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DST has fortified its programme on technology development in key areas by undertaking mission mode programmes for implementation and deployment existing technologies. Key technology areas in which Mission programmes are being operated are missions on Climate Change, Mission on Nano Science and Technology, National Mission on Bamboo applications and Mission project on reinvigorating of Indian agriculture. The Mission project on reinvigorating of Indian agriculture that has now been expanded and renamed as “Mission for Geospatial Applications” the activities of this mission include Agricultural Assessment, Flood Modeling and Forecast. DST has been entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating two out of eight national missions launched under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The mission on sustaining Himalayan ecosystem aims to develop and build national capacity in studying and protecting Himalayan ecosystems. Under the mission on strategic knowledge for climate change, knowledge centers in climate change science are being established. The Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) has been launched as an umbrella programme on May 2007 for promoting pre-competitive R&D in this area of research. Under the nano mission, basic research in nano science has been actively fostered. More than 250 PhDs have been produced and about 2700 publications in prime journals have been published from the projects supported under the mission. National Bamboo Application Mission (NMBA) has been successful in adding value of bamboo materials through technologies for applications. Structural materials and Public service facilities like schools, hospitals etc have been constructed from bamboo in short spans of time. Leh has received 60,000 Sq.ft constructed area for housing after the recent floods.
CLIMATE CHANGE & ADAPTATION PROGRAMME
The Climate Change Programme (CCP) is a new initiative of the Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology which is spearheading two out of eight national missions on climate change as part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). These are: (a) National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) and (b) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC). The broad objectives of NMSHE include - understanding of the complex processes affecting the Himalayan eco system and evolve suitable management and policy measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan eco-system, creating and building capacities in different domains, networking of knowledge institutions engaged in research and development of a coherent data base on Himalayan ecosystem, detecting
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Strengthening of Existing Centres of Excellence. Networking of knowledge institutions after investing critical mass of physical. NGOs.2 0 11 . and Formation of global technology watch groups to help accomplish the task of technology selection and prioritization. A meeting of Stakeholders which include governments of all 12 Himalayan states.Setting up of Centres of Excellence. mitigation and coping mechanisms inclusive of farming and traditional health care systems and developing regional cooperation with neighboring countries. o 224 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. 2010. Actions initiated in respect of key mission deliverables . studying traditional knowledge systems for community participation in adaptation. A meeting of Stakeholders including state governments.and decoupling natural and anthropogenic induced signals of global environmental changes in mountain ecosystems. to generate a strong data base through monitoring and analysis. Some of the major initiatives taken up and progress made by CCP in respect of the two missions are as undera. NMSKCC o o Mission deliverables were approved by the PMO in September. Institutions working on Himalayan ecosystem is being planned. Response from a few of them is awaited. Civil Society organizations. NMSHE o o Approval on Mission document was received from PMO in September. DST was asked to initiate further action for submission of a Cabinet Note. Identification of knowledge gaps. A number of state governments have responded. 2010 wherein DST was given go ahead to initiate follow-up action. The missions propose to create linkages with state governments and their establishments/ institutions on climate change related aspects. The Mission document was sent to all State Governments and Union Territories requesting them to set up coordination mechanism and enroll R&D Institutions engaged in climate change aspects into the mission.and extra-mural systems. concerned central ministries/ departments. creation of new dedicated centers within the existing institutional framework. to eventually create a knowledge base for policy interventions. R&D institutions. The mission document was sent to all 12 Himalayan States requesting them to communicate their comments and designate nodal coordination point at their end. Majority of states have responded. NGOs. Response from other states is awaited. intellectual and policy infrastructure resources. The NMSKCC has been launched with the broad objectives of mapping of the knowledge and data resources relevant to climate change and positioning of a data sharing policy framework for building strategic knowledge among the various arms of the Government. Civil Society Organizations is being planned. 2010. The two missions envisage building upon and creating synergy amongst existing initiatives of various Ministries and Departments of the Government of India which provide support for research and development in climate change through intra. launch of Major R&D Programmes and major Human Capacity Building programmes in the month of September. o o b. building international cooperation on S&T for climate change agenda through strategic alliances and assistance to the formulation of policies for a sustained developmental agenda.
