marcaldaţ como conocldo
anLlguoŦ
ƍÞŦ Pa hablado usLed y
conferenclado alguna vez o varlas
veces en esLos dlasţ o sea desde
el 23 de ocLubre de 1923 hasLa
hoyţ con algun abogado para que
le defendlera algun asunLo anLe el
!uzgado de Þrlmera lnsLancla de
Manlla?ŴŴ8Ŧ Con nlngunoţ porque
en caso de nombrarţ nombrarla al
SrŦ MarcaldaŦ (ÞŦ 3ţ deposlLlonţ
novŦ 19ţ 1923Ŧ)
ƍA8AnL1Ať ÞŦ no recuerda usLed
que usLed me ha encomendado
como abogado para que me
oponga a que le declaren a usLed
loco o lncapaclLado?ŴŴ8Ŧ Slţ senorţ
qulen ha sollclLado? (ÞŦ 9ţ
deposlLlonţ novŦ 19ţ 1923Ŧ)
ƍurŦ uCMlnCCť ÞŦ uon 1omásţ
me conoce usLed? Se acuerda
usLed que soy el uocLor
uomlngo?ŴŴ8Ŧ SlŦ (ÞŦ 7ţ sLenŦ nŦţ
!anŦ 28ţ 1924Ŧ)
ƍÞŦ Culen soyţ uon 1omásţ usLed
me conoce?ŴŴ8Ŧ no seŦ (ÞŦ 6ţ sLenŦ
nŦţ lebŦ 10ţ 1924Ŧ)
ƍurŦ ÁnCLLLSť ÞŦ Me conoce
usLedţ uŦ 1omás?ŴŴ8Ŧ Le conozco
de vlsLaŦ (ÞŦ 6ţ sLenŦ nŦţ !anŦ 28ţ
1924Ŧ)
ƍÞŦ nos vamos a despedlr yaţ uon
1omásţ de usLedŦ ?o soy el uocLor
Ángelesţ me conoce usLed?ŴŴ8Ŧ
ue nombreŦ
ƍÞŦ LsLe es el uocLor 8urkeţ le
conoce usLed?ŴŴ8Ŧ ue nombreŦ
ƍÞŦ LsLe es el uocLor uomlngoţ le
conoce usLed?ŴŴ8Ŧ ue vlsLaŦ
ƍÞŦ LsLe es el uocLor 8urkeţ
recuerda usLed su nombre?ŴŴ8Ŧ
noŦ (ÞŦ 10ţ sLenŦ nŦţ !anŦ 28ţ 1924Ŧ)
ƍÞŦusLed conoce a esLe uocLor?
(Senalando al uocLor 8urke)ŦŴŴ8Ŧ
ue vlsLaŤ su nombre ya lo he
olvldadoţ ya no me acuerdoŦ
ƍÞŦusLed nos ve a los Lres?
(uocLores Ángelesţ 8urke y
1leLze)ŦŴŴ8Ŧ ?a lo creoŦ
ƍurŦ 8u8kLť ÞŦ Cue profeslón
Lenemos? (Senalando a los SresŦ
Ángelesţ 8urke y 1leLze)ŦŴŴ8Ŧ ?C
creo que son docLoresŦ
ƍÞŦ ? lso dos? (Senalando a los
uocLores Ángeles y 1leLze)ŦŴŴ8Ŧ
noŦ seŦ
ƍÞŦ ? esLe senor? (Senalando al
uocLor Ángeles)ŦŴŴ8Ŧ no me
acuerdo en esLe momenLoŦ (ÞŦ 4Ŧ
And 3ţ sLenŦ nŦţ lebŦ 10ţ 1924Ŧ)
(f) Otbet focts beotloq opoo tbe
blstoty of tbe cose obtoloeJ by
lovestlqotloo of uoctot oqelesť
lŦ omlly nlstotyŦ Ÿ Pls parenLs
were noLed Lo be of nervous
Lemper and lrrlLableŦ
llŦ letsoool blstotyŦ Ÿ Pe was a
lawyerţ buL dld noL pursue hls
pracLlceţ devoLlng Lhe greaLer
parL of hls llfe Lo collecLlng
anLlqulLlesţ Pe was generally
regarded by hls nelghbors as
mlserly and erraLlc ln Lhe ordlnary
hablLs of llfeŦ Pe lead a very
unhyglenlc llfeţ maklng no
aLLempL Lo clean Lhe fllLh of dlrL
LhaL was around hlmŦ Pe was
neglecLful ln personal hablLsŦ Cn
Aprllţ 1921ţ he suffered an ln[ury
Lo hls foreheadţ from whlch he
became Lemporarlly unconsclousţ
and was conflned ln Lhe
Þhlllpplne Ceneral PosplLal for
LreaLmenLŦ Pe frequenLly
complalned of aLLacks of dlzzlness
and headacheţ followlng Lhls
ln[uryŤ suffered form a large
hernlaŤ and abouL Lwo years agoţ
he was flned for fallure ln flllng
hls lncome Laxţ from whlch
lncldenLţ we have reason Lo
belleveţ Lhe onseL of hls menLal
condlLlon Look placeŦ 1hls lncldenL
lLself can mosL probably be
consldered as a fallure of
memoryŦ Pls condlLlon became
progresslvely worse up Lo hls
deaLhŦ
4Ŧ 1he underslgned have sLaLed all
Lhe above facLs conLalned ln Lhls
cerLlflcaLe Lo Lhe besL of our
knowledge and bellefŦ
Manllaţ ÞŦlŦţ March 13ţ 1924Ŧ
(SgdŦ) Slx1C uL
LCS AnCLLLS
WŦ8Ŧ 8u8kLţ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 23 of 61

MŦuŦ
SAMuLL 1lL1ZL
(LxhlblL 33 ln relaLlon wlLh
LxhlblLs 28 and 29Ŧ)
AnoLher angle Lo Lhe condlLlon of Lhe
paLlenL on or abouL !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ ls
dlsclosed by Lhe LreaLmenL record kepL
dally by Lhe nursesţ ln whlch appear Lhe
nurseƌs remarksŦ (LxhlblLs 8ŴAţ 8Ŵ8ţ and 8Ŵ
CŦ) ln Lhls connecLlonţ Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe
nurses ls LhaL 8odrlguez was ln Lhe hablL
for no reason aL all of calllng ƍMarlaţ
where are my 30 cenLavosţ where ls my
keyŦƍ ln explanaLlon of Lhe observaLlon
made by Lhe nursesţ Lhe nurse Apolonlo
lloreza LesLlfledŦ
ulrecL quesLlons of ALLorney CCAMÞCť
CŦ Among your observaLlons on
Lhe 1sL of !anuaryţ 1924ţ you say
ƌwlLh palns all over Lhe bodyţ and
uLLered some lncoherenL words
of Lhe same Loplcs whenever ls
awakenedŦƌ Pow could you
observe LhaL he had palns all over
Lhe body?
AÞCLCnlC lLC8LZAţ nurseť AŦ l
observed LhaL by Lhe facL LhaL
whenever l Louched Lhe body of
Lhe paLlenL he complalned of
some palnŦ
CŦ Cn whaL parL of Lhe body dld
you Louch hlm? Ÿ AŦ Cn all Lhe
parLs of hls bodyŦ
x x x x x x x x x
CŦ Pow dld you Louch hlmţ
sLrongly or noL? Ÿ AŦ SllghLlyŦ
CŦ When you Louched hlm
sllghLlyţ whaL dld he do? Ÿ AŦ Pe
sald LhaL lL was achlngŦ
CŦ WhaL words dld he say whenţ
accordlng Lo your noLeţ he
uLLered lncoherenL words
whenever he awakes? Ÿ AŦ As for
lnsLanceţ ƌMarlaţƌ repeaLlng lL
ƌWhere are my 30 cenLavosţ
where ls my key?ƌ
CŦ uld you hear hlm Lalk of
Marla? Ÿ AŦ Cnly Lhe word MarlaŦ
CŦ Pow long approxlmaLely was
he Lalklng uLLerlng Lhe name of
ƌMarlaţ Where are my 30
cenLavosţƌ and where ls my key?
Ÿ AŦ lor Lwo or Lhree mlnuLesŦ
CŦ Can you Lell Lhe courL wheLher
on Lhose occaslons when he sald
Lhe name of Marla he sald oLher
words and was Lalklng wlLh
somebody? Ÿ AŦ Pe was Lalklng
Lo hlmselfŦ
CŦ 1hls remark on LxhlblL 8Ŵ8
when was lL wrlLLen by you? AŦ
!anuary 2ţ 1924Ŧ
CŦ ln Lhe observaLlon
correspondlngly Lo !anuary 2ţ
1924 you sayţ ƌWlLh palns over
Lhe bodyţƌ and laLer on Lalked Loo
much whenever paLlenL ls
awakenedŦƌ Pow dld you happen
Lo know Lhe paln whlch you have
noLed here? AŦ 1he palns all over
Lhe bodyţ l have observed Lhem
when glvlng hlm baLhsŦ
CŦ 8esldes saylng LhaL lL ached
when you Louched Lhe bodyţ do
you know wheLher he dld any
exLraordlnary Lhlng? AŦ ?ou mean
Lo say acLs?
CŦ AcLs or words? AŦ ?esţ slrţ llke
Lhose words whlch l have already
sald whlch he used Lo say Ÿ
Marlaţ Lhe keyţ 30 cenLavosŦ
CŦ ?ou say LhaL he called MarlaŦ
WhaL dld he say abouL Marla on
LhaL daLe !anuary 2ţ 1924? Ÿ AŦ
Pe used Lo say Marla where ls
Marla?
CŦ Cn LhaL daLe !anuary 2ţ 1924ţ
dld you answer hlm when he sald
Marla? Ÿ AŦ no slrŦ
CŦ ln Lhls observaLlon of yours
appearlng on page 8ŴC you say
among oLher Lhlngs wlLh paln all
over Lhe body and shouLed
whenever he ls glven ln[ecLlonŦƌ
uld you really observe Lhls ln Lhe
paLlenL? Ÿ AŦ ?esţ slrŦ
CŦ Pow dld he shouL?
A8AnL1Ať Cb[ecLlon as belng
lmmaLerlalŦ
CCu81ť CverruledŦ
A8AnL1Ať LxcepLlonŦ
AŦ ln a loud volceŦ
CŦ 8esldes shouLlng do you
remember wheLher he sald
anyLhlng? Ÿ A Ŧ Pe repeaLed Lhe
same words l have sald before Ÿ
Marla Lhe 30 cenLavos Lhe keyŦ
CŦ When dld Lhls observaLlon
occur whlch appear on page 8ŴC?
Ÿ AŦ Cn !anuary 3ţ 1924Ŧ (SŦ 8Ŧ pŦ
3393Ŧ)
Cn cerLaln facLs perLalnlng Lo Lhe
condlLlon of 1omas 8odrlguez Lhere ls no
dlspuLeŦ Cn !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ 8odrlguez
had reached Lhe advanced age of 76 yearsŦ
Pe was sufferlng from anemlaţ hernla
lngulnalţ chronlc dypslaţ and senlllLyŦ
Þhyslcally he was a wreckŦ
As Lo Lhe menLal sLaLe of 1omas 8odrlguez
on !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ uocLors Calderonţ
uomlngo and Perrera admlL LhaL he was
senlleŦ 1heyţ LogeLher wlLh uocLors ue los
Angelesţ 1leLzeţ and 8urkeţ furLher declare
LhaL hls memory however for remoLe
evenLs was generally goodŦ Pe was glven
Lo lrraLlonal exclamaLlons sympLomaLlc of
a deceased mlndŦ
Whlleţ howeverţ uocLors Calderon
uomlngoţ and Perrera cerLlfy LhaL Lhe
lnLellecLual faculLles of Lhe paLlenL are
ƍsoundţ excepL LhaL hls memory ls weakţƍ
and LhaL ln execuLlng Lhe wlll Lhe LesLaLor
had full undersLandlng of Lhe acL he was
performlng and full knowledge of Lhe
conLenLs Lhereofţ uocLors ue Los Angelesţ
1leLze and 8urke cerLlfy LhaL 1omas
8odrlguez was of unsound mlnd and LhaL
Lhey dlagnosed hls case as seolle
Successlon 07072011
Þage 2 of 61

Jemeotlo of Lhe slmple Lype approachlng
Lhe deLerloraLed sLageŦ WlLhouL
aLLempLlng aL Lhls sLage Lo pass ln
[udgmenL on Lhe anLagonlsLlc concluslons
of Lhe medlcal wlLnessesţ or on oLher
dlspuLed polnLţ lnsofar as Lhe facLs are
concernedţ a resoluLlon of Lhe case comes
down Lo Lhlsť uld 1omas 8odrlguez on
!anuary 3ţ 1924ţ possess sufflclenL
menLallLy Lo make a wlllţ or had he passed
so far along ln seolle Jemeotlo as Lo
requlre Lhe courL Lo flnd hlm of unsound?
We leave Lhe facLs ln Lhls slLuaLlon Lo pass
on Lo a dlscusslon of Lhe legal phases of
Lhe caseŦ
8Ŧ LawŦ Ÿ 1he Code of Clvll Þrocedure
prescrlbes as a requlslLe Lo Lhe allowance
of a wlll LhaL Lhe LesLaLor be of ƍsound
mlndƍ (Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ secŦ 614)Ŧ
A ƍsound mlndƍ ls a ƍdlsposlng mlndŦƍ Cne
of Lhe grounds for dlsallowlng a wlll ls ƍlf
Lhe LesLaLor was lnsane or oLherwlse
menLally lncapable of Lhe execuLlonŦƍ
(Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ secŦ 634 ż2ŽŦ)
ÞredlcaLed on Lhese sLaLuLory provlslonsţ
Lhls courL has adopLed Lhe followlng
deflnlLlon of LesLamenLary capaclLyť
ƍƌ1esLamenLary capaclLy ls Lhe capaclLy Lo
comprehend Lhe naLure of Lhe LransacLlon
ln whlch Lhe LesLaLor ls engaged aL Lhe
Llmeţ Lo recollecL Lhe properLy Lo be
dlsposed of and Lhe persons who would
naLurally be supposed Lo have clalms upon
Lhe LesLaLorţ and Lo comprehend Lhe
manner ln whlch Lhe lnsLrumenL wlll
dlsLrlbuLe hls properLy among Lhe ob[ecLs
of hls bounLyŦƌƍ (8ugnao vsŦ ubag ż1909Žţ
14 ÞhllŦţ 163ţ followed ln 8agLas vsŦ Þagulo
ż1912Žţ 46 ÞhllŦţ 701Ŧ) 1he menLal capaclLy
of Lhe LesLaLor ls deLermlned as of Lhe
daLe of Lhe execuLlon of hls wlll (Clvll Codeţ
arLŦ 666)Ŧ
varlous LesLs of LesLamenLary capaclLy
have been announced by Lhe courLs only
laLer Lo be re[ecLed as lncompleLeŦ Cf Lhe
speclflc LesLs of capaclLyţ nelLher old ageţ
physlcal lnflrmlLlesţ feebleness of mlndţ
weakness of Lhe memoryţ Lhe
appolnLmenL of a guardlanţ nor
eccenLrlclLles are sufflclenL slngly or [olnLly
Lo show LesLamenLary lncapaclLyŦ Lach
case resLs on lLs own facLs and musL be
declded by lLs own facLsŦ
1here ls one parLlcular LesL relaLlve Lo Lhe
capaclLy Lo make a wlll whlch ls of some
pracLlcal uLlllLyŦ 1hls rule concerns Lhe
naLure and raLlonallLy of Lhe wlllŦ ls Lhe wlll
slmple or compllcaLed? ls lL naLural or
unnaLural? 1he mere excluslon of helrs wlll
noLţ howeverţ ln lLself lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe wlll
was Lhe offsprlng of an unsound mlndŦ
Cn Lhe lssue of LesLamenLary capaclLyţ Lhe
evldence should be permlLLed Lo Lake a
wlde range ln order LhaL all facLs may be
broughL ouL whlch wlll asslsL ln
deLermlnlng Lhe quesLlonŦ 1he LesLlmony
of subscrlblng wlLnesses Lo a wlll
concernlng Lhe LesLaLorƌs menLal condlLlon
ls enLlLled Lo greaL welghL where Lhey are
LruLhful and lnLelllgenLŦ 1he evldence of
Lhose presenL aL Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlll
and of Lhe aLLendlng physlclan ls also Lo be
relled uponŦ (Alexander on Wllllsţ volŦ lţ ppŦ
433ţ 484Ť WharLon Ǝ SLllleƌs Medlcal
!urlsprudenceţ volŦ l ppŦ 100 eL seqŦ)
1he presumpLlon ls LhaL every adulL ls
saneŦ lL ls only when Lhose seeklng Lo
overLhrow Lhe wlll have clearly esLabllshed
Lhe charge of menLal lncapaclLy LhaL Lhe
courLs wlll lnLervene Lo seL aslde a
LesLamenLary documenLŦ (Pernaez vsŦ
Pernaez ż1903Žţ 1 ÞhllŦţ 689Ť 8agLas vsŦ
Þaguloţ soptoŦ)
Counsel for Lhe appellee make caplLal of
Lhe LesLaLor belng under guardlanshlp aL
Lhe Llme he made hls wlllŦ ClLlng secLlon
306 of Lhe Code of Clvll Þrocedure and
cerLaln auLhorlLlesţ Lhey lnslsL LhaL Lhe
effecL of Lhe [udgmenL ls concluslve wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe condlLlon of Lhe personŦ 1o
Lhls sLaLemenL we cannoL wrlLe down our
conformlLyŦ 1he provlslons of Lhe clLed
secLlon were Laken from Callfornlaţ and
Lhere Lhe Supreme courL has never held
whaL ls now urged upon us by Lhe
appelleeŦ 1he rule announced LhaL ln some
sLaLesţ by force of sLaLuLeţ Lhe flndlng of
lnsanlLy ls concluslve as Lo Lhe exlsLence of
lnsanlLy durlng Lhe conLlnuance of
ad[udlcaLlonţ ls found Lo resL on local
sLaLuLesţ of whlch no counLerparL ls found
ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ (32 CŦ!Ŧţ 647Ť Crldley vsŦ
8oggs ż1882Žţ 62 CalŦţ 190Ť ln Lhe maLLer of
Lhe LsLaLe of !ohnson ż1881Žţ 37 CalŦţ 329Ŧ)
Lven where Lhe quesLlon of lnsanlLy ls ouL
ln lssue ln Lhe guardlanshlp proceedlngsţ
Lhe mosL LhaL can be sald for Lhe flndlng ls
LhaL lL ralses a presumpLlon of lncapaclLy
Lo make a wlll buL does noL lnvaluable Lhe
LesLamenL lf compeLency can be shownŦ
1he burden of provldlng sanlLy ln such case
ls casL upon Lhe proponenLsŦ
lL ls here clalmed LhaL Lhe unsoundness of
mlnd of Lhe LesLaLor was Lhe resulL
of seolle JemeotloŦ 1hls ls Lhe form of
menLal decay of Lhe aged upon whlch wlll
are mosL ofLen conLesLedŦ A newLonţ
Þaschalţ a Cooley sufferlng under Lhe
varlable weaLher of Lhe mlndţ Lhe flylng
vapors of lnclplenL lunacyţƍ would have
proved hlsLorlc sub[ecLs for experL dlspuLeŦ
Pad Shakespeareƌs klng Lear made a wlllţ
wlLhouL any quesLlon lL would have lnvlLed
llLlgaLlon and doubLŦ
5eolle Jemeotlo usually called chlldlshness
has varlous forms and sLagesŦ 1o
consLlLuLe compleLe seolle JemeotloLhere
musL be such fallure of Lhe mlnd as Lo
deprlve Lhe LesLaLor of lnLelllgenL acLlonţŦ
ln Lhe flrsL sLages of Lhe dlseasesţ a person
may possess reason and have wlll powerŦ
(27 LŦ 8Ŧ AŦţ nŦ SŦ ż1910Žţ pŦ 89Ť WharLon Ǝ
SLllleƌs Medlcal !urlsprudenceţ volŦ lŦ ppŦ
791 eL seqŦŤ Schouler on Wlllsţ volŦ lţ ppŦ
143 eL seqŦ)
lL ls a raLher remarkable colncldence LhaL
of all Lhe leadlng cases whlch have gone
forLh from Lhls courLţ relaLlng Lo Lhe
LesLaLor havlng a sound and dlsposlng
mlndţ and whlch have been broughL Lo our
noLlce by counselţ every one of Lhem has
allowed Lhe wlllţ even when lL was
necessary Lo reverse Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe
Lrlal courLŦ A sLudy of Lhese cases dlscloses
a conslsLenL Lendency Lo proLecL Lhe
wlshes of Lhe deceased whenever lL be
legally posslbleŦ 1hese declslons also show
greaL Lenderness on Lhe parL of Lhe courL
Lowards Lhe lasL wlll and LesLamenL of Lhe
agedŦ (See Pernaez vsŦ Pernaez ż1903Žţ 1
ÞhllŦţ 689ţ per Arellanoţ CŦ !Ŧţ ln Lhe maLLer
of Lhe wlll o f 8uLalld ż1908Ž 10 ÞhllŦţ 27
per Arellanoţ CŦ !ŦŤ 8ugnao vsŦ ubag ż1909Ž
14Ŧ ÞhllŦţ 163ţ per Carsonţ !ŦŤ Macaplnlac
vsŦ Allmurong ż1910Žţ 16 ÞhllŦţ 41ţ per
Arellanoţ CŦ!ŦŤ 8agLas vsŦ Þagulo ż1912Žţ 22
ÞhllŦţ 227ţ per 1renLţ !ŦŤ Calvez vsŦ Calvez
ż1913Žţ 26 ÞhllŦţ 243ţ per 1orresţ !ŦŤ Samson
vsŦ Corrales 1an CulnLln ż1923Žţ 44 ÞhllŦţ
373ţ per CsLrandţ !ŦŤ and !ocson vsŦ !ocson
ż1922Žţ 46 ÞhllŦţ 701ţ per vlllamorţ !Ŧ)
8ecause of Lhelr pecullar appllcablllLyţ we
Successlon 07072011
Þage 2S of 61

propose Lo make parLlcular menLlon of
four of Lhe earller cases of Lhls courLŦ
ln Lhe case of Pernaez vsŦ
Pernaez sopto Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe acLlon
was Lhe wlll execuLed by uona !uana
LsplnosaŦ 1he annulmenL of Lhe wlll was
soughL flrsL upon Lhe ground of Lhe
lncapaclLy of Lhe LesLaLrlxŦ She was over 80
years of ageţ so lll LhaL Lhree days exLreme
uncLlonţ and Lwo days afLerwards she dledŦ
Þrlor LhereLo she walked ln a sLooplng
aLLlLude and gave conLradlcLory ordersţƍ as
a resulL of her senlle deblllLyŦƍ 1he chlef
!usLlce reached Lhe concluslon LhaL nelLher
from Lhe facLs ellclLed by Lhe
lnLerrogaLorles nor Lhe documenLs
presenLed ƍcan Lhe concluslon be reached
LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx was deprlved of her
menLal faculLlesŦƍ 1he wlll was held valld
and efflcaclousŦ
ln Lhe case of ln Lhe maLLer of Lhe wlll of
8uLalldţ soptoţ Lhe wlll was conLesLed for
Lhe reason LhaL uomlnga 8uLalld aL Lhe
daLe of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe documenL was
noL ln Lhe daLe of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
documenL was noL ln Lhe free use of her
lnLellecLual powersţ she belng over 90
years of ageţ lylng ln bed serlously lllţ
senseless and unable Lo uLLer a slngle
word so LhaL she dld noL know whaL she
was dolng when she execuLed Lhe wlll
whlle Lhe documenL was clalmed Lo have
been execuLed under Lhe lnfluence and by
Lhe dlrecLlon of one of Lhe helrs
deslgnaLed ln Lhe wlllŦ ?eL afLer an
examlnaLlon of Lhe evldence ln Lhe wlllŦ
?eL afLer an examlnaLlon of Lhe evldence ln
Lhe wlllŦ 1he Chlef !usLlce rendered
[udgmenL reverslng Lhe [udgmenL
appealed from and declarlng Lhe wlll
presenLed for legallzaLlon Lo be valld and
sufflclenLŦ
ln Lhe case of 8ugnao vsŦ ubagţ sopto Lhe
courL gave credence Lo Lhe LesLlmony of
Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses who swore
poslLlvely LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe wlll Lhe LesLaLor was of sound mlnd
and memoryŦ 8ased on Lhese and oLher
facLsţ MrŦ !usLlce Carsonţ speaklng for
courLţ lald down Lhe followlng legal
prlnclplesť
8eLween Lhe hlghesL degree of
soundness of mlnd and memory
whlch unquesLlonably carrles wlLh
lL full LesLamenLary known as
lnsanlLy or ldlocy Lhere are
numberless degrees of menLal
capaclLy or lncapaclLy and whlle
on one hand lL had been held LhaL
mere weakness of mlnd or parLlal
lmbeclllLy from dlsease of bodyţ
or from ageţ wlll Lo render a
person lncapable of maklng a wlll
a weak or feeble mlnded person
may make a valld wlll provlded he
has undersLandlng and memory
sufflclenL Lo enable hlm Lo know
whaL he ls abouL and how or Lo
whom he ls dlsposlng of hls
properLyƌ (Lodge vsŦ Lodgeţ 2
PousLŦ żuelŦŽ 418)Ť LhaLţ ƍ1o
consLlLuLe a sound be unbroken
or unlmpalredţ unshaLLered by
dlsease or oLherwlse (Sloan vsŦ
Maxwellţ # nŦ !Ŧ LqŦţ 363)Ť LhaL lL
has noL been undersLood LhaL a
LesLaLor musL possess Lhese
quallLles (of sound and dlsposlng
mlnd and memory) ln Lhe hlghesL
degreeŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧlew lndeed would be
Lhe wllls conflrmed lL Lhls ls
correcLŦ Þalnţ slcknessţ deblllLy of
body from age or lnflrmlLyţ would
accordlng Lo lLs vlolence or
duraLlon ln a greaLer or less
degreeţ break ln uponţ weakenţ or
derange Lhe mlndţ buL Lhe
derangemenL musL be such as
deprlves hlm of Lhe raLlonal
faculLles common Lo manƌ (uenŦ
vsŦ vancleveţ 3 nŦ !Ŧ LŦţ 680)Ť and
LhaL Sound mlnd does noL mean a
perfecLly balanced mlndŦ 1he
quesLlon of soundness ls one of
degreeƌ (8oughLon vsŦ knlghLŦ LŦ
8Ŧţ 3 ÞŦ Ǝ uŦţ 64Ť 42 LŦ ÞŦ ÞŦţ 23)Ť
on Lhe oLher handţ lL has been
held LhaL LesLamenLary lncapaclLy
does noL necessarlly requlre LhaL
a person shall acLually be lnsane
or of an unsound mlndŦ Weakness
of lnLellecLţ wheLher lL arlses from
exLreme old ageţ from dlseaseţ or
greaL bodlly lnflrmlLles of
sufferlngţ or from all Lhese
comblnedţ may render Lhe
LesLaLor ln capable of maklng a
valld wlllţ provldlng such
weakness really dlsquallfles for
from knowlng or appreclaLlng Lhe
naLureţ effecLsţ or consequences
of Lhe acL she ls engaged ln
(ManaLL vsŦ ScoLLţ 106 lowaţ 203Ť
68 AmŦ SLŦ 8epŦţ 293ţ 302)Ŧ
ln Lhe case of nagLas vsŦ Þaquloţ soptoţ Lhe
record shows LhaL Lhe LesLaLor for some
fourLeen or flfLeen years prlor Lo Lhe Llme
of hls deaLh suffered from a paralysls of
Lhe lefL slde of hls bodyţ LhaL a few years
prlor Lo hls deaLh hls hearlng became
lmpalred and LhaL he had losL Lhe power of
speechŦ Poweverţ he reLalned Lhe use of
hls hand and could wrlLe falrly wellŦ
1hrough Lhe medlum of slgnsţ he was able
Lo lndlcaLe hls wlshes Lo hls famllyŦ 1he wlll
was aLLacked n Lhe ground LhaL Lhe
LesLaLor lacked menLal capaclLy aL Lhe Llme
of lLs execuLlonŦ 1he wlll was neverLheless
admlLLed Lo probaLeţ MrŦ !usLlce 1renLţ
speaklng for Lhe courLţ announcemenL Lhe
followlng perLlnenL legal docLrlnesť
* * * 1here are many cases and
auLhorlLles whlch we mlghL clLe Lo
show LhaL Lhe courLs have
repeaLedly held LhaL mere
weakness of mlnd and bodyţ
lnduced by age and dlsease do
noL render a person lncapable of
maklng a wlllŦ 1he law does noL
requlre LhaL a person shall
conLlnue ln Lhe full en[oymenL
and use of hls prlsLlne physlcal
and menLal powers ln order Lo
execuLe a valld wlllŦ lf such were
Lhe legal sLandard few lndeed
would be Lhe number of wllls LhaL
could meeL such exacLlng
requlremenLsŦ 1he auLhorlLlesţ
boLh medlcal and legal are
unlversal ln Lhe sLaLemenL LhaL
Lhe quesLlon of menLal capaclLy ls
one of degree and LhaL Lhere are
many graduaLlons from Lhe
hlghesL degree of menLal
soundness Lo Lhe lowesL
condlLlons of dlseased menLallLy
whlch are denomlnaLed as
lnsanlLy and ldlocyŦ
1he rlghL Lo dlspose of properLy
by LesLamenLary dlsposlLlon ls as
sacred as any oLher rlghL whlch a
person may exerclse and Lhls rlghL
should be nulllfled unless menLal
lncapaclLy ls esLabllshed ln a
Successlon 07072011
Þage 26 of 61

poslLlve and concluslve mannerŦ
ln dlscusslng Lhe quesLlon of
LesLamenLary capaclLyţ lL ls sLaLed
ln volume 28ţ page 70ţ of Lhe
Amerlcan and Lngllsh
Lncyclopedla of Law LhaL Ÿ
ƌConLrary Lo Lhe very prevalenL lay
lmpresslon perfecL soundness of
mlnd ls noL essenLlal Lo
LesLamenLary capaclLyŦ A LesLaLor
may be affllcLed wlLh a varleLy of
menLal weaknessţ dlsorders or
pecullarlLles and sLlll be capable
ln law of execuLlng a valld wlllŦƌ
(See Lhe numerous cases Lhere
clLed ln supporL of Lhls
sLaLemenLŦ)
1he rule relaLlng Lo LesLamenLary
capaclLy ls sLaLed ln 8uswel on
lnsanlLyţ secLlon 363 and quoLed
wlLh approval ln Campbell vsŦ
Campbell (130 lllŦ 466) as followsť
1o consLlLuLe a sound and
dlsposlng mlndţ lL ls noL necessary
LhaL Lhe mlnd shall be wholly
unbroken unlmpalred or
unshaLLered by dlsease or
oLherwlse or LhaL Lhe LesLaLor
should be ln Lhe full possesslon of
hls reasonlng faculLlesŦ
ln noLeţ 1 !arnan on Wlllsţ 38ţ Lhe
rule ls Lhus sLaLedť
1he quesLlon ls noL so muchţ whaL
was Lhe degree of memory
possessed by Lhe LesLaLor as hadţ
he a dlsposlng memory? Was he
able Lo remember Lhe properLy
he was abouL Lo bequeLh Lhe
manner of dlsLrlbuLlng lL and Lhe
ob[ecL of hls bounLy? ln a wordţ
were hls mlnd and memory
sufflclenLly sound Lo enable hlm
Lo know and undersLand Lhe
buslness ln whlch he was engaged
aL Lhe Llme when he execuLed hls
wlllŦƌ (See auLhorlLles Lhere clLed)
ln Wllson vsŦ MlLchell (101 ÞennŦţ
493)ţ Lhe followlng facLs appeared
upon Lhe Lrlal of Lhe caseť 1he
LesLaLor dled aL Lhe age of nearly
102 yearsŦ ln hls early years he
was an lnLelllgenL and well
lnformed manŦ AbouL seven years
prlor Lo hls deaLh he suffered a
paralyLlc sLroke and from LhaL
Llme hls mlnd and memory were
much enfeebledŦ Pe became very
dull of hearlng and ln
consequence of Lhe shrlnklng of
hls braln he was affecLed wlLh
senlle caLaracL causlng LoLal
bllndnessŦ Pe became fllLhy and
obscene ln hls hablLsţ alLhough
formerly he was observanL of Lhe
proprleLles of llfeŦ 1he courLţ ln
commenLlng upon Lhe caseţ saldť
nelLher ageţ nor slcknessţ nor
exLreme dlsLressţ nor deblllLy of
body wlll affecL Lhe capaclLy Lo
make a wlllţ lf sufflclenL
lnLelllgence remalnsŦ 1he fallure
of memory ls noL sufflclenL Lo
creaLe Lhe lncapaclLyţ unless lL be
LoLal or exLend Lo hls lmmedlaLe
famlly Lo properLyŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
x x x x x x x x x
uougal (Lhe LesLaLor) had llved
over one hundred years before he
made Lhe wlll and hls physlcal and
menLal weakness and defecLlve
memory were ln sLrlklng conLrasL
wlLh Lhelr sLrengLh ln Lhe
merldlan of hls llfeŦ Pe was bllndŤ
noL deafţ buL hearlng lmpalredŤ
hls mlnd acLed slowlyţ he was
forgeLful of recenL evenLsţ
especlally of names and repeaLed
quesLlons ln conversaLlonŤ and
someLlmesţ when aroused from
sleep or slumberţ would seem
bewllderedŦ lL ls noL slngular LhaL
some of Lhose who had known
hlm when he was remarkable for
vlgor and lnLelllgence are of Lhe
oplnlon LhaL hls reason was so far
gone LhaL he was lncapable of
maklng a wlllţ alLhough Lhey
never heard hlm uLLer an
lrraLlonal expresslonŦ
ln Lhe above case Lhe wlll was
susLalnedŦ ln Lhe case aL bar we
mlghL draw Lhe same conLracL as
was plcLured by Lhe courL ln Lhe
case [usL quoLedŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
1he parLlcular dlfference beLween all of
Lhe Þhlllpplne case whlch are clLed and Lhe
case aL bar are LhaL ln none of Lhe
Þhlllpplne cases was Lhere any declaraLlon
of lncompllcaLed and ln none of Lhem
were Lhe facLs qulLe as compllcaLed as
Lhey are hereŦ A case ln polnL where Lhe
wlll was conLesLedţ because Lhe LesLaLor
was noL of sound and dlsposlng mlnd and
memory and because aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
maklng of Lhe wlll he was acLlng under Lhe
undue lnfluence of hls broLhers and where
he had a guardlan when he execuLed hls
wlllţ ls Amesƌ Wlll (ż1902Ž 40 CreŦţ 493)Ŧ
MrŦ !usLlce Mooreţ dellverlng Lhe oplnlon
of Lhe courLţ ln parL saldť
lL ls conLended by conLesLanLƌs
counsel LhaL on Lhe day sald
preLended wlll purporLs Lo have
been execuLedţ Lowell was
declared lncompeLenL by a courL
whlch had [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
person and sub[ecLŴmaLLer and
LhaL Lhe decree Lhereln
appolnLlng a guardlan of hls
person and esLaLe ralses Lhe
dlsLable presumpLlon LhaL he dld
noL possess sufflclenL
LesLamenLary capaclLy aL Lhe Llme
Lo overcome whlch requlred
evldence so sLrong as Lo leave no
reasonable doubL as Lo hls
capaclLy Lo make a valld wlllţ and
Lhe LesLlmony lnLroduced by Lhe
proponenL belng lnsufflclenL for
LhaL purpose Lhe courL erred ln
admlLLlng lL Lo probaLeŦ
1he appolnLmenL of a guardlan of
a person alleged Lo be ooo
compos meotlsţ by a courL havlng
[urlsdlcLlon musL necessarlly
creaLe a presumpLlon of Lhe
menLal lnflrmlLy of Lhe wardŤ buL
such decree does noL concluslvely
show LhaL Lhe LesLamenLary
capaclLy of Lhe person under
guardlanshlp ls enLlrely desLroyed
and Lhe presumpLlon Lhus creaLed
may be overcome by evldence
provlng LhaL such person aL Lhe
Llme he execuLed a wlll was ln
facL of sound and dlsposlng mlnd
and memoryť SLone vsŦ uamonţ
12 MassŦţ 487Ť 8reed vsŦ ÞraLLţ 18
Successlon 07072011
Þage 2 of 61

Þlckţ 113ť ln re Sllngerƌs Wlllţ 72
WlsŦţ 22 (37 nŦ WŦ 236)Ŧ
1he LesLlmony shows LhaL Lhe
LesLaLor reLalned a vlvld
recollecLlon of Lhe conLenLs of Lhe
books he had read and sLudled
when he was young buL LhaL he
could noL readlly recall Lo hls
mlnd Lhe ordlnary lncldenLs of hls
laLer llfeŦ 1he depLh and lnLenslLy
of menLal lmpresslon always
depend upon and are measured
by Lhe degree of aLLenLlon glven
Lo Lhe percepLlon of LruLhţ whlch
demands reflecLlonŤ and hence
Lhe lnablllLy of a person Lo
recollecL evenLs and hence Lhe
lnablllLy ls evldence of menLal
decayţ because lL manlfesL a wanL
of power on concenLraLlon of Lhe
mlndŦ 1he aged llve ln Lhe pasL
and Lhe lmpresslon reLalned ln
Lhelr mlnds are Lhose LhaL were
made ln Lhelr younger daysţ
because aL LhaL perlod of Lhelr
llves Lhey were able Lo exerclse
wlll power by glvlng aLLenLlonŦ
Whlle Lhe lnablllLy of a person of
advanced years Lo remember
recenL evenLs dlsLlncLly
undoubLedly lndlcaLes a decay of
Lhe human faculLlesţ lL does noL
concluslvely esLabllsh seolle
Jemeotloţ whlch ls someLhlng
more Lhan a mere loss of menLal
powerţ resulLlng from old age and
ls noL only a feeble condlLlon of
Lhe mlnd buL a derangemenL
LhereofŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ 1he rule ls seLLled ln
Lhls sLaLe LhaL lf a LesLaLor aL Lhe
Llme he execuLes hls wlll
undersLand Lhe buslness ln whlch
he ls engaged and has a
knowledge of hls properLy and
how he wlshes Lo dlspose of lL
among Lhose enLlLled Lo hls
bounLyţ he possess sufflclenL
LesLamenLary capaclLyţ
noLwlLhsLandlng hls old ageţ
slckness deblllLy of bodyţ or
exLreme dlsLressŦ
x x x x x x x x x
lL ls conLenLed by conLesLanLƌs
counsel LhaL lf Lowell aL Lhe Llme
he execuLed Lhe preLended wlllţ
was noL wholly lacklng ln
LesLamenLary capaclLyţ he wasţ ln
consequence of age lll healLhţ
deblllLy of body and lnflrmlLy of
wlll powerţ Andrew and !oseph
havlng knowledge Lhereof Look
advanLage of hls physlcal and
menLal condlLlon and unduly
lnfluenced hlm Lo devlce and
bequeLh hls properLy ln Lhe
manner lndlcaLedţ aLLempLlng
Lhereby Lo deprlve Lhe conLesLanL
of all lnLeresL Lhereln excepL such
as was glven her by sLaLuLeŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
Assumlng LhaL he was easlly
persuaded and LhaL hls broLhers
and Lhe persons employed by
Lhem Lo care for hlm Look
advanLage of hls enfeebled
condlLlon and pre[udlced hls mlnd
agalnsL Lhe conLesLanL dld such
undue lnfluence render Lhe wlll
Lherefore execuLed vold? Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
When a wlll has been properly
execuLedţ lL ls Lhe duLy of Lhe
courLs Lo uphold lLţ lf Lhe LesLaLor
possessed a sound and dlsposlng
mlnd and memory and was free
from resLralnL and noL acLlng
under undue lnfluence
noLwlLhsLandlng sympaLhy for
persons legally enLlLled Lo Lhe
LesLaLorƌs bounLy and a sense of
lnnaLe [usLlce mlghL suggesL a
dlfferenL LesLamenLary
dlsposlLlonŦ
8ellevlngţ as we doţ LhaL Lhe
flndlngs of Lhe clrculL courL are
supporLed by Lhe welghL of Lhe
LesLlmony lLs decree ls afflrmedŦ
lnsofar as Lhe law on LesLamenLary
capaclLy Lo make a wlll ls concerned and
carrylng alone one sLep furLher Lhe
quesLlon suggesLed aL Lhe end of Lhe
presenLaLlon of Lhe facLs on Lhe same
sub[ecL a resoluLlon of Lhe case comes
down Lo Lhlsť uld 1omas 8odrlguez on
!anuary 3ţ 1924ţ possess sufflclenL
menLallLy Lo make a wlll whlch would meeL
Lhe legal LesL regardlng LesLamenLary
capaclLy and have Lhe proponenLs of Lhe
wlll carrled successfully Lhe burden of
proof and shown hlm Lo be of sound mlnd
on LhaL daLe?
llŦ unuuL lnlLuLnCL
AŦ octsŦ Ÿ 1he wlll was aLLacked on Lhe
furLher ground of undue lnfluence
exerclsed by Lhe persons beneflLed ln Lhe
wlll ln collaboraLlon wlLh oLhersŦ 1he Lrlal
[udge found Lhls allegaLlon Lo have been
esLabllshed and made lL one of Lhe bases
of hls declslonŦ lL ls now for us Lo say lf Lhe
facLs [usLlfy Lhls flndlngŦ
1omas 8odrlguez volunLary named vlcenLe
lŦ Lopez as hls admlnlsLraLorŦ 1he laLLer
subsequenLly became hls guardlanŦ 1here
ls every lndlcaLlon LhaL of all hls relaLlves
1omas 8odrlguez reposed Lhe mosL
confldence ln vlcenLe lŦ Lopez and hls
daughLer Luz Lopez de 8uenoŦ Agalnţ lL
was vlcenLe lŦ Lopezţ whoţ on Lhe
suggesLlon of 8odrlguez secured Maxlmlno
Mlna Lo prepare Lhe wlllţ and lL was Luz
Lopez de 8ueno who appears Lo have
gaLhered Lhe wlLnesses and physlclans for
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlllŦ 1hls facLlon of
Lhe Lopez famlly was also a favor Lhrough
Lhe orders of uocLor uomlngo as Lo who
could be admlLLed Lo see Lhe paLlenLŦ
1he Lrlal [udge enLerLalned Lhe oplnlon
LhaL Lhere exlsLed ƍa preconcelved plan on
Lhe parL of Lhe persons who surrounded
1omas 8odrlguezƍ Lo secure hls slgnaLure
Lo Lhe LesLamenLŦ 1he Lrlal [udge may be
correcL ln Lhls supposlLlonŦ lL ls hard Lo
belleveţ howeverţ LhaL men of Lhe sLandlng
of !udge Mlnaţ uocLors Calderonţ
uomlngoţ Perreraţ and ue Asls and MrŦ
Legarda would so demean Lhemselves and
so fully Lhelr characLers and repuLaLlon as
Lo parLlclpaLe ln a scheme havlng for lLs
purpose Lo delude and Lo beLray an old
man ln hls ageţ raLher named was acLlng
accordlng Lo Lhe besL of hls ablllLy Lo asslsL
ln a leglLlmaLe acL ln a leglLlmaLe mannerŦ
Moreoverţ conslderlng Lhe aLLlLude of
1omas 8odrlguez Loward MargarlLa Lopez
and her husband and hls apparenL enmlLy
Loward Lhemţ lL seems falrly evldenL LhaL
even lf Lhe wlll had been made ln prevlous
years when 8odrlguez was more nearly ln
hls prlmeţ he would have prepared
somewhaL a slmllar documenLŦ
8Ŧ lJŦ Ÿ Cne of Lhe grounds for
dlsallowlng a wlll ls LhaL lL was procured by
undue and lmproper pressure and
Successlon 07072011
Þage 28 of 61

lnfluence on Lhe arL of Lhe beneflclary or
some oLher person for hls beneflL (Code of
Clvll Þrocedureţ secŦţ 634ż4Ž)Ŧ undue
lnfluenceţ as here menLloned ln
connecLlon wlLh Lhe law of wllls and as
furLher menLloned ln Lhe Clvll Code (arLŦ
1263)ţ may be deflned as LhaL whlch
compelled Lhe LesLaLor Lo do LhaL whlch ls
agalnsL Lhe wlll from fear Lhe deslre of
peace or from oLher feellng whlch ls
unable Lo reslsLŦ
1he Lheory of undue lnfluence ls LoLally
re[ecLed as noL provedŦ
lllŦ !uuCMLn1
1o resLaLe Lhe comblned lssued of facL and
law ln Lhls case perLalnlng Lo LesLamenLary
capaclLyť uld 1omas 8odrlguez on !anuary
3ţ 1924ţ possess sufflclenL menLallLy Lo
make a wlll whlch would meeL Lhe legal
LesL regardlng LesLamenLary capaclLy and
have Lhe proponenLs of Lhe wlll carrled
successfully Lhe burden of proof and
shown hlm Lo be of sound mlnd on LhaL
daLe?
1wo of Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses Lo Lhe
wlllţ one a physlclan clearly Lo Lhe regular
manner ln whlch Lhe wlll was execuLed
and Lo Lhe LesLaLorƌs menLal condlLlonŦ 1he
oLher subscrlblng wlLnessţ alsoţ a physlclan
on Lhe conLrary LesLlfled Lo a facL whlchţ lf
subsLanLlaLedţ would requlre Lhe courL Lo
dlsallow Lhe wlllŦ 1he aLLendlng physlclan
and Lhree oLher emlnenL members of Lhe
medlcal fraLernlLyţ who were presenL aL
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ expressed
oplnlons enLlrely favorable Lo Lhe capaclLy
of Lhe LesLaLorŦ As agalnsL Lhls we have Lhe
professlonal speculaLlons of Lhree oLher
equally emlnenL members of Lhe medlcal
professlon when Lhe wlll was execuLedŦ
1he advanLage on Lhose facLs ls all wlLh
Lhose who offer Lhe wlll for probaLeŦ
1he wlll was shorLŦ lL could easlly be
undersLood by a person ln physlcal
dlsLressŦ lL was reasonableţ LhaL lsţ lL was
reasonable lf we Lake lnLo accounL Lhe
evldenL pre[usLlce of Lhe LesLaLor agalnsL
Lhe husband of MargarlLa LopezŦ
WlLh speclal reference of Lhe deflnlLlon of
LesLamenLary capaclLyţ we may say Lhlsť
Cn !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ 1omas 8odrlguezţ ln
our oplnlon comprehended Lhe naLure of
Lhe LransacLlon ln whlch he was engagedŦ
Pe had Lwo conferences wlLh hls lawyerţ
!udge Mlnaţ and knew whaL Lhe wlll was Lo
conLalnŦ 1he wlll was read Lo hlm by MrŦ
LegardaŦ Pe slgned Lhe wlll and lLs Lwo
coples ln Lhe proper places aL Lhe boLLom
and on Lhe lefL marglnŦ AL LhaL Llme Lhe
LesLaLor recollecLed Lhe properLy Lo be
dlsposed of and Lhe persons who would
naLurally be supposed Lo have clalms upon
hlm Whlle for some monLhs prlor Lo Lhe
maklng of Lhe wlll he had noL manage hls
properLy he seem Lo have reLalned a
dlsLlncL recollecLlon of whaL lL conslsLed
and of hls lncomeŦ Cccaslonally hls
memory falled hlm wlLh reference Lo Lhe
names of hls relaLlvesŦ Crdlnarllyţ he knew
who Lhey wereţ he seemed Lo enLerLaln a
predlllcLlon Lowards vlcenLe lŦ Lopez as
would be naLural slnce Lopez was nearesL
ln whlch Lhe lnsLrumenL dlsLrlbuLed Lhe
properLy namlng Lhe ob[ecLs of hls bounLyŦ
Pls conversaLlons wlLh !udge Mlna
dlsclosed as lnslsLence on glvlng all of hls
properLy Lo Lhe Lwo persons whom he
speclfledŦ
Cn !anuary 3ţ 1924ţ 1omas 8odrlguez may
have been of advanced yearsţ may have
been physlcally decreplLţ may have been
weak ln lnLellecLţ may have suffered a loss
of memoryţ may have had a guardlan and
may have a been exLremely eccenLrlcţ buL
he sLlll possessed Lhe spark of reason and
of llfeţ LhaL sLrengLh of mlnd Lo form a
flxed lnLenLlon and Lo summon hls
enfeebled LhoughLs Lo enforce LhaL
lnLenLlonţ whlch Lhe law Lerms
ƍLesLamenLary capaclLyŦƍ 1haL ln effecL ls
Lhe deflnlLe oplnlon whlch we reach afLer
an exhausLlve and exhausLlng sLudy of a
Ledlous recordţ afLer welghlng Lhe
evldence for Lhe opposlLorsţ and afLer
glvlng Lo Lhe case Lhe serlous
conslderaLlon whlch lL deservesŦ
1he [udgmenL of Lhe Lrlal courL wlll be seL
aslde and Lhe wlll of 1omas 8odrlguez wlll
be admlLLed Lo probaLe wlLhouL speclal
pronouncemenL as Lo cosLs ln Lhls
lnsLanceŦ
vooceñoţ cŦ Ŧţ obosooţ vlllomotţ obosţ
komoolJezţ ooJ vllloŴkeolţ Ŧţ coocotŦ

Separate Cp|n|ons
S1kLL1 AND CS1kANDţ ŦţdlssenLlngť
We are of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe [udgmenL
whlch ls Lhe sub[ecL of appeal ln Lhls case
ls ln all respecLs correcL and should be
afflrmedŦ 1he LesLaLor was clearly sufferlng
from seolle Jemeotlo and lacked Lhe
ƍdlsposlng mlnd and memoryƍ Lhe
possesslon of whlch ls a condlLlon
precedenL Lo Lhe exerclse of LesLamenLary
powerŦ








































Successlon 07072011
Þage 29 of 61

ll8S1 ulvlSlCn
żGŦkŦ NoŦ 11SŦ Ianuary 31ţ 200SŽ
1LS1A1L LS1A1L CI 1nL LA1L ALIÞIC
A8ADAţ 8LLINDA CAÞCNCNGŴ
NC8LLţ petitionerţ vsŦ ALIÞIC
A8AIA and NCLL
A8LLLAkţ respondentsŦ
D L C I S I C N
CAkÞICţ Ŧť
1he Case
8efore Lhe CourL ls a peLlLlon for
revlew
ż1Ž
assalllng Lhe ueclslon
ż2Ž
of Lhe
CourL of Appeals of 12 !anuary 2001 ln CAŴ
CŦ8Ŧ Cv noŦ 47644Ŧ 1he CourL of Appeals
susLalned Lhe 8esoluLlon
ż3Ž
of Lhe 8eglonal
1rlal CourL of kabankalanţ negros
CccldenLalţ 8ranch 61 (º81CŴkabankalan")ţ
admlLLlng Lo probaLe Lhe lasL wlll and
LesLamenL of Allplo Abada (ºAbada")Ŧ
1he Antecedent Iacts
Abada dled someLlme ln May
1940Ŧ
ż4Ž
Pls wldow Þaula 1oray (º1oray")
dled someLlme ln SepLember 1943Ŧ 8oLh
dled wlLhouL leglLlmaLe chlldrenŦ
Cn 13 SepLember 1968ţ Allplo CŦ
Aba[a (ºAllplo") flled wlLh Lhe Lhen CourL
of llrsL lnsLance of negros CccldenLal (now
81CŴkabankalan) a peLlLlonţ
ż3Ž
dockeLed as
SÞ noŦ 070 (313Ŵ8668)ţ for Lhe probaLe of
Lhe lasL wlll and LesLamenL (ºwlll") of
AbadaŦ Abada allegedly named as hls
LesLamenLary helrs hls naLural chlldren
Luloglo Aba[a (ºLuloglo") and 8osarlo
CordovaŦ Allplo ls Lhe son of LulogloŦ
nlcanor Caponong (ºCaponong")
opposed Lhe peLlLlon on Lhe ground LhaL
Abada lefL no wlll when he dled ln 1940Ŧ
Caponong furLher alleged LhaL Lhe wlllţ lf
Abada really execuLed lLţ should be
dlsallowed for Lhe followlng reasonsť (1) lL
was noL execuLed and aLLesLed as requlred
by lawŤ (2) lL was noL lnLended as Lhe lasL
wlll of Lhe LesLaLorŤ and (3) lL was procured
by undue and lmproper pressure and
lnfluence on Lhe parL of Lhe beneflclarlesŦ
ClLlng Lhe same grounds lnvoked by
Caponongţ Lhe alleged lnLesLaLe helrs of
Abadaţ namelyţ !oelţ !ullanţ Þazţ
Lvangellneţ Ceronlmoţ PumberLoţ 1eodora
and Llena Abada (º!oel Abadaţ eL alŦ")ţ and
Levlţ Leandroţ AnLonloţ llorlanţ Pernanl
and Carmela 1ronco (ºLevl 1roncoţ eL alŦ")ţ
also opposed Lhe peLlLlonŦ 1he opposlLors
are Lhe nephewsţ nleces and grandchlldren
of Abada and 1orayŦ
Cn 13 SepLember 1968ţ Allplo flled
anoLher peLlLlon
ż6Ž
before Lhe 81CŴ
kabankalanţ dockeLed as SÞ noŦ 071 (312Ŵ
8669)ţ for Lhe probaLe of Lhe lasL wlll and
LesLamenL of 1orayŦ Caponongţ !oel
Abadaţ eL alŦţ and Levl 1roncoţ eL alŦ
opposed Lhe peLlLlon on Lhe same grounds
Lhey clLed ln SÞ noŦ 070 (313Ŵ8668)Ŧ
Cn 20 SepLember 1968ţ Caponong
flled a peLlLlon
ż7Ž
before Lhe 81CŴ
kabankalanţ dockeLed as SÞ noŦ 069 (309)ţ
praylng for Lhe lssuance ln hls name of
leLLers of admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe lnLesLaLe
esLaLe of Abada and 1orayŦ
ln an Crder daLed 14 AugusL 1981ţ
Lhe 81CŴkabankalan admlLLed Lo probaLe
Lhe wlll of 1orayŦ Slnce Lhe opposlLors dld
noL flle any moLlon for reconslderaLlonţ
Lhe order allowlng Lhe probaLe of 1oray's
wlll became flnal and execuLoryŦ
ż8Ž

ln an order daLed 23 november 1990ţ
Lhe 81CŴkabankalan deslgnaLed 8ellnda
CaponongŴnoble (ºCaponongŴnoble")
Speclal AdmlnlsLraLrlx of Lhe esLaLe of
Abada and 1orayŦ
ż9Ž
CaponongŴnoble
moved for Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe peLlLlon for
probaLe of Lhe wlll of AbadaŦ 1he 81CŴ
kabankalan denled Lhe moLlon ln an Crder
daLed 20 AugusL 1991Ŧ
ż10Ž

SomeLlme ln 1993ţ durlng Lhe
proceedlngsţ Þresldlng !udge 8odolfo SŦ
Layumas dlscovered LhaL ln an Crder daLed
16 March 1992ţ former Þresldlng !udge
Ldgardo CaLllo had already submlLLed Lhe
case for declslonŦ 1husţ Lhe 81CŴ
kabankalan rendered a 8esoluLlon daLed
22 !une 1994ţ as followsť
1here havlng been sufflclenL noLlce Lo Lhe
helrs as requlred by lawŤ LhaL Lhere ls
subsLanLlal compllance wlLh Lhe
formallLles of a Wlll as Lhe law dlrecLs and
LhaL Lhe peLlLloner Lhrough hls LesLlmony
and Lhe deposlLlon of lellx Calllnero was
able Lo esLabllsh Lhe regularlLy of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe sald Wlll and furLherţ
Lhere belng no evldence of bad falLh and
fraudţ or subsLlLuLlon of Lhe sald Wlllţ Lhe
LasL Wlll and 1esLamenL of Allplo Abada
daLed !une 4ţ 1932 ls admlLLed and
allowed probaLeŦ
As prayed for by counselţ noel
Abbellar
ż11Ž
ls appolnLed admlnlsLraLor of
Lhe esLaLe of Þaula 1oray who shall
dlscharge hls duLles as such afLer leLLers of
admlnlsLraLlon shall have been lssued ln
hls favor and afLer Laklng hls oaLh and
flllng a bond ln Lhe amounL of 1en
1housand (Þ10ţ000Ŧ00) ÞesosŦ
MrsŦ 8ellnda CŦ nobleţ Lhe presenL
admlnlsLraLrlx of Lhe esLaLe of Allplo Abada
shall conLlnue dlscharglng her duLles as
such unLll furLher orders from Lhls CourLŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
ż12Ž

1he 81CŴkabankalan ruled on Lhe
only lssue ralsed by Lhe opposlLors ln Lhelr
moLlons Lo dlsmlss Lhe peLlLlon for
probaLeţ LhaL lsţ wheLher Lhe wlll of Abada
has an aLLesLaLlon clause as requlred by
lawŦ 1he 81CŴkabankalan furLher held LhaL
Lhe fallure of Lhe opposlLors Lo ralse any
oLher maLLer forecloses all oLher lssuesŦ
noL saLlsfled wlLh Lhe 8esoluLlonţ
CaponongŴnoble flled a noLlce of appealŦ
ln a ueclslon promulgaLed on 12
!anuary 2001ţ Lhe CourL of Appeals
afflrmed Lhe 8esoluLlon of Lhe 81CŴ
kabankalanŦ 1he appellaLe courL found
LhaL Lhe 81CŴkabankalan properly
admlLLed Lo probaLe Lhe wlll of AbadaŦ
Penceţ Lhe presenL recourse by
CaponongŴnobleŦ
1he Issues
1he peLlLlon ralses Lhe followlng
lssuesť
Successlon 07072011
Þage 30 of 61

1Ŧ WhaL laws apply Lo Lhe
probaLe of Lhe lasL wlll of
AbadaŤ
2Ŧ WheLher Lhe wlll of Abada
requlres acknowledgmenL
before a noLary publlcŤ
ż13Ž

3Ŧ WheLher Lhe wlll musL
expressly sLaLe LhaL lL ls
wrlLLen ln a language or
dlalecL known Lo Lhe
LesLaLorŤ
4Ŧ WheLher Lhe wlll of Abada
has an aLLesLaLlon clauseţ
and lf soţ wheLher Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause complles
wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe
appllcable lawsŤ
3Ŧ WheLher CaponongŴnoble ls
precluded from ralslng Lhe
lssue of wheLher Lhe wlll of
Abada ls wrlLLen ln a
language known Lo AbadaŤ
6Ŧ WheLher
evldence ollooJe may be
resorLed Lo ln Lhe probaLe of
Lhe wlll of AbadaŦ
1he ku||ng of the Court
1he CourL of Appeals dld noL err ln
susLalnlng Lhe 81CŴkabankalan ln
admlLLlng Lo probaLe Lhe wlll of AbadaŦ
@epp/icob/eow
Abada execuLed hls wlll on 4 !une
1932Ŧ 1he laws ln force aL LhaL Llme are
Lhe Clvll Code of 1889 or Lhe Cld Clvll
Codeţ and AcL noŦ 190 or Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedure
ż14Ž
whlch governed Lhe
execuLlon of wllls before Lhe enacLmenL of
Lhe new Clvll CodeŦ
1he maLLer ln dlspuLe ln Lhe presenL
case ls Lhe attestat|on c|ause ln Lhe wlll of
AbadaŦ SecLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedureţ as amended by AcL noŦ
2643ţ
ż13Ž
governs Lhe form of Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause of Abada's
wlllŦ
ż16Ž
SecLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedureţ as amendedţ provldesť
SLCŦ 618Ŧ kepolsltes of wlllŦ Ŷ no wlllţ
excepL as provlded ln Lhe precedlng
secLlonţ
ż17Ž
shall be valld Lo pass any esLaLeţ
real or personalţ nor charge or affecL Lhe
sameţ unless lL be wrlLLen ln Lhe language
or dlalecL known by Lhe LesLaLor and
slgned by hlmţ or by Lhe LesLaLor's name
wrlLLen by some oLher person ln hls
presenceţ and by hls express dlrecLlonţ and
aLLesLed and subscrlbed by Lhree or more
credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLor and of each oLherŦ 1he LesLaLor or
Lhe person requesLed by hlm Lo wrlLe hls
name and Lhe lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses of
Lhe wlllţ shall also slgnţ as aforesaldţ each
and every page Lhereofţ on Lhe lefL marglnţ
and sald pages shall be numbered
correlaLlvely ln leLLers placed on Lhe upper
parL of each sheeLŦ 1he aLLesLaLlon shall
sLaLe Lhe number of sheeLs or pages usedţ
upon whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţ and Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned Lhe wlll and every
page Lhereofţ or caused some oLher
person Lo wrlLe hls nameţ under hls
express dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe presence of Lhree
wlLnessesţ and Lhe laLLer wlLnessed and
slgned Lhe wlll and all pages Lhereof ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of each oLherŦ
equisitesofoJi//underteodeofivi/
9rocedure
under SecLlon 618 of Lhe Code of
Clvll Þrocedureţ Lhe requlslLes of a wlll are
Lhe followlngť
(1) 1he wlll musL be wrlLLen ln
Lhe language or dlalecL
known by Lhe LesLaLorŤ
(2) 1he wlll musL be slgned by
Lhe LesLaLorţ or by Lhe
LesLaLor's name wrlLLen by
some oLher person ln hls
presenceţ and by hls
express dlrecLlonŤ
(3) 1he wlll musL be aLLesLed
and subscrlbed by Lhree or
more credlble wlLnesses ln
Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLor and of each
oLherŤ
(4) 1he LesLaLor or Lhe person
requesLed by hlm Lo wrlLe
hls name and Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses of
Lhe wlll musL slgn each
and every page of Lhe wlll
on Lhe lefL marglnŤ
(3) 1he pages of Lhe wlll musL
be numbered correlaLlvely
ln leLLers placed on Lhe
upper parL of each sheeLŤ
(6) 1he aLLesLaLlon shall sLaLe
Lhe number of sheeLs or
pages usedţ upon whlch
Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţ and Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor
slgned Lhe wlll and every
page of Lhe wlllţ or caused
some oLher person Lo
wrlLe hls nameţ under hls
express dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe
presence of Lhree
wlLnessesţ and Lhe
wlLnesses wlLnessed and
slgned Lhe wlll and all
pages of Lhe wlll ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor
and of each oLherŦ
CaponongŴnoble asserLs LhaL Lhe wlll
of Abada does noL lndlcaLe LhaL lL ls
wrlLLen ln a language or dlalecL known Lo
Lhe LesLaLorŦ lurLherţ she malnLalns LhaL
Lhe wlll ls noL acknowledged before a
noLary publlcŦ She clLes ln parLlcular
ArLlcles 804 and 803 of Lhe Cld Clvll Codeţ
Lhusť
ArLŦ 804Ŧ Lvery wlll musL be ln wrlLlng and
execuLed ln żaŽ language or dlalecL known
Lo Lhe LesLaLorŦ
ArLŦ 806Ŧ Lvery wlll musL be acknowledged
before a noLary publlc by Lhe LesLaLor and
Lhe wlLnessesŦ xxx
ż18Ž

CaponongŴnoble acLually clLed
ArLlcles 804 and 806 of Lhe New Clvll
CodeŦ
ż19Ž
ArLlcle 804 of Lhe Cld Clvll Code ls
abouL Lhe rlghLs and obllgaLlons of
admlnlsLraLors of Lhe properLy of an
absenLeeţ whlle ArLlcle 806 of Lhe Cld Clvll
Code deflnes a leglLlmeŦ
ArLlcles 804 and 806 of Lhe new Clvll
Code are new provlslonsŦ ArLlcle 804 of
Successlon 07072011
Þage 31 of 61

Lhe new Clvll Code ls Laken from SecLlon
618 of Lhe Code of Clvll ÞrocedureŦ
ż20Ž

ArLlcle 806 of Lhe new Clvll Code ls Laken
from ArLlcle 683 of Lhe Cld Clvll
Code
ż21Ž
whlch provldesť
ArLŦ 683Ŧ 1he noLary and Lwo of Lhe
wlLnesses who auLhenLlcaLe Lhe wlll musL
be acqualnLed wlLh Lhe LesLaLorţ orţ should
Lhey noL know hlmţ he shall be ldenLlfled
by Lwo wlLnesses who are acqualnLed wlLh
hlm and are known Lo Lhe noLary and Lo
Lhe aLLesLlng wlLnessesŦ 1he noLary and
Lhe wlLnesses shall also endeavor Lo assure
Lhemselves LhaL Lhe LesLaLor hasţ ln Lhelr
[udgmenLţ Lhe legal capaclLy requlred Lo
make a wlllŦ
WlLnesses auLhenLlcaLlng a wlll wlLhouL
Lhe aLLendance of a noLaryţ ln cases falllng
under ArLlcles 700 and 701ţ are also
requlred Lo know Lhe LesLaLorŦ
Poweverţ Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedure
ż22Ž
repealed ArLlcle 683 of Lhe
Cld Clvll CodeŦ under Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedureţ Lhe lnLervenLlon of a noLary ls
noL necessary ln Lhe execuLlon
of anywlllŦ
ż23Ž
1hereforeţ Abada's wlll does
noL requlre acknowledgmenL before a
noLary publlcŦ
CaponongŴnoble polnLs ouL LhaL
nowhere ln Lhe wlll can one dlscern LhaL
Abada knew Lhe Spanlsh languageŦ She
alleges LhaL such defecL ls faLal and musL
resulL ln Lhe dlsallowance of Lhe wlllŦ Cn
Lhls lssueţ Lhe CourL of Appeals held LhaL
Lhe maLLer was noL ralsed ln Lhe moLlon Lo
dlsmlssţ and LhaL lL ls now Loo laLe Lo ralse
Lhe lssue on appealŦ We agree wlLh
CaponongŴnoble LhaL Lhe docLrlne of
esLoppel does noL apply ln probaLe
proceedlngsŦ
ż24Ž
ln addlLlonţ Lhe language
used ln Lhe wlll ls parL of Lhe requlslLes
under SecLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedure and Lhe CourL deems lL proper
Lo pass upon Lhls lssueŦ
neverLhelessţ CaponongŴnoble's
conLenLlon musL sLlll fallŦ 1here ls no
sLaLuLory requlremenL Lo sLaLe ln Lhe wlll
lLself LhaL Lhe LesLaLor knew Lhe language
or dlalecL used ln Lhe wlllŦ
ż23Ž
1hls ls a
maLLer LhaL a parLy may esLabllsh by
proof ollooJeŦ
ż26Ž
CaponongŴnoble furLher
argues LhaL Allploţ ln hls LesLlmonyţ has
falledţ among oLhersţ Lo show LhaL Abada
knew or undersLood Lhe conLenLs of Lhe
wlll and Lhe Spanlsh language used ln Lhe
wlllŦ Poweverţ Allplo LesLlfled LhaL Abada
used Lo gaLher SpanlshŴspeaklng people ln
Lhelr placeŦ ln Lhese gaLherlngsţ Abada
and hls companlons would Lalk ln Lhe
Spanlsh languageŦ
ż27Ž
1hls sufflclenLly
proves LhaL Abada speaks Lhe Spanlsh
languageŦ
@ettestotion/ouseofbodo´sJi//
A scruLlny of Abada's wlll shows LhaL
lL has an aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ 1he
aLLesLaLlon clause of Abada's wlll readsť
SuscrlLo y declarado por el LesLador Allplo
Abada como su ulLlma volunLad y
LesLamenLo en presencla de nosoLrosţ
hablendo Lamblen el LesLador flrmado en
nuesLra presencla en el margen lzqulerdo
de Lodas y cada una de las ho[as del
mlsmoŦ ? en LesLlmonlo de elloţ cada uno
de nosoLros lo flrmamos en presencla de
nosoLros y del LesLador al ple de esLe
documenLo y en el margen lzqulerdo de
Lodas y cada una de las dos ho[as de que
esLa compuesLo el mlsmoţ las cuales esLan
paglnadas correlaLlvamenLe con las leLras
ºunC" y ºuCS' en la parLe superlor de la
carrlllaŦ
ż28Ž

CaponongŴnoble proceeds Lo polnL
ouL several defecLs ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clauseŦ CaponongŴnoble alleges LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause falls Lo sLaLe Lhe number
of pages on whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenŦ
1he allegaLlon has no merlLŦ 1he
phrase ºeo el motqeo lzpoletJo Je toJos y
coJo ooo Je los Jos bojos Je poe esto
compoesto el mlsmo" whlch means ºln Lhe
lefL margln of each and every one of Lhe
Lwo pages conslsLlng of Lhe same" shows
LhaL Lhe wlll conslsLs of Lwo pagesŦ 1he
pages are numbered correlaLlvely wlLh Lhe
leLLers ºCnL" and º1WC" as can be
gleaned from Lhe phrase ºlos cooles estoo
poqlooJos cottelotlvomeote coo los lettos
´uNO´ y ´uO5Ŧ"
CaponongŴnoble furLher alleges LhaL
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause falls Lo sLaLe
expressly LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned Lhe wlll
and lLs every page ln Lhe presence of Lhree
wlLnessesŦ She Lhen faulLs Lhe CourL of
Appeals for applylng Lo Lhe presenL case
Lhe rule on subsLanLlal compllance found
ln ArLlcle 809 of Lhe new Clvll CodeŦ
ż29Ž

1he flrsL senLence of Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause readsť º5osctlto y JeclotoJo pot el
testoJot llplo boJo como so oltlmo
volootoJ y testomeoto eo pteseoclo Je
oosottosţ bobleoJo tombleo el testoJot
fltmoJo eo ooestto pteseoclo eo el motqeo
lzpoletJo Je toJos y coJo ooo Je los bojos
Jel mlsmoŦ" 1he Lngllsh LranslaLlon lsť
ºSubscrlbed and professed by Lhe LesLaLor
Allplo Abada as hls lasL wlll and LesLamenL
ln our presenceţ Lhe LesLaLor havlng also
slgned lL ln our presence on Lhe lefL margln
of each and every one of Lhe pages of Lhe
sameŦ" 1he
aLLesLaLlon clause clearlysLaLes LhaL Abada
slgned Lhe wlll and lLs every page ln
Lhe presence of Lhe wlLnessesŦ
Poweverţ CaponongŴnoble ls correcL
ln saylng LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause does
noL lndlcaLe Lhe number of wlLnessesŦ Cn
Lhls polnLţ Lhe CourL agrees wlLh Lhe
appellaLe courL ln applylng Lhe rule on
subsLanLlal compllance ln deLermlnlng Lhe
number of wlLnessesŦ Whlle Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause does noL sLaLe Lhe
number of wlLnessesţ a close lnspecLlon of
Lhe wlll shows LhaL Lhree wlLnesses slgned
lLŦ
1hls CourL has applled Lhe rule on
subsLanLlal compllance even before Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhe new Clvll CodeŦ
ln icoso de @icson vŦ e
orostitoţ
ż30Ž
Lhe CourL recognlzed LhaL
Lhere are Lwo dlvergenL Lendencles ln Lhe
law on wlllsţ one belng based on sLrlcL
consLrucLlon and Lhe oLher on llberal
consLrucLlonŦ ln icosoţ Lhe CourL noLed
LhaL booqoo vŦ booqooţ
ż31Ž
Lhe baslc
case on Lhe llberal consLrucLlonţ ls clLed
wlLh approval ln laLer declslons of Lhe
CourLŦ
ln devo vdoŦ e eynet vŦ
eynetţ
ż32Ž
Lhe peLlLlonerţ argulng for
llberal consLrucLlon of appllcable lawsţ
enumeraLed a long llne of cases Lo supporL
her argumenL whlle Lhe respondenLţ
conLendlng LhaL Lhe rule on sLrlcL
consLrucLlon should applyţ also clLed a long
serles of cases Lo supporL hls vlewŦ 1he
CourLţ afLer examlnlng Lhe cases lnvoked
by Lhe parLlesţ heldť
Successlon 07072011
Þage 32 of 61

x x x lL lsţ of courseţ noL posslble Lo lay
down a general ruleţ rlgld and lnflexlbleţ
whlch would be appllcable Lo all casesŦ
More Lhan anyLhlng elseţ Lhe facLs and
clrcumsLances of record are Lo be
consldered ln Lhe appllcaLlon of any glven
ruleŦ lf Lhe surroundlng clrcumsLances
polnL Lo a regular execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ
and Lhe lnsLrumenL appears Lo have been
execuLed subsLanLlally ln accordance wlLh
Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe lawţ Lhe
lncllnaLlon shouldţ ln Lhe absence of any
suggesLlon of bad falLhţ forgery or fraudţ
lean Lowards lLs admlsslon Lo probaLeţ
alLhough Lhe documenL may suffer from
some lmperfecLlon of languageţ or oLher
nonŴessenLlal defecLŦ x x xŦ
An aLLesLaLlon clause ls made for Lhe
purpose of preservlngţ ln permanenL formţ
a record of Lhe facLs aLLendlng Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ so LhaL ln case of
fallure of Lhe memory of Lhe subscrlblng
wlLnessesţ or oLher casualLyţ Lhey may sLlll
be provedŦ (1hompson on Wlllsţ 2d edŦţ
secŦ 132Ŧ) A wlllţ Lhereforeţ should noL be
re[ecLed where lLs aLLesLaLlon clause
serves Lhe purpose of Lhe lawŦ x x x
ż33Ž

We rule Lo apply Lhe llberal
consLrucLlon ln Lhe probaLe of Abada's
wlllŦ Abada's wlll clearly shows four
slgnaLuresť LhaL of Abada and of Lhree
oLher personsŦ lL ls reasonable Lo conclude
LhaL Lhere are Lhree wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlllŦ
1he quesLlon on Lhe number of Lhe
wlLnesses ls answered by an examlnaLlon
of Lhe wlll lLself and wlLhouL Lhe need for
presenLaLlon of evldence ollooJeŦ 1he
CourL explalned Lhe exLenL and llmlLs of
Lhe rule on llberal consLrucLlonţ Lhusť
ż1Žhe soŴcalled llberal rule does noL offer
any puzzle or dlfflculLyţ nor does lL open
Lhe door Lo serlous consequencesŦ 1he
laLer declslons do Lell us when and where
Lo sLopŤ Lhey draw Lhe dlvldlng llne wlLh
preclslonŦ 1hey do not a||ow
ev|dence o/iunde to f||| a vo|d |n any part
of the document or supp|y m|ss|ng deta||s
that shou|d appear |n the w||| |tse|fŦ 1hey
on|y perm|t a probe |nto the w|||ţ an
exp|orat|on w|th|n |ts conf|nesţ to
ascerta|n |ts mean|ng or to determ|ne the
ex|stence or absence of the requ|s|te
forma||t|es of |awŦ 1hls clearţ sharp
llmlLaLlon ellmlnaLes uncerLalnLy and
oughL Lo banlsh any fear of dlre resulLsŦ
ż34Ž

(Lmphasls supplled)
1he phrase ºeo pteseoclo Je oosottos" or
ºln our presence" coupled wlLh Lhe
slgnaLures appearlng on Lhe wlll lLself and
afLer Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause could only
mean LhaLť (1) Abada subscrlbed Lo and
professed before Lhe Lhree wlLnesses LhaL
Lhe documenL was hls lasL wlllţ and (2)
Abada slgned Lhe wlll and Lhe lefL margln
of each page of Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence of
Lhese Lhree wlLnessesŦ
llnallyţ CaponongŴnoble alleges LhaL
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause does noL expressly
sLaLe Lhe clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe
wlLnesses w|tnessed and slgned Lhe wlll
and all lLs pages ln Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLor and of each oLherŦ 1hls CourL has
ruledť
Þreclslon of language ln Lhe drafLlng of an
aLLesLaLlon clause ls deslrableŦ Poweverţ lL
ls noL lmperaLlve LhaL a parroLŴllke copy of
Lhe words of Lhe sLaLuLe be madeŦ lL ls
sufflclenL lf from Lhe language employed lL
can reasonably be deduced LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause fulfllls whaL Lhe law
expecLs of lLŦ
ż33Ž

1he lasL parL of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
sLaLes ºeo testlmoolo Je elloţ coJo ooo Je
oosottos lo fltmomos eo pteseoclo Je
oosottos y Jel testoJotŦ" ln Lngllshţ Lhls
means ºln lLs wlLnessţ every one of us also
slgned ln our presence and of Lhe
LesLaLorŦ" 1hls clearly shows LhaL Lhe
aLLesLlng wlLnesses wlLnessed Lhe slgnlng
of Lhe wlll of Lhe LesLaLorţ and LhaL each
wlLness slgned Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence of
one anoLher and of Lhe LesLaLorŦ
JnLkLICkLţ we Alll8M Lhe
ueclslon of Lhe CourL of Appeals of 12
!anuary 2001 ln CAŴCŦ8Ŧ Cv noŦ 47644Ŧ
SC CkDLkLDŦ
uovlJeţ tŦţ cŦŦţ (cboltmoo)ţ
Oolsombloqţ ¥ootesŴ5ootloqoţ and zcoooţ
Ŧţ concurŦ



ż1Ž
under 8ule 43 of Lhe 1997 8ules of Clvll
ÞrocedureŦ
ż2Ž
Þenned by AssoclaLe !usLlce ÞresblLero !Ŧ
velascoţ !rŦ (now CourL
AdmlnlsLraLor) wlLh AssoclaLe
!usLlces 8uben 1Ŧ 8eyes and !uan
CŦ Lnrlquezţ !rŦţ concurrlngŦ
ż3Ž
Þenned by Þresldlng !udge 8odolfo SŦ
LayumasŦ
ż4Ž
Allplo CŦ Aba[a Lrled Lo secure a copy of
Abada's deaLh cerLlflcaLe buL Lhe
Local Clvll 8eglsLrar of Cawayanţ
negros CccldenLal lnformed hlm
LhaL all Lhe records of preŴwar
deaLhs were desLroyed durlng Lhe
warŦ
ż3Ž
ln Lhe maLLer of Lhe ÞrobaLe of Lhe LasL
Wlll and 1esLamenL of Lhe laLe
Allplo AbadaŦ
ż6Ž
ln Lhe maLLer of Lhe ÞrobaLe of Lhe LasL
Wlll and 1esLamenL of Lhe laLe
Þaula 1orayŦ
ż7Ž
ln Lhe maLLer of Lhe lnLesLaLe LsLaLe of
Spouses Allplo Abada and Þaula
1orayŦ ÞeLlLlon for LeLLers of
AdmlnlsLraLlonŦ
ż8Ž
8ecordsţ pŦ 38Ŧ
ż9Ž
lblJŦţ pŦ 41Ŧ
ż10Ž
lblJŦţ ppŦ 42Ŵ43Ŧ
ż11Ž
lL should be AbellarŦ
ż12Ž
kolloţ pŦ 47Ŧ
ż13Ž
ÞeLlLloner phrases Lhls lssue as Lo
wheLher Lhe wlll has Lo be
ºnoLarlzedŦ" A noLarlzed
documenL lncludes one LhaL ls
subscrlbed and sworn under oaLh
or one LhaL conLalns a [uraLŦ
AcknowledgmenL ls dlfferenLŦ
AcknowledgmenL refers Lo an acL
ln whlch an lndlvldual on a slngle
occaslonť (a) appears ln person
before Lhe noLary publlc and
presenLs an lnLegrally compleLe
lnsLrumenL or documenLŤ (b) ls
aLLesLed Lo be personally known
Lo Lhe noLary publlc or ldenLlfled
by Lhe noLary publlc Lhrough
compeLenL evldence of ldenLlLy as
deflned by Lhese 8ulesŤ and (c)
represenLs Lo Lhe noLary publlc
LhaL Lhe slgnaLure on Lhe
lnsLrumenL or documenL was
Successlon 07072011
Þage 33 of 61

volunLarlly afflxed by hlm for Lhe
purposes sLaLed ln Lhe lnsLrumenL
or documenLţ declares LhaL he has
execuLed Lhe lnsLrumenL or
documenL as hls free and
volunLary acL and deedţ andţ lf he
acLs ln a parLlcular represenLaLlve
capaclLyţ LhaL he has Lhe auLhorlLy
Lo slgn ln LhaL capaclLyŦ
(5ee SecLlon 1ţ 8ule ll of 2004
8ules of noLarlal ÞracLlce)
ż14Ž
1he Code of Clvll Þrocedure Look effecL
on 1 SepLember 1901Ŧ
ż13Ž
An AcL amendlng secLlon slx hundred
and elghLeen of AcL numbered
Cne hundred and nlneLyţ enLlLled
ºAn AcL provldlng A Code of
Þrocedure ln Clvll AcLlons and
Speclal Þroceedlngs ln Lhe
Þhlllpplne lslandsţ" prescrlblng
addlLlonal requlremenL ln Lhe
execuLlon of wlllsŦ lL Look effecL
on 1 !uly 1916Ŧ
ż16Ž
1he valldlLy of Lhe execuLlon of a wlll ls
governed by Lhe sLaLuLes ln Lhe
force aL Lhe Llme of lLs execuLlon
(ln re wlll of 8losaţ 39 ÞhllŦ 23
ż1918Ž)Ŧ ArLlcle 793 of Lhe new
Clvll Code provldesť º1he valldlLy
of a wlll as Lo lLs form depends
upon Lhe observance of Lhe law ln
force aL Lhe Llme lL ls madeŦ"
ż17Ž
SecLlon 617 governs wllls execuLed by a
Spanlard or a resldenL of Lhe
Þhlllpplne lslands before AcL noŦ
190 came lnLo force on 1
SepLember 1901Ŧ
ż18Ž
kolloţ pŦ 131Ŧ
ż19Ž
1he new Clvll Code Look effecL on 30
AugusL 1930Ŧ
ż20Ž
1CLLn1lnCţ
ClvlL CCuL Cl 1PL ÞPlLlÞÞlnLSţ
67 volŦ lll (1998)Ŧ
ż21Ž
lblJŦţ pŦ 101Ŧ
ż22Ž
llSPL8ţ 1PL ClvlL CCuL Cl SÞAlnţ 198
(1921)Ŧ
ż23Ž
valera vŦ Þuruggananţ 4 ÞhllŦ 719
(1903)Ŧ
ż24Ž
5ee lernandezţ eL alŦ vŦ ulmaglbaţ 128
ÞhllŦ 430 (1967)Ŧ
ż23Ž
Lopez vŦ Llboroţ 81 Þhll 429 (1948)Ŧ
ż26Ž
lblJŦ
ż27Ž
1Snţ 26 CcLober 1989ţ pŦ 74Ŧ
ż28Ž
LxhlblL ºAţ" lolderŦ
ż29Ž
ArLlcle 809 of Lhe new Clvll Code
provldesť
ArLŦ 809Ŧ ln Lhe absence of bad
falLhţ forgeryţ or fraudţ or undue
and lmproper pressure and
lnfluenceţ defecLs and
lmperfecLlons ln Lhe form of
aLLesLaLlon or ln Lhe language
used Lhereln shall noL render Lhe
wlll lnvalld lf lL ls proved LhaL Lhe
wlll was ln facL execuLed and
aLLesLed ln subsLanLlal compllance
wlLh all Lhe requlremenLs of
arLlcle 803Ŧ
ż30Ž
37 ÞhllŦ 437 (1932)Ŧ
ż31Ž
40 ÞhllŦ 476 (1919)Ŧ
ż32Ž
68 ÞhllŦ 743 (1939)Ŧ
ż33Ž
lblJŦ
ż34Ž
Cll vŦ Murclanoţ 8esoluLlon on Lhe
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlonţ
daLed 20 March 1933ţ 88 ÞhllŦ 260
(1931)Ŧ 5ee olso Caneda vŦ CourL
of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 103334ţ 28
May 1993ţ 222 SC8A 781ţ where
Lhe CourL explalned Lhe exLenL
and llmlLs of ArLlcle 809 of Lhe
new Clvll CodeŦ
ż33Ž
ulchoso de 1lcson vŦ ue
CorosLlzaţ soptoţ see noLe 31Ŧ










































































Successlon 07072011
Þage 3 of 61



8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
ll8S1 ulvlSlCn

GŦkŦ NoŦ 69S September 1ţ 1993
In the Matter of the Þrobate of the Last
J||| and 1estament of the Deceased
8r|g|do A|varadoţ CLSAk
ALVAkADCţ peLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
nCNŦ kAMCN GŦ GAVICLAţ IkŦţ Þres|d|ng
Iust|ceţ nCNŦ MAŦ kCSAkIC ÇUL1ULIC
LCSA and nCNŦ LLCNCk INLS LUCIANCţ
Assoc|ate Iust|cesţ Intermed|ate Appe||ate
Courtţ I|rst D|v|s|on (C|v|| Cases)ţ and
8A¥ANI MAŦ kINCţ respondenLsŦ
vlceote kŦ keJot fot petltlooetŦ
8oyool MoŦ kloo fot ooJ lo bls owo bebolfŦ

8LLLCSILLCţ Ŧť
8efore us ls an appeal from Lhe ueclslon
daLed 11 Aprll 1986
1
of Lhe llrsL Clvll Cases
ulvlslon of Lhe Lhen lnLermedlaLe
AppellaLe CourLţ now CourL of Appealsţ
whlch afflrmed Lhe Crder daLed 27 !une
1983
2
of Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL of SLaŦ
Cruzţ Lagunaţ admlLLlng Lo probaLe Lhe lasL
wlll and LesLamenL
3
wlLh codlcll

of Lhe
laLe 8rlgldo AlvaradoŦ
Cn 3 november 1977ţ Lhe 79Ŵyear old
8rlgldo Alvarado execuLed a noLarlal wlll
enLlLled ƍPullng Pablllnƍ whereln he
dlslnherlLed an llleglLlmaLe son (peLlLloner)
and expressly revoked a prevlously
execuLed holographlc wlll aL Lhe Llme
awalLlng probaLe before 8ranch 4 of Lhe
8eglonal 1rlal CourL of sLaŦ Cruzţ LagunaŦ
As LesLlfled Lo by Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal
wlLnessesţ Lhe noLary publlc and by prlvaLe
respondenL who were presenL aL Lhe
execuLlonţ Lhe LesLaLor dld noL read Lhe
flnal drafL of Lhe wlll hlmselfŦ lnsLeadţ
prlvaLe respondenLţ as Lhe lawyer who
drafLed Lhe elghLŴpaged documenLţ read
Lhe same aloud ln Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLorţ Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses
and Lhe noLary publlcŦ 1he laLLer four
followed Lhe readlng wlLh Lhelr own
respecLlve coples prevlously furnlshed
LhemŦ
Meanwhlleţ 8rlgldoƌs holographlc wlll was
subsequenLly admlLLed Lo probaLe on 9
uecember 1977Ŧ Cn Lhe 29Lh day of Lhe
same monLhţ a codlcll enLlLled ƍkasulaLan
ng Þagbabago sa llang Þagpapaslya na
nasasaad sa Pullng Pabllln na may ÞeLsa
noblembre 3ţ 1977 nl 8rlgldo Alvaradoƍ
was execuLed changlng some dlsposlLlons
ln Lhe noLarlal wlll Lo generaLe cash for Lhe
LesLaLorƌs eye operaLlonŦ 8rlgldo was Lhen
sufferlng from glaucomaŦ 8uL Lhe
dlslnherlLance and revocaLory clauses
were unchangedŦ As ln Lhe case of Lhe
noLarlal wlllţ Lhe LesLaLor dld noL
personally read Lhe flnal drafL of Lhe
codlcllŦ lnsLeadţ lL was prlvaLe respondenL
who read lL aloud ln hls presence and ln
Lhe presence of Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses (same as Lhose of Lhe noLarlal
wlll) and Lhe noLary publlc who followed
Lhe readlng uslng Lhelr own coplesŦ
A peLlLlon for Lhe probaLe of Lhe noLarlal
wlll and codlcll was flled upon Lhe
LesLaLorƌs deaLh on 3 !anuary 1979 by
prlvaLe respondenL as execuLor wlLh Lhe
CourL of llrsL lnsLanceţ now 8eglonal 1rlal
CourLţ of Slnlloanţ LagunaŦ
S
ÞeLlLlonerţ ln
Lurnţ flled an CpposlLlon on Lhe followlng
groundsť LhaL Lhe wlll soughL Lo be
probaLed was noL execuLed and aLLesLed
as requlred by lawŤ LhaL Lhe LesLaLor was
lnsane or oLherwlse menLally lncapaclLaLed
Lo make a wlll aL Lhe Llme of lLs execuLlon
due Lo senlllLy and old ageŤ LhaL Lhe wlll
was execuLed under duressţ or lnfluence of
fear and LhreaLsŤ LhaL lL was procured by
undue and lmproper pressure and
lnfluence on Lhe parL of Lhe beneflclary
who sLands Lo geL Lhe llonƌs share of Lhe
LesLaLorƌs esLaLeŤ and lasLlyţ LhaL Lhe
slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLor was procured by
fraud or LrlckŦ
When Lhe opposlLor (peLlLloner) falled Lo
subsLanLlaLe Lhe grounds relled upon ln
Lhe CpposlLlonţ a ÞrobaLe Crder was
lssued on 27 !une 1983 from whlch an
appeal was made Lo respondenL courLŦ 1he
maln LhrusL of Lhe appeal was LhaL Lhe
deceased was bllnd wlLhln Lhe meanlng of
Lhe law aL Lhe Llme hls ƍPullng Pablllnƍ
and Lhe codlcll aLLached LhereLo was
execuLedŤ LhaL slnce Lhe readlng requlred
by ArLŦ 808 of Lhe Clvll Code was
admlLLedly noL complled wlLhţ probaLe of
Lhe deceasedƌs lasL wlll and codlcll should
have been denledŦ
Cn 11 Aprll 1986ţ Lhe CourL of Appeals
rendered Lhe declslon under revlew wlLh
Lhe followlng flndlngsť LhaL 8rlgldo
Alvarado was noL bllnd aL Lhe Llme hls lasL
wlll and codlcll were execuLedŤ LhaL
assumlng hls bllndnessţ Lhe readlng
requlremenL of ArLŦ 808 was subsLanLlally
complled wlLh when boLh documenLs were
read aloud Lo Lhe LesLaLor wlLh each of Lhe
Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses and Lhe
noLary publlc followlng Lhe readlng wlLh
Lhelr respecLlve coples of Lhe lnsLrumenLsŦ
1he appellaLe courL Lhen concluded LhaL
alLhough ArLŦ 808 was noL followed Lo Lhe
leLLerţ Lhere was subsLanLlal compllance
slnce lLs purpose of maklng known Lo Lhe
LesLaLor Lhe conLenLs of Lhe drafLed wlll
was servedŦ
1he lssues now before us can be sLaLed
Lhusť Was 8rlgldo Alvarado bllnd for
purpose of ArLţ 808 aL Lhe Llme hls ƍPullng
Pablllnƍ and lLs codlcll were execuLed? lf
soţ was Lhe doubleŴreadlng requlremenL of
sald arLlcle complled wlLh?
8egardlng Lhe flrsL lssueţ Lhere ls no
dlspuLe on Lhe followlng facLsť 8rlgldo
Alvarado was noL LoLally bllnd aL Lhe Llme
Lhe wlll and codlcll were execuLedŦ
Poweverţ hls vlslon on boLh eyes was only
of ƍcounLlng flngers aL Lhree (3) feeLƍ by
reason of Lhe glaucoma whlch he had been
sufferlng from for several years and even
prlor Lo hls flrsL consulLaLlon wlLh an eye
speclallsL on
14 uecember 1977Ŧ
1he polnL of dlspuLe ls wheLher Lhe
foregolng clrcumsLances would quallfy
8rlgldo as a ƍbllndƍ LesLaLor under ArLŦ 808
whlch readsť
ArLŦ 808Ŧ lf Lhe LesLaLor ls
bllndţ Lhe wlll shall be
Successlon 07072011
Þage 3S of 61

read Lo hlm LwlceŤ onceţ
by one of Lhe subscrlblng
wlLnessesţ and agalnţ by
Lhe noLary publlc before
whom Lhe wlll ls
acknowledgedŦ
ÞeLlLloner conLends LhaL alLhough hls
faLher was noL LoLally bllnd when Lhe wlll
and codlcll were execuLedţ he can be so
consldered wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe Lerm as
lL ls used ln ArLŦ 808Ŧ 1o supporL hls sLandţ
peLlLloner presenLed before Lhe Lrlal courL
a medlcal cerLlflcaLe lssued by urŦ Salvador
8Ŧ Salcedaţ ulrecLor of Lhe lnsLlLuLe of
CpLhalmology (Þhlllpplne Lye 8esearch
lnsLlLuLe)ţ
6
Lhe conLenLs of whlch were
lnLerpreLed ln laymanƌs Lerms by urŦ
8uperLo 8oasaţ whose experLlse was
admlLLed by prlvaLe respondenLŦ

urŦ
8oasa explalned LhaL alLhough Lhe LesLaLor
could vlsuallze flngers aL Lhree (3) feeLţ he
could no longer read elLher prlnLed or
handwrlLLen maLLers as of 14 uecember
1977ţ Lhe day of hls flrsL consulLaLlonŦ
8

Cn Lhe oLher handţ Lhe CourL of Appealsţ
conLrary Lo Lhe medlcal LesLlmonyţ held
LhaL Lhe LesLaLor could sLlll read on Lhe day
Lhe wlll and Lhe codlcll were execuLed buL
chose noL Lo do so because of ƍpoor
eyeslghLŦƍ
9
Slnce Lhe LesLaLor was sLlll
capable of readlng aL LhaL Llmeţ Lhe courL o
poo concluded LhaL ArLŦ 808 need noL be
complled wlLhŦ
We agree wlLh peLlLloner ln Lhls respecLŦ
8egardless of respondenLƌs sLaunch
conLenLlon LhaL Lhe LesLaLor was sLlll
capable of readlng aL Lhe Llme hls wlll and
codlcll were preparedţ Lhe facL remalns
and Lhls was LesLlfled Lo by hls wlLnessesţ
LhaL 8rlgldo dld noL do so because of hls
ƍpoorţƍ
10
ƍdefecLlveţƍ
11
or
ƍblurredƍ
12
vlslon maklng lL necessary for
prlvaLe respondenL Lo do Lhe acLual
readlng for hlmŦ
1he followlng pronouncemenL ln Cotclo
vsŦ vospoez
13
provldes an lnslghL lnLo Lhe
scope of Lhe Lerm ƍbllndnessƍ as used ln
ArLŦ 808ţ Lo wlLť
1he raLlonale behlnd Lhe
requlremenL of readlng Lhe wlll Lo
Lhe LesLaLor lf he ls blloJ ot
locopoble of teoJloq tbe wlll
blmself (os wbeo be ls lllltetote)ţ ls
Lo make Lhe provlslons Lhereof
known Lo hlmţ so LhaL he may be
able Lo ob[ecL lf Lhey are noL ln
accordance wlLh hls wlshes Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
Clear from Lhe foregolng ls LhaL ArLŦ 808
applles noL only Lo bllnd LesLaLors buL also
Lo Lhose whoţ for one reason or anoLherţ
are ƍlncapable of readlng Lhe(lr) wlll(s)Ŧƍ
Slnce 8rlgldo Alvarado was lncapable of
readlng Lhe flnal drafLs of hls wlll and
codlcll on Lhe separaLe occaslons of Lhelr
execuLlon due Lo hls ƍpoorţƍ ƍdefecLlveţƍ
or ƍblurredƍ vlslonţ Lhere can be no oLher
course for us buL Lo conclude LhaL 8rlgldo
Alvarado comes wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe
Lerm ƍbllndƍ as lL ls used ln ArLŦ 808Ŧ
unless Lhe conLenLs were read Lo hlmţ he
had no way of ascerLalnlng wheLher or noL
Lhe lawyer who drafLed Lhe wlll and codlcll
dld so conforLably wlLh hls lnsLrucLlonsŦ
Penceţ Lo conslder hls wlll as valldly
execuLed and enLlLled Lo probaLeţ lL ls
essenLlal LhaL we ascerLaln wheLher ArLŦ
808 had been complled wlLhŦ
ArLlcle 808 requlres LhaL ln case of
LesLaLors llke 8rlgldo Alvaradoţ Lhe wlll
shall be read LwlceŤ onceţ by one of Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses andţ agalnţ by Lhe
noLary publlc before whom Lhe wlll was
acknowledgedŦ 1he purpose ls Lo make
known Lo Lhe lncapaclLaLed LesLaLor Lhe
conLenLs of Lhe documenL before slgnlng
and Lo glve hlm an opporLunlLy Lo ob[ecL lf
anyLhlng ls conLrary Lo hls lnsLrucLlonsŦ
1haL ArLŦ 808 was noL followed sLrlcLly ls
beyond cavllŦ lnsLead of Lhe noLary publlc
and an lnsLrumenLal wlLnessţ lL was Lhe
lawyer (prlvaLe respondenL) who drafLed
Lhe elghLŴpaged wlll and Lhe flveŴpaged
codlcll who read Lhe same aloud Lo Lhe
LesLaLorţ and read Lhem only onceţ noL
Lwlce as ArLŦ 808 requlresŦ
ÞrlvaLe respondenL however lnslsLs LhaL
Lhere was subsLanLlal compllance and LhaL
Lhe slngle readlng sufflces for purposes of
Lhe lawŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ peLlLloner
malnLalns LhaL Lhe only valld compllance
or compllance Lo Lhe leLLer and slnce lL ls
admlLLed LhaL nelLher Lhe noLary publlc
nor an lnsLrumenLal wlLness read Lhe
conLenLs of Lhe wlll and codlcll Lo 8rlgldoţ
probaLe of Lhe laLLerƌs wlll and codlcll
should have been dlsallowedŦ
We susLaln prlvaLe respondenLƌs sLand and
necessarllyţ Lhe peLlLlon musL be denledŦ
1hls CourL has held ln a number of
occaslons LhaL subsLanLlal compllance ls
accepLable where Lhe purpose of Lhe law
has been saLlsfledţ Lhe reason belng LhaL
Lhe solemnlLles surroundlng Lhe execuLlon
of wllls are lnLended Lo proLecL Lhe
LesLaLor from all klnds of fraud and Lrlckery
buL are never lnLended Lo be so rlgld and
lnflexlble as Lo desLroy Lhe LesLamenLary
prlvllegeŦ
1

ln Lhe case aL barţ prlvaLe respondenL read
Lhe LesLaLorƌs wlll and codlcll aloud ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLorţ hls Lhree
lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesţ and Lhe noLary
publlcŦ Þrlor and subsequenL LhereLoţ Lhe
LesLaLor afflrmedţ upon belng askedţ LhaL
Lhe conLenLs read corresponded wlLh hls
lnsLrucLlonsŦ Cnly Lhen dld Lhe slgnlng and
acknowledgemenL Lake placeŦ 1here ls no
evldenceţ and peLlLloner does noL so
allegeţ LhaL Lhe conLenLs of Lhe wlll and
codlcll were noL sufflclenLly made known
and communlcaLed Lo Lhe LesLaLorŦ Cn Lhe
conLraryţ wlLh respecL Lo Lhe ƍPullng
Pablllnţƍ Lhe day of Lhe execuLlon was noL
Lhe flrsL Llme LhaL 8rlgldo had afflrmed Lhe
LruLh and auLhenLlclLy of Lhe conLenLs of
Lhe drafLŦ 1he unconLradlcLed LesLlmony of
ALLyŦ 8lno ls LhaL 8rlgldo Alvarado already
acknowledged LhaL Lhe wlll was drafLed ln
accordance wlLh hls expressed wlshes
even prlor Lo 3 november 1977 when ALLyŦ
8lno wenL Lo Lhe LesLaLorƌs resldence
preclsely for Lhe purpose of securlng hls
conformlLy Lo Lhe drafLŦ
1S

Moreoverţ lL was noL only ALLyŦ 8lno who
read Lhe documenLs on
3 november and 29 uecember 1977Ŧ 1he
noLary publlc and Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses llkewlse read Lhe wlll and
codlcllţ albelL sllenLlyŦ AfLerwardsţ ALLyŦ
nonla de la Þena (Lhe noLary publlc) and
urŦ CrescenLe CŦ LvldenLe (one of Lhe
Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses and Lhe
LesLaLorƌs physlclan) asked Lhe LesLaLor
wheLher Lhe conLenLs of Lhe documenL
were of hls own free wlllŦ 8rlgldo
answered ln Lhe afflrmaLlveŦ
16
WlLh four
Successlon 07072011
Þage 36 of 61

persons followlng Lhe readlng word for
word wlLh Lhelr own coplesţ lL can be
safely concluded LhaL Lhe LesLaLor was
reasonably assured LhaL whaL was read Lo
hlm (Lhose whlch he afflrmed were ln
accordance wlLh hls lnsLrucLlons)ţ were Lhe
Lerms acLually appearlng on Lhe
LypewrlLLen documenLsŦ 1hls ls especlally
Lrue when we conslder Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses were
persons known Lo Lhe LesLaLorţ one belng
hls physlclan (urŦ LvldenLe) and anoLher
(ÞoLenclano CŦ 8anleses) belng known Lo
hlm slnce chlldhoodŦ
1he splrlL behlnd Lhe law was served
Lhough Lhe leLLer was noLŦ AlLhough Lhere
should be sLrlcL compllance wlLh Lhe
subsLanLlal requlremenLs of Lhe law ln
order Lo lnsure Lhe auLhenLlclLy of Lhe wlllţ
Lhe formal lmperfecLlons should be
brushed aslde when Lhey do noL affecL lLs
purpose and whlchţ when Laken lnLo
accounLţ may only defeaL Lhe LesLaLorƌs
wlllŦ
1

As a flnal word Lo convlnce peLlLloner of
Lhe proprleLy of Lhe Lrlal courLƌs ÞrobaLe
Crder and lLs afflrmance by Lhe CourL of
Appealsţ we quoLe Lhe followlng
pronouncemenL ln booqoo
vŦ booqooţ
18
Lo wlLť
1he ob[ecL of Lhe solemnlLles
surroundlng Lhe execuLlon of wllls
ls Lo close Lhe door agalnsL bad
falLh and fraudţ Lo avold Lhe
subsLlLuLlon of wllls and
LesLamenLs and Lo guaranLy Lhelr
LruLh and auLhenLlclLyŦ 1herefore
Lhe laws on Lhe sub[ecL should be
lnLerpreLed ln such a way as Lo
aLLaln Lhese prlmordlal endsŦ 8uLţ
on Lhe oLher handţ also one musL
noL lose slghL of Lhe facL LhaL lt ls
oot tbe object of tbe low to testtolo
ooJ cottoll tbe eetclse of tbe tlqbt
to moke o wlllŦ 5o wbeo oo
lotetptetotloo olteoJy qlveo
ossotes socb eoJsţ ooy otbet
lotetptetotloo wbotsoevetţ tbot
oJJs ootbloq bot JemooJs mote
tepolsltes eotltely oooecessotyţ
oseless ooJ ftosttotlve of tbe
testototƌs wlllţ most be
JlsteqotJeJ (emphasls supplled)Ŧ
8rlgldo Alvarado had expressed hls lasL
wlshes ln clear and unmlsLakable Lerms ln
hls ƍPullng Pablllnƍ and Lhe codlcll
aLLached LhereLoŦ We are unwllllng Lo casL
Lhese aslde fro Lhe mere reason LhaL a
legal requlremenL lnLended for hls
proLecLlon was noL followed sLrlcLly when
such compllance had been rendered
unnecessary by Lhe facL LhaL Lhe purpose
of Lhe lawţ lŦeŦţ Lo make known Lo Lhe
lncapaclLaLed LesLaLor Lhe conLenLs of Lhe
drafL of hls wlllţ had already been
accompllshedŦ 1o relLeraLeţ subsLanLlal
compllance sufflces where Lhe purpose has
been servedŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe peLlLlon ls uLnlLu and
Lhe assalled ueclslon of respondenL CourL
of Appeals daLed 11 Aprll 1986 ls
Alll8MLuŦ Conslderlng Lhe lengLh of Llme
LhaL Lhls case has remalned pendlngţ Lhls
declslon ls lmmedlaLely execuLoryŦ CosLs
agalnsL peLlLlonerŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
ctozţ CtlñoŴpolooţ uovlJeţ tŦ ooJ
Oolosooţ Ŧţ coocotŦ

# Iootnotes
1 kolloţ ppŦ 29Ŵ37Ŧ
2 Þenned by !udge
Maxlmlano CŦ Asunclonţ
Crlglnal 8ecordsţ ppŦ
214Ŵ224Ŧ
3 LxhlblL ƍuƍţ lolder of
LxhlblLsţ ppŦ 63Ŵ72Ŧ
4 LxhlblL ƍLƍţ lJŦţ ppŦ 73Ŵ
77Ŧ
3 SubsequenLly
Lransferred Lo Lhe
8eglonal 1rlal CourLţ 8rŦ
26ţ SLaŦ Cruzţ LagunaŦ
6 lolder of LxhlblLsţ pŦ
78Ŧ
7 1Snţ 3 AugusL 1982ţ pŦ

8 lJŦţ ppŦ 7Ŵ8Ŧ
9 kolloţ pŦ 36Ŧ
10 1Snţ 18 !une 1981ţ pŦ
3Ť 20 AugusL 1981ţ pŦ 4Ť
16 SepLember 1981ţ pŦ 3Ť
1 CcLober 1981ţ pŦ 4Ŧ
11 1Snţ 18 !une 1981ţ pŦ
3Ť1 CcLober 1981ţ pŦ 9Ŧ
12 1Snţ 20 AugusL 1981ţ
pŦ 4Ť 3 november 1981ţ
ppŦ 13Ŵ16Ť 14 !anuary
1982ţ pŦ 16Ŧ
13 noŦ LŴ26884ţ 30 Aprll
1970ţ 32 SC8A 490ţ 302Ŵ
303Ŧ
14 lcaslano vŦ lcaslanoţ
noŦ LŴ18979ţ 30 !une
1964ţ 11 SC8A 422ţ 429Ŵ
430Ť Abangan vŦ
Abanganţ 40 ÞhllŦ 476ţ
479 (1919)Ť 8ey vŦ
CarLagenaţ 36 ÞhllŦ 282ţ
284Ŵ283 (1931)Ť
8odrlguez vŦ ?apţ 68 ÞhllŦ
126ţ 128 (1939)Ť Leynez
vŦ Leynezţ 68 ÞhllŦ 743ţ
730 (1939)Ť 8oxas vŦ ue
!esusţ !rŦţ noŦ LŴ38338ţ
28 !anuary 1983ţ 134
SC8A 243ţ 249Ŧ
13 1Snţ 18 !une 1981ţ pŦ

16 1Snţ 16 SepLember
1981ţ ppŦ 4Ŵ3Ť 14 !anuary
1982ţ ppŦ 6ţ 12Ŧ
17 8odrlguez vŦ ?apţ 68
ÞhllŦ 126ţ 128 (1939)Ŧ
18 40 ÞhllŦ 477ţ 479
(1919)Ŧ




Successlon 07072011
Þage 3 of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
ll8S1 ulvlSlCn
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ38338 Ianuary 28ţ 198S
IN 1nL MA11Lk CI 1nL IN1LS1A1L
LS1A1L CI ANDkLS GŦ DL ILSUS AND
8I8IANA kCkAS DL ILSUSţ SIMLCN kŦ
kCkAS Ǝ ÞLDkC kCkAS DL
ILSUSţ peLlLlonersţ
vsŦ
ANDkLS kŦ DL ILSUSţ IkŦţ respondenLŦ
kool 5Ŧ 5lsoo low Offlce fot petltlooetsŦ
kofoel uloqlosooţ tŦ fot belt MŦ koosŦ
leJesmoţ Coytloqco velosco ooJ
ssoclotes fot leJeso ooJ Ŧ kŦ Je esosŦ

GU1ILkkL2ţ IkŦţ Ŧť
1hls ls a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl Lo seL aslde
Lhe order of respondenL PonŦ !ose CŦ
Colaycoţ Þresldlng !udge CourL of llrsL
lnsLance of Manllaţ 8ranch xxl dlsallowlng
Lhe probaLe of Lhe holographlc Wlll of Lhe
deceased 8lblana 8oxas de !esusŦ
1he anLecedenL facLs whlch led Lo Lhe
flllng of Lhls peLlLlon are undlspuLedŦ
AfLer Lhe deaLh of spouses Andres CŦ de
!esus and 8lblana 8oxas de !esusţ Speclal
Þroceedlng noŦ 81303 enLlLled ƍln Lhe
MaLLer of Lhe lnLesLaLe LsLaLe of Andres CŦ
de !esus and 8lblana 8oxas de !esusƍ was
flled by peLlLloner Slmeon 8Ŧ 8oxasţ Lhe
broLher of Lhe deceased 8lblana 8oxas de
!esusŦ
Cn March 26ţ 1973ţ peLlLloner Slmeon 8Ŧ
8oxas was appolnLed admlnlsLraLorŦ AfLer
LeLLers of AdmlnlsLraLlon had been
granLed Lo Lhe peLlLlonerţ he dellvered Lo
Lhe lower courL a documenL purporLlng Lo
be Lhe holographlc Wlll of Lhe deceased
8lblana 8oxas de !esusŦ Cn May 26ţ 1973ţ
respondenL !udge !ose Colayco seL Lhe
hearlng of Lhe probaLe of Lhe holographlc
Wln on !uly 21ţ 1973Ŧ
ÞeLlLloner Slmeon 8Ŧ 8oxas LesLlfled LhaL
afLer hls appolnLmenL as admlnlsLraLorţ he
found a noLebook belonglng Lo Lhe
deceased 8lblana 8Ŧ de !esus and LhaL on
pages 21ţ 22ţ 23 and 24 Lhereofţ a leLLerŴ
wln addressed Lo her chlldren and enLlrely
wrlLLen and slgned ln Lhe handwrlLlng of
Lhe deceased 8lblana 8Ŧ de !esus was
foundŦ 1he wlll ls daLed ƍlL8Ŧ/61 ƍ and
sLaLesť ƍ1hls ls my wln whlch l wanL Lo be
respecLed alLhough lL ls noL wrlLLen by a
lawyerŦ ŦŦŦ
1he LesLlmony of Slmeon 8Ŧ 8oxas was
corroboraLed by Lhe LesLlmonles of Þedro
8oxas de !esus and Manuel 8oxas de !esus
who llkewlse LesLlfled LhaL Lhe leLLer daLed
ƍlL8Ŧ/61 ƍ ls Lhe holographlc Wlll of Lhelr
deceased moLherţ 8lblana 8Ŧ de !esusŦ
8oLh recognlzed Lhe handwrlLlng of Lhelr
moLher and poslLlvely ldenLlfled her
slgnaLureŦ 1hey furLher LesLlfled LhaL Lhelr
deceased moLher undersLood Lngllshţ Lhe
language ln whlch Lhe holographlc Wlll ls
wrlLLenţ and LhaL Lhe daLe ƍlL8Ŧ/61 ƍ was
Lhe daLe when sald Wlll was execuLed by
Lhelr moLherŦ
8espondenL Luz 8Ŧ Pensonţ anoLher
compulsory helr flled an ƍopposlLlon Lo
probaLeƍ assalllng Lhe purporLed
holographlc Wlll of 8lblana 8Ŧ de !esus
because a lL was noL execuLed ln
accordance wlLh lawţ (b) lL was execuLed
Lhrough forceţ lnLlmldaLlon and/or under
duressţ undue lnfluence and lmproper
pressureţ and (c) Lhe alleged LesLaLrlx
acLed by mlsLake and/or dld noL lnLendţ
nor could have lnLended Lhe sald Wlll Lo be
her lasL Wlll and LesLamenL aL Lhe Llme of
lLs execuLlonŦ
Cn AugusL 24ţ 1973ţ respondenL !udge
!ose CŦ Colayco lssued an order allowlng
Lhe probaLe of Lhe holographlc Wlll whlch
he found Lo have been duly execuLed ln
accordance wlLh lawŦ
8espondenL Luz 8oxas de !esus flled a
moLlon for reconslderaLlon alleglng lnLer
alla LhaL Lhe alleged holographlc Wlll of
Lhe deceased 8lblana 8Ŧ de !esus was noL
daLed as requlred by ArLlcle 810 of Lhe
Clvll CodeŦ She conLends LhaL Lhe law
requlres LhaL Lhe Wlll should conLaln Lhe
dayţ monLh and year of lLs execuLlon and
LhaL Lhls should be sLrlcLly complled wlLhŦ
Cn uecember 10ţ 1973ţ respondenL !udge
Colayco reconsldered hls earller order and
dlsallowed Lhe probaLe of Lhe holographlc
Wlll on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe word ƍdaLedƍ
has generally been held Lo lnclude Lhe
monLhţ dayţ and yearŦ 1he dlsposlLlve
porLlon of Lhe order readsť
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe documenL
purporLlng Lo be Lhe holographlc
Wlll of 8lblana 8oxas de !esusţ ls
hereby dlsallowed for noL havlng
been execuLed as requlred by Lhe
lawŦ 1he order of AugusL 24ţ 1973
ls hereby seL asldeŦ
1he only lssue ls wheLher or noL Lhe daLe
ƍlL8Ŧ/61 ƍ appearlng on Lhe holographlc
Wlll of Lhe deceased 8lblana 8oxas de
!esus ls a valld compllance wlLh Lhe ArLlcle
810 of Lhe Clvll Code whlch readsť
A81Ŧ 810Ŧ A person may execuLe a
holographlc wlll whlch musL be
enLlrely wrlLLenţ daLedţ and
slgned by Lhe hand of Lhe LesLaLor
hlmselfŦ lL ls sub[ecL Lo no oLher
formţ and may be made ln or ouL
of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ and need noL
be wlLnessedŦ
1he peLlLloners conLend LhaL whlle ArLlcle
683 of Lhe Spanlsh Clvll Code and ArLlcle
688 of Lhe Cld Clvll Code requlre Lhe
LesLaLor Lo sLaLe ln hls holographlc Wln Lhe
ƍyearţ monLhţ and day of lLs execuLlonţƍ
Lhe presenL Clvll Code omlLLed Lhe phrase
Ano mes y dla and slmply requlres LhaL Lhe
holographlc Wlll should be daLedŦ 1he
peLlLloners submlL LhaL Lhe llberal
consLrucLlon of Lhe holographlc Wlll
should prevallŦ
8espondenL Luz Penson on Lhe oLher hand
submlLs LhaL Lhe purporLed holographlc
Wlll ls vold for nonŴcompllance wlLh ArLlcle
810 of Lhe new Clvll Code ln LhaL Lhe daLe
musL conLaln Lhe yearţ monLhţ and day of
lLs execuLlonŦ 1he respondenL conLends
LhaL ArLlcle 810 of Lhe Clvll Code was
paLLerned afLer SecLlon 1277 of Lhe
Callfornla Code and SecLlon 1388 of Lhe
Loulslana Code whose Supreme CourLs had
conslsLenLly ruled LhaL Lhe requlred daLe
Successlon 07072011
Þage 38 of 61

lncludes Lhe yearţ monLhţ and dayţ and
LhaL lf any of Lhese ls wanLlngţ Lhe
holographlc Wlll ls lnvalldŦ 1he respondenL
furLher conLends LhaL Lhe peLlLloner
cannoL plead llberal consLrucLlon of ArLlcle
810 of Lhe Clvll Code because sLaLuLes
prescrlblng Lhe formallLles Lo be observed
ln Lhe execuLlon of holographlc Wllls are
sLrlcLly consLruedŦ
We agree wlLh Lhe peLlLlonerŦ
1hls wlll noL be Lhe flrsL Llme LhaL Lhls
CourL deparLs from a sLrlcL and llLeral
appllcaLlon of Lhe sLaLuLory requlremenLs
regardlng Lhe due execuLlon of WlllsŦ We
should noL overlook Lhe llberal Lrend of
Lhe Clvll Code ln Lhe manner of execuLlon
of Wlllsţ Lhe purpose of whlchţ ln case of
doubL ls Lo prevenL lnLesLacy Ÿ
1he underlylng and fundamenLal
ob[ecLlves permeaLlng Lhe
provlslons of Lhe law on wlgs ln
Lhls Þro[ecL conslsLs ln Lhe
llberallzaLlon of Lhe manner of
Lhelr execuLlon wlLh Lhe end ln
vlew of glvlng Lhe LesLaLor more
freedom ln expresslng hls lasL
wlshesţ buL wlLh sufflclen
safeguards and resLrlcLlons Lo
prevenL Lhe commlsslon of fraud
and Lhe exerclse of undue and
lmproper pressure and lnfluence
upon Lhe LesLaLorŦ
1hls ob[ecLlve ls ln accord wlLh
Lhe modem Lendency wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe formallLles ln Lhe
execuLlon of wlllsŦ (8eporL of Lhe
Code Commlsslonţ pŦ 103)
ln !usLlce CaplsLranoƌs concurrlng oplnlon
ln Pelrs of koymooJo costto vŦ 8ostos (27
SC8A 327) he emphaslzed LhaLť
xxx xxx xxx
ŦŦŦ 1he law has a Lender regard for
Lhe wlll of Lhe LesLaLor expressed
ln hls lasL wlll and LesLamenL on
Lhe ground LhaL any dlsposlLlon
made by Lhe LesLaLor ls beLLer
Lhan LhaL whlch Lhe law can
makeŦ lor Lhls reasonţ lnLesLaLe
successlon ls noLhlng more Lhan a
dlsposlLlon based upon Lhe
presumed wlll of Lhe decedenLŦ
1husţ Lhe prevalllng pollcy ls Lo requlre
saLlsfacLlon of Lhe legal requlremenLs ln
order Lo guard agalnsL fraud and bad falLh
buL wlLhouL undue or unnecessary
curLallmenL of LesLamenLary
prlvllege lcoslooo vŦ lcosloooţ 11 SC8A
422)Ŧ lf a Wlll has been execuLed ln
subsLanLlal compllance wlLh Lhe
formallLles of Lhe lawţ and Lhe posslblllLy
of bad falLh and fraud ln Lhe exerclse
Lhereof ls obvlaLedţ sald Wln should be
admlLLed Lo probaLe (8ey vŦ CarLagena 36
ÞhllŦ 282)Ŧ 1husţ
xxx xxx xxx
ŦŦŦ More Lhan anyLhlng elseţ Lhe
facLs and clrcumsLances of record
are Lo be consldered ln Lhe
appllcaLlon of any glven ruleŦ lf Lhe
surroundlng clrcumsLances polnL
Lo a regular execuLlon of Lhe wllL
and Lhe lnsLrumenL appears Lo
have been execuLed subsLanLlally
ln accordance wlLh Lhe
requlremenLs of Lhe lawţ Lhe
lncllnaLlon shouldţ ln Lhe absence
of any suggesLlon of bad falLhţ
forgery or fraudţ lean Lowards lLs
admlsslon Lo probaLeţ alLhough Lhe
documenL may suffer from some
lmperfecLlon of languageţ or oLher
nonŴessenLlal defecLŦ ŦŦŦ (Leynez vŦ
Leynez 68 ÞhllŦ 743)Ŧ
lf Lhe LesLaLorţ ln execuLlng hls Wlllţ
aLLempLs Lo comply wlLh all Lhe requlslLesţ
alLhough compllance ls noL llLeralţ lL ls
sufflclenL lf Lhe ob[ecLlve or purpose
soughL Lo be accompllshed by such
requlslLe ls acLually aLLalned by Lhe form
followed by Lhe LesLaLorŦ
1he purpose of Lhe solemnlLles
surroundlng Lhe execuLlon of Wllls has
been expounded by Lhls CourL ln booqoo
vŦ booqo 40 ÞhllŦ 476ţ where we ruled
LhaLť
1he ob[ecL of Lhe
solemnlLles surroundlng
Lhe execuLlon of wllls ls
Lo close Lhe door agalnsL
bad falLh and fraudţ Lo
avold subsLlLuLlon of
wllls and LesLamenLs and
Lo guaranLy Lhelr LruLh
and auLhenLlclLyŦ ŦŦŦ
ln parLlcularţ a compleLe daLe ls requlred
Lo provlde agalnsL such conLlngencles as
LhaL of Lwo compeLlng Wllls execuLed on
Lhe same dayţ or of a LesLaLor becomlng
lnsane on Lhe day on whlch a Wlll was
execuLed (velasco vŦ Lopezţ 1 ÞhllŦ 720)Ŧ
1here ls no such conLlngency ln Lhls caseŦ
We have carefully revlewed Lhe records of
Lhls case and found no evldence of bad
falLh and fraud ln lLs execuLlon nor was
Lhere any subsLlLuLlon of Wlns and
1esLamenLsŦ 1here ls no quesLlon LhaL Lhe
holographlc Wlll of Lhe deceased 8lblana
8oxas de !esus was enLlrely wrlLLenţ daLedţ
and slgned by Lhe LesLaLrlx herself and ln a
language known Lo herŦ 1here ls also no
quesLlon as Lo lLs genulneness and due
execuLlonŦ All Lhe chlldren of Lhe LesLaLrlx
agree on Lhe genulneness of Lhe
holographlc Wlll of Lhelr moLher and LhaL
she had Lhe LesLamenLary capaclLy aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe execuLlon of sald WlllŦ 1he
ob[ecLlon lnLerposed by Lhe opposlLorŴ
respondenL Luz Penson ls LhaL Lhe
holographlc Wlll ls faLally defecLlve
because Lhe daLe ƍlL8Ŧ/61 ƍ appearlng on
Lhe holographlc Wlll ls noL sufflclenL
compllance wlLh ArLlcle 810 of Lhe Clvll
CodeŦ 1hls ob[ecLlon ls Loo Lechnlcal Lo be
enLerLalnedŦ
As a general ruleţ Lhe ƍdaLeƍ ln a
holographlc Wlll should lnclude Lhe dayţ
monLhţ and year of lLs execuLlonŦ
Poweverţ when as ln Lhe case aL barţ Lhere
ls no appearance of fraudţ bad falLhţ
undue lnfluence and pressure and Lhe
auLhenLlclLy of Lhe Wlll ls esLabllshed and
Lhe only lssue ls wheLher or noL Lhe daLe
ƍlL8Ŧ/61ƍ appearlng on Lhe holographlc
Wlll ls a valld compllance wlLh ArLlcle 810
of Lhe Clvll Codeţ probaLe of Lhe
holographlc Wlll should be allowed under
Lhe prlnclple of subsLanLlal compllanceŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon ls
C8An1LuŦ 1he order appealed from ls
8LvL8SLu and SL1 ASluL and Lhe order
allowlng Lhe probaLe of Lhe holographlc
Successlon 07072011
Þage 39 of 61

Wlll of Lhe deceased 8lblana 8oxas de
!esus ls relnsLaLedŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
1eebookee (cboltmoo)ţ MeleocloŴnettetoţ
lloooţ kelovo ooJ ue lo oeoteţ Ŧţ coocotŦ

































































































































































Successlon 07072011
Þage 0 of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
SLCCnu ulvlSlCn
GŦkŦ NosŦ 8383Ŵ Apr|| Sţ 1990
IN 1nL MA11Lk CI 1nL ÞL1I1ICN 1C
AÞÞkCVL 1nL JILL CI MLLLCIC
LA8kADCkŦ SAGkADC LA8kADCk
(Deceased)ţ subst|tuted by kCSI1A
LA8kADCkţ LNkICA LA8kADCkţ and
CkIS1C8AL LA8kADCkţpeLlLlonersŴ
appellanLsţ
vsŦ
CCUk1 CI AÞÞLALSţ
1
GAUDLNCIC
LA8kADCkţ and ILSUS
LA8kADCkţ respondenLsŴappelleesŦ
8eojomlo cŦ 5ootos low Offlces fot
petltlooetsŦ
koJtlqo vŦ ooteleto fot ptlvote
tespooJeotsŦ

ÞAkASţ Ŧť
1he sole lssue ln Lhls case ls wheLher or
noL Lhe alleged holographlc wlll of one
Meleclo Labrador ls JoteJţ as provlded for
ln ArLlcle 810
2
of Lhe new Clvll CodeŦ
1he anLecedenL and relevanL facLs are as
followsť Cn !une 10ţ 1972ţ Meleclo
Labrador dled ln Lhe MunlclpallLy of lbaţ
provlnce of Zambalesţ where he was
resldlngţ leavlng behlnd a parcel of land
deslgnaLed as LoL noŦ 1916 under Crlglnal
CerLlflcaLe of 1lLle noŦ ÞŴ1632ţ and Lhe
followlng helrsţ namelyť Sagradoţ Lnrlcaţ
CrlsLobalţ !esusţ Caudencloţ !oseflnaţ
!ullanaţ Pllarla and !ovlLaţ all surnamed
Labradorţ and a holographlc wlllŦ
Cn !uly 28ţ 1973ţ Sagrado Labrador (now
deceased buL subsLlLuLed by hls helrs)ţ
Lnrlca Labrador and CrlsLobal Labradorţ
flled ln Lhe courL o poo a peLlLlon for Lhe
probaLe dockeLed as Speclal Þroceedlng
noŦ 922Ŵl of Lhe alleged holographlc wlll of
Lhe laLe Meleclo LabradorŦ
SubsequenLlyţ on SepLember 30ţ 1973ţ
!esus Labrador (now deceased buL
subsLlLuLed by hls helrs)ţ and Caudenclo
Labrador flled an opposlLlon Lo Lhe
peLlLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe wlll has
been exLlngulshed or revoked by
lmpllcaLlon of lawţ alleglng Lhereln LhaL on
SepLember 30ţ 1971ţ LhaL lsţ before
Melecloƌs deaLhţ for Lhe conslderaLlon of
Slx 1housand (Þ6ţ000) Þesosţ LesLaLor
Meleclo execuLed a ueed of AbsoluLe Saleţ
selllngţ Lransferrlng and conveylng ln favor
of opposlLors !esus and Caudenclo LoL noŦ
1916 and LhaL as a maLLer of facLţ CŦCŦ1Ŧ
noŦ ÞŴ1632 had been cancelled by 1ŦCŦ1Ŧ
noŦ 1Ŵ21178Ŧ Larller howeverţ ln 1973ţ
!esus Labrador sold sald parcel of land Lo
navaL for only llve 1housand (Þ3ţ000)
ÞesosŦ (kolloţ pŦ 37)
Sagrado Lhereupon flledţ on november 28ţ
1973ţ agalnsL hls broLhersţ Caudenclo and
!esusţ for Lhe annulmenL of sald purporLed
ueed of AbsoluLe Sale over a parcel of land
whlch Sagrado allegedly had already
acqulred by devlse from Lhelr faLher
Meleclo Labrador under a holographlc wlll
execuLed on March 17ţ 1968ţ Lhe
complalnL for annulmenL dockeLed as Clvll
Case noŦ 934Ŵlţ belng premlsed on Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe aforesald ueed of AbsoluLe Sale ls
flcLlLlousŦ
AfLer boLh parLles had resLed and
submlLLed Lhelr respecLlve evldenceţ Lhe
Lrlal courL rendered a [olnL declslon daLed
lebruary 28ţ 1983ţ allowlng Lhe probaLe of
Lhe holographlc wlll and declarlng null and
vold Lhe ueed of AbsoluLe saleŦ 1he courL o
poo had also dlrecLed Lhe respondenLs
(Lhe defendanLs ln Clvll Case noŦ 934Ŵl) Lo
relmburse Lo Lhe peLlLloners Lhe sum of
Þ3ţ000Ŧ00 represenLlng Lhe redempLlon
prlce for Lhe properLy pald by Lhe plalnLlffŴ
peLlLloner Sagrado wlLh legal lnLeresL
Lhereon from uecember 20ţ 1976ţ when lL
was pald Lo vendee o tettoŦ
8espondenLs appealed Lhe [olnL declslon
Lo Lhe CourL of Appealsţ whlch on March
10ţ 1988 modlfled sald [olnL declslon of Lhe
courL o poo by denylng Lhe allowance of
Lhe probaLe of Lhe wlll for belng undaLed
and reverslng Lhe order of relmbursemenLŦ
ÞeLlLlonersƌ MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon of
Lhe aforesald declslon was denled by Lhe
CourL of Appealsţ ln Lhe resoluLlon of !une
13ţ 1988Ŧ Penceţ Lhls peLlLlonŦ
ÞeLlLloners now asslgn Lhe followlng errors
commlLLed by respondenL courLţ Lo wlLť
l
1PL CCu81 Cl AÞÞLALS
L88Lu ln nC1
ALLCWlnC Anu
AÞÞ8CvlnC 1PL
Þ8C8A1L Cl 1PL
PCLCC8AÞPlC WlLL Cl
1PL 1LS1A1C8 MLLLClC
LA88AuC8Ť and
ll
1PL CCu81 Cl AÞÞLALS
L88Lu ln llnulnC 1PA1
1PL C8uL8 Cl 1PL
LCWL8 CCu81
ul8LC1lnC 1PL
8LlM8u8SLMLn1 Cl
1PL llvL 1PCuSAnu
ÞLSCS 8LÞ8LSLn1lnC
1PL 8LuLMÞ1lCn Þ8lCL
WAS L88CnLCuSŦ
1he alleged undaLed holographlc wlll
wrlLLen ln llocano LranslaLed lnLo Lngllshţ
ls quoLed as followsť
LnCLlSP
ln1L8Þ8L1A1lCn Cl 1PL
WlLL Cl 1PL
LA1L MLLLClC
LA88AuC8 W8l11Ln ln
lLCCAnC
8? A11?Ŧ lluLnClC LŦ
lL8nAnuLZ
l Ÿ llrsL Þage
1hls ls also where lL
appears ln wrlLlng of Lhe
place whlch ls asslgned
and shared or Lhe
parLlLlon ln favor of
SAC8AuC LA88AuC8
whlch ls Lhe flshpond
locaLed and known place
as 1agaleŦ
And Lhls place LhaL ls
glven as Lhe share Lo
Successlon 07072011
Þage 1 of 61

hlmţ Lhere ls a
measuremenL of more or
less one hecLareţ and Lhe
boundary aL Lhe SouLh ls
Lhe properLy and
asslgnmenL share of
Ln8lCA LA88AuC8ţ also
Lhelr slsLerţ and Lhe
boundary ln Lhe WesL ls
Lhe seaţ known as Lhe
SLA as lL lsţ and Lhe
boundary on Lhe nC81P
ls asslgnmenL belonglng
Lo C8lS1C8AL
LA88AuC8ţ who llkewlse
ls also Lhelr broLherŦ 1haL
because lL ls now Lhe
Llme for me belng now
nlneLy Lhree (93) yearsţ
Lhen l feel lL ls Lhe rlghL
Llme for me Lo parLlLlon
Lhe flshponds whlch
were and had been
boughL or acqulred by
usţ meanlng wlLh Lhelr
Lwo moLhersţ hence
Lhere shall be no
dlfferences among
Lhemselvesţ Lhose
among broLhers and
slsLersţ for lL ls l myself
Lhelr faLher who am
maklng Lhe
apporLlonmenL and
dellverlng Lo each and
everyone of Lhem Lhe
sald porLlon and
asslgnmenL so LhaL Lhere
shall noL be any cause of
Lroubles or dlfferences
among Lhe broLhers and
slsLersŦ
ll Ÿ Second Þage
And Lhls ls Lhe day ln
whlch we agreed LhaL we
are maklng Lhe
parLlLlonlng and
asslgnlng Lhe respecLlve
asslgnmenL of Lhe sald
flshpondţ and Lhls belng
ln Lhe monLh of Marchţ
17Lh dayţ ln Lhe year
1968ţ and Lhls declslon
and or lnsLrucLlon of
mlne ls Lhe maLLer Lo be
followedŦ And Lhe one
who made Lhls wrlLlng ls
no oLher Lhan MLLLClC
LA88AuC8ţ Lhelr faLherŦ
nowţ Lhls ls Lhe flnal
dlsposlLlon LhaL l am
maklng ln wrlLlng and lL
ls Lhls LhaL should be
followed and complled
wlLh ln order LhaL any
dlfferences or Lroubles
may be foresLalled and
noLhlng wlll happen
along Lhese Lroubles
among my chlldrenţ and
LhaL Lhey wlll be ln good
relaLlons among
Lhemselvesţ broLhers
and slsLersŤ
And Lhose lmprovemenLs
and frulLs of Lhe landŤ
mangoesţ bamboos and
all coconuL Lrees and all
oLhers llke Lhe oLher klnd
of bamboo by name of
8ayogţ lL ls Lhelr rlghL Lo
geL lf Lhey so needţ ln
order LhaL Lhere shall be
noLhlng LhaL anyone of
Lhem shall complaln
agalnsL Lhe oLherţ and
agalnsL anyone of Lhe
broLhers and slsLersŦ
lll Ÿ 1Pl8u ÞACL
And LhaL referrlng Lo Lhe
oLher places of properLyţ
where Lhe sald properLy
ls locaLedţ Lhe same
belng Lhe frulLs of our
earnlngs of Lhe Lwo
moLhers of my chlldrenţ
Lhere shall be equal
porLlon of each share
among Lhemselvesţ and
or Lo be beneflLLed wlLh
all Lhose properLyţ whlch
properLy we have been
able Lo acqulreŦ
1haL ln order LhaL Lhere
shall be basls of Lhe LruLh
of Lhls wrlLlng (WlLL)
whlch l am here hereof
manlfesLlng of Lhe LruLh
and of Lhe frulLs of our
labor whlch Lhelr Lwo
moLhersţ l am slgnlng my
slgnaLure below hereofţ
and LhaL Lhls ls whaL
should be complled wlLhţ
by all Lhe broLhers and
slsLersţ Lhe chlldren of
Lhelr Lwo moLhers Ÿ
!uLlAnA Culn1L8C
ÞlLA8lSA and CASlAnA
ACulnC vlLLAnuLvA
?our faLher who made
Lhls wrlLlng (WlLL)ţ and
he lsţ MLLLClC
LA88AuC8 y 8ALu1ln (pŦ
46ţ kollo)
1he peLlLlonţ whlch prlnclpally alleges LhaL
Lhe holographlc wlll ls really daLedţ
alLhough Lhe daLe ls noL ln lLs usual placeţ
ls lmpressed wlLh merlLŦ
1he wlll has been daLed ln Lhe hand of Lhe
LesLaLor hlmself ln perfecL compllance wlLh
ArLlcle 810Ŧ lL ls worLhy of noLe Lo quoLe
Lhe flrsL paragraph of Lhe second page of
Lhe holographlc wlllţ vlzť
And Lhls ls Lhe day ln
whlch we agreed LhaL we
are maklng Lhe
parLlLlonlng and
asslgnlng Lhe respecLlve
asslgnmenL of Lhe sald
flshpondţ and Lhls belng
ln Lhe monLh of Motcbţ
17tb Joyţ lo tbe yeot
1968ţ and Lhls declslon
and or lnsLrucLlon of
mlne ls Lhe maLLer Lo be
followedŦ And Lhe one
who made Lhls wrlLlng ls
no oLher Lhan MLLLClC
LA88AuC8ţ Lhelr faLherŦ
(emphasls supplled) (pŦ
46ţkollo)
1he law does noL speclfy a parLlcular
locaLlon where Lhe daLe should be placed
ln Lhe wlllŦ 1he only requlremenLs are LhaL
Lhe daLe be ln Lhe wlll lLself and execuLed
ln Lhe hand of Lhe LesLaLorŦ 1hese
requlremenLs are presenL ln Lhe sub[ecL
wlllŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage 2 of 61

8espondenLs clalm LhaL Lhe daLe 17 March
1968 ln Lhe wlll was when Lhe LesLaLor and
hls beneflclarles enLered lnLo an
agreemenL among Lhemselves abouL ƍLhe
parLlLlonlng and asslgnlng Lhe respecLlve
asslgnmenLs of Lhe sald flshpondţƍ and was
noL Lhe daLe of execuLlon of Lhe
holographlc wlllŤ henceţ Lhe wlll ls more of
an ƍagreemenLƍ beLween Lhe LesLaLor and
Lhe beneflclarles Lhereof Lo Lhe pre[udlce
of oLher compulsory helrs llke Lhe
respondenLsŦ 1hls was Lhus a fallure Lo
comply wlLh ArLlcle 783 whlch deflnes a
wlll as ƍan acL whereby a person ls
permlLLedţ wlLh Lhe formallLles prescrlbed
by lawţ Lo conLrol Lo a cerLaln degree Lhe
dlsposlLlon of hls esLaLeţ Lo Lake effecL
afLer hls deaLhŦƍ
8espondenLs are ln errorŦ 1he lnLenLlon Lo
show 17 Motcb 1968 as Lhe daLe of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlll ls plaln from Lhe
Lenor of Lhe succeedlng words of Lhe
paragraphŦ As apLly puL by peLlLlonerţ Lhe
wlll was noL an agreemenL buL a unllaLeral
acL of Meleclo Labrador who plalnly knew
LhaL whaL he was execuLlng was a wlllŦ 1he
acL of parLlLlonlng and Lhe declaraLlon LhaL
such parLlLlonlng as Lhe LesLaLorƌs
lnsLrucLlon or declslon Lo be followed
reveal LhaL Meleclo Labrador was fully
aware of Lhe naLure of Lhe esLaLe properLy
Lo be dlsposed of and of Lhe characLer of
Lhe LesLamenLary acL as a means Lo conLrol
Lhe dlsposlLlon of hls esLaLeŦ
AnenL Lhe second lssue of flndlng Lhe
relmbursemenL of Lhe Þ3ţ000 represenLlng
Lhe redempLlon prlce as erroneousţ
respondenL courLƌs concluslon ls lncorrecLŦ
When prlvaLe respondenLs sold Lhe
properLy (flshpond) wlLh rlghL Lo
repurchase Lo navaL for Þ3ţ000ţ Lhey were
acLually selllng properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher and whlch Lhey had no auLhorlLy
Lo sellţ renderlng such sale null and voldŦ
ÞeLlLlonersţ Lhus ƍredeemedƍ Lhe properLy
from navaL for Þ3ţ000ţ Lo lmmedlaLely
regaln possesslon of Lhe properLy for lLs
dlsposlLlon ln accordance wlLh Lhe wlllŦ
ÞeLlLloners Lherefore deserve Lo be
relmbursed Lhe Þ3ţ000Ŧ
Þ8LMlSLS CCnSluL8Luţ Lhe declslon of
Lhe CourL of Appeals daLed March 10ţ
1988 ls hereby 8LvL8SLuŦ 1he holographlc
wlll of Meleclo Labrador ls AÞÞ8CvLu and
ALLCWLu probaLeŦ 1he prlvaLe
respondenLs are dlrecLed Lo 8LlM8u8SL
Lhe peLlLloners Lhe sum of llve 1housand
Þesos (Þ3ţ000Ŧ00)Ŧ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
MeleocloŴnettetoţ loJllloţ 5otmleoto ooJ
keqoloJoţ Ŧţ coocotŦ

Iootnotes
1 Þenned by !usLlce
!orge SŦ lmperlal and
concurred ln by !usLlces
!ose AŦ8Ŧ Melo and
Manuel CŦ Perrera
2 ArLlcle 810 provldesť A
person may execuLe a
holographlc wlll whlch
musL be enLlrely wrlLLenţ
daLed and slgned by Lhe
hand of Lhe LesLaLor
hlmselfŦ lL ls sub[ecL Lo
no oLher formţ and may
be made ln or ouL of Lhe
Þhlllpplnesţ and need noL
be wlLnessedŦ


















































































Successlon 07072011
Þage 3 of 61


8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
1Pl8u ulvlSlCn
GŦkŦ NoŦ 122880 Apr|| 12ţ 2006
ILLIk A2ULLAţ ÞeLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
CCUk1 CI AÞÞLALSţ GLkALDA AIDA
CAS1ILLC subst|tuted by LkNLS1C GŦ
CAS1ILLCţ 8espondenLsŦ
u L C l S l C n
1INGAţ Ŧť
1he core of Lhls peLlLlon ls a hlghly
defecLlve noLarlal wlllţ purporLedly
execuLed by Lugenla LŦ lgsolo (decedenL)ţ
who dled on 16 uecember 1982 aL Lhe age
of 80Ŧ ln refuslng Lo glve legal recognlLlon
Lo Lhe due execuLlon of Lhls documenLţ Lhe
CourL ls provlded Lhe opporLunlLy Lo asserL
a few lmporLanL docLrlnal rules ln Lhe
execuLlon of noLarlal wlllsţ all selfŴevldenL
ln vlew of ArLlcles 803 and 806 of Lhe Clvll
CodeŦ
A w||| whose attestat|on c|ause does not
conta|n the number of pages on wh|ch
the w||| |s wr|tten |s fata||y defect|veŦ A
w||| whose attestat|on c|ause |s not s|gned
by the |nstrumenta| w|tnesses |s fata||y
defect|veŦ And perhaps most |mportant|yţ
a w||| wh|ch does not conta|n an
acknow|edgmentţ but a mere ©urotţ |s
fata||y defect|veŦ Any one of these defects
|s suff|c|ent to deny probateŦ A notar|a|
w||| w|th a|| three defects |s [ust ach|ng for
[ud|c|a| re[ect|onŦ
1here ls a dlsLlncL and consequenLlal
reason Lhe Clvll Code provldes a
comprehenslve caLalog of lmperaLlves for
Lhe proper execuLlon of a noLarlal wlllŦ lull
and falLhful compllance wlLh all Lhe
deLalled requlslLes under ArLlcle 803 of Lhe
Code leave llLLle room for doubL as Lo Lhe
valldlLy ln Lhe due execuLlon of Lhe noLarlal
wlllŦ ArLlcle 806 llkewlse lmposes anoLher
safeguard Lo Lhe valldlLy of noLarlal wllls Ÿ
LhaL Lhey be acknowledged before a
noLary publlc by Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe
wlLnessesŦ A noLarlal wlll execuLed wlLh
lndlfference Lo Lhese Lwo codal provlslons
opens lLself Lo nagglng quesLlons as Lo lLs
leglLlmacyŦ
1he case sLems from a peLlLlon for probaLe
flled on 10 Aprll 1984 wlLh Lhe 8eglonal
1rlal CourL (81C) of ManllaŦ 1he peLlLlon
flled by peLlLloner lellx Azuela soughL Lo
admlL Lo probaLe Lhe noLarlal wlll of
Lugenla LŦ lgsoloţ whlch was noLarlzed on
10 !une 1981Ŧ ÞeLlLloner ls Lhe son of Lhe
cousln of Lhe decedenLŦ
1he wlllţ conslsLlng of Lwo (2) pages and
wrlLLen ln Lhe vernacular Þlllplnoţ read ln
fullť
PuLlnC PA8lLln nl LuCLnlA LŦ lCSCLC
SA nCALAn nC MA?kAÞALţ AMLnť
AkCţ sl LuCLnlA LŦ lCSCLCţ nakaLlra sa
300 San ulego SLŦţ Sampalocţ Manllaţ
plLongpuL slyam (79) na gulangţ nasa
husLong paglŴlslpţ pagŴunawa aL memorla
ay nagŴhahayag na lLo na ang aklng hullng
habllln aL LesLamenLoţ aL blnaball wala ko
lahaL ang naunang glnawang habllln o
LesLamenLoť
unaŴPlnlhlllng ko na ako ay malllblng sa
SemenLerlo del norLeţ La Loma sangŴayong
sa kaugallan aL paLakaran ng slmbahang
kaLollko aL ang LagaŴpagŴlngaL (LxecuLor)
ng hablllng lLo ay magLaLayo ng banLayog
upang sllblng alaŴala sa akln ng aklng
pamllya aL kalblganŤ
ÞangalawaŴAklng lplnagkakaloob aL
lslnasalln ang lahaL ng karapaLan sa aklng
pamangkln na sl lellx Azuelaţ na slyang
nagŴalaga sa akln sa mahabang panahonţ
yaong mga bahay na nakaLlrlk sa loLe
numero 28ţ 8lock 24 aL nakapangalan sa
ÞechaLen korporasyonţ ganoon dln
lblnlblgay ko ang lahaL ng karapaLan sa
bahay na nakaLlrlk sa lnoopahan kong loLeţ
numero 43ţ 8lock 24 na pagŴaarl ng
ÞechaLen CorporaLlonŦ lplnagkakaloob
kong buong buo ang lahaL ng karapaLan sa
bahay aL lupa na nasa 300 San ulego SLŦţ
LoL 42ţ 8lock 24ţ Sampalocţ Manlla kay
lellx Azuela aL ang pagkakaloob kong lLo
ay walang pasuball'L aL kondlclonesŤ
ÞangaLloŴ na nlnunumbrahan ko sl vA81
ÞACuL na slyang nagpapaLupad ng hullng
hablllng lLo aL kagusLuhan ko rln na hlndl
na kallanman slyang magŴlagak ng
plyanslyaŦ
Aklng nllagdaan ang Pullng Pabllln na lLo
dlLo sa Maynlla lka 10 ng Punyoţ 1981Ŧ
(SgdŦ)
LuCLnlA LŦ lCSCLC
(1agapagmana)
ÞA1unA? nC MCA SAkSl
Ang kasulaLang lLoţ na blnubuo ng ____
dahon paLl ang hullng dahong lLoţ na
lplnahayag sa amln nl Lugenla LŦ lgsoloţ
Lagapagmana na slya nlyang Pullng
Pablllnţ ngayon lkaŴ10 ng Punyo 1981ţ ay
nllagdaan ng nasablng Lagapagmana sa
llallm ng kasulaLang nabangglL aL sa
kallwang panlg ng lahaL aL bawa'L dahonţ
sa harap ng lahaL aL bawa'L sa amlnţ aL
kaml namang mga saksl ay lumagda sa
harap ng nasablng Lagapagmana aL sa
harap ng lahaL aL bawa'L lsa sa amlnţ sa
llallm ng nasablng kasulaLan aL sa kallwang
panlg ng lahaL aL bawa'L dahon ng
kasulaLan lLoŦ
LuCLnlA LŦ lCSCLC
addressť 300 San ulego SLŦ
Sampalocţ Manlla 8esŦ CerLŦ noŦ AŴ7717Ŵ37
lssued aL Manlla on March 10ţ 1981Ŧ
Cul8lnC AC8AvA
addressť 1228ŴlnLŦ 3ţ kahllum
Þandacanţ Manlla 8esŦ CerLŦ noŦ AŴ438363
lssued aL Manlla on !anŦ 21ţ 1981
LAM8L81C CŦ LLARC
addressť Avenue 2ţ 8lcok 7ţ
LoL 61ţ San Cabrlelţ CŦMAŦţ CavlLe 8esŦ
CerLŦ noŦ AŴ768277 lssued aL Carmonaţ
CavlLe on lebŦ 7ţ 1981
!uAnl1C LS18L8A
addressť ClLy CourL Compoundţ
ClLy of Manlla 8esŦ CerLŦ noŦ A374829
lssued aL Manlla on March 2ţ 1981Ŧ
nllagdaan ko aL nlnoLarlo ko
ngayong 10 ng Punyo 10ţ 1981 dlLo sa
Lungsod ng MaynllaŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage of 61

(SgdŦ)
ÞL18CnlC ?Ŧ 8Au1lS1A
uocŦ noŦ 1232 Ť nC1A8lC Þu8LlkC
Þage noŦ 86 Ť unLll uecŦ 31ţ 1981
8ook noŦ 43 Ť Þ18Ŵ132041Ŵ1/2/81ŴManlla
Serles of 1981 1An # 1437Ŵ977Ŵ8
1

1he Lhree named wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll
afflxed Lhelr slgnaLures on Lhe lefLŴhand
margln of boLh pages of Lhe wlllţ buL noL aL
Lhe boLLom of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ
1he probaLe peLlLlon adverLed Lo only Lwo
(2) helrsţ legaLees and devlsees of Lhe
decedenLţ namelyť peLlLloner hlmselfţ and
one lrene Lynn lgsoloţ who was alleged Lo
have reslded abroadŦ ÞeLlLloner prayed
LhaL Lhe wlll be allowedţ and LhaL leLLers
LesLamenLary be lssued Lo Lhe deslgnaLed
execuLorţ varL ÞragueŦ
1he peLlLlon was opposed by Ceralda Alda
CasLlllo (Ceralda CasLlllo)ţ who
represenLed herself as Lhe aLLorneyŴlnŴfacL
of ƍLhe 12 leglLlmaLe helrsƍ of Lhe
decedenLŦ
2
Ceralda CasLlllo clalmed LhaL
Lhe wlll ls a forgeryţ and LhaL Lhe Lrue
purpose of lLs emergence was so lL could
be uLlllzed as a defense ln several courL
cases flled by opposlLor agalnsL peLlLlonerţ
parLlcularly for forclble enLry and
usurpaLlon of real properLyţ all cenLerlng
on peLlLloner's rlghL Lo occupy Lhe
properLles of Lhe decedenLŦ
3
lL also
asserLed LhaL conLrary Lo Lhe
represenLaLlons of peLlLlonerţ Lhe
decedenL was acLually survlved by 12
leglLlmaLe helrsţ namely her grandchlldrenţ
who were Lhen resldlng abroadŦ Þer
recordsţ lL was subsequenLly alleged LhaL
decedenL was Lhe wldow of 8onlfaclo
lgsoloţ who dled ln 1963ţ
4
and Lhe moLher
of a leglLlmaLe chlldţ Asunclon LŦ lgsoloţ
who predeceased her moLher by Lhree (3)
monLhsŦ
3

CpposlLor Ceralda CasLlllo also argued LhaL
Lhe wlll was noL execuLed and aLLesLed Lo
ln accordance wlLh lawŦ She polnLed ouL
LhaL decedenL's slgnaLure dld noL appear
on Lhe second page of Lhe wlllţ and Lhe wlll
was noL properly acknowledgedŦ 1hese
Lwln argumenLs are among Lhe cenLral
maLLers Lo Lhls peLlLlonŦ
AfLer due Lrlalţ Lhe 81C admlLLed Lhe wlll
Lo probaLeţ ln an Crder daLed 10 AugusL
1992Ŧ
6
1he 81C favorably Look lnLo accounL
Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe Lhree (3) wlLnesses Lo
Lhe wlllţ Culrlno Agravaţ LamberLo Leanoţ
and !uanlLo LsLradaŦ 1he 81C also called Lo
fore ƍLhe modern Lendency ln respecL Lo
Lhe formallLles ln Lhe execuLlon of a wlll x x
x wlLh Lhe end ln vlew of glvlng Lhe
LesLaLor more freedom ln expresslng hls
lasL wlshesŤƍ
7
and from Lhls perspecLlveţ
rebuLLed opposlLor's argumenLs LhaL Lhe
wlll was noL properly execuLed and
aLLesLed Lo ln accordance wlLh lawŦ
AfLer a careful examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll and
conslderaLlon of Lhe LesLlmonles of Lhe
subscrlblng and aLLesLlng wlLnessesţ and
havlng ln mlnd Lhe modern Lendency ln
respecL Lo Lhe formallLles ln Lhe execuLlon
of a wlllţ lŦeŦţ Lhe llberallzaLlon of Lhe
lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe law on Lhe formal
requlremenLs of a wlll wlLh Lhe end ln vlew
of glvlng Lhe LesLaLor more freedom ln
expresslng hls lasL wlshesţ Lhls CourL ls
persuaded Lo rule LhaL Lhe wlll ln quesLlon
ls auLhenLlc and had been execuLed by Lhe
LesLaLrlx ln accordance wlLh lawŦ
Cn Lhe lssue of lack of acknowledgemenLţ
Lhls CourL has noLed LhaL aL Lhe end of Lhe
wlll afLer Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLrlxţ Lhe
followlng sLaLemenL ls made under Lhe
subŴLlLleţ ƍÞaLunay ng Mga Sakslƍť
ƍAng kasulaLang lLoţ na blnubuo ng _____
dahon paLl ang hullng dahong lLoţ na
lplnahayag sa amln nl Lugenla nŦ lgsoloţ
Lagapagmana na slya nlyang Pullng
Pablllnţ ngayong lkaŴ10 ng Punyo 1981ţ ay
nllagdaan ng nasablng Lagapagmana sa
llallm ng kasulaLang nabangglL aL sa
kallwang panlg ng lahaL aL bawa'L dahonţ
sa harap ng lahaL aL bawa'L sa amlnţ aL
kaml namang mga saksl ay lumagda sa
harap ng nasablng Lagapagmana aL sa
harap ng lahaL aL bawa'L lsa sa amlnţ sa
llallm ng nasablng kasulaLan aL sa kallwang
panlg ng lahaL aL bawa'L dahon ng
kasulaLan lLoŦƍ
1he aforequoLed declaraLlon comprlses
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause and Lhe
acknowledgemenL and ls consldered by
Lhls CourL as a subsLanLlal compllance wlLh
Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe lawŦ
Cn Lhe opposlLor's conLenLlon LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause was noL slgned by Lhe
subscrlblng wlLnesses aL Lhe boLLom
Lhereofţ Lhls CourL ls of Lhe vlew LhaL Lhe
slgnlng by Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses on Lhe
lefL margln of Lhe second page of Lhe wlll
conLalnlng Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause and
acknowledgmenLţ lnsLead of aL Lhe boLLom
Lhereofţ subsLanLlally saLlsfles Lhe purpose
of ldenLlflcaLlon and aLLesLaLlon of Lhe wlllŦ
WlLh regard Lo Lhe opposlLor's argumenL
LhaL Lhe wlll was noL numbered
correlaLlvely ln leLLers placed on upper
parL of each page and LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon
dld noL sLaLe Lhe number of pages Lhereofţ
lL ls worLhy Lo noLe LhaL Lhe wlll ls
composed of only Lwo pagesŦ 1he flrsL
page conLalns Lhe enLlre LexL of Lhe
LesLamenLary dlsposlLlonsţ and Lhe second
page conLalns Lhe lasL porLlon of Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause and acknowledgemenLŦ
Such belng soţ Lhe defecLs are noL of a
serlous naLure as Lo lnvalldaLe Lhe wlllŦ lor
Lhe same reasonţ Lhe fallure of Lhe
LesLaLrlx Lo afflx her slgnaLure on Lhe lefL
margln of Lhe second pageţ whlch conLalns
only Lhe lasL porLlon of Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause and acknowledgmenL ls noL a faLal
defecLŦ
As regards Lhe opposlLor's asserLlon LhaL
Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLrlx on Lhe wlll ls
a forgeryţ Lhe LesLlmonles of Lhe Lhree
subscrlblng wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll are
convlnclng enough Lo esLabllsh Lhe
genulneness of Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
LesLaLrlx and Lhe due execuLlon of Lhe
wlllŦ
8

1he Crder was appealed Lo Lhe CourL of
Appeals by LrnesLo CasLllloţ who had
subsLlLuLed hls slnce deceased moLherŴlnŴ
lawţ Ceralda CasLllloŦ ln a ueclslon daLed
17 AugusL 1993ţ Lhe CourL of Appeals
reversed Lhe Lrlal courL and ordered Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe peLlLlon for probaLeŦ
9
1he
CourL of Appeals noLed LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause falled Lo sLaLe Lhe
number of pages used ln Lhe wlllţ Lhus
renderlng Lhe wlll vold and undeservlng of
probaLeŦ
10

Penceţ Lhe presenL peLlLlonŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage S of 61

ÞeLlLloner argues LhaL Lhe requlremenL
under ArLlcle 803 of Lhe Clvll Code LhaL
ƍLhe number of pages used ln a noLarlal
wlll be sLaLed ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseƍ ls
merely dlrecLoryţ raLher Lhan mandaLoryţ
and Lhus suscepLlble Lo whaL he Lermed as
ƍLhe subsLanLlal compllance ruleŦƍ
11

1he soluLlon Lo Lhls case calls for Lhe
appllcaLlon of ArLlcles 803 and 806 of Lhe
Clvll Codeţ whlch we repllcaLe ln fullŦ
ArLŦ 803Ŧ Lvery wlllţ oLher Lhan a
holographlc wlllţ musL be subscrlbed aL Lhe
end Lhereof by Lhe LesLaLor hlmself or by
Lhe LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen by some oLher
person ln hls presenceţ and by hls express
dlrecLlonţ and aLLesLed and subscrlbed by
Lhree or more credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of one
anoLherŦ
1he LesLaLor or Lhe person requesLed by
hlm Lo wrlLe hls name and Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses of Lhe wlllţ shall
also slgnţ as aforesaldţ each and every
page Lhereofţ excepL Lhe lasLţ on Lhe lefL
marglnţ and all Lhe pages shall be
numbered correlaLlvely ln leLLers placed
on Lhe upper parL of each pageŦ
1he aLLesLaLlon shall sLaLe Lhe number of
pages used upon whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţ
and Lhe facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned Lhe
wlll and every page Lhereofţ or caused
some oLher person Lo wrlLe hls nameţ
under hls express dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe
presence of Lhe lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesţ
and LhaL Lhe laLLer wlLnessed and slgned
Lhe wlll and all Lhe pages Lhereof ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of one
anoLherŦ
lf Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause ls ln a language
noL known Lo Lhe wlLnessesţ lL shall be
lnLerpreLed Lo LhemŦ
ArLŦ 806Ŧ Lvery wlll musL be acknowledged
before a noLary publlc by Lhe LesLaLor and
Lhe wlLnessesŦ 1he noLary publlc shall noL
be requlred Lo reLaln a copy of Lhe wlllţ or
flle anoLher wlLh Lhe offlce of Lhe Clerk of
CourLŦ
1he appellaLe courLţ ln lLs ueclslonţ
consldered only one defecLţ Lhe fallure of
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lo sLaLe Lhe number
of pages of Lhe wlllŦ 8uL an examlnaLlon of
Lhe wlll lLself reveals several more
deflclenclesŦ
As admlLLed by peLlLloner hlmselfţ Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause falls Lo sLaLe Lhe number
of pages of Lhe wlllŦ
12
1here was an
lncompleLe aLLempL Lo comply wlLh Lhls
requlslLeţ a space havlng been alloLLed for
Lhe lnserLlon of Lhe number of pages ln Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ ?eL Lhe blank was never
fllled lnŤ henceţ Lhe requlslLe was lefL
uncomplled wlLhŦ
1he CourL of Appeals pounced on Lhls
defecL ln reverslng Lhe Lrlal courLţ clLlng ln
Lhe process uy copoe vŦ Novos lŦ
5loco
13
and lo teť Jlll of oJtoJoŦ
14
ln uy
copoeţ Lhe CourL noLed LhaL among Lhe
defecLs of Lhe wlll ln quesLlon was Lhe
fallure of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lo sLaLe
Lhe number of pages conLalned ln Lhe
wlllŦ
13
ln rullng LhaL Lhe wlll could noL be
admlLLed Lo probaLeţ Lhe CourL made Lhe
followlng conslderaLlon whlch remalns
hlghly relevanL Lo Lhls dayť ƍ1he purpose of
requlrlng Lhe number of sheeLs Lo be
sLaLed ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause ls
obvlousŤ the document m|ght eas||y be so
prepared that the remova| of a sheet
wou|d comp|ete|y change the
testamentary d|spos|t|ons of the w||| and
|n the absence of a statement of the tota|
number of sheets such remova| m|ght be
effected by tak|ng out the sheet and
chang|ng the numbers at the top of the
fo||ow|ng sheets or pagesŦ lfţ on Lhe oLher
handţ Lhe LoLal number of sheeLs ls sLaLed
ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lhe falslflcaLlon of
Lhe documenL wlll lnvolve Lhe lnserLlng of
new pages and Lhe forglng of Lhe
slgnaLures of Lhe LesLaLor and wlLnesses ln
Lhe marglnţ a maLLer aLLended wlLh much
greaLer dlfflculLyŦƍ
16

1he case of lo te Jlll of
oJtoJo concerned a wlll Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause of whlch falled Lo sLaLe Lhe number
of sheeLs or pages usedŦ 1hls conslderaLlon
alone was sufflclenL for Lhe CourL Lo
declare ƍunanlmżlLyŽ upon Lhe polnL LhaL
Lhe defecL polnLed ouL ln Lhe aLLesLlng
clause ls faLalŦƍ
17
lL was furLher observed
LhaL ƍlL cannoL be denled LhaL Lhe x x x
requlremenL affords addlLlonal securlLy
agalnsL Lhe danger LhaL Lhe wlll may be
Lampered wlLhŤ and as Lhe LeglslaLure has
seen flL Lo prescrlbe Lhls requlremenLţ lL
musL be consldered maLerlalŦƍ
18

AgalnsL Lhese clLed casesţ peLlLloner
clLes 5loqsoo vŦ loteotloo
19
and 1obooJo
vŦ nooŦ kosolţ
20
whereln Lhe CourL allowed
probaLe Lo Lhe wllls concerned Lhereln
desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
dld noL sLaLe Lhe number of pages of Lhe
wlllŦ ?eL Lhe appellaLe courL lLself
consldered Lhe lmporL of Lhese Lwo casesţ
and made Lhe followlng dlsLlncLlon whlch
peLlLloner ls unable Lo rebuLţ and whlch
we adopL wlLh approvalť
Lven a cursory examlnaLlon of Lhe Wlll
(LxhlblL ƍuƍ)ţ wlll readlly show LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon does noL sLaLe Lhe number of
pages used upon whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenŦ
Penceţ Lhe Wlll ls vold and undeservlng of
probaLeŦ
We are noL lmpervlous of Lhe ueclslons of
Lhe Supreme CourL ln ƍManuel Slngson
versus Lmllla llorenLlnoţ eL alŦţ 92 ÞhllŦ 161
and Apolonlo ż1aboadaŽ versus PonŦ
Avellno 8osalţ eL alŦţ 118 SC8A 193ţƍ Lo Lhe
effecL LhaL a wlll may sLlll be valld even lf
Lhe aLLesLaLlon does noL conLaln Lhe
number of pages used upon whlch Lhe Wlll
ls wrlLLenŦ Poweverţ Lhe ueclslons of Lhe
Supreme CourL are noL appllcable ln Lhe
aforemenLloned appeal aL benchŦ 1hls ls so
becauseţ ln Lhe case of ƍManuel Slngson
versus Lmllla llorenLlnoţ eL alŦţ supraţƍ
alLhough Lhe aLLesLaLlon ln Lhe sub[ecL Wlll
dld noL sLaLe Lhe number of pages used ln
Lhe wlllţ howeverţ Lhe same was found ln
Lhe lasL parL of Lhe body of Lhe Wlllť
ƍx x x
1he law referred Lo ls arLlcle 618 of Lhe
Code of Clvll Þrocedureţ as amended by
AcL noŦ 2643ţ whlch requlres LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause shall sLaLe Lhe number
of pages or sheeLs upon whlch Lhe wlll ls
wrlLLenţ whlch requlremenL has been held
Lo be mandaLory as an effecLlve safeguard
agalnsL Lhe posslblllLy of lnLerpolaLlon or
omlsslon of some of Lhe pages of Lhe wlll
Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe helrs Lo whom Lhe
properLy ls lnLended Lo be bequeaLhed (ln
re Wlll of Andradaţ 42 ÞhllŦ 180Ť uy Coque
vsŦ navas LŦ Slocaţ 43 ÞhllŦţ 403Ť Cumban
vsŦ Corchoţ 30 ÞhllŦ 30Ť CulnLo vsŦ MoraLaţ
34 ÞhllŦ 481Ť Lchevarrla vsŦ SarmlenLoţ 66
ÞhllŦ 611)Ŧ 1he raLlo decldendl of Lhese
Successlon 07072011
Þage 6 of 61

cases seems Lo be LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause musL conLaln a sLaLemenL of Lhe
number of sheeLs or pages composlng Lhe
wlll and LhaL lf Lhls ls mlsslng or ls omlLLedţ
lL wlll have Lhe effecL of lnvalldaLlng Lhe
wlll lf Lhe deflclency cannoL be supplledţ
noL by evldence allundeţ buL by a
conslderaLlon or examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll
lLselfŦ 8uL here Lhe slLuaLlon ls dlfferenLŦ
Whlle Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause does noL sLaLe
Lhe number of sheeLs or pages upon whlch
Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţhoweverţ Lhe lasL parL of
Lhe body of Lhe wlll conLalns a sLaLemenL
LhaL lL ls composed of elghL pagesţ whlch
clrcumsLance ln our oplnlon Lakes Lhls case
ouL of Lhe rlgld rule of consLrucLlon and
places lL wlLhln Lhe realm of slmllar cases
where a broad and more llberal vlew has
been adopLed Lo prevenL Lhe wlll of Lhe
LesLaLor from belng defeaLed by purely
Lechnlcal conslderaLlonsŦƍ (page 163Ŵ163ţ
supra) (underscorlng supplled)
ln ƍApolonlo 1abaoda versus PonŦ Avellno
8osalţ eL alŦƍ supraţ Lhe noLarlal
acknowledgemenL ln Lhe Wlll sLaLes Lhe
number of pages used ln Lheť
ƍx x x
We have examlned Lhe wlll ln quesLlon and
noLlced LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause falled
Lo sLaLe Lhe number of pages used ln
wrlLlng Lhe wlllŦ 1hls would have been a
faLal defecL were lL noL for Lhe facL LhaLţ ln
Lhls caseţ lL ls dlscernlble from Lhe enLlre
wlll LhaL lL ls really and acLually composed
of only Lwo pages duly slgned by Lhe
LesLaLrlx and her lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesŦ
As earller sLaLedţ Lhe flrsL page whlch
conLalns Lhe enLlreLy of Lhe LesLamenLary
dlsposlLlons ls slgned by Lhe LesLaLrlx aL
Lhe end or aL Lhe boLLom whlle Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses slgned aL Lhe lefL
marglnŦ 1he oLher page whlch ls marked as
ƍÞaglna dosƍ comprlses Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause and Lhe acknowledgmenLŦ 1he
acknowledgmenL lLself sLaLes LhaL ƍLhls
LasL Wlll and 1esLamenL conslsLs of Lwo
pages lncludlng Lhls pageƍ (pages 200Ŵ201ţ
supra) (underscorlng supplled)Ŧ
Poweverţ ln Lhe appeal aL benchţ Lhe
number of pages used ln Lhe wlll ls noL
sLaLed ln any parL of Lhe WlllŦ 1he wlll does
noL even conLaln any noLarlal
acknowledgmenL whereln Lhe number of
pages of Lhe wlll should be sLaLedŦ
21

8oLh uy copoe and oJtoJo were declded
prlor Lo Lhe enacLmenL of Lhe Clvll Code ln
1930ţ aL a Llme when Lhe sLaLuLory
provlslon governlng Lhe formal
requlremenL of wllls was SecLlon
618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
ÞrocedureŦ
22
8ellance on Lhese cases
remalns aproposţ conslderlng LhaL Lhe
requlremenL LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon sLaLe Lhe
number of pages of Lhe wlll ls exLanL from
SecLlon 618Ŧ
23
Poweverţ Lhe enacLmenL of
Lhe Clvll Code ln 1930 dld puL ln force a
rule of lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe requlremenLs
of wlllsţ aL leasL lnsofar as Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause ls concernedţ LhaL may vary from
Lhe phllosophy LhaL governed Lhese Lwo
casesŦ ArLlcle 809 of Lhe Clvll Code sLaLesť
ƍln Lhe absence of bad falLhţ forgeryţ or
fraudţ or undue and lmproper pressure
and lnfluenceţ defecLs and lmperfecLlons
ln Lhe form of aLLesLaLlon or ln Lhe
language used Lhereln shall noL render Lhe
wlll lnvalld lf lL ls proved LhaL Lhe wlll was
ln facL execuLed and aLLesLed ln subsLanLlal
compllance wlLh all Lhe requlremenLs of
arLlcle 803Ŧƍ
ln Lhe same velnţ peLlLloner clLes Lhe
reporL of Lhe Clvll Code Commlsslonţ whlch
sLaLed LhaL ƍLhe underlylng and
fundamenLal ob[ecLlve permeaLlng Lhe
provlslons on Lhe żlawŽ on żwlllsŽ ln Lhls
pro[ecL conslsLs ln Lhe żllberallzaLlonŽ of
Lhe manner of Lhelr execuLlon wlLh Lhe
end ln vlew of glvlng Lhe LesLaLor more
żfreedomŽ ln żexpresslngŽ hls lasL wlshesŦ
1hls ob[ecLlve ls ln accord wlLh Lhe
żmodern LendencyŽ ln respecL Lo Lhe
formallLles ln Lhe execuLlon of
wlllsŦƍ
24
Poweverţ peLlLloner convenlenLly
omlLs Lhe quallflcaLlon offered by Lhe Code
Commlsslon ln Lhe very same paragraph
he clLes from Lhelr reporLţ LhaL such
llberallzaLlon be ƍbuL wlLh sufflclenL
safeguards and resLrlcLlons Lo prevenL Lhe
commlsslon of fraud and Lhe exerclse of
undue and lmproper pressure and
lnfluence upon Lhe LesLaLorŦƍ
23

cooeJo vŦ coott of ppeols
26
feaLures an
exLenslve dlscusslon made by !usLlce
8egaladoţ speaklng for Lhe CourL on Lhe
confllcLlng vlews on Lhe manner of
lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe legal formallLles
requlred ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause ln wlllsŦ
27
uy
copoe and oJtoJo are clLed Lherelnţ
along wlLh several oLher casesţ as
examples of Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe rule of
sLrlcL consLrucLlonŦ
28
Poweverţ Lhe Code
Commlsslon opLed Lo recommend a more
llberal consLrucLlon Lhrough Lhe
ƍsubsLanLlal compllance ruleƍ under ArLlcle
809Ŧ A cauLlonary noLe was sLruck Lhough
by !usLlce !Ŧ8ŦLŦ 8eyes as Lo how ArLlcle
809 should be applledť
x x x 1he rule musL be llmlLed Lo
dlsregardlng Lhose defecLs LhaL can be
supplled by an examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll
lLselfť wheLher all Lhe pages are
consecuLlvely numberedŤ wheLher Lhe
slgnaLures appear ln each and every pageŤ
wheLher Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses are
Lhree or Lhe wlll was noLarlzedŦ All Lhese
are facLs LhaL Lhe wlll lLself can revealţ and
defecLs or even omlsslons concernlng
Lhem ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause can be
safely dlsregardedŦ 8ut the tota| number
of pagesţ and whether a|| persons
requ|red to s|gn d|d so |n the presence of
each other must substant|a||y appear |n
the attestat|on c|auseţ be|ng the on|y
check aga|nst per[ury |n the probate
proceed|ngsŦ
29
(Lmphasls supplledŦ)
1he CourL of Appeals dld clLe Lhese
commenLs by !usLlce !Ŧ8ŦLŦ 8eyes ln lLs
assalled declslonţ conslderlng LhaL Lhe
fallure Lo sLaLe Lhe number of pages of Lhe
wlll ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause ls one of Lhe
defecLs whlch cannoL be slmply
dlsregardedŦ ln cooeJo lLselfţ Lhe CourL
refused Lo allow Lhe probaLe of a wlll
whose aLLesLaLlon clause falled Lo sLaLe
LhaL Lhe wlLnesses subscrlbed Lhelr
respecLlve slgnaLures Lo Lhe wlll ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of each
oLherţ
30
Lhe oLher omlsslon clLed by !usLlce
!Ŧ8ŦLŦ 8eyes whlch Lo hls esLlmaLlon cannoL
be llghLly dlsregardedŦ
cooeJo suggesLedť ƍżlŽL may Lhus be sLaLed
LhaL Lhe ruleţ as lL now sLandsţ ls LhaL
omlsslon whlch can be supplled by an
examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll lLselfţ wlLhouL Lhe
need of resorLlng Lo exLrlnslc evldenceţ wlll
noL be faLal andţ correspondlnglyţ would
noL obsLrucL Lhe allowance Lo probaLe of
Lhe wlll belng assalledŦ Poweverţ Lhose
omlsslons whlch cannoL be supplled
excepL by evldenceollooJe would resulL ln
Lhe lnvalldaLlon of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
Successlon 07072011
Þage of 61

and ulLlmaLelyţ of Lhe wlll lLselfŦƍ
31
1husţ a
fallure by Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lo sLaLe
LhaL Lhe LesLaLor slgned every page can be
llberally consLruedţ slnce LhaL facL can be
checked by a vlsual examlnaLlonŤ whlle a
fallure by Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lo sLaLe
LhaL Lhe wlLnesses slgned ln one anoLher's
presence should be consldered a faLal flaw
slnce Lhe aLLesLaLlon ls Lhe only LexLual
guaranLee of compllanceŦ
32

1he fallure of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause Lo
sLaLe Lhe number of pages on whlch Lhe
wlll was wrlLLen remalns a faLal flawţ
desplLe ArLlcle 809Ŧ 1he purpose of Lhe law
ln requlrlng Lhe clause Lo sLaLe Lhe number
of pages on whlch Lhe wlll ls wrlLLen ls Lo
safeguard agalnsL posslble lnLerpolaLlon or
omlsslon of one or some of lLs pages and
Lo prevenL any lncrease or decrease ln Lhe
pagesŦ
33
1he fallure Lo sLaLe Lhe number of
pages equaLes wlLh Lhe absence of an
avermenL on Lhe parL of Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses as Lo how many pages conslsLed
Lhe wlllţ Lhe execuLlon of whlch Lhey had
osLenslbly [usL wlLnessed and subscrlbed
LoŦ lollowlng cooeJoţ Lhere ls subsLanLlal
compllance wlLh Lhls requlremenL lf Lhe
wlll sLaLes elsewhere ln lL how many pages
lL ls comprlsed ofţ as was Lhe slLuaLlon
ln 5loqsoo and 1obooJoŦ Poweverţ ln Lhls
caseţ Lhere could have been no subsLanLlal
compllance wlLh Lhe requlremenLs under
ArLlcle 803 slnce Lhere ls no sLaLemenL ln
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause or anywhere ln Lhe
wlll lLself as Lo Lhe number of pages whlch
comprlse Lhe wlllŦ
AL Lhe same Llmeţ ArLlcle 809 should noL
devlaLe from Lhe need Lo comply wlLh Lhe
formal requlremenLs as enumeraLed under
ArLlcle 803Ŧ WhaLever Lhe lncllnaLlons of
Lhe members of Lhe Code Commlsslon ln
lncorporaLlng ArLlcle 803ţ Lhe facL remalns
LhaL Lhey saw flL Lo prescrlbe subsLanLlally
Lhe same formal requlslLes as enumeraLed
ln SecLlon 618 of Lhe Code of Clvll
Þrocedureţ convlnced LhaL Lhese remalned
effecLlve safeguards agalnsL Lhe forgery or
lnLercalaLlon of noLarlal wlllsŦ
34
Compllance
wlLh Lhese requlremenLsţ however
plcayune ln lmpresslonţ affords Lhe publlc
a hlgh degree of comforL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor
hlmself or herself had declded Lo convey
properLy post mottem ln Lhe manner
esLabllshed ln Lhe wlllŦ
33
1he transcendent
|eg|s|at|ve |ntentţ even as expressed |n
the c|ted comments of the Code
Comm|ss|onţ |s for the fru|t|on of the
testator's |ncontestab|e des|resţ and not
for the |ndu|gent adm|ss|on of w|||s to
probateŦ
1he CourL could Lhus end here and afflrm
Lhe CourL of AppealsŦ Poweverţ an
examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll lLself reveals a
couple of even more crlLlcal defecLs LhaL
should necessarlly lead Lo lLs re[ecLlonŦ
Ior oneţ the attestat|on c|ause was not
s|gned by the |nstrumenta|
w|tnessesŦ Whlle Lhe slgnaLures of Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses appear on Lhe lefLŴ
hand margln of Lhe wlllţ Lhey do noL
appear aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause whlch afLer all conslsLs of Lhelr
avermenLs before Lhe noLary publlcŦ
coqto vŦ coqto
36
ls maLerlal on Lhls polnLŦ
As ln Lhls caseţ ƍLhe slgnaLures of Lhe Lhree
wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll do noL appear aL Lhe
boLLom of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseţ alLhough
Lhe page conLalnlng Lhe same ls slgned by
Lhe wlLnesses on Lhe lefLŴhand
marglnŦƍ
37
Whlle Lhree (3)
!usLlces
38
consldered Lhe slgnaLure
requlremenL had been subsLanLlally
complled wlLhţ a ma[orlLy of slx (6)ţ
speaklng Lhrough Chlef !usLlce Þarasţ ruled
LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause had noL been
duly slgnedţ renderlng Lhe wlll faLally
defecLlveŦ
1here ls no quesLlon LhaL Lhe slgnaLures of
Lhe Lhree wlLnesses Lo Lhe wlll do noL
appear aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clauseţ alLhough Lhe page conLalnlng Lhe
same ls slgned by Lhe wlLnesses on Lhe
lefLŴhand marglnŦ
We are of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe poslLlon
Laken by Lhe appellanL ls correcLŦ 1he
aLLesLaLlon clause ls ƍa memorandum of
Lhe facLs aLLendlng Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
wlllƍ requlred by law Lo be made by Lhe
aLLesLlng wlLnessesţ and lL musL
necessarlly bear Lhelr slgnaLuresŦ An
unslgned aLLesLaLlon clause cannoL be
consldered as an acL of Lhe wlLnessesţ
slnce Lhe omlsslon of Lhelr slgnaLures aL
Lhe boLLom Lhereof negaLlves Lhelr
parLlclpaLlonŦ
1he peLlLloner and appellee conLends LhaL
slgnaLures of Lhe Lhree wlLnesses on Lhe
lefLŴhand margln conform subsLanLlally Lo
Lhe law and may be deemed as Lhelr
slgnaLures Lo Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ 1hls ls
unLenableţ because sald slgnaLures are ln
compllance wlLh Lhe legal mandaLe LhaL
Lhe wlll be slgned on Lhe lefLŴhand margln
of all lLs pagesŦ lf an aLLesLaLlon clause noL
slgned by Lhe Lhree wlLnesses aL Lhe
boLLom Lhereofţ be admlLLed as sufflclenLţ
lL would be easy Lo add such clause Lo a
wlll on a subsequenL occaslon and ln Lhe
absence of Lhe LesLaLor and any or all of
Lhe wlLnessesŦ
39

1he CourL Loday relLeraLes Lhe conLlnued
efflcacy of coqtoŦ ArLlcle 803 parLlcularly
segregaLes Lhe requlremenL LhaL Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses slgn each page of
Lhe wlllţ from Lhe requlslLe LhaL Lhe wlll be
ƍaLLesLed and subscrlbed by żLhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesŽŦƍ 1he respecLlve
lnLenLs behlnd Lhese Lwo classes of
slgnaLure are dlsLlncL from each oLherŦ 1he
slgnaLures on Lhe lefLŴhand corner of every
page slgnlfyţ among oLhersţ LhaL Lhe
wlLnesses are aware LhaL Lhe page Lhey
are slgnlng forms parL of Lhe wlllŦ Cn Lhe
oLher handţ Lhe slgnaLures Lo Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause esLabllsh LhaL Lhe
wlLnesses are referrlng Lo Lhe sLaLemenLs
conLalned ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause lLselfŦ
lndeedţ Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause ls separaLe
and aparL from Lhe dlsposlLlon of Lhe wlllŦ
An unslgned aLLesLaLlon clause resulLs ln
an unaLLesLed wlllŦ Lven lf Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses slgned Lhe lefLŴhand margln of
Lhe page conLalnlng Lhe unslgned
aLLesLaLlon clauseţ such slgnaLures cannoL
demonsLraLe Lhese wlLnesses'
underLaklngs ln Lhe clauseţ slnce Lhe
slgnaLures LhaL do appear on Lhe page
were dlrecLed Lowards a wholly dlfferenL
avowalŦ
1he CourL may be more charlLably
dlsposed had Lhe wlLnesses ln Lhls case
slgned Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause lLselfţ buL noL
Lhe lefLŴhand margln of Lhe page
conLalnlng such clauseŦ WlLhouL
dlmlnlshlng Lhe value of Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses' slgnaLures on each and every
pageţ Lhe facL musL be noLed LhaL lL ls Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause whlch conLalns Lhe
uLLerances reduced lnLo wrlLlng of Lhe
LesLamenLary wlLnesses LhemselvesŦ lL ls
Lhe wlLnessesţ and noL Lhe LesLaLorţ who
are requlred under ArLlcle 803 Lo sLaLe Lhe
Successlon 07072011
Þage 8 of 61

number of pages used upon whlch Lhe wlll
ls wrlLLenŤ Lhe facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor had
slgned Lhe wlll and every page LhereofŤ
and LhaL Lhey wlLnessed and slgned Lhe
wlll and all Lhe pages Lhereof ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of one
anoLherŦ 1he only proof ln Lhe wlll LhaL Lhe
wlLnesses have sLaLed Lhese elemenLal
facLs would be Lhelr slgnaLures on Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ
1husţ Lhe sub[ecL wlll cannoL be
consldered Lo have been valldly aLLesLed
Lo by Lhe lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesţ as Lhey
falled Lo slgn Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ
?eLţ Lhere ls anoLher faLal defecL Lo Lhe wlll
on whlch Lhe denlal of Lhls peLlLlon should
also hlngeŦ 1he requlremenL under ArLlcle
806 LhaL ƍevery wlll musL be
acknowledged before a noLary publlc by
Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe wlLnessesƍ has also
noL been complled wlLhŦ 1he lmporLance
of Lhls requlremenL ls hlghllghLed by Lhe
facL LhaL lL had been segregaLed from Lhe
oLher requlremenLs under ArLlcle 803 and
enLrusLed lnLo a separaLe provlslonţ ArLlcle
806Ŧ 1he nonŴobservance of ArLlcle 806 ln
Lhls case ls equally as crlLlcal as Lhe oLher
clLed flaws ln compllance wlLh ArLlcle 803ţ
and should be LreaLed as of equlvalenL
lmporLŦ
ln lleu of an acknowledgmenLţ Lhe noLary
publlcţ ÞeLronlo ?Ŧ 8auLlsLaţ wroLe
ƍNlloqJooo ko ot oloototlo ko
oqoyooq 10 oq nooyo 10 (slc)ţ 1981 Jlto so
looqsoJ oq MoyolloŦƍ
40
8y no manner of
conLemplaLlon can Lhose words be
consLrued as an acknowledgmenLŦ An
acknowledgmenL ls Lhe acL of one who has
execuLed a deed ln golng before some
compeLenL offlcer or courL and declarlng lL
Lo be hls acL or deedŦ
41
lL lnvolves an exLra
sLep underLaken whereby Lhe slgnor
acLually declares Lo Lhe noLary LhaL Lhe
execuLor of a documenL has aLLesLed Lo
Lhe noLary LhaL Lhe same ls hls/her own
free acL and deedŦ
lL mlghL be posslble Lo consLrue Lhe
avermenL as a jototţ even Lhough lL does
noL hew Lo Lhe usual language LhereofŦ
A jotot ls LhaL parL of an affldavlL where
Lhe noLary cerLlfles LhaL before hlm/herţ
Lhe documenL was subscrlbed and sworn
Lo by Lhe execuLorŦ
42
Crdlnarllyţ Lhe
language of Lhe jotot should avow LhaL Lhe
documenL was subscrlbed and sworn
before Lhe noLary publlcţ whlle ln Lhls caseţ
Lhe noLary publlc averred LhaL he hlmself
ƍslgned and noLarlzedƍ Lhe documenLŦ
Þosslbly Lhoughţ Lhe word ƍoloototloƍ or
ƍnoLarlzedƍ encompasses Lhe slgnlng of
and swearlng ln of Lhe execuLors of Lhe
documenLţ whlch ln Lhls case would
lnvolve Lhe decedenL and Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnessesŦ
?eL even lf we conslder whaL was afflxed
by Lhe noLary publlc as a jototţ Lhe wlll
would noneLheless remaln lnvalldţ as Lhe
express requlremenL of ArLlcle 806 ls LhaL
Lhe wlll be ƍacknowledgedƍţ and noL
merely subscrlbed and sworn LoŦ 1he wlll
does noL presenL any LexLual proofţ much
less one under oaLhţ LhaL Lhe decedenL
and Lhe lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses execuLed
or slgned Lhe wlll as Lhelr own free acL or
deedŦ 1he acknowledgmenL made ln a wlll
provldes for anoLher allŴlmporLanL legal
safeguard agalnsL spurlous wllls or Lhose
made beyond Lhe free consenL of Lhe
LesLaLorŦ An acknowledgemenL ls noL an
empLy meanlngless acLŦ
43
1he
acknowledgmenL coerces Lhe LesLaLor and
Lhe lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses Lo declare
before an offlcer of Lhe law LhaL Lhey had
execuLed and subscrlbed Lo Lhe wlll as
Lhelr own free acL or deedŦ Such
declaraLlon ls under oaLh and under paln
of per[uryţ Lhus allowlng for Lhe crlmlnal
prosecuLlon of persons who parLlclpaLe ln
Lhe execuLlon of spurlous wlllsţ or Lhose
execuLed wlLhouL Lhe free consenL of Lhe
LesLaLorŦ lL also provldes a furLher degree
of assurance LhaL Lhe LesLaLor ls of cerLaln
mlndseL ln maklng Lhe LesLamenLary
dlsposlLlons Lo Lhose persons he/she had
deslgnaLed ln Lhe wlllŦ
lL may noL have been sald beforeţ buL we
can asserL Lhe ruleţ selfŴevldenL as lL ls
under ArLlcle 806Ŧ A notar|a| w||| that |s
not acknow|edged before a notary pub||c
by the testator and the w|tnesses |s
fata||y defect|veţ even |f |t |s subscr|bed
and sworn to before a notary pub||cŦ
1here are Lwo oLher requlremenLs under
ArLlcle 803 whlch were noL fully saLlsfled
by Lhe wlll ln quesLlonŦ We need noL
dlscuss Lhem aL lengLhţ as Lhey are no
longer maLerlal Lo Lhe
dlsposlLlon of Lhls caseŦ 1he provlslon
requlres LhaL Lhe LesLaLor and Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses slgn each and
every page of Lhe wlll on Lhe lefL marglnţ
excepL Lhe lasLŤ and LhaL all Lhe pages shall
be numbered correlaLlvely ln leLLers placed
on Lhe upper parL of each pageŦ ln Lhls
caseţ Lhe decedenLţ unllke Lhe wlLnessesţ
falled Lo slgn boLh pages of Lhe wlll on Lhe
lefL marglnţ her only slgnaLure appearlng
aL Lhe soŴcalled ƍloglcal endƍ
44
of Lhe wlll
on lLs flrsL pageŦ Alsoţ Lhe wlll lLself ls noL
numbered correlaLlvely ln leLLers on each
pageţ buL lnsLead numbered wlLh Arablc
numeralsŦ 1here ls a llne of LhoughL LhaL
has dlsabused Lhe noLlon LhaL Lhese Lwo
requlremenLs be consLrued as
mandaLoryŦ
43
1aken ln lsolaLlonţ Lhese
omlsslonsţ by Lhemselvesţ may noL be
sufflclenL Lo deny probaLe Lo a wlllŦ ?eL
even as Lhese omlsslons are noL declslve Lo
Lhe ad[udlcaLlon of Lhls caseţ Lhey need
noL be dwelL onţ Lhough lndlcaLlve as Lhey
may be of a general lack of due regard for
Lhe requlremenLs under ArLlcle 803 by
whoever execuLed Lhe wlllŦ
All Loldţ Lhe sLrlng of morLal defecLs whlch
Lhe wlll ln quesLlon suffers from makes Lhe
probaLe denlal lnexorableŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe peLlLlon ls uLnlLuŦ CosLs
agalnsL peLlLlonerŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ






















Successlon 07072011
Þage 9 of 61



8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
ll8S1 ulvlSlCn
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ3S3 May 2Sţ 199
kI2ALINA GA8kILL GCN2ALLSţ peLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
nCNCkA8LL CCUk1 CI AÞÞLALS and
LU1GAkDA SAN1IAGCţ respondenLsŦ
tooclsco uŦ klllotozoţ tŦ fot petltlooetsŦ
oqel Ŧ 5lsoo fot ptlvote tespooJeotŦ

GULkkLkCţ Ŧť
1hls ls a peLlLlon for revlew of Lhe declslon
of Lhe CourL of Appealsţ llrsL
ulvlslonţ
1
promulgaLed on May 4ţ 1973 ln
CA CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 36323Ŵ8 whlch reversed Lhe
declslon of Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance of
8lzal daLed uecember 13ţ 1964 and
allowed Lhe probaLe of Lhe lasL wlll and
LesLamenL of Lhe deceased lsabel
CabrlelŦ *
lL appears LhaL on !une 24ţ 1961ţ hereln
prlvaLe respondenL LuLgarda SanLlago flled
a peLlLlon wlLh Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance
of 8lzal dockeLed as Speclal Þroceedlngs
noŦ 3617ţ for Lhe probaLe of a wlll alleged
Lo have been execuLed by Lhe deceased
lsabel Cabrlel and deslgnaLlng Lhereln
peLlLloner as Lhe prlnclpal beneflclary and
execuLrlxŦ
1here ls no dlspuLe ln Lhe records LhaL Lhe
laLe lsabel Andres Cabrlel dled as a wldow
and wlLhouL lssue ln Lhe munlclpallLy of
navoLasţ provlnce of 8lzal her place of
resldenceţ on !une 7ţ 1961 aL Lhe age of
elghLyŴflve (83)ţ havlng been born ln 1876Ŧ
lL ls llkewlse noL conLroverLed LhaL hereln
prlvaLe respondenL LuLgarda SanLlago and
peLlLloner 8lzallna Cabrlel Conzales are
nleces of Lhe deceasedţ and LhaL prlvaLe
respondenLţ wlLh her husband and
chlldrenţ llved wlLh Lhe deceased aL Lhe
laLLers resldence prlor anŴ d up Lo Lhe Llme
of her deaLhŦ
1he wlll submlLLed for probaLeţ LxhlblL ƍlƍţ
whlch ls LypewrlLLen and ln 1agalogţ
appears Lo have been execuLed ln Manlla
on Lhe 13Lh day of Aprllţ 1961ţ or barely
Lwo (2) monLhs prlor Lo Lhe deaLh of lsabel
CabrlelŦ lL conslsLs of flve (3) pagesţ
lncludlng Lhe pages whereon Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause and Lhe
acknowledgmenL of Lhe noLary publlc were
wrlLLenŦ 1he slgnaLures of Lhe deceased
lsabel Cabrlel appear aL Lhe end of Lhe wlll
on page four and aL Lhe lefL margln of all
Lhe pagesŦ 1he aLLesLaLlon clauseţ whlch ls
found on page fourţ reads as followsť
ÞA1unA? nC MCA SAkSl
kamlng mga
nakalagdang mga saksl o
LesLlgo na ang amlng
mga LlnlLlrahan ay
nakasulaL sa gawlng
kanan aL kahlllra ng
amlng mga pangalan sa
lbaba nlLoţ ay
pagpapaLuLuo na
lplnakllala lplnaalam aL
lplnahayag sa amln nl
lsabel Cabrlel na ang
kasulaLang lLo na
blnubuo ng Llmang
uahon (llve Þages) paLl
na ang dahong lLoţ na
slya nlyang 1LS1AMLn1C
A1 PuLlnC PA8lLlnţ
ngayong lka 13 ng Abrllţ
1961ţ ay nllagdaan ng
nasablng LesLadora na sl
lsabel Cabrlel ang
nasablng LesLamenLo sa
lbaba o llallm ng
kasulaLan na nasa lka
apaL na dahon (page
four) aL nasa lLaas ng
paLunay namlng lLoţ aL sa
kallwang panlg ng lahaL
aL bawaL dahon (and on
Lhe lefL hand margln of
each and every page)ţ sa
harap ng lahaL aL bawaL
lsa sa amlnţ aL kaml
namang mga saksl ay
lumagda sa harap ng
nasablng LesLadoraţ aL sa
harap ng lahaL aL bawaL
lsa sa amlnţ sa llallm ng
paLunay ng mga saksl aL
sa kallwang panlg ng
lahaL aL bawaƌL dahon ng
LesLamenLong lLoŦ
AL Lhe boLLom Lhereofţ under Lhe headlng
ƍÞangalanƍţ are wrlLLen Lhe slgnaLures of
MaLllde uŦ Croblaţ Celso uŦ Clmpaya and
Marla 8Ŧ Clmpayaţ and opposlLe Lhe sameţ
under Lhe headlng ƍ1lrahanƍţ are Lhelr
respecLlve places of resldenceţ 961
Plghway 34ţ Þhllamllfeţ for Mlss Croblaţ
and 12 uagala SLŦţ navoLasţ 8lzalţ for Lhe
Lwo ClmpayasŦ 1helr slgnaLures also
appear on Lhe lefL margln of all Lhe oLher
pagesŦ 1he WW ls paged by LypewrlLLen
words as followsť ƍunang uahonƍ and
underneaLh ƍ(Þage Cne)ƍţ ƍlkalawang
uahonƍ and underneaLh ƍ(Þage 1wo)ƍţ
eLcŦţ appearlng aL Lhe Lop of each pageŦ
1he wlll lLself provldes LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx
deslred Lo be burled ln Lhe CaLhollc
CemeLery of navoLasţ 8lzal ln accordance
wlLh Lhe rlLes of Lhe 8oman CaLhollc
Churchţ all expenses Lo be pald from her
esLaLeŤ LhaL all her obllgaLlonsţ lf anyţ be
paldŤ LhaL legacles ln speclfled amounLs be
glven Lo her slsLerţ Þraxldes Cabrlel vdaŦ
de SanLlagoţ her broLher SanLlago Cabrlelţ
and her nephews and nlecesţ 8en[amlnţ
Saludţ 8lzallna (hereln peLlLloner)ţ vlcLorlaţ
LsLerţ Andresţ all surnamed Cabrlelţ and
Lvangellneţ 8udyardo 8osaţ Andreaţ
Marclalţ numanclaţ verena an surnamed
SanLlagoŦ 1o hereln prlvaLe respondenL
LuLgarda SanLlagoţ who was descrlbed ln
Lhe wlll by Lhe LesLaLrlx as ƍaklng mahal na
pamangkln na aklng plnalaklţ lnalagaan aL
mlnahal na kaLulad ng lsang Lunay na
anakƍ and named as unlversal helr and
execuLorţ were bequeaLhed all properLles
and esLaLeţ real or personal already
acqulredţ or Lo be acqulredţ ln her LesLaLrlx
nameţ afLer saLlsfylng Lhe expensesţ debLs
and legacles as aforemenLlonedŦ
1he peLlLlon was opposed by 8lzallna
Cabrlel Conzalesţ hereln peLlLlonerţ
assalllng Lhe documenL purporLlng Lo be
Lhe wlll of Lhe deceased on Lhe followlng
groundsť
Successlon 07072011
Þage S0 of 61

1Ŧ LhaL Lhe same ls noL genulneŤ
and ln Lhe alLernaLlve
2Ŧ LhaL Lhe same was noL
execuLed and aLLesLed as requlred
by lawŤ
3Ŧ LhaLţ aL Lhe Llme of Lhe alleged
execuLlon of Lhe purporLed wllL
Lhe decedenL lacked
LesLamenLary capaclLy due Lo old
age and slcknessŤ and ln Lhe
second alLernaLlve
4Ŧ 1haL Lhe purporLed WW was
procured Lhrough undue and
lmproper pressure and lnfluence
on Lhe parL of Lhe prlnclpal
beneflclaryţ and/or of some oLher
person for her beneflLŦ
LuLgarda SanLlago flled her Answer Lo Lhe
CpposlLlon on lebruary 1ţ 1962Ŧ AfLer Lrlalţ
Lhe courL o poo rendered [udgmenLţ Lhe
summary and dlsposlLlve porLlons of whlch
readť
Þasslng ln summary upon Lhe
grounds advanced by Lhe
opposlLorţ Lhls CourL flndsť
1Ŧ 1haL Lhere ls no loLa of
evldence Lo supporL Lhe conLenLlo
LhaL Lhe purporLed wlll of Lhe
deceased was procured Lhrough
undue and lmproper pressure and
lnfluence on Lhe parL of Lhe
peLlLlonerţ or of some oLher
person for her beneflLŤ
2Ŧ 1haL Lhere ls lnsufflclenL
evldence Lo susLaln Lhe
conLenLlon LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
alleged execuLlon of Lhe
purporLed wlllţ Lhe deceased
lacked LesLamenLary capaclLy due
Lo old age and slcknessŤ
3Ŧ 1haL sufflclenL and abundanL
evldence warranLs concluslvely
Lhe facL LhaL Lhe purporLed wlll of
Lhe deceased was noL execuLed
and aLLesLed as requlred by lawŤ
4Ŧ 1haL Lhe evldence ls llkewlse
concluslve LhaL Lhe documenL
presenLed for probaLeţ LxhlblL ƌlƌ
ls noL Lhe purporLed wln allegedly
dlcLaLed by Lhe deceasedţ
execuLed and slgned by herţ and
aLLesLed by her Lhree aLLesLlng
wlLnesses on Aprll 13ţ 1961Ŧ
WPL8LlC8Lţ LxhlblL ƍlƍţ Lhe
documenL presenLed for probaLe
as Lhe lasL wlg and LesLamenL of
Lhe deceased lsabel Cabrlel ls
here by ulSALLCWLuŦ
lrom Lhls [udgmenL of dlsallowanceţ
LuLgarda SanLlago appealed Lo respondenL
CourLţ henceţ Lhe only lssue declded on
appeal was wheLher or noL Lhe wlll ln
quesLlon was execuLed and aLLesLed as
requlred by lawŦ 1he CourL of Appealsţ
upon conslderaLlon of Lhe evldence
adduced by boLh parLlesţ rendered Lhe
declslon now under revlewţ holdlng LhaL
Lhe wlll ln quesLlon was slgned and
execuLed by Lhe deceased lsabel Cabrlel
on Aprll 13ţ 1961 ln Lhe presence of Lhe
Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnessesţ MaLllde Croblaţ
Celso Clmpaya and Marla Clmpayaţ slgnlng
and wlLnesslng Lhe documenL ln Lhe
presence of Lhe deceased and of each
oLher as requlred by lawţ hence allow ed
probaLeŦ
CpposlLor 8lzallna Cabrlel Conzales moved
for reconslderaLlon
3
of Lhe aforesald
declslon and such moLlon was
opposed

by peLlLlonerŴappellanL LuLgarda
SanLlagoŦ 1hereafLerŦ parLles submlLLed
Lhelr respecLlve Memorandaţ
S
and on
AugusL 28ţ 1973ţ respondenL CourLţ
lormer Speclal llrsL ulvlslonţ by
8esoluLlon
6
denled Lhe moLlon for
reconslderaLlon sLaLlng LhaLť
1he opposlLorŴappellee
conLends LhaL Lhe
preponderance of
evldence shows LhaL Lhe
supposed lasL wlg and
LesLamenL of lsabel
Cabrlel was noL execuLed
ln accordance wlLh law
because Lhe same was
slgned on several
occaslonsţ LhaL Lhe
LesLaLrlx dld noL slgn Lhe
wlll ln Lhe presence of all
Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses dld noL slgn
Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence
of each oLherŦ
1he resoluLlon of Lhe
facLual lssue ralsed ln Lhe
moLlon for
reconslderaLlon hlnges
on Lhe appreclaLlon of
Lhe evldenceŦ We have
carefully reŴexamlned
Lhe oral and
documenLary evldence
of recordţ 1here ls no
reason Lo alLer Lhe
flndlngs of facL ln Lhe
declslon of Lhls CourL
soughL Lo be seL asldeŦ

ln her peLlLlon before Lhls CourLţ opposlLor
8lzallna Cabrlel Conzales conLends LhaL
respondenL CourL abused lLs dlscreLlon
and/or acLed wlLhouL or ln excess of lLs
[urlsdlcLlon ln reversslng Lhe flndlngs of
facL and concluslons of Lhe Lrlal courLŦ 1he
CourLţ afLer dellberaLlng on Lhe peLlLlon
buL wlLhouL glvlng due course resolvedţ ln
Lhe 8esoluLlon daLed CcLŦ 11ţ 1973 Lo
requlre Lhe respondenLs Lo commenL
Lhereonţ whlch commenL was flled on novŦ
14ţ 1973Ŧ upon conslderaLlon of Lhe
allegaLlonsţ Lhe lssues ralsed and Lhe
argumenLs adduced ln Lhe peLlLlonţ as well
as Lhe CommenL
8
of prlvaLe respondenL
Lhereonţ We denled Lhe peLlLlon by
8esoluLlon on november 26ţ 1973ţ
9
Lhe
quesLlon ralsed belng facLual and for
lnsufflclenL showlng LhaL Lhe flndlngs of
facL by respondenL CourL were
unsupporLed by subsLanLlal evldenceŦ
SubsequenLlyţ or on uecember 17ţ 1973ţ
peLlLloner 8lm Cabrlel Coes frled a MoLlon
for 8econslderaLlon
10
whlch prlvaLe
respondenL answered by way of her
CommenL or CpposlLlon
11
flled on !anuary
13ţ 1974Ŧ A 8eply and 8e[olnder Lo 8eply
followedŦ llnallyţ on March 27ţ 1974ţ We
resolved Lo glve due course Lo Lhe peLlLlonŦ
1he peLlLloner ln her brlef makes Lhe
followlng asslgnmenL of errorsť
lŦ 1he respondenL CourL of Appeals erred
ln holdlng LhaL Lhe documenLţ LxhlblL ƍlƍ
was execuLed and aLLesLed as requlred by
Successlon 07072011
Þage S1 of 61

law when Lhere was absoluLely no proof
LhaL Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses
were credlble wlLness
llŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln reverslng
Lhe flndlng of Lhe lower courL LhaL Lhe
preparaLlon and execuLlon of Lhe wln
LxhlblL ƍlƍţ was unexpecLed and
colncldenLalŦ
lllŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln flndlng
LhaL ALLyţ Þaralso was noL prevlously
furnlshed wlLh Lhe names and resldence
cerLlflcaLes of Lhe wlLnesses as Lo enable
hlm Lo Lype such daLa lnLo Lhe documenL
LxhlblL ƍlƍŦ
lvŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln holdlng
LhaL Lhe facL LhaL Lhe Lhree LypewrlLLen
llnes under Lhe LypewrlLLen words
ƍÞangalanƍ and ƍ1lnlLlrahanƍ were lefL
blank shows beyond cavll LhaL Lhe Lhree
aLLesLlng wlLnesses were all presenL ln Lhe
same occaslonŦ
vŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln reverslng
Lhe Lrlal courLƌs flndlng LhaL lL was
lncredlble LhaL lsabel Cabrlel could have
dlcLaLed Lhe wllL LxhlblL ƍl ţ wlLhouL any
noLe or documenLţ Lo ALLyŦ ÞaralsoŦ
vlŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln reverslng
Lhe flndlng of Lhe Lrlal courL LhaL MaLllde
Crobla was noL physlcally presenL when
Lhe Wlll LxhlblL ƍlƍ was allegedly slgned on
Aprll 13ţ 1961 by Lhe deceased lsabel
Cabrlel and Lhe oLher wlLnesses Celso
Clmpaya and Marla ClmpayaŦ
vllŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln holdlng
LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL gave undue lmporLance
Lo Lhe plcLure Laklngs as proof LhaL Lhe wln
was lmproperly execuLedŦ
vlllŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln holdlng
LhaL Lhe grave conLradlcLlonsţ evaslonsţ
and mlsrepresenLaLlons of wlLnesses
(subscrlblng and noLary) presenLed by Lhe
peLlLloner had been explalned awayţ and
LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL erred ln re[ecLlng sald
LesLlmonlesŦ
lxŦ 1he CourL of Appeals acLed ln excess of
lLs appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon or has so far
deparLed from Lhe accepLed and usual
course of [udlclal proceedlngsţ as Lo call for
an exerclse of Lhe power of supervlslonŦ
xŦ 1he CourL of Appeals erred ln reverslng
Lhe declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL and
admlLLlng Lo probaLe LxhlblL ƍlƍţ Lhe
alleged lasL wlll and LesLamenL of Lhe
deceased lsabel CabrlelŦ
lL wlll be noLed from Lhe above
asslgnmenLs of errors LhaL Lhe same are
subsLanLlally facLual ln characLer and
conLenLŦ Penceţ aL Lhe very ouLseLţ We
musL agaln sLaLe Lhe ofLŴrepeaLed and
wellŴesLabllshed rule LhaL ln Lhls
[urlsdlcLlonţ Lhe facLual flndlngs of Lhe
CourL of Appeals are noL revlewableţ Lhe
same belng blndlng and concluslve on Lhls
CourLŦ 1hls rule has been sLaLed and
relLeraLed ln a long llne of cases
enumeraLed ln cboo vsŦ c (LŴ27488ţ !une
30ţ 1970ţ 33 SC8A 737ţ 743)
12
and 1opos
vsŦ c (LŴ22202ţ lebruary 27Ť 1976ţ 69
SC8A 393)ţ
13
and ln Lhe more recenL cases
of 8optlslo vsŦ cotlllo ooJ c (L32192ţ !uly
30ţ 1976ţ 72 SC8A 214ţ 217) and vJoŦ Je
cotloJlq vsŦ nelts of cotolloo kopoe (LŴ
23777ţ november 26ţ 1976ţ 74 SC8A 83ţ
88)Ŧ ln Lhe case of cboo vsŦ cţ Lhls CourL
saldť
ŦŦŦ from Colco vŦ Moyoqoţ a 1936 declslonţ
Lhe oplnlon belng penned by Lhe Lhen
!usLlce 8ecLoţ lL has been wellŴseLLled LhaL
Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lllls CourL ln cases
broughL Lo us from Lhe CourL of Appeals ls
llmlLed Lo revlewlng and revlslng Lhe errors
of law lmpuLed Lo lLţ lLs flndlngs of facL
belng concluslveŦ More speclflcallyţ ln a
declslon exacLly a monLh laLerţ Lhls CourLţ
speaklng Lhrough Lhe Lhen !usLlce Laurelţ lL
was held LhaL Lhe same prlnclple ls
appllcableţ even lf Lhe CourL of Appeals
was ln dlsagreemenL wlLh Lhe lower courL
as Lo Lhe welghL of Lhe evldence wlLh a
consequenL reversal of lLs flndlngs of facL
ŦŦŦ
SLaLed oLherwlseţ flndlngs of facLs by Lhe
CourL of Appealsţ when supporLed by
subsLanLlve evldence are noL revlewable
on appeal by cerLlorarlŦ Sald flndlngs of Lhe
appellaLe courL are flnal and cannoL be
dlsLurbed by us parLlcularly because lLs
premlses are borne ouL by Lhe record or
based upon subsLanLlal evldence and whaL
ls moreţ when such flndlngs are correcLŦ
AsslgnmenLs of errors lnvolvlng facLual
lssues cannoL be venLllaLed ln a revlew of
Lhe declslon of Lhe CourL of Appeals
because only legal quesLlons may be
ralsedŦ 1he Supreme CourL ls noL aL llberLy
Lo alLer or modlfy Lhe facLs as seL forLh ln
Lhe declslon of Lhe CourL of Appeals
soughL Lo be reversedŦ Where Lhe flndlngs
of Lhe CourL of Appeals are conLrary Lo
Lhose of Lhe Lrlal courLţ a mlnuLe scruLlny
by Lhe Supreme CourL ls ln orderţ and
resorL Lo dulyŴproven evldence becomes
necessaryŦ 1he general rule We have Lhus
sLaLed above ls noL wlLhouL some
recognlzed excepLlonsŦ
Pavlng lald down Lhe above legal precepLs
as Cur foundaLlonţ We now proceed Lo
conslder peLlLlonerƌs asslgnmenLs of
errorsŦ
ÞeLlLlonerţ ln her flrsL asslgnmenLţ
conLends LhaL Lhe respondenL CourL of
Appeals erred ln holdlng LhaL Lhe
documenLţ LxhlblL ƍlƍţ was execuLed and
aLLesLed as requlred by law when Lhere
was absoluLely no proof LhaL Lhe Lhree
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses were credlble
wlLnessesŦ She argues LhaL Lhe requlreŦ
menL ln ArLlcle 806ţ Clvll Codeţ LhaL Lhe
wlLnesses musL be credlble ls an absoluLe
requlremenL whlch musL be complled wlLh
before an alleged lasL wlll and LesLamenL
may be admlLLed Lo probaLe and LhaL Lo be
a credlble wlLnessţ Lhere musL be evldence
on record LhaL Lhe wlLness has a good
sLandlng ln hls communlLyţ or LhaL he ls
honesL and uprlghLţ or repuLed Lo be
LrusLworLhy and rellableŦ Accordlng Lo
peLlLlonerţ unless Lhe quallflcaLlons of Lhe
wlLness are flrsL esLabllshedţ hls LesLlmony
may noL be favorably conslderedŦ
ÞeLlLloner conLends LhaL Lhe Lerm
ƍcredlbleƍ ls noL synonymous wlLh
ƍcompeLenLƍ for a wlLness may be
compeLenL under ArLlcle 820 and 821 of
Lhe Clvll Code and sLlll noL be credlble as
requlred by ArLlcle 803 of Lhe same CodeŦ
lL ls furLher urged LhaL Lhe Lerm ƍcredlbleƍ
as used ln Lhe Clvll Code should recelve Lhe
same seLLled and wellŴ known meanlng lL
has under Lhe naLurallzaLlon Lawţ Lhe
laLLer belng a klndred leglslaLlon wlLh Lhe
Clvll Code provlslons on wlgs wlLh respecL
Lo Lhe quallflcaLlons of wlLnessesŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage S2 of 61

We flnd no merlL Lo peLlLlonerƌs flrsL
asslgnmenL of errorŦ ArLlcle 820 of Lhe Clvll
Code provldes Lhe quallflcaLlons of a
wlLness Lo Lhe execuLlon of wllls whlle
ArLlcle 821 seLs forLh Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon
from belng a wlLness Lo a wlnŦ 1hese
ArLlcles sLaLeť
ArLŦ 820Ŧ Any person of sound
mlnd and of Lhe age of elghLeen
years or moreţ and noL bllndţ deaf
or dumbţ and able Lo read and
wrlLeţ may be a wlLness Lo Lhe
execuLlon of a wlll menLloned ln
arLlcle 806 of Lhls CodeŦ ƍArLŦ 821Ŧ
1he followlng are dlsquallfled from
belng wlLnesses Lo a wlllť
(1) Any person noL domlclled ln
Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ
(2) 1hose who have been
convlcLed of falslflcaLlon of a
documenLţ per[ury or false
LesLlmonyŦ
under Lhe lawţ Lhere ls no mandaLory
requlremenL LhaL Lhe wlLness LesLlfy
lnlLlally or aL any Llme durlng Lhe Lrlal as Lo
hls good sLandlng ln Lhe communlLyţ hls
repuLaLlon for LrusLworLhyLhlness and
rellablenessţ hls honesLy and uprlghLness
ln order LhaL hls LesLlmony may be
belleved and accepLed by Lhe Lrlal courLŦ lL
ls enough LhaL Lhe quallflcaLlons
enumeraLed ln ArLlcle 820 of Lhe Clvll Code
are complled wlLhţ such LhaL Lhe
soundness of hls mlnd can be shown by or
deduced from hls answers Lo Lhe quesLlons
propounded Lo hlmţ LhaL hls age (18 years
or more) ls shown from hls appearanceţ
LesLlmony ţ or compeLenLly proved
oLherwlseţ as well as Lhe facL LhaL he ls noL
bllndţ deaf or dumb and LhaL he ls able Lo
read and wrlLe Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of Lhe
CourLţ and LhaL he has none of Lhe
dlsquallflcaLlons under ArLlcle 821 of Lhe
Clvll CodeŦ We re[ecL peLlLlonerƌs
conLenLlon LhaL lL musL flrsL be esLabllshed
ln Lhe record Lhe good sLandlng of Lhe
wlLness ln Lhe communlLyţ hls repuLaLlon
for LrusLworLhlness and rellablenessţ hls
honesLy and uprlghLnessţ because such
aLLrlbuLes are presumed of Lhe wlLness
unless Lhe conLrary ls proved oLherwlse by
Lhe opposlng parLyŦ
We also re[ecL as wlLhouL merlL
peLlLlonerƌs conLenLlon LhaL Lhe Lerm
ƍcredlbleƍ as used ln Lhe Clvll Code should
be glven Lhe same meanlng lL has under
Lhe naLurallzaLlon Law where Lhe law ls
mandaLory LhaL Lhe peLlLlon for
naLurallzaLlon musL be supporLed by Lwo
characLer wlLnesses who musL prove Lhelr
good sLandlng ln Lhe communlLyţ
repuLaLlon for LrusLworLhlness and
rellablenessţ Lhelr honesLy and
uprlghLnessŦ 1he Lwo wlLnesses ln a
peLlLlon for naLurallzaLlon are characLer
wlLnesses ln LhaL belng clLlzens of Lhe
Þhlllpplnesţ Lhey personally know Lhe
peLlLloner Lo be a resldenL of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes for Lhe perlod of Llme requlred
by Lhe AcL and a person of good repuLe
and morally lrreproachable and LhaL sald
peLlLloner has ln Lhelr oplnlon all Lhe
quallflcaLlons necessary Lo become a
clLlzen of Lhe Þhlllpplnes and ls noL ln any
way dlsquallfled under Lhe provlslons of
Lhe naLurallzaLlon Law (SecLlon 7ţ
CommonwealLh AcL noŦ 473 as amended)Ŧ
ln probaLe proceedlngsţ Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses are noL characLer wlLnesses for
Lhey merely aLLesL Lhe execuLlon of a wlll
or LesLamenL and afflrm Lhe formallLles
aLLendanL Lo sald execuLlonŦ And We agree
wlLh Lhe respondenL LhaL Lhe rullngs lald
down ln Lhe cases clLed by peLlLloner
concernlng characLer wlLnesses ln
naLurallzaLlon proceedlngs are noL
appllcable Lo lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses Lo
wllls execuLed under Lhe Clvll Code of Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ
ln Lhe case aL barţ Lhe flndlng LhaL each
and everyone of Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal
wlLnessesţ namelyţ MaLllde Croblaţ Celso
Clmpaya and Marla Clmpayaţ are
compeLenL and credlble ls saLlsfacLorlly
supporLed by Lhe evldence as found by Lhe
respondenL CourL of Appealsţ whlch
flndlngs of facL Lhls 1rlbunal ls bound Lo
accepL and rely uponŦ Moreoverţ
peLlLloner has noL polnLed Lo any
dlsquallflcaLlon of any of Lhe sald
wlLnessesţ much less has lL been shown
LhaL anyone of Lhem ls below 18 years of
ageţ of unsound mlndţ deaf or dumbţ or
cannoL read or wrlLeŦ
lL ls Lrue LhaL under ArLlcle 803 of Lhe new
Clvll Codeţ every wlllţ oLher Lhan a
holographlc wlllţ musL be subscrlbed aL Lhe
end Lhereof by Lhe LesLaLor hlmself or by
Lhe LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen by some oLher
person ln hls presenceţ and by hls express
dlrecLlonţ and aLLesLed and subscrlbed by
Lhree or more cteJlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of one
anoLherţ Whlle Lhe peLlLloner submlLs LhaL
ArLlcle 820 and 821 of Lhe new Clvll Code
speak of Lhe competeocy of o wltoess due
Lo hls quallflcaLlons under Lhe flrsL ArLlcle
and none of Lhe dlsquallflcaLlons under Lhe
second ArLlcleţ whereas ArLlcle 803
requlres Lhe aLLesLaLlon of Lhree or more
credlble wlLnessesţ peLlLloner concludes
LhaL Lhe Lerm cteJlble requlres someLhlng
more Lhan [usL belng compeLenL andţ
Lhereforeţ a wlLness ln addlLlon Lo
belng competeot under ArLlcles 820 and
821 musL also be a credlble wlLness under
ArLlcle 803Ŧ
ÞeLlLloner clLes Amerlcan auLhorlLles LhaL
compeLency and credlblllLy of a wlLness
are noL synonymous Lerms and one may
be a compeLenL wlLness and yeL noL a
credlble oneŦ She exacerbaLes LhaL Lhere ls
no evldence on record Lo show LhaL Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses are credlble ln
Lhemselvesţ LhaL lsţ LhaL Lhey are of good
sLandlng ln Lhe communlLy slnce one was a
famlly drlver by professlon and Lhe second
Lhe wlfe of Lhe drlverţ a housekeeperŦ lL ls
Lrue LhaL Celso Clmpaya was Lhe drlver of
Lhe LesLaLrlx and hls wlfe Marla Clmpayaţ
merely a housekeeperţ and LhaL MaLllde
Crobla was a plano Leacher Lo a grandchlld
of Lhe LesLaLrlx 8uL Lhe relaLlon of
employer and employee much less Lhe
humble or flnanclal poslLlon of a person do
noL dlsquallfy hlm Lo be a compeLenL
LesLamenLary wlLnessŦ (Molo Þekson and
Þerez nable vsŦ 1anchucoţ eL alŦţ 100 ÞhllŦ
344Ť 1esLaLe LsLaLe of 8aymundoţ CffŦ
CazŦţ March 18ţ1941ţ pŦ 788)Ŧ
ÞrlvaLe respondenL malnLalns LhaL Lhe
quallflcaLlons of Lhe Lhree or more credlble
wlLnesses menLloned ln ArLlcle 803 of Lhe
Clvll Code are Lhose menLloned ln ArLlcle
820 of Lhe same Codeţ Lhls belng obvlous
from LhaL porLlon of ArLlcle 820 whlch says
ƍmay be C wlLness Lo Lhe execuLlon of a
wlll menLloned ln ArLlcle 803 of Lhls Codeţƍ
and clLes auLhorlLles LhaL Lhe word
ƍcredlbleƍ lnsofar as wlLnesses Lo a wlll are
concerned slmply means ƍ compeLenLŦƍ
Successlon 07072011
Þage S3 of 61

1husţ ln Lhe case of 5ootoy vsŦ 5ootoyţ 93
ÞhllŦ 300ţ Lhe Supreme CourL held LhaL
ƍCranLlng LhaL a wlll was duly execuLed
and LhaL lL was ln exlsLence aL Lhe Llme ofţ
and noL revoked beforeţ Lhe deaLh of Lhe
LesLaLorţ sLlll Lhe provlslons of Lhe losL wlg
musL be clearly and dlsLlncLly proved by aL
leasL Lwo credlble wlLnessesŦ ƌcteJlble
wltoessesƌ meoo competeot wltoesses ooJ
oot tbose wbo testlfy to focts ftom ot opoo
beotsoyŦ ƍ emphasls supplled)Ŧ
ln Molo leksoo ooJ letez Noble vsŦ
1oocbocoţ et olŦţ 100 ÞhllŦ 344ţ Lhe
Supreme CourL held LhaL ƍSecLlon 620 of
Lhe same Code of Clvll Þrocedure provldes
LhaL any person of sound mlndţ and of Lhe
age of elghLeen years or moreţ and noL
bllndţ deafţ or dumb and able Lo read and
wrlLeţ may be a wlLness Lo Lhe execuLlon
of a wlllŦ 1hls same provlslon ls reproduced
ln our new Clvll Code of 1930ţ under ArLŦ
820Ŧ 1he relaLlon of employer and
employeeţ or belng a relaLlve Lo Lhe
beneflclary ln a wlnţ does noL dlsquallfy
one Lo be a wlLness Lo a wlllŦ 1he maln
quallflcaLlon of a wlLness ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon
of wlllsţ lf oLher quallflcaLlons as Lo ageţ
menLal capaclLy and llLeracy are presenLţ ls
LhaL sald wlLness musL be credlbleţ LhaL ls
Lo sayţ hls LesLlmony may be enLlLled Lo
credenceŦ 1here ls a long llne of auLhorlLles
on Lhls polnLţ a few of whlch we may clLeť
A ƌcredlble wlLness ls one who ls
noL ls noL Lo LesLlfy by menLal
lncapaclLyţ crlmeţ or oLher causeŦ
PlsLorlcal Soc of uauphln CounLy
vsŦ kelker 74 AŦ 619ţ 226 Þlx 16ţ
134 AmŦ SLŦ 8epŦ 1010Ŧ (Words
and Þhrasesţ volŦ 10ţ pŦ 340)Ŧ
As consLrued by Lhe common
lawţ a ƌcredlble wlLnessƌ Lo a wlll
means a ƌcompeLenL wlLnessŦƌ
Appeal of Clarkţ 93 AŦ 317ţ 114
MeŦ 103ţ AnnŦ CasŦ 1917Aţ 837Ŧ
(lbldţ pŦ 341)Ŧ
Lxpresslon ƌcredlble wlLnessƌ ln
relaLlon Lo aLLesLaLlon of wlns
means ƌcompeLenL wlLness LhaL
lsţ one compeLenL under Lhe law
Lo LesLlfy Lo facL of execuLlon of
wlllŦ vernonƌs AnnŦ Clv SLŦ arLŦ
8283Ŧ Moos vsŦ ltst 5tote 8ook
of uvolJeţ 1ex Ŧ ClvŦ AppŦ 60 SŦWŦ
2nd 888ţ 889Ŧ (lblJţ pŦ 342)
1he Lerm ƌcredlbleƌţ used ln Lhe
sLaLuLe of wllls requlrlng LhaL a
wlll shall be aLLesLed by Lwo
credlble wlLnesses means
compeLenLŤ wlLnesses whoţ aL
Lhe Llme of aLLesLlng Lhe wlllţ are
legally compeLenL Lo LesLlfyţ ln a
courL of [usLlceţ Lo Lhe facLs
aLLesLed by subscrlblng Lhe wlllţ
Lhe compeLency belng
deLermlned as of Lhe daLe of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlll and noL of
Lhe Llmr lL ls offered for
probaLeţ 5mltb vsŦ CooJell 101
nŦLŦ 233ţ 236ţ 238 111Ŧ 143Ŧ
(lblJŦ)
Credlble wlLnesses as used ln Lhe
sLaLuLe relaLlng Lo wlllsţ means
compeLenL wlLnesses Ÿ LhaL lsţ
such persons as are noL legally
dlsquallfled from LesLlfylng ln
courLs of [usLlceţ by reason of
menLal lncapaclLyţ lnLeresLţ or
Lhe commlsslon of crlmesţ or
oLher cause excludlng Lhem from
LesLlfylng generallyţ or renderlng
Lhem lncompeLenL ln respecL of
Lhe parLlcular sub[ecL maLLer or
ln Lhe parLlcular sulLŦ Plll vsŦ
Chlcago 1lLle Ǝ 1rusL co 132 nŦLŦ
343ţ 346ţ 322 111Ŧ 42Ŧ (lblJŦ pţ
343)
ln Lhe sLrlcL senseţ Lhe compeLency of a
person Lo be an lnsLrumenLal wlLness Lo a
wlll ls deLermlned by Lhe sLaLuLeţ LhaL ls
ArLŦ 820 and 821ţ Clvll Codeţ whereas hls
credlblllLy depends Cn Lhe appreclaLlon of
hls LesLlmony and arlses from Lhe bellef
and concluslon of Lhe CourL LhaL sald
wlLness ls Lelllng Lhe LruLhŦ 1husţ ln Lhe
case of vJoŦ Je toyo vŦ l 8eotetlo Jel
5ootlsslmo kosotlo Je Moloţ noŦ LŴ22003ţ
May 3ţ 1968ţ Lhe Supreme CourL held and
ruled LhaLť ƍCompeLency as a wlLness ls
one Lhlngţ and lL ls anoLher Lo be a credlble
wlLnessţ so credlble LhaL Lhe CourL musL
accepL whaL he saysŦ 1rlal courLs may
allow a person Lo LesLlfy as a wlLness upon
a glven maLLer because he ls compeLenLţ
buL may LhereafLer declde wheLher Lo
belleve or noL Lo belleve hls LesLlmonyŦƍ ln
flneţ We sLaLe Lhe rule LhaL Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses ln Crder Lo be
compeLenL musL be shown Lo have Lhe
quallflcaLlons under ArLlcle 820 of Lhe Clvll
Code and none of Lhe dlsquallflcaLlons
under ArLlcle 821 and for Lhelr LesLlmony
Lo be credlbleţ LhaL ls worLhy of bellef and
enLlLled Lo credenceţ lL ls noL mandaLory
LhaL evldence be flrsL esLabllshed on
record LhaL Lhe wlLnesses have a good
sLandlng ln Lhe communlLy or LhaL Lhey are
honesL and uprlghL or repuLed Lo be
LrusLworLhy and rellableţ for a person ls
presumed Lo be such unless Lhe conLrary ls
esLabllshed oLherwlseŦ ln oLher wordsţ Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses musL be
compeLenL and Lhelr LesLlmonles musL be
credlble before Lhe courL allows Lhe
probaLe of Lhe wlll Lhey have aLLesLedŦ Weţ
Lhereforeţ re[ecL peLlLlonerƌs poslLlon LhaL
lL was faLal for respondenL noL Lo have
lnLroduced prlor and lndependenL proof of
Lhe facL LhaL Lhe wlLnesses were ƍcredlble
wlLnesses LhaL lsţ LhaL Lhey have a good
sLandlng ln Lhe communlLy and repuLed Lo
be LrusLworLhy and rellableŦ
under Lhe secondţ Lhlrdţ fourLhţ flfLhţ slxLhţ
sevenLh and elghLh asslgnmenLs of errorsţ
peLlLloner dlspuLes Lhe flndlngs of facL of
Lhe respondenL courL ln flndlng LhaL Lhe
preparaLlon and execuLlon of Lhe wlll was
expecLed and noL colncldenLalţ ln flndlng
LhaL ALLyŦ Þaralso was noL prevlously
furnlshed wlLh Lhe names and resldence
cerLlflcaLes of Lhe wlLnesses as Lo enable
hlm Lo Lype such daLa lnLo Lhe documenL
LxhlblL ƍlƍţ ln holdlng LhaL Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
Lhree LypewrlLLen llnes under Lhe
LypewrlLLen words ƍpangalanƍ and
ƍLlnlLlrahanƍ were lefL blank shows beyond
cavll LhaL Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnesses
were all presenL ln Lhe same occaslonţ ln
holdlng credlble LhaL lsabel Cabrlel could
have dlcLaLed Lhe wlll wlLhouL noLe or
documenL Lo ALLyŦ Þaralsoţ ln holdlng LhaL
MaLllde Crobla was physlcally presenL
when Lhe wlll was slgned on Aprll 13ţ 1961
by Lhe deceased lsabel Cabrlel and Lhe
oLher wlLnesses Celso Clmpaya and Marla
Clmpayaţ ln holdlng LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL
gave undue lmporLance Lo Lhe plcLure
Laklngs as proof LhaL Lhe wlll was
lmproperly execuLedţ and ln holdlng LhaL
Lhe grave conLradlcLlonsţ evaslons and
mlsrepresenLaLlons of Lhe wlLnesses
(subscrlblng and noLary) presenLed by Lhe
peLlLloner had been explalned awayŦ
Successlon 07072011
Þage S of 61

Slnce Lhe above errors are facLual We
musL repeaL whaL We have prevlously lald
down LhaL Lhe flndlngs of facL of Lhe
appellaLe courL are blndlng and conLrolllng
whlch We cannoL revlewţ sub[ecL Lo
cerLaln excepLlons whlch We wln conslder
and dlscuss herelnafLerŦ We are convlnced
LhaL Lhe appellaLe courLƌs flndlngs are
sufflclenLly [usLlfled and supporLed by Lhe
evldence on recordŦ 1husţ Lhe alleged
unnaLuralness characLerlzlng Lhe Lrlp of
Lhe LesLaLrlx Lo Lhe offlce of ALLyŦ Þaralso
and brlnglng all Lhe wlLnesses wlLhouL
prevlous appolnLmenL for Lhe preparaLlon
and execuLlon of Lhe wln and LhaL lL was
colncldenLal LhaL ALLyŦ Þaralso was
avallable aL Lhe momenL lmpugns Lhe
flndlng of Lhe CourL of Appeals LhaL
alLhough ALLyŦ Þaralso admlLLed Lhe vlslL of
lsabel Cabrlel and of her companlons Lo
hls offlce on Aprll 13ţ 1961 was
unexpecLed as Lhere was no prlor
appolnLmenL wlLh hlmţ buL he explalned
LhaL he was avallable for any buslness
LransacLlon on LhaL day and LhaL lsabel
Cabrlel had earller requesLed hlm Lo help
her prepare her wlllŦ 1he flndlng of Lhe
appellaLe courL ls amply based on Lhe
LesLlmony of Celso Clmpaya LhaL he was
noL only lnformed on Lhe mornlng of Lhe
day LhaL he wlLnessed Lhe wlll buL LhaL lL
was Lhe Lhlrd Llme when lsabel Cabrlel
Lold hlm LhaL he was golng Lo wlLness Lhe
maklng of her wlllţ as well as Lhe LesLlmony
of Marla Clmpaya LhaL she was called by
her husband Celso Clmpaya Lo proceed Lo
lsabel Cabrlelƌs house whlch was nearby
and from sald houseţ Lhey lefL ln a car Lo
Lhe lawyerƌs offlceţ whlch LesLlmonles are
reclLed ln Lhe respondenL CourLƌs declslonŦ
1he respondenL CourL furLher found Lhe
followlng facLsť LhaL Celso Clmpaya and hls
wlfe Marla Clmpaya obLalned resldence
cerLlflcaLes a few days before LxhlblL ƍlƍ
was execuLedŦ Celso Clmpayaƌs resldence
cerLlflcaLe noŦ AŴ3114942 was lssued aL
navoLasţ 8lzal on Aprll 13ţ 1961 whlle
Marla Clmpayaƌs resldence cerLlflcaLe noŦ
AŴ3114974 was lssued also aL navoLasţ
8lzal on Aprll 14ţ 1961Ŧ 1he respondenL
CourL correcLly observed LhaL Lhere was
noLhlng surprlslng ln Lhese facLs and LhaL
Lhe securlng of Lhese resldence cerLlflcaLes
Lwo days and one dayţ respecLlvelyţ before
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlll on Aprll 13ţ 1961ţ
far from showlng an amazlng colncldenceţ
reveals LhaL Lhe spouses were earller
noLlfled LhaL Lhey would be wlLnesses Lo
Lhe execuLlon of lsabel Cabrlelƌs wlllŦ
We also agree wlLh Lhe respondenL CourLƌs
concluslon LhaL Lhe excurslon Lo Lhe offlce
of ALLyŦ Þaralso was planned by Lhe
deceasedţ whlch concluslon was correcLly
drawn from Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe Clmpaya
spouses LhaL Lhey sLarLed from Lhe
navoLas resldence of Lhe deceased wlLh a
phoLographer and lsabel Cabrlel herselfţ
Lhen Lhey proceeded by car Lo MaLllde
Croblaƌs house ln Þhllamllfeţ Cuezon ClLy
Lo feLch her and from Lhereţ all Lhe Lhree
wlLnesses (Lhe Clmpayas and Crobla)
passed by a place where lsabel Cabrlel
sLayed for abouL Len Lo flfLeen mlnuLes aL
Lhe cllnlc of urŦ Chlklamco before Lhey
proceeded Lo ALLyŦ Clprlano Þaralsoƌs
offlceŦ
lL ls also evldenL from Lhe recordsţ as
LesLlfled Lo by ALLyŦ Þaralsoţ LhaL prevlous
Lo Lhe day LhaLŦ Lhe wlll was execuLed on
Aprll 13ţ 1961ţ lsabel Cabrlel had
requesLed hlm Lo help her ln Lhe execuLlon
of her wlll and LhaL he Lold her LhaL lf she
really wanLed Lo execuLe her wlllţ she
should brlng wlLh her aL leasL Lhe Mayor of
navoLasţ 8lzal and a Councllor Lo be her
wlLnesses and LhaL he (ALLyŦ Þaralso)
wanLed a medlcal cerLlflcaLe from a
physlclan noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL LhaL he
belleved her Lo be of sound and
dlsposlLlon mlndŦ lrom Lhls evldenceţ Lhe
appellaLe courL rlghLly concludedţ Lhusť ƍlL
lsţ Lhereforeţ clear LhaL Lhe presence of
lsabel Cabrlel and her wlLnesses MaLllde
Croblaţ Celso Clmpaya and Marla Clmpaya
lncludlng Lhe phoLographer ln Lhe law
offlce of ALLyŦ Þaralso was noL colncldenLal
as Lhelr gaLherlng was preŴarranged by
lsabel Cabrlel herselfŦƍ
As Lo Lhe appellaLe courLƌs flndlng LhaL
ALLyŦ Þaralso was noL prevlously furnlshed
wlLh Lhe names and resldence cerLlflcaLes
of Lhe wlLnesses as Lo enable hlm Lo Lype
such daLa lnLo Lhe documenL LxhlblL ƌ L
whlch Lhe peLlLloner assalls as
conLradlcLory and lrreconcllable wlLh Lhe
sLaLemenL of Lhe CourL LhaL ALLyŦ Þaralso
was handed a llsL (conLalnlng Lhe names of
Lhe wlLnesses and Lhelr respecLlve
resldence cerLlflcaLes) lmmedlaLely upon
Lhelr arrlval ln Lhe law offlce by lsabel
Cabrlel and Lhls was corroboraLed by ALLyŦ
Þaralso hlmself who LesLlfled LhaL lL was
only on sald occaslon LhaL he recelved
such llsL from lsabel Cabrlelţ We cannoL
agree wlLh peLlLlonerƌs conLenLlonŦ We
flnd no conLradlcLlon for Lheţ respondenL
CourL held LhaL on Lhe occaslon of Lhe wlll
maklng on Aprll 13ţ 1961ţ Lhe llsL was
glven lmmedlaLely Lo ALLyŦ Þaralso and
LhaL no such llsL was glven Lhe lawyer ln
any prevlous occaslon or daLe prlor Lo Aprll
13ţ 1961Ŧ
8uL wheLher ALLyŦ Þaralso was prevlously
furnlshed wlLh Lhe names and resldence
cerLlflcaLes of Lhe wlLnesses on a prlor
occaslon or on Lhe very occaslon and daLe
ln Aprll 13ţ 1961 when Lhe wlll was
execuLedţ ls of no momenL for such daLa
appear ln Lhe noLarlal acknowledgmenL of
noLary Þubllc Clprlano Þaralsoţ subscrlbed
and sworn Lo by Lhe wlLnesses on Aprll 13ţ
1961 followlng Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause duly
execuLed and slgned on Lhe same
occaslonţ Aprll 13ţ 1961Ŧ And slnce LxhlblL
ƍlƍ ls a noLarlal wlll duly acknowledged by
Lhe LesLaLrlx and Lhe wlLnesses before a
noLary publlcţ Lhe same ls a publlc
documenL execuLed and aLLesLed Lhrough
Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe noLary publlc and
as such publlc documenL ls evldence of Lhe
facLs ln clearţ unequlvocal manner Lhereln
expressedŦ lL has ln lLs favor Lhe
presumpLlon of regularlLyŦ 1o conLradlcL all
Lheseţ Lhere musL be evldence LhaL ls clearţ
convlnclng and more Lhan merely
preponderanLŦ (?Luralde vsŦ Azurlnţ 28
SC8A 407)Ŧ We flnd no such evldence
polnLed by peLlLloner ln Lhe case aL barŦ
Llkewlseţ Lhe concluslon of Lhe CourL of
Appeals ln holdlng LhaL Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
Lhree LypewrlLLen llnes under Lhe
LypewrlLLen words ƍpangalan ƌ and
ƍLlnlLlrahanƍ were lefL blank shows beyond
cavll LhaL Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnesses
were all presenL ln Lhe same occaslon
merlLs Cur approval because Lllls
concluslon ls supporLed and borne ouL by
Lhe evldence found by Lhe appellaLe courLţ
Lhusť ƍCn page 3 of LxhlblL ƍlƍţ beneaLh
Lhe LypewrlLLen words ƍnamesƍţ ƍ8esŦ 1ax
CerLŦ daLe lssuedƍ and place lssued Lhe
only name of lsabel Cabrlel wlLh 8esldence
1ax cerLlflcaLe noŦ AŴ3113274 lssued on
lebruary 24ţ 1961 aL navoLas 8lzal appears
Lo be ln LypewrlLLen form whlle Lhe namesţ
resldence Lax cerLlflcaLe numbersţ daLes
Successlon 07072011
Þage SS of 61

and places of lssuance of sald cerLlflcaLes
perLalnlng Lo Lhe Lhree (3) wlLnesses were
personally handwrlLLen by ALLyŦ ÞaralsoŦ
Agalnţ Lhls colncldes wlLh ALLyŦ Þaralsoƌs
even Lhe sale musL be made Lo close
relaLlvesŤ and Lhe sevenLh was Lhe
appolnLmenL of Lhe appellanL SanLlago as
execuLrlx of Lhe wlll wlLhouL bondŦ 1he
Lechnlcal descrlpLlon of Lhe properLles ln
paragraph 3 of LxhlblL l was noL glven and
Lhe numbers of Lhe cerLlflcaLes of LlLle
were only supplled by ALLyŦ ÞaralsoŦ ƍ
lL ls Lrue LhaL ln one dlsposlLlonţ Lhe
numbers of Lhe 1orrens LlLles of Lhe
properLles dlsposed and Lhe dockeL
number of a speclal proceedlng are
lndlcaLed whlch ALLyŦ Þaralso candldly
admlLLed were supplled by hlmţ
whereupon peLlLloner conLends LhaL lL was
lncredlble LhaL lsabel Cabrlel could have
dlcLaLed Lhe wlll LxhlblL ƍlƍ wlLhouL any
noLe or documenL Lo ALLyŦ Þaralsoţ
conslderlng LhaL lsabel Cabrlel was an old
and slckly woman more Lhan elghLyŴone
years old and had been sufferlng from a
braln ln[ury caused by Lwo severe blows aL
her head and dled of Lermlnal cancer a few
weeks afLer Lhe execuLlon of LxhlblL ƍlƍŦ
Whlle we can rule LhaL Lhls ls a flndlng of
facL whlch ls wlLhln Lhe compeLency of Lhe
respondenL appellaLe courL ln deLermlnlng
Lhe LesLamenLary capaclLy of Lhe LesLaLrlx
and lsţ Lhereforeţ beyond Cur power Lo
revlse and revlewţ We neverLheless hold
LhaL Lhe concluslon reached by Lhe CourL
of Appeals LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx dlcLaLed her
wlll wlLhouL any noLe or memorandum
appears Lo be fully supporLed by Lhe
followlng facLs or evldence appearlng on
recordŦ 1husţ lsabel Cabrlelţ desplLe her
ageţ was parLlcularly acLlve ln her buslness
affalrs as she acLlvely managed Lhe affalrs
of Lhe movle buslness lSA8LLl1A 1heaLerţ
paylng Lhe aparaLlsLas herself unLll !une 4ţ
1961ţ 3 days before her deaLhŦ She was
Lhe wldow of Lhe laLe Lllglo navalţ former
Covernor of 8lzal Þrovlnce and acLed as
coadmlnlsLraLrlx ln Lhe lnLesLaLe LsLaLe of
her deceased husband Lllglo navalŦ 1he
LexL of Lhe wln was ln 1agalogţ a dlalecL
known and undersLood by her and ln Lhe
llghL of all Lhe clrcumsLancesţ We agree
wlLh Lhe respondenL CourL LhaL Lhe
LesLaLrlx dlcLaLed her wlll wlLhouL any noLe
or memorandumţ a facL unanlmously
LesLlfled Lo by Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng
wlLnesses and Lhe noLary publlc hlmselfŦ
ÞeLlLlonerƌs slxLh asslgnmenL of error ls
also berefL of merlLŦ 1he evldenceţ boLh
LesLlmonlal and documenLary lsţ accordlng
Lo Lhe respondenL courLţ overwhelmlng
LhaL MaLllde Crobla was physlcally presenL
when Lhe wlll was slgned on Aprll 13ţ 1961
by Lhe LesLaLrlx and Lhe oLher Lwo
wlLnessesţ Celso Clmpaya and Marla
ClmpayaŦ Such facLual flndlng of Lhe
appellaLe courL ls very clearţ Lhusť ƍCn Lhe
conLraryţ Lhe record ls repleLe wlLh proof
LhaL MaLllde Crobla was physlcally presenL
when Lhe wlll was slgned by lsabel Cabrlel
on Aprll ƌ13ţ 1961 along wlLh her coŴ
wlLnesses Celso Clmpaya and Marla
ClmpayaŦ 1he Lrlal courLƌs concluslon LhaL
Croblaƌs admlsslon LhaL she gave plano
lessons Lo Lhe chlld of Lhe appellanL on
Wednesdays and SaLurdays and LhaL Aprll
13ţ 1961 happened Lo be a SaLurday for
whlch reason Crobla could noL have been
presenL Lo wlLness Lhe wlll on LhaL Ÿ day
ls purely con[ecLuralŦ WlLness Crobla dld
noL admlL havlng glven plano lessons Lo
Lhe appellanLƌs chlld every Wednesday and
SaLurday wlLhouL fallŦ lL ls hlghly probable
LhaL even lf Aprll 13ţ 1961 were a
SaLurdayţ she gave no plano lessons on
LhaL day for whlch reason she could have
wlLnessed Lhe execuLlon of Lhe wlllŦ Crobla
spoke of occaslons when she mlssed glvlng
plano lessons and had Lo make up for Lhe
sameŦ Anywayţ her presence aL Lhe law
offlce of ALLyŦ Þaralso was ln Lhe mornlng
of Aprll 13ţ 1961 and Lhere was noLhlng Lo
preclude her from glvlng plano lessons on
Lhe afLernoon of Lhe same day ln navoLasţ
8lzalŦƍ
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe LesLlmony of MaLllde
Croblaţ Celso Clmpaya and Marla Clmpaya
LhaL MaLllde was presenL on Aprll 13ţ 1961
and LhaL she slgned Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
Lo Lhe wlll and on Lhe lefLŴhand margln of
each of Lhe pages of Lhe wlllţ Lhe
documenLary evldence whlch ls Lhe wlll
lLselfţ Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause and Lhe
noLarlal acknowledgmenL overwhelmlngly
and convlnclngly prove such facL LhaL
MaLllde Crobla was presenL on LhaL day of
Aprll 13ţ 1961 and LhaL she wlLnessed Lhe
wlll by slgnlng her name Lhereon and
acknowledged Lhe same before Lhe noLary
publlcţ ALLyŦ Clprlano ÞŦ ÞaralsoŦ 1he
aLLesLaLlon clause whlch MaLllde Crobla
slgned ls Lhe besL evldence as Lo Lhe daLe
of slgnlng because lL preserves ln
permanenL form a reclLal of all Lhe
maLerlal facLs aLLendlng Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe wlllŦ 1hls ls Lhe very purpose of Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause whlch ls made for Lhe
purpose of preservlng ln permanenL form
a record of Lhe facLs aLLendlng Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ so LhaL ln case of
fallure ln Lhe memory of Lhe subscrlblng
wlLnessesţ or oLher casualLy Lhey may sLlll
be provedŦ (1hompson on Wlllsţ 2nd edŦţ
SecŦ 132Ť Leynez vsŦ Leynezţ 68 ÞhllŦ 743)Ŧ
As Lo Lhe sevenLh error asslgned by
peLlLloner faulLlng Lhe CourL of Appeals ln
holdlng LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL gave undue
lmporLance Lo Lhe plcLureŴLaklngs as proof
LhaL Lhe wln was lmproperly execuLedţ We
agree wlLh Lhe reasonlng of Lhe
respondenL courL LhaLť ƍMaLllde Croblaƌs
ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe phoLographer as
ƍCesar Mendozaƍţ conLrary Lo whaL Lhe
oLher Lwo wlLnesses (Celso and Marla
Clmpaya) and ALLyŦ Þaralso sald LhaL Lhe
phoLographer was 8en[amln Clfraţ !rŦţ ls aL
worsL a mlnor mlsLake aLLrlbuLable Lo
lapse of LlmeŦ 1he law does noL requlre a
phoLographer for Lhe execuLlon and
aLLesLaLlon of Lhe wlllŦ 1he facL LhaL Mlss
Crobla mlsLakenly ldenLlfled Lhe
phoLographer as Cesar Mendoza scarcely
deLracLs from her LesLlmony LhaL she was
presenL when Lhe wlll was slgned because
whaL maLLers here ls noL Lhe phoLographer
buL Lhe phoLograph Laken whlch clearly
porLrays MaLllde Crobla herselfţ her coŴ
wlLnesses Celso ClmpayaŦ ƍ lurLherţ Lhe
respondenL CourL correcLly heldť ƍ1he Lrlal
courL gave undue lmporLance Lo Lhe
plcLure Laklngsţ [umplng Lherefrom Lo Lhe
concluslon LhaL Lhe wlll was lmproperly
execuLedŦ 1he evldence howeverţ heavlly
polnLs Lo only one occaslon of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe wlll on Aprll 13ţ 1961
whlch was wlLnessed by MaLllde Croblaţ
Celso Clmpaya and Marla ClmpayaŦ 1hese
wlLnesses were qulLe emphaLlc and
poslLlve when Lhey spoke of Lhls occaslonŦ
Penceţ Lhelr ldenLlflcaLlon of some
phoLographs whereln Lhey all appeared
along wlLh lsabel Cabrlel and ALLyŦ Þaralso
was superfluousŦƍ
ConLlnulngţ Lhe respondenL CourL
declaredť ƍlL ls Lrue LhaL Lhe second
plcLureŴLaklng was dlsclosed aL Lhe cross
Successlon 07072011
Þage S6 of 61

examlnaLlon of Celso ClmpayaŦ 8uL Lhls
was explalned by ALLyŦ Þaralso as a
reenacLmenL of Lhe flrsL lncldenL upon Lhe
lnslsLence of lsabel CabrlelŦ Such
reenacLmenL where MaLllde Crobla was
admlLLedly no longer presenL was wholly
unnecessary lf noL polnLlessŦ WhaL was
lmporLanL was LhaL Lhe wlll was duly
execuLed and wlLnessed on Lhe flrsL
occaslon on Aprll 13ţ 1961 ţ ƍ and We
agree wlLh Lhe CourLƌs raLlonallzaLlon ln
conformlLy wlLh loglcţ law and
[urlsprudence whlch do noL requlre
plcLureŴLaklng as one of Lhe legal requlslLes
for Lhe execuLlon or probaLe of a wlllŦ
ÞeLlLloner polnLs Lo alleged grave
conLradlcLlonsţ evaslons and
mlsrepresenLaLlons of wlLnesses ln Lhelr
respecLlve LesLlmonles before Lhe Lrlal
courLŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ Lhe respondenL
CourL of Appeals held LhaL sald
conLradlcLlonsţ evaslons and
mlsrepresenLaLlons had been explalned
awayŦ Such dlscrepancles as ln Lhe
descrlpLlon of Lhe LypewrlLer used by ALLyŦ
Þaralso whlch he descrlbed as ƍellLeƍ
whlch Lo hlm meanL blg leLLers whlch are
of Lhe Lype ln whlch Lhe wlll was
LypewrlLLen buL whlch was ldenLlfled by
wlLness !olly 8ugarln of Lhe nŦ8ŦlŦ as plca
Lhe mlsLake ln menLlonlng Lhe name of Lhe
phoLographer by MaLllde Crobla Lo be
Cesar Mendoza when acLually lL was
8en[amln Clfraţ !rŦŸ Lhese are lndeed
unlmporLanL deLalls whlch could have
been affecLed by Lhe lapse of Llme and Lhe
Lreachery of human memory such LhaL by
Lhemselves would noL alLer Lhe probaLlve
value of Lhelr LesLlmonles on Lhe Lrue
execuLlon of Lhe wlllţ (Þascual vsŦ dela
Cruzţ 28 SC8A 421ţ 424) for lL cannoL be
expecLed LhaL Lhe LesLlmony of every
person wln be ldenLlcal and colncldlng
wlLh each oLher wlLh regard Lo deLalls of
an lncldenL and LhaL wlLnesses are noL
expecLed Lo remember all deLallsŦ Puman
experlence Leach us ƍLhaL conLradlcLlons of
wlLnesses generally occur ln Lhe deLalls of
cerLaln lncldenLsţ afLer a long serles of
quesLlonlngsţ and far from belng an
evldence of falsehood consLlLuLe a
demonsLraLlon of good falLhŦ ln as much as
noL all Lhose who wlLness an lncldenL are
lmpressed ln llke mannerţ lL ls buL naLural
LhaL ln relaLlng Lhelr lmpresslonsţ Lhey
should noL agree ln Lhe mlnor deLallsŤ
hence Lhe conLradlcLlons ln Lhelr
LesLlmonyŦƍ (Lopez vsŦ Llboroţ 81 ÞhllŦ 429)Ŧ
lL ls urged of us by Lhe peLlLloner LhaL Lhe
flndlngs of Lhe Lrlal courL should noL have
been dlsLurbed by Lhe respondenL
appellaLe courL because Lhe Lrlal courL was
ln a beLLer poslLlon Lo welgh and evaluaLe
Lhe evldence presenLed ln Lhe course of
Lhe LrlalŦ As a general ruleţ peLlLloner ls
correcL buL lL ls sub[ecL Lo wellŴesLabllshed
excepLlonsŦ 1he rlghL of Lhe CourL of
Appeals Lo revlewţ alLer and reverse Lhe
flndlngs of Lhe Lrlal courL where Lhe
appellaLe courLţ ln revlewlng Lhe evldence
has found LhaL facLs and clrcumsLances of
welghL and lnfluence have been lgnored
and overlooked and Lhe slgnlflcance of
whlch have been mlslnLerpreLed by Lhe
Lrlal courLţ cannoL be dlspuLedŦ llndlngs of
facLs made by Lrlal courLs parLlcularly
when Lhey are based on confllcLlng
evldence whose evaluaLlon hlnges on
quesLlons of credlblllLy of conLendlng
wlLnesses hes pecullarly wlLhln Lhe
provlnce of Lrlal courLs and generallyţ Lhe
appellaLe courL should noL lnLerfere wlLh
Lhe sameŦ ln Lhe lnsLanL caseţ howeverţ Lhe
CourL of Appeals found LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL
had overlooked and mlslnLerpreLed Lhe
facLs and clrcumsLances esLabllshed ln Lhe
recordŦ Whereas Lhe appellaLe courL sald
LhaL ƍnoLhlng ln Lhe record supporLs Lhe
Lrlal courLƌs unbellef LhaL lsabel Cabrlel
dlcLaLed her wlll wlLhouL any noLe or
documenL Lo ALLyŦ ÞaralsoŤƍ LhaL Lhe Lrlal
courLƌs concluslon LhaL MaLllde Crobla
could noL have wlLnessed anybody slgnlng
Lhe alleged wlll or LhaL she could noL have
wlLnessed Celso Clmpaya and Marla
Clmpaya slgn Lhe same or LhaL she
wlLnessed only Lhe deceased slgnlng lLţ ls a
concluslon based noL on facLs buL on
lnferencesŤ LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL gave undue
lmporLance Lo Lhe plcLureŴLaklngsţ [umplng
Lherefrom Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL Lhe wlll
was lmproperly execuLed and LhaL Lhere ls
noLhlng ln Lhe enLlre record Lo supporL Lhe
concluslon of Lhe courL a quo LhaL Lhe wlll
slgnlng occaslon was a mere colncldence
and LhaL lsabel Cabrlel made an
appolnLmenL only wlLh MaLllde Crobla Lo
wlLness Lhe slgnlng of her wlllţ Lhen lL
becomes Lhe duLy of Lhe appellaLe courL Lo
reverse flndlngs of facL of Lhe Lrlal courL ln
Lhe exerclse of lLs appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon
over Lhe lower courLsŦ
SLlll Lhe peLlLloner lnslsLs LhaL Lhe case aL
bar ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL Lhe
[udgmenL of Lhe CourL of Appeals ls
concluslve as Lo Lhe facLs and cannoL be
revlewed by Lhe Supreme CourLŦ Agaln We
agree wlLh Lhe peLlLloner LhaL among Lhe
excepLlons areť (1) when Lhe concluslon ls
a flndlng grounded enLlrely on
speculaLlonsţ surmlses or con[ecLuresŤ (2)
when Lhe lnference ls manlfesLly mlsLakenţ
absurd or lmposslbleŤ (3) when Lhere ls a
grave abuse of dlscreLlonŤ (4) when Lhe
presence of each oLher as requlred by lawŦ
ƍ Speclflcallyţ We afflrm LhaL on Aprll 13ţ
1961 Lhe LesLaLrlx lsabel Cabrlelţ LogeLher
wlLh MaLllde Croblaţ Celso Clmpaya and
hls wlfe Marla Clmpayaţ and a
phoLographer proceeded ln a car Lo Lhe
offlce of ALLyŦ Clprlano Þaralso aL Lhe 8ank
of ÞŦlŦ 8ulldlngţ Manlla ln Lhe mornlng of
LhaL dayŤ LhaL on Lhe wayţ lsabel Cabrlel
obLalned a medlcal cerLlflcaLe from one urŦ
Chlklamko whlch she gave Lo ALLyŦ Þaralso
upon arrlvlng aL Lhe laLLerƌs offlce and Lold
Lhe lawyer LhaL she wanLed her wlll Lo be
madeŤ LhaL ALLyŦ Þaralso asked lsabel
Cabrlel Lo dlcLaLe whaL she wanLed Lo be
wrlLLen ln Lhe wlll and Lhe aLLorney wroLe
down Lhe dlcLaLlon of lsabel Cabrlel ln
1agalogţ a language known Lo and spoken
by herŤ LhaL ALLyŦ Þaralso read back Lo her
whaL he wroLe as dlcLaLed and she
afflrmed Lhelr correcLnessŤ Lhe lawyer Lhen
Lyped Lhe wlll and afLer flnlshlng Lhe
documenLţ he read lL Lo her and she Lold
hlm LhaL lL was alrlghLŤ LhaL LhereafLerţ
lsabel Cabrlel slgned her name aL Lhe end
of Lhe wlll ln Lhe presence of Lhe Lhree
wlLnesses MaLllde Croblaţ Celso Clmpaya
and Marla Clmpaya and also aL Lhe lefLŴ
hand margln of each and every page of Lhe
documenL ln Lhe presence also of Lhe sald
Lhree wlLnessesŤ LhaL LhereafLer MaLllde
Crobla aLLesLed Lhe wlll by slgnlng her
name aL Lhe end of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
and aL Lhe lefLŴhand margln of pages 1ţ 2ţ 3
and 3 of Lhe documenL ln Lhe presence of
lsabel Cabrlel and Lhe oLher Lwo
wlLnessesţ Celso Clmpaya and Marla
ClmpayaŤ Lhenţ Celso Clmpaya slgned also
Lhe wlll aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause and aL Lhe lefLŴhand margln of Lhe
oLher pages of Lhe documenL ln Lhe
presence of lsabel Cabrlelţ MaLllde Crobla
and Marla ClmpayaŤ LhaL Marla Clmpaya
followed sulLţ slgnlng her name aL Lhe fooL
of Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause and aL Lhe lefLŴ
Successlon 07072011
Þage S of 61

hand margln of every page ln Lhe presence
of lsabel Cabrlelţ MaLllde Crobla and Celso
ClmpayaŤ LhaL LhereafLerţ ALLyŦ Þaralso
noLarlzed Lhe wlll as Þage noŦ 94ţ 8ook noŦ
lvţ Serles of 1961ţ ln hls noLarlal 8eglsLerŦ
Cn Lhe occaslon of Lhe execuLlon and
aLLesLaLlon of Lhe wlllţ a phoLographer
Look plcLuresţ one LxhlblL ƍCƍţ deplcLlng
MaLllde Croblaţ Lhe LesLaLrlx lsabel
Cabrlelţ Celso Clmpayaţ Marla Clmpaya
and ALLyŦ Þaralsoţ Laken on sald occaslon
of Lhe slgnlng of Lhe wlllţ and anoLherţ
LxhlblL ƍPƍţ showlng MaLllde Crobla
slgnlng LesLlmony LhaL he had earller
advlsed lsabel Cabrlel Lo brlng wlLh her aL
leasL Lhe Mayor and a Councllor of
navoLasţ 8lzal Lo be her wlLnesses for he
dld noL know beforehand Lhe ldenLlLles of
Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnesses unLll Lhe
laLLer showed up aL hls law offlce wlLh
lsabel Cabrlel on Aprll 13ţ 1961Ŧ ALLyŦ
Þaralsoƌs clalm whlch was noL
conLroverLed LhaL he wroLe down ln hls
own hand Lhe daLe appearlng on page 3 of
LxhlblL ƍlƍ dlsslpaLes any llngerlng doubL
LhaL he prepared and raLlfled Lhe wlll on
Lhe daLe ln quesLlonŦƍ
lL ls also a facLual flndlng of Lhe CourL of
Appeals ln holdlng LhaL lL was credlble LhaL
lsabel Cabrlel could have dlcLaLed Lhe wlllţ
LxhlblL ƍlƍţ wlLhouL any noLe or documenL
Lo ALLyŦ Þaralso as agalnsL Lhe conLenLlon
of peLlLloner LhaL lL was lncredlbleŦ 1hls
rullng of Lhe respondenL courL ls fully
supporLed by Lhe evldence on record as
sLaLed ln Lhe declslon under revlewţ Lhusť
ƍnoLhlng ln Lhe record supporLs Lhe Lrlal
courLƌs unbellef LhaL lsabel Cabrlel
dlcLaLed her wlll wlLhouL any noLe or
documenL Lo ALLyŦ ÞaralsoŦ Cn Lhe
conLraryţ all Lhe Lhree aLLesLlng wlLnesses
unlformly LesLlfled LhaL lsabel Cabrlel
dlcLaLed her wlll Lo ALLyŦ Þaralso and LhaL
oLher Lhan Lhe plece of paper LhaL she
handed Lo sald lawyer she had no noLe or
documenLŦ 1hls facL [lbes wlLh Lhe
evldence Ÿ whlch Lhe Lrlal courL lLself
belleved was unshaken Ÿ LhaL lsabel
Cabrlel was of sound dlsposlng memory
when she execuLed her wlllŦ
LxhlblL ƍlƍ reveals only seven (7)
dlsposlLlons whlch are noL compllcaLed buL
qulLe slmpleŦ 1he flrsL was lsabel Cabrlelƌs
wlsh Lo be lnLerred accordlng Lo CaLhollc
rlLes Lhe second was a general dlrecLlve Lo
pay her debLs lf anyŤ Lhe Lhlrd provlded for
Þ1ţ000Ŧ00 for her slsLer Þraxldes Cabrlel
vdaŦ de SanLlago and Þ2ţ000Ŧ00 for her
broLher SanLlago CabrlelŤ Lhe fourLh was a
llsLlng of her 13 nephews and nleces
lncludlng opposlLorŴappellee 8lzallna
Cabrlel and Lhe amounL for each legaLee
Lhe flfLh was Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe
peLlLlonerŴappellanLţ LuLgarda SanLlago as
Lhe prlnclpal helr menLlonlng ln general
Lerms seven (7) Lypes of properLlesŤ Lhe
slxLh dlsposed of Lhe remalnder of her
esLaLe whlch she wllled ln favor of
appellanL LuLgarda SanLlago buL
prohlblLlng Lhe sale of such properLles Lo
anyone excepL ln exLreme slLuaLlons ln
whlch [udgmenL ls based on a
mlsapprehenslon of facLsŤ (3) when Lhe
flndlngs of facL are confllcLlngţ (6) when
Lhe CourL of Appealsţ ln maklng lLs
flndlngsţ wenL beyond Lhe lssues of Lhe
case and Lhe same ls conLrary Lo Lhe
admlsslons of boLh appellanL and appelleeŦ
(8oque vsŦ 8uanţ eL alŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ LŴ22439ţ
CcLŦ 31ţ 1967Ť 8amos vsŦ Þepsl Cola
8oLLllng CoŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ LŴ22333ţ lebŦ 9ţ
1967Ť Pllarlon !rŦ vsŦ ClLy of Manllaţ CŦ8Ŧ
noŦ LŴ19370Ť SepLŦ 14ţ 1967)Ŧ
ÞeLlLlonerƌs lnslsLence ls wlLhouL merlLŦ We
hold LhaL Lhe case aL bar does noL fall
wlLhln any of Lhe excepLlons enumeraLed
aboveŦ We llkewlse hold LhaL Lhe flndlngs
of facL of Lhe respondenL appellaLe courL
are fully supporLed by Lhe evldence on
recordŦ 1he concluslons are fully susLalned
by subsLanLlal evldenceŦ We flnd no abuse
of dlscreLlon and We dlscern no
mlsapprehenslon of facLsŦ 1he respondenL
CourLƌs flndlngs of facL are noL confllcLlngŦ
Penceţ Lhe wellŴesLabllshed rule LhaL Lhe
declslon of Lhe CourL of Appeals and lLs
flndlngs of facL are blndlng and concluslve
and should noL be dlsLurbed by Lhls
1rlbunal and lL musL be applled ln Lhe case
aL bar ln lLs full force and effecLţ wlLhouL
quallflcaLlon or reservaLlonŦ 1he above
holdlng slmply synLheslze Lhe resoluLlons
we have hereLofore made ln respecL ƌ Lo
peLlLlonerƌs prevlous asslgnmenLs of error
and Lo whlch We have dlsagreed andţ
Lhereforeţ re[ecLedŦ
1he lasL asslgnmenLs of error of peLlLloner
musL necessarlly be re[ecLed by us as We
flnd Lhe respondenL CourL acLed properly
and correcLly and has noL deparLed from
Lhe accepLed and usual course of [udlclal
proceedlngs as Lo call for Lhe exerclse of
Lhe power of supervlslon by Lhe Supreme
CourLţ and as We flnd LhaL Lhe CourL of
Appeals dld noL err ln reverslng Lhe
declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL and admlLLlng Lo
probaLe LxhlblL ƍlƍţ Lhe lasL wlll and
LesLamenL of Lhe deceased lsabel CabrlelŦ
We rule LhaL Lhe respondenL CourLƌs
facLual flndlngs upon lLs summaLlon and
evaluaLlon of Lhe evldence on record ls
unassallable LhaLť ƍlrom Lhe welLer of
evldence presenLedţ we are convlnced LhaL
Lhe wlll ln quesLlon was execuLed on Aprll
13ţ 1961 ln Lhe presence of MaLllde
Croblaţ Celso Clmpaya and Marla Clmpaya
slgnlng and wlLnesslng Lhe same ln Lhe Lhe
wlll on a Lable wlLh lsabel Cabrlelţ Celso
Clmpaya and Marla Clmpaya slLLlng
around Lhe LableŦ ALLyŦ Þaralsoţ afLer
flnlshlng Lhe noLarlal acLţ Lhen dellvered
Lhe orlglnal Lo lsabel Cabrlel and reLalned
Lhe oLher coples for hls flle and noLarlal
reglsLerŦ A few days followlng Lhe slgnlng
of Lhe wlllţ lsabel Cabrlelţ Celso Clmpaya
and anoLher phoLographer arrlved aL Lhe
offlce of ALLyŦ Þaralso and Lold Lhe lawyer
LhaL she wanLed anoLher plcLure Laken
because Lhe flrsL plcLure dld noL Lurn ouL
goodŦ 1he lawyer Lold her LhaL Lhls cannoL
be done because Lhe wlll was already
slgned buL lsabel Cabrlel lnslsLed LhaL a
plcLure be Lakenţ so a slmulaLed slgnlng
was performed durlng whlch lncldenL
MaLllde Crobla was noL presenLŦ
ÞeLlLlonerƌs exacerbaLlon cenLers on Lhe
supposed lncredlblllLy of Lhe LesLlmonles
of Lhe wlLnesses for Lhe proponenL of Lhe
wlllţ Lhelr alleged evaslonsţ lnconslsLencles
and conLradlcLlonsŦ 8uL ln Lhe case aL barţ
Lhe Lhree lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses who
consLlLuLe Lhe besL evldence of Lhe wlll
maklng have LesLlfled ln favor of Lhe
probaLe of Lhe wlllŦ So has Lhe lawyer who
prepared lLţ one learned ln Lhe law and
long ln Lhe pracLlce Lhereofţ who
LhereafLer noLarlzed lLŦ All of Lhem are
dlslnLeresLed wlLnesses who sLand Lo
recelve no beneflL from Lhe LesLamenLŦ
1he slgnaLures of Lhe wlLnesses and Lhe
LesLaLrlx have been ldenLlfled on Lhe wlll
and Lhere ls no clalm whaLsoever and by
anyoneţ much less Lhe peLlLlonerţ LhaL Lhey
were noL genulneŦ ln Lhe lasL and flnal
analyslsţ Lhe hereln confllcL ls facLual and
we go back Lo Lhe rule LhaL Lhe Supreme
Successlon 07072011
Þage S8 of 61

CourL cannoL revlew and revlse Lhe
flndlngs of facLs of Lhe respondenL CourL
of AppealsŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ ln vlLW Cl 1PL
lC8LCClnCţ Lhe [udgmenL appealed from
ls hereby Alll8MLuţ wlLh cosLs agalnsL Lhe
peLlLlonerŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
1eebookeeţ Mokoslotţ ue costto ooJ
nettetoţ Ŧţ coocotŦ

#Iootnotes
1 Þenned by Lhen AcLlng
Þresldlng !usLlce !uan ÞŦ
Lnrlquezţ concurred ln by
AssoclaLe !usLlces MaLeo
Canonoy and 8amon CŦ
lernandezŦ
* !usLlce 8amon CŦ
lernandezţ a member of
Lhe llrsL ulvlslonţ Look
no parLŦ
2 Annex ƍ8ƍţ ÞeLlLlonŤ
8olloţ volŦ lţ ppŦ 81Ŵ101Ŧ
3 Annexes ƍ P ƍ and ƍ l ƍţ
ÞeLlLlonŤ 8olloţ volŦ lţ ppŦ
134Ŧ
4 Annex ƍkƍţ ÞeLlLlonŤ 8o
0ţ volŴ 1ţ ppŦ 167Ŵ198Ŧ
3 Annexes ƍLƍ and ƍMƍţ
ÞeLlLlonŤ 8olloţ volŦ lţ ppŦ
199Ŵ 248Ŧ
6 Þenned by AssoclaLe
!usLlce 8amon CŦ
lernandezţ and conŴ
curred ln by AssoclaLe
!usLlces Ceclll Munoz
Þalma and MaLeo
CanonoyŦ
7 Annex ƍnƍţ ÞeLlLlonŤ
8olloţ volŦ 1ţ ppŦ 230Ŵ
231Ŧ
8 8olloţ volŦ llţ ppŦ 270Ŵ
312Ŧ
9 8olloţ volŦ llţ pŦ 317Ŧ
10 8olloţ volŦ llţ ppŦ 323Ŵ
334Ŧ
11 8CLLCţ volŦ llţ pp 363Ŵ
383Ŧ
12 1he clLaLlon of
auLhorlLles whlch beglns
wlLh Mamuyac vsŦ Abena
67 ÞhllŦ 289 (1939) llsLs
some 33 leadlng cases up
Lo 8an drez 1el CorpŦ vsţ
8ank of Amerlcaţ LŴ
22614ţ AugŦ 29ţ 1969ţ 29
SC8A 191Ŧ
13 ue Carcla vsŦ CourL of
Appealsţ 37 SC8A 129
(1971)Ť 8unyl vsŦ 8eyesţ
39 SC8A 304 (1971)Ť
napolls vsŦ CourL of
Appealsţ 43 SC8A 301
(1972)Ť 1aloslg vsŦ vdaŦ
de nleba 43 SC8A 472
(1972)Ť LvangellsLa and
CoŦ vsŦ Abad SanLosţ 31
SC8A 416 (1973)Ť
1longco 9Ŧ de la Mercedţ
38 SC8A 89 (1974)Ŧ











































































Successlon 07072011
Þage S9 of 61

8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
SUÞkLML CCUk1
Manlla
ll8S1 ulvlSlCn
GŦkŦ NoŦ LŴ36033 November Sţ 1982
IN 1nL MA11Lk CI 1nL ÞL1I1ICN ICk
1nL ÞkC8A1L CI 1nL JILL CI DCkC1LA
ÞLkL2ţ (deceased)ť AÞCLCNIC
1A8CADAţ peLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
nCNŦ AVLLINC SŦ kCSALţ as Iudge of
Court of I|rst Instance of Southern Leyteţ
(8ranch IIIţ Maas|n)ţrespondenLŦ
tosmo MŦ ulolo cooosel fot petltlooŦ
nooŦ velloo 5Ŧ kosol lo bls owo bebolfŦ

GU1ILkkL2ţ IkŦ Ŧť
1hls ls a peLlLlon for revlew of Lhe orders
lssued by Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance of
SouLhern LeyLeţ 8ranch lllţ ln Speclal
Þroceedlngs noŦ 8Ŵ1713ţ enLlLled ƍln Lhe
MaLLer of Lhe ÞeLlLlon for ÞrobaLe of Lhe
Wlll of uoroLea Þerezţ ueceasedŤ Apolonlo
1aboadaţ ÞeLlLlonerƍţ whlch denled Lhe
probaLe of Lhe wlllţ Lhe moLlon for
reconslderaLlon and Lhe moLlon for
appolnLmenL of a speclal admlnlsLraLorŦ
ln Lhe peLlLlon for probaLe flled wlLh Lhe
respondenL courLţ Lhe peLlLloner aLLached
Lhe alleged lasL wlll and LesLamenL of Lhe
laLe uoroLea ÞerezŦ WrlLLen ln Lhe
CebuanoŴvlsayan dlalecLţ Lhe wlll conslsLs
of Lwo pagesŦ 1he flrsL page conLalns Lhe
enLlre LesLamenLary dlsposlLlons and ls
slgned aL Lhe end or boLLom of Lhe page by
Lhe LesLaLrlx alone and aL Lhe lefL hand
margln by Lhe Lhree (3) lnsLrumenLal
wlLnessesŦ 1he second page whlch
conLalns Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause and Lhe
acknowledgmenL ls slgned aL Lhe end of
Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause by Lhe Lhree (3)
aLLesLlng wlLnesses and aL Lhe lefL hand
margln by Lhe LesLaLrlxŦ
Slnce no opposlLlon was flled afLer Lhe
peLlLlonerƌs compllance wlLh Lhe
requlremenL of publlcaLlonţ Lhe Lrlal courL
commlssloned Lhe branch clerk of courL Lo
recelve Lhe peLlLlonerƌs evldenceŦ
Accordlnglyţ Lhe peLlLloner submlLLed hls
evldence and presenLed vlcenLe 1lmkangţ
one of Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses Lo Lhe
wlllţ who LesLlfled on lLs genulneness and
due execuLlonŦ
1he Lrlal courLţ Lhru Lhen Þresldlng !udge
8amon CŦ ÞamaLlan lssued Lhe quesLloned
order denylng Lhe probaLe of Lhe wlll of
uoroLea Þerez for wanL of a formallLy ln lLs
execuLlonŦ ln Lhe same orderţ Lhe
peLlLloner was also requlred Lo submlL Lhe
names of Lhe lnLesLaLe helrs wlLh Lhelr
correspondlng addresses so LhaL Lhey
could be properly noLlfled and could
lnLervene ln Lhe summary seLLlemenL of
Lhe esLaLeŦ
lnsLead of complylng wlLh Lhe order of Lhe
Lrlal courLţ Lhe peLlLloner flled a
manlfesLaLlon and/or moLlonţ e
pottepraylng for a LhlrLyŴday perlod wlLhln
whlch Lo dellberaLe on any sLep Lo be
Laken as a resulL of Lhe dlsallowance of Lhe
wlllŦ Pe also asked LhaL Lhe LenŴday perlod
requlred by Lhe courL Lo submlL Lhe names
of lnLesLaLe helrs wlLh Lhelr addresses be
held ln abeyanceŦ
1he peLlLloner flled a moLlon for
reconslderaLlon of Lhe order denylng Lhe
probaLe of Lhe wlllŦ Poweverţ Lhe moLlon
LogeLher wlLh Lhe prevlous manlfesLaLlon
and/or moLlon could noL be acLed upon by
Lhe Ponorable 8amon CŦ ÞamaLlan due Lo
hls Lransfer Lo hls new sLaLlon aL Þaslgţ
8lzalŦ 1he sald moLlons or lncldenLs were
sLlll pendlng resoluLlon when respondenL
!udge Avellno SŦ 8osal assumed Lhe
poslLlon of presldlng [udge of Lhe
respondenL courLŦ
Meanwhlleţ Lhe peLlLloner flled a moLlon
for Lhe appolnLmenL of speclal
admlnlsLraLorŦ
SubsequenLlyţ Lhe new !udge denled Lhe
moLlon for reconslderaLlon as well as Lhe
manlfesLaLlon and/or moLlon flled e
potteŦ ln Lhe same order of denlalţ Lhe
moLlon for Lhe appolnLmenL of speclal
admlnlsLraLor was llkewlse denled because
of Lhe peLlLlonerƌs fallure Lo comply wlLh
Lhe order requlrlng hlm Lo submlL Lhe
names ofƌ Lhe lnLesLaLe helrs and Lhelr
addressesŦ
1he peLlLloner declded Lo flle Lhe presenL
peLlLlonŦ
lor Lhe valldlLy of a formal noLarlal wlllţ
does ArLlcle 803 of Lhe Clvll Code requlre
LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx and all Lhe Lhree
lnsLrumenLal and aLLesLlng wlLnesses
slgn ot tbe eoJ of Lhe wlll and ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLrlx and of one
anoLher?
ArLlcle 803 of Lhe Clvll Code provldesť
Lvery wlllţ oLher Lhan a
holographlc wlllţ musL be
subscrlbed aL Lhe end
Lhereof by Lhe LesLaLor
hlmself or by Lhe
LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen
by some oLher person ln
hls presenceţ and by hls
express dlrecLlonţ and
aLLesLed and subscrlbed
by Lhree or more
credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor
and of one anoLherŦ
1he LesLaLor or Lhe
person requesLed by hlm
Lo wrlLe hls name and
Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses of Lhe wlllţ
shall also slgnţ as
aforesaldţ each and
every page Lhereofţ
excepL Lhe lasLţ on Lhe
lefL marglnţ and all Lhe
pages shall be numbered
correlaLlvely ln leLLers
placed on Lhe upper parL
of each pageŦ
1he aLLesLaLlon shall
sLaLe Lhe number of
pages used upon whlch
Lhe wlll ls wrlLLenţ and
Lhe facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLor
slgned Lhe wlll and every
page Lhereofţ or caused
some oLher person Lo
wrlLe hls nameţ under hls
express dlrecLlonţ ln Lhe
presence of Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesţ
and LhaL Lhe lacler
Successlon 07072011
Þage 60 of 61

wlLnesses and slgned Lhe
wlll and Lhe pages
Lhereof ln Lhe presence
of Lhe LesLaLor and of
one anoLherŦ
lf Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause
ls ln a language noL
known Lo Lhe wlLnessesţ
lL shall be lnLerpreLed Lo
Lhe wlLnessesţ lL shall be
lnLerpreLed Lo LhemŦ
1he respondenL !udge lnLerpreLs Lhe
aboveŴquoLed provlslon of law Lo requlre
LhaLţ for a noLarlal wlll Lo be valldţ lL ls noL
enough LhaL only Lhe LesLaLrlx slgns aL Lhe
ƍendƍ buL an Lhe Lhree subscrlblng
wlLnesses musL also slgn aL Lhe same place
or ot tbe eoJţ ln Lhe presence of Lhe
LesLaLrlx and of one anoLher because Lhe
aLLesLlng wlLnesses Lo a wlll aLLesL noL
merely Lhe wlll lLself buL also Lhe slgnaLure
of Lhe LesLaLorŦ lL ls noL sufflclenL
compllance Lo slgn Lhe pageţ where Lhe
end of Lhe wlll ls foundţ aL Lhe lefL hand
margln of LhaL pageŦ
Cn Lhe oLher handţ Lhe peLlLloner
malnLalns LhaL ArLlcle 803 of Lhe Clvll Code
does noL make lL a condlLlon precedenL or
a maLLer of absoluLe necesslLy for Lhe
exLrlnslc valldlLy of Lhe wlg LhaL Lhe
slgnaLures of Lhe subscrlblng wlLnesses
should be speclflcally locaLed aL Lhe end of
Lhe wlg afLer Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe LesLaLrlxŦ
Pe conLends LhaL lL would be absurd LhaL
Lhe leglslaLure lnLended Lo place so heavy
an lmporL on Lhe space or parLlcular
locaLlon where Lhe slgnaLures are Lo be
found as long as Lhls space or parLlcular
locaLlon whereln Lhe slgnaLures are found
ls conslsLenL wlLh good falLh and Lhe
honesL frallLles of human naLureŦ
We flnd Lhe peLlLlon merlLorlousŦ
undoubLedlyţ under ArLlcle 803 of Lhe Clvll
Codeţ Lhe wlll musL be subscrlbed or
slgned aL lLs end by Lhe LesLaLor hlmself or
by Lhe LesLaLorƌs name wrlLLen by anoLher
person ln hls presenceţ and by hls express
dlrecLlonţ and aLLesLed and subscrlbed by
Lhree or more credlble wlLnesses ln Lhe
presence of Lhe LesLaLor and of one
anoLherŦ
lL musL be noLed LhaL Lhe law uses Lhe
Lerms ottesteJ and sobsctlbeJ ALLesLaLlon
conslsLs ln wlLnesslng Lhe LesLaLorƌs
execuLlon of Lhe wlll ln order Lo see and
Lake noLe menLally LhaL Lhose Lhlngs areţ
done whlch Lhe sLaLuLe requlres for Lhe
execuLlon of a wlll and LhaL Lhe slgnaLure
of Lhe LesLaLor exlsLs as a facLŦ Cn Lhe
oLher handţ subscrlpLlon ls Lhe slgnlng of
Lhe wlLnessesƌ names upon Lhe same
paper for Lhe purpose of ldenLlflcaLlon of
such paper as Lhe wlll whlch was execuLed
by Lhe LesLaLorŦ (8agsdale vŦ Plllţ 269 SW
2d 911)Ŧ
lnsofar as Lhe requlremenL of subscrlpLlon
ls concernedţ lL ls our consldered vlew LhaL
Lhe wlll ln Lhls case was subscrlbed ln a
manner whlch fully saLlsfles Lhe purpose of
ldenLlflcaLlonŦ
1he slgnaLures of Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses on Lhe lefL margln of Lhe flrsL
page of Lhe wlll aLLesLed noL only Lo Lhe
genulneness of Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
LesLaLrlx buL also Lhe due execuLlon of Lhe
wlll as embodled ln Lhe aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ
Whlle perfecLlon ln Lhe drafLlng of a wlll
may be deslrableţ unsubsLanLlal deparLure
from Lhe usual forms should be lgnoredţ
especlally where Lhe auLhenLlclLy of Lhe
wlll ls noL assalledŦ (Conzales vŦ Conzalesţ
90 ÞhllŦ 444ţ 449)Ŧ
1he law ls Lo be llberally consLruedţ ƍLhe
underlylng and fundamenLal ob[ecLlve
permeaLlng Lhe provlslons on Lhe law on
wllls ln Lhls pro[ecL conslsLs ln Lhe
llberallzaLlon of Lhe manner of Lhelr
execuLlon wlLh Lhe end ln vlew of glvlng
Lhe LesLaLor more freedom ln expresslng
hls lasL wlshes buL wlLh sufflclenL
safeguards and resLrlcLlons Lo prevenL Lhe
commlsslon of fraud and Lhe exerclse of
undue and lmproper pressure and
lnfluence upon Lhe LesLaLorŦ 1hls ob[ecLlve
ls ln accord wlLh Lhe modern Lendency ln
respecL Lo Lhe formallLles ln Lhe execuLlon
of a wlllƍ (kepott of tbe coJe
commlsslooţ pŦ 103)Ŧ
ÞarenLheLlcallyţ !udge 8amon CŦ ÞamaLlan
sLaLed ln hls quesLloned order LhaL were
noL for Lhe defecL ln Lhe place of
slgnaLures of Lhe wlLnessesţ he would have
found Lhe LesLlmony sufflclenL Lo esLabllsh
Lhe valldlLy of Lhe wlllŦ
1he ob[ecLs of aLLesLaLlon and of
subscrlpLlon were fully meL and saLlsfled ln
Lhe presenL case when Lhe lnsLrumenLal
wlLnesses slgned aL Lhe lefL margln of Lhe
sole page whlch conLalns all Lhe
LesLamenLary dlsposlLlonsţ especlally so
when Lhe wlll was properly ldenLlfled by
subscrlblng wlLness vlcenLe 1lmkang Lo be
Lhe same wlll execuLed by Lhe LesLaLrlxŦ
1here was no quesLlon of fraud or
subsLlLuLlon behlnd Lhe quesLloned orderŦ
We have examlned Lhe wlll ln quesLlon and
noLlced LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon clause falled
Lo sLaLe Lhe number of pages used ln
wrlLlng Lhe wlllŦ 1hls would have been a
faLal defecL were lL noL for Lhe facL LhaLţ ln
Lhls caseţ lL ls dlscernlble from Lhe enLlre
wlg LhaL lL ls really and acLually composed
of only Lwo pages duly slgned by Lhe
LesLaLrlx and her lnsLrumenLal wlLnessesŦ
As earller sLaLedţ Lhe flrsL page whlch
conLalns Lhe enLlreLy of Lhe LesLamenLary
dlsposlLlons ls slgned by Lhe LesLaLrlx aL
Lhe end or aL Lhe boLLom whlle Lhe
lnsLrumenLal wlLnesses slgned aL Lhe lefL
marglnŦ 1he oLher page whlch ls marked as
ƍÞaglna dosƍ comprlses Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause and Lhe acknowledgmenLŦ 1he
acknowledgmenL lLself sLaLes LhaL ƍ1hls
LasL Wlll and 1esLamenL conslsLs of Lwo
pages lncludlng Lhls pageƍŦ
ln 5loqsoo vŦ loteotlooţ et olŦ (92 ÞhllŦ 161ţ
164)ţ Lhls CourL made Lhe followlng
observaLlons wlLh respecL Lo Lhe purpose
of Lhe requlremenL LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause musL sLaLe Lhe number of pages
usedť
1he law referred Lo ls
arLlcle 618 of Lhe Code of
Clvll Þrocedureţ as
amended by AcL noŦ
2643ţ whlch requlres
LhaL Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause shall sLaLe Lhe
number of pages or
sheeLs upon whlch Lhe
wln ls wrlLLenţ whlch
requlremenL has been
held Lo be mandaLory as
an effecLlve safeguard
agalnsL Lhe posslblllLy of
lnLerpolaLlon or omlsslon
Successlon 07072011
Þage 61 of 61

of some of Lhe pages of
Lhe wlll Lo Lhe pre[udlce
of Lhe helrs Lo whom Lhe
properLy ls lnLended Lo
be bequeaLhed (ln re wlll
of Andradaţ 42 ÞhllŦţ 180Ť
uy Coque vsŦ navas LŦ
Slocaţ 43 ÞhllŦ 403Ť
Cumban vsŦ Corechoţ 30
ÞhllŦ 30Ť CulnLo vsŦ
MoraLaţ 34 ÞhllŦ 481Ť
Lchevarrla vsŦ SarmlenLoţ
66 ÞhllŦ 611)Ŧ 1he totlo
JeclJeoJl of Lhese cases
seems Lo be LhaL Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clause musL
conLaln a sLaLemenL of
Lhe number of sheeLs or
pages composlng Lhe wlll
and LhaL lf Lhls ls mlsslng
or ls omlLLedţ lL wlll have
Lhe effecL of lnvalldaLlng
Lhe wlll lf Lhe deflclency
cannoL be supplledţ noL
by evldence allundeţ buL
by a conslderaLlon or
examlnaLlon of Lhe wlll
lLselfŦ 8uL here Lhe
slLuaLlon ls dlfferenLŦ
Whlle Lhe aLLesLaLlon
clause does noL sLaLe Lhe
number of sheeLs or
pages upon whlch Lhe
wlll ls wrlLLenţ howeverţ
Lhe lasL parL of Lhe body
of Lhe wlll conLalns a
sLaLemenL LhaL lL ls
composed of elghL
pagesţ whlch
clrcumsLance ln our
oplnlon Lakes Lhls case
ouL of Lhe rlgld rule of
consLrucLlon and places
lL wlLhln Lhe realm of
slmllar cases where a
broad and more llberal
vlew has been adopLed
Lo prevenL Lhe wlll of Lhe
LesLaLor from belng
defeaLed by purely
Lechnlcal conslderaLlonsŦ
lcoslooo vŦ lcoslooo (11 SC8A 422ţ 429) has
Lhe followlng rullng whlch applles a slmllar
llberal approachť
ŦŦŦ lmposslblllLy of
subsLlLuLlon of Lhls page
ls assured noL only (slc)
Lhe facL LhaL Lhe LesLaLrlx
and Lwo oLher wlLnesses
dld slgn Lhe defecLlve
pageţ buL also by lLs
bearlng Lhe colncldenL
lmprlnL of Lhe seal of Lhe
noLary publlc before
whom Lhe LesLamenL
was raLlfled by LesLaLrlx
and all Lhree wlLnessesŦ
1he law should noL be so
sLrlcLly and llLerally
lnLerpreLed as Lo
penallze Lhe LesLaLrlx on
accounL of Lhe
lnadverLence of a slngle
wlLness over whose
conducL she had no
conLrol where Lhe
purpose of Lhe law Lo
guaranLee Lhe ldenLlLy of
Lhe LesLamenL and lLs
componenL pages ls
sufflclenLly aLLalnedţ no
lnLenLlonal or dellberaLe
devlaLlon exlsLedţ and
Lhe evldence on record
aLLesLs Lo Lhe fun
observance of Lhe
sLaLuLory requlslLesŦ
CLherwlseţ as sLaLed ln
vdaŦ de CllŦ vsŦ
Murclanoţ 49 CffŦ CazŦ
1439ţ aL 1479 (declslon
on reconslderaLlon)
ƌwlLnesses may saboLage
Lhe wlll by muddllng or
bungllng lL or Lhe
aLLesLaLlon clauseŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe presenL peLlLlon ls
hereby granLedŦ 1he orders of Lhe
respondenL courL whlch denled Lhe
probaLe of Llle wlllţ Lhe moLlon for
reconslderaLlon of Lhe denlal of probaLeţ
and Lhe moLlon for appolnLmenL of a
speclal admlnlsLraLor are seL asldeŦ 1he
respondenL courL ls ordered Lo allow Lhe
probaLe of Lhe wlg and Lo conducL furLher
proceedlngs ln accordance wlLh Lhls
declslonŦ no pronouncemenL on cosLsŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
MeleocloŴnetteto (ctloq cboltpetsoo)ţ
lloooţ vospoez ooJ kelovoţ Ŧţ coocotŦ
1eebookeeţ ţ ls oo leoveŦ








































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f  f f¾  ¯    ¯ ¯  °  .

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° f °fnff¾ °©f¯°. ¾f.

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¾¯½fff° .ff ¯½ff  ° .

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f °–.

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nf°°  f°  ¾   €° °–¾€€fn¾€  ¾½° °.

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f°°f° f¯°.

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  °f°  f° n°  n ° ¾¾nf  ¾n ¾.

f  .° 9f¯ff° . n.

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 ¾  f f°¾  .

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  n¯¯¾¾° ½ %  9f ° nf  – f¯°.

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¯f  €°–  ¾ f°¾ ¾½ n ½½¾  €   ¯ °f f ¾f° nf¾ ¯¾¾f  °¯ €½f– ¾ ¾  @ f €  ¾ fn € .

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9n  f¾ f¯ °  n-   n  ¾ f f ¾f° nf¾ ¾f¾f   °¯ €½f– ¾ ¾ ¾½°n  °¾ ° n   ¯ °f¾ °    ¯f° ff¾ f° €€ n ¾f€ –f  f–f°¾ ½¾¾ € ° ½f°¯¾¾° nn ¾¾°  9f– € .

€¾¯ € ½f– ¾€   ½ © n  €  ¾¯  ½½ ¾° °    f %°  €° f f 9   D.

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f½ ¾°%  9f°f If¾ f°  f  n°n  @ f°  ¾° f                                           nn ¾¾°  9f– € .

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