MICROALGAE CULTURE

BIO301
Dr Navid Moheimani Algae R&D Center

Lecturers

Dr Navid Moheimani n.moheimani@murdoch.edu.au 9360 2682

Prof Michael Borowitzka m.borowitzka@murdoch.edu.au 9360 2333

Algae R & D Center

What are algae?
simple, non-flowering, and typically aquatic plants of a large assemblage that includes the seaweeds and many singlecelled forms . Algae contain chlorophyll but lack true stems, roots , leaves, and vascular tissue.

especially : formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light (http://www.Algae VS Bacteria Photosynthesis • What is photosynthesis: • Date: 1898 synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light.com/dictionary/photosynthesis) • It is an improbable process (uphill reaction) .merriam-webster.

Sugar + O2 energy Metabolism Photosynthesis Solar energy CO2+ H2O .

com/dictionary/photosynthesis) • It is an improbable process (uphill reaction) • Oxygenic photosynthesis is one of the key fundamental biological process which support life on the earth. especially : formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light (http://www. • Chloroplast are responsible for trapping light energy and convert it to Chemical energy .Photosynthesis: • What is photosynthesis: • Date: 1898 synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light.merriam-webster.

. ferns. Symbionts of lichens. molluscs. flatworms etc etc. sponges. corals.Habitats • • • • Water (freshwater to hypersaline brines) Soil Trees etc. cycads.

• Salinity: freshwater to saturated brines .

Dinophyta Dinophyta Euglenophyta S! Dinophyta S! S! Heterotrophic dinoflagellate Chlorophyta S! Heterokontophyta Haptophta Cryptophyta Chloroplast Lost Rhodophyta Loss of phycobilisomes Formation of chlorophyll b Small subunit RuBisCo gene transferred to nucleus S! S! S! Dinophyta S! Flagella lost Primaeval Brown Flagellate(s?) Hetrotrophic hetrokontophyte Hetrotrophic Haptophyte Hetrotrophic Cryptophyte Hetrotrophic dinoflagellate Hetrotrophic euglenoid Glaucophyta Photosynthetic Heterotrophic Flagellate S! Heterotrophic Flagellate EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES Cyanobacterium Prokaryote Ancestor .

Size – ~40m to ~1μm μ .

Nostoc Aphanothece .

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Amphidinium .

life history .Pfiesteria .

Nutritional Modes .

• Photoautotrophy – Light + inorganic nutrients – Most microalgae • Heterotrophy – Organic compounds (dark) – Some species (esp. greens. euglenoids & dinos) • Mixotrophy – Mixture of phototrophy + heterotrophy • Phagotrophy .

ALGAL BIOTECHNOLOGY .

Commercial Species .

Taiwan (Indonesia. Israel. USA (India. India. Thailand (China. Czech Republic) 1960’s Spirulina – Mexico. China) 1990’s Haematococcus – USA (India.Late 1950’s Chlorella – Japan. Israel) + Microalgae for aquaculture . Taiwan) 1970’s Dunaliella salina – Australia. USA.

Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis .

Chlorella .

Dunaliella salina .

Haematococcus pluvialis .

Products Carotenoids Fatty Acids Phycobilins Enzymes Vitamins Polysaccharides Bioactive Compounds Biomass Biofuels .

Algae in Aquaculture Algae in their own right Algae as larval feeds (especially for molluscs. to a lesser extent. fish) Algal carotenoids as pigmenters in feed (prawns. crustaceans and. salmonid fish) Algae as food in growout stage (molluscs) .

carotenoids. 5952298. [US Patents 5945315. 5955423]  Cyanovirins (anti-viral) [US Patents 5998587. 6015876]  Antibacterials [US Patent 5866150] from Chaetoceros sp.Selected Bioactives  Cryptophycins (anti-mitotic) from Nostoc sp. scytonemin. mycosporine amino acids [Canadian Patent Application 2251457] from Plectonema boryanum OH H N O O N H HO .  Sunscreens .

immunological markers Management of algal blooms Species-specific viruses .Algae and the Environment New applications for microalgae in wastewater treatment higher efficieny wastewater treatment through immobilised algae or hyperconcentrated algal cultures new culture systems (tropical & temperate) algal/bacterial systems in soil bioremediation heavy metal absorption  Detection systems for toxic algae DNA probes.

bioethanol)  Hydrogen production Algae in mine site revegetation .Algae and the Environment Algae and renewable energy Liquid fuels (biodiesel.

Light Nutrients CO2 (from Power Station or similar source) Saline Water GROW Recycle water HARVEST Algae sugars Ethanol EXTRACT Algae Oil Remaining Biomass Biodiesel Nutrients Anaerobic Digestion Animal feed Other Product(s)? Methane .

18 60 .200+ Crypthecodinium DHA Estimated from lowest sale price of product .Alga Chlorella Dunaliella Haematococcus Spirulina Aquaculture spp Products Biomass Beta-carotene Astaxanthin Biomass Biomass Estimated Cost ($US/kg dry wt) >15 <3 < 10 < 200 12 .

Culture Systems • • • • Extensive Open Ponds (Dunaliella salina) Raceway Ponds (Spirulina) Centre Pivot Ponds (Chlorella) Hybrid (Closed reactor/open raceway) (Haematococcus pluvialis) • Fermentor (Crypthecodinium cohnii) • Big Bags (Aquaculture species) • Tubular Photobioreactor (?) .

Measuring Growth .

Measuring Growth In exponential growth dx = dt (1) Where is the ‘specific growth rate with dimension of 1/t Eqn 1 can be integrated (x=x0 at t=0) x = x0e t (2) Eqn 2.693/ (5) (4) (3) Where t2 is the ‘doubling time’ . can be solved to: ln x/x0 = t When x = 2x0 ln 2 = t2 and t2 = ln 2/ = 0.

Measuring Growth Time taken for cells to double .

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