bamboo speakers were developed with bamboo as a green alternative. The prototypes of products have already been developed. Technology development and validation. 7. employment generation. bamboo solar light were developed. 7. Products such as Bamboo microscope. The thrust area of the Mission includes: • • • • • Knowledge. These are being erected to help the homeless and these structures can sustain any high temperature or weather conditions. entrepreneurship. and bamboo solar garden light. information gathering and dissemination.1 Solar light Fig. Disaster management. exports and the environment protection. NATIONAL MISSION ON BAMBOO APPLICATIONS The objectives of the National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA) are development and scaling up of bamboo based economic activities in the country to enable enhanced opportunities.o The Expert Committee set up for preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) on National Centre for Himalayan Glaciology has submitted its report. replacing plastics. bamboo kaleidoscope. 7. Amalgamation of Technology with Bamboo The amalgamation of technology in various aspects with bamboo has been fruitful and over the years NMBA has collaborated with SDR Technologies. metals and wood etc.2 0 11 225 . In term of initiating the fusion of electronics. Delhi and talks are on with other agencies in this regard as well. Fig.3 Contribution towards Society NMBA intends to facilitate the erection of 144 structures of various sizes to be used as schools and hospitals in the disaster stricken area of Leh along with providing shelters to the homeless of Leh. Support to entrepreneurial projects and the commercialization of technologies. Demonstration and promotional activities for bamboo based value added products and applications. A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10.2 Fig.
India has the second largest bamboo resource after china & a long term sustainable alternative to wood timber can be found by setting up Bamboo timber unit.4: School structure In addition to this. The above project has already been approved for establishing 10 Centers for Bamboo Training and Product Development. Also. NMBA has been actively participating in various expos and fairs to help promote the bamboo industry. Mumbai is developing Hydroponic unit made of Bamboo which will replace the plastic and aluminum version along with rooftop hydroponics demo garden. Nano Mission continued to record expansion in its activities and also continued to break new grounds in promotion of R&D and human resource development in this field of nanotechnology.In order to fill the gap between the producer and the consumer community. Fig. It is a 100% substitute of wood timber as it can be cut sawn. development of nano technologies and their applications.A breakthrough innovation Bamboo timber in the form of Reinforced compressed Bamboo Beam and Board.an umbrella programme was launched in May 2007 to promote R&D in this emerging and highly competitive area of research in a comprehensive fashion. without soil. During the year 2010-11. Both products have huge potential in India as we are a wood timber deficit country. Centre for Bamboo Training and Product Development NMBA has decided to support the establishment of a Centre for Bamboo Training and Product Development (CBTPD) for purposes of skills training.It is now the most popular type of bamboo flooring board on the market. human resource development and international collaborations. 7. Hydroponics Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions in water. M/s World Kids Inc. It can be used for all other wood application such as doors.NMBA supported M/s DLS Industries Pvt Ltd for establishment of Bamboo Timber manufacturing unit at Chichala Distt Nagpur. windows and furniture. NANO SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY MISSION The Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) . The main objectives of the Nano Mission are . 226 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. using PVC pipes mounted on aluminum frame. entrepreneurship development. Bamboo timber.2 0 11 . sanded and polished in any direction.basic research promotion. where MoU has already been signed with six centers and machines are also in the process of installation for the four centers with the various state agencies. steps like procurement of material at the NMBA warehouse has been initiated in order to help the producers market their products and the consumers could be well aware of the bamboo alternative available in the market. infrastructure development for carrying out front-ranking research. product development and related applications in the bamboo sector in the Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode or in joint collaboration with the State Bamboo Agency or Mission or similar autonomous agency set up by the State Government for the promotion of the bamboo sector. the process of laying down a regulatory framework for Nanotechnology in India has been initiated. Bamboo timber is a revolutionary type of board that has been growing in market .
Some of the topics on which projects were funded are . It was found out that using nanoparticles with biodegradable polymer matrix such as cellulose microfibrils can lead to biodegradable nanocomposites. computational study of functionalized nanoparticles. toothpaste and many other commercial products. Some important achievements from these units & centers are summarized below: Detailed investigations were carried out on the catalytic effect of carbon nanomaterials with different structure morphology for improving the hydrogen storage behavior of complex hydrides. Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared using an effective and easy route. In a study. % TGNF admixed NaAlH4 exhibits fast hydrogen desorption at lower desorption temperature. Different types of glass matrices have been prepared and processing procedure for quantum dot growth was optimized. A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10.BASIC RESEARCH PROMOTION 40 new individual scientist-centric R&D projects were funded this year which aimed at investigating fundamental scientific aspects of nano-scale systems. characterization of composite materials and application of nanomaterials for sustainable energy and development of polymer nanocomposites for nanocoating and nanostructured magnets. Stable ferro fluid of different capabilities has been developed.2 0 11 227 . multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). the mechanism of formation of AgBr nanoparticles in aqueous surfactant solutions was developed. It was observed that TGNFs possess superior catalytic effect than that of other carbon nanostructures. Gold and ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and wet-chemical route respectively and were embedded in polymer matrix for non-liner optical applications. nanoscale fabrication with metal phosphides as anode for next generation lithium-ion battery applications. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR CARRYING OUT FRONT-RANKING RESEARCH 6 new Units/Research facilities on Nano Science were established during the year and support to existing Units /Centers continued. it was observed that rheological properties of many soft materials at micro and nano scale are helpful for manufacture of better paints. Support to ongoing projects was continued. twisted graphitic nanofibres (TGNFs) and planar graphitic nanofibres (PGNFs). The catalytic effect of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) on improving the hydrogen storage behavior of NaAlH4 was observed for the first time Carbon nanomaterial catalyzed NaAlH4 can be used as a hydrogen storage material for vehicular applications. Also. A CD-14 co-receptor nanopeptide agonist was successfully designed and bioproduced which can be used for targeted delivery of drugs to monocytes.development of innovative peptide and peptide hybrid material based multifunctional nanostructures for cancer imaging and targeted drug delivery. Some important achievements from the supported projects are summarized below: Chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan tripolyphosphate were used to deliver DNA vaccine in aquatic animals. The carbon nanovariants used are single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Studies using low concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles were carried on human skin cell line demonstrating the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. gels. New magnetic resonance active colloidal amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoassembly with enhanced T2 contrast properties has been fabricated which can be used as an effective carrier for drug molecules and a source of hyperthermia treatment for cancer. Cellulose microfibrils extracted from four different sources were studied by different methods of analysis. Thus 2 wt. nanosensor array for real time monitoring of toxic volatile organic compounds. dendritic cells and macrophages.
% H2. ~ 2.34 nm. respectively with the mean adsorption distance of 0.% H2. The maximum amount of hydrogen adsorbed at 300 K under 80 atm is ~ 0.5 wt. It is observed that the wave function can be engineered in these nanostructures. Fig. However.% H2 gets adsorbed with higher adsorption rate. It was found that graphene possess better hydrogen adsorption behavior at liquid N2 temperature.5: SEM images of Agarose. It was also observed that the epoxy oxygen functionalities in functionalized graphene increase the hydrogen adsorption energy. at 77 K under 50 atm H2.2 wt.Studies were made on hydrogen adsorption behavior of functionalized graphene synthesized by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide. Thus the maximum amount of hydrogen adsorbed at 77 K under 50 atm H2. ZnO nanocrystals show size dependent anti-bacterial activity for E Coli. Tuning the photoluminescence emission of Cu doped CdSe was achieved. ~2. Very high strength carbon nanotubes/ aerogel composite were prepared. (B). Hydrogen adsorption rate on graphene was found to increase with an increase in applied hydrogen pressure. Agarose based 3D scaffolds through lyophilization with uniaxial macroporous distribution were fabricated successfully. First principle calculations to understand effect of stoichiometry on passivation of nanocrystals. 7. 7. Electron energy levels were determined in ZnSe/ZnS core/ shell nanostructures. (C) & (D) Chitosan/ZnO Hydrogel nanocomposite Sponge 228 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. It was proved that incorporation of Fibrin to these constructs enhanced their potential to induce in vitro cell proliferation & differentiation.Fibrin scaffold showing the uniaxial topology and uniform distribution of fibrin nano-particles over the scaffold Membrane scaffolds for wound healing using chitin/chitosan gels containing nanoparticles were created. This topology mimics the natural hepatic lobule matrix environment and hence was exploited for in vitro hepatic regeneration studies. Fig. The binding energy calculated using ab-initio simulation for perpendicular adsorption of H2 molecule on the bridge site of graphene with and without epoxy oxygen is 13 meV and 28 meV.2 0 11 .2 wt.6: A) Chitosan/ZnO Hydrogel. Hydrogen adsorption was carried out at 300 K and at 77 K by applying constant H2 pressure.
Fig.7: Targeted imaging of human mesenchymal stem cells using antibody conjugated ZnS nanocrystals (i) bright field image and (ii) fluorescence image Fig. A novel method for the fabrication of Fibrin based electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was developed.0. Fibers are shown in green colour. A temperature sensitive folate targeted doxorubicin containing magnetic liposomes has been developed for thermo chemotherapy of cancer. The mechanism of drug release has been investigated in detail. with loading as high as 65% (w/w) and a pH-responsive sustained release of 54% at pH 5. The hMSCs adhered and migrated well in to the composite scaffold with excellent cytoskeletal organization compared to PCL scaffold.8: Confocal Images of hMSCs seeded on a) electrospun PCL Micro nano scaffold b&c) PCL fibrin scaffold. 7. The drug-loading efficiency of the nanoassemblies was investigated using doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as a model drug. 7. Also. Intercalation and characterization of pravastatin and fluvastatin drugs in MgII/AlIII layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been investigated to form stable drug carrier. the release of DOX from the nanocarriers increased up to 80% on application of an AC magnetic field. Highly mesoporous spherical three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanoassemblies have been fabricated by a simple approach. The studies suggest that drug release is dependent on the pH of the medium and externally applied ultrasound. Enhanced uptake into tumor cells by virtue of the synergistic effect of biological and magnetic targeted liposomes has been observed.2 0 11 229 . A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. A novel argininebased dendritic block is grown on the surface of APTES-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles by conventional growth approach of Michael addition/amidation reactions.Bioactive fibrin-alginate composite scaffold with uniformly dispersed nano-graphene. The nanocarriers showed good capacity to encapsulate DOX. resulting in biocompatible gels with superior control over mechanical properties was prepared. A new class of magnetic resonance (MR) active aqueous Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle nanoassemblies (Fe3O4 MNNA) of 40 nm size comprising 6 nm particles was formulated.
Fig. Some important achievements from the supported projects are summarized below: A solar cell module was developed which can also store electrical energy in the same thin film. Attractive Post-doctoral fellowships to encourage talented Young researchers towards advanced research in the field of Nano Science & Technology continued through JNCASR-Bangalore. single-crystal diffraction and small angle scattering using one Goniometer under low temperature and high pressure conditions. BARC-Mumbai.Zinc blende alloy nanocrystals were designed which composed of Cd.e. A double layered titania structure was used for photovoltaic storage device. Experiments were carried out on different modes i. Indo-Canada collaborative project is also under process. 7. 230 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. SNBNCBS-Kolkata and SINP-Kolkata are using the beamline. Development of Nano Technologies and their applications Support to ongoing projects in this category continued. This is the first alternative to work horse CdSe in group II-VI semiconductor systems to produce such a large window tunable emission with all visible color. KEK. JNCASR-Bangalore. The principle of the new generation device is to coat the photovoltaic thin film layers with thin film storage layers that is also nanostructured and uses titania nanotubes providing very high capacitances. Significant progress has been made in these projects. Support to 1 Ramanna Fellowship also continued. Tsukuba.Tech (Nano Science & Technology)] were started in two more Universities and support to 15 ongoing Post Graduate programmes continued. Zn and S. Japan during last year continued. powder diffraction. IUCIndore. Zn and S and doped with Cu to produce composition/size dependent tunable dopant emission in entire visible spectrum have been designed.2 0 11 . International Collaborations Support to India-Japan Beamline established at the Photon Factory. samples collected at different intervals. Scientists and researchers from IISc-Bangalore.9: Digital image Cu doped alloyed nanocrystals of Cd. 6 Post Doctoral Fellows have completed their research while 5 are continuing at present. Human Resource Development 2 new Post Graduate Programmes [M. The process of financial sanction of PETRA-III project is in progress. BHU-Varanasi.
2 0 11 231 . The growth had to be suspended due to time constraints. pulling rate of the silicon sheet and gas flow and silicon feed rates etc. 7. (b) and (c) side view of a 25 mm dia and 15 mm long LiF crystal growing in the form of a tube but the cylindrical portion was melted during detachment.10: Double layered titania nanotubes for generation-storage devices For the first time in the world. Computer simulations were performed through programmes developed by numerical techniques and different software to control the furnace operating parameters such as electrical power to the heater.Fig. Fig. All experiments resulted in good melting of silicon without oxide layer. A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. 7. 7.12: (a) A LiF sheet grown with slow (2mm/min) speed (bottom) and fast (30 mm/min) speed (top). ZnO nanotube thin films were processed which have the potential to boost the solar cell efficiency when combined with titania nanotubes. Fig.11: SEM image of vertically oriented ZnO nanotubes electrochemically deposited on Indium doped Tin oxide (Photo anode) Silicon sheet/tubes of 5-10 cm size were prepared and experiments were performed for melting silicon under different conditions.
2 0 11 . single furnace fully automated CVD facility has been indigenously fabricated using mass flow controllers. Nanofinishes: A silver nanoparticle based anti-microbial finish and was developed for the first time in the country. PCMs were developed for 29 OC and -15 OC that show negligible super cooling and have high stability for large number of transition cycles. Novel hydride catalysts were prepared using hydrogen decrepitation technique which provide fresh surfaces with large surface area. large decrepitation and low cost makes these hydrides better catalysts for large scale production of CNTs. High hydrogen absorption. The finish is stable for several months and does not impart undesirable color to the fabrics on application and the finish gives nearly 100 % activities durable for over 30 washes. pore size distribution of nanowebs and its subsequent effect on filtration behaviour.Si sheets measuring 5-8 mm wide and 8-10 cm long and 0. Using this technology. 7. Thermo-regulated textiles: A novel technology was developed to stablilize Phase Change Materials (PCM) formulations. Using the knowledge.13: Automated experimental facility for CVD process (10 g of CNTs in a single step) Also. furnace and quart tube to get a yield of ~10 gm in a single step. Nanofiber based Automotive Filters: A proprietary technology for continuous production of nanofiber webs of large widths at a linear speed was developed for the first time in the country. free from oxidation which further increases the catalytic sites for the formation of CNTs. a prototype automotive oil filter has been developed with filtration efficiency up to 99 % for 1 ìm size standard dust without sacrificing their dust holding capacity. Fig. The new discoveries were made in the Research Programme on Smart and Innovative Textile are Nanofinishes. Carbon nanotube/Folic acid/ Fe3O4 magnetic nanovectors were developed which have the potential to destroy cancer cells by hyperthermia treatment.5-1 mm thick could be grown at 5-10 mm per minute as shown in the figures above. The technology is able to produce highly uniform nanowebs even at very low amounts of depositions. Thermo-regulated textiles and nanofiber based automotive filters. Studies have been made on the effect of electrospinning process parameters on the nanofiber diameter. 232 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10.
Support to 10 International /National conferences. floods and drought.The project was initially started with the objective of tracking impact of severe weather events such as hailstorm.2 0 11 233 . Units/Centers projects and Industry-Institute Collaborative projects have led to a good number of publications in cited journals and Patents.24. Also. 7. The objective is to provide data on crop coverage. etc up to village level on real time basis to Central/State A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10. The details of the cumulative output indicators from projects. Output Indicators Outputs from Individual R&D projects.50 crore. A good number of PhDs have been produced from these projects. Seminars.90 crore for the 11th Plan. a large number of technical and other manpower have been trained. Workshops were provided.14: Prototype of automotive filter using Nanowebs 1 National Review & Co-ordination Meeting and 1 Advanced School was organized. The project has now been expanded and renamed as “Mission for Geospatial Applications” and the outlay for 11th Plan has been revised to Rs. Brief activities of the Mission (I) Agricultural Assessment . output. units and centers supported under Nano Science & Technology Initiative (NSTI) and Nano Mission are summarized below: Research papers in cited Journals Research papers in Conferences Patents PhDs produced Other Manpower trained 2687 375 82 253 737 MISSION FOR GEOSPATIAL APPLICATION The Mission Mode project was started during 2007 as “Reinvigorating Indian Agriculture through S&T” at a total cost of 4. crop health.Fig.
many tuning options and virtually unlimited memories. These trackers may be also used for covert operations and mission planning and control as the personal trackers also feature two way voice communications. (II) Flood Modeling and Forecast – The objective is to provide a warning system and build a flood index of the vulnerable river basins with probabilities before the actual flood event occurs. Of Land Resources has assigned the task of preparing cadastral maps using satellite imagery as well as ground surveys. (g) approximate time of flooding after release of discharges from various dams and reservoirs. broadcast monitoring. surveillance. (III) Internal Security – A. and demanding applications.2 0 11 . A prototype has been developed and after successful testing handed over to BSF. (d) depth of inundation.Tripura. five types of squelch.The mission for geospatial Applications has developed AVLS and personal GPS/GPRS/GSM trackers for asset. state governments and other government agencies.Chhattisgarh. personnel and fleet management. etc.This receiver is intended for government. 234 A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10.E states. the centre will advise states to update and modernize their cadastral maps in digital format using this approach. three types of scanning. (e) flood forecasting up to village level (based on rainfall and river discharges). 3-D Terrain Models: Under this project the mission is developing 3-D terrain models integrating high-resolution satellite imagery and digital topo maps. etc) defined in software DSP algorithms implemented in configurable hardware and/or PC software. (iii) GPS Vehicle and Portable Trackers . Flood modeling of Tapi river basin in Gujarat and Mahanadi in Orissa have been under taken in collaboration with respective state agencies.An SDR in general is a radio that has:Primary functionality (mod/demodulation. Govt. The capabilities developed include (a) area of inundation up to village level. Chhatisgarh. Part of Manipur (to be completed). filtering. (b) flood inundation maps up to village level. This is a pilot project and in case successful. N. BSF. The NDMA has expressed desire to expand this with high resolution DEMs to other flood prone states and rivers. The Mission has developed 3-D models of Jharkhand. Information on the above parameters is being provided to different sugar mills. (c) volume of inundated water.12 districts of Bihar. security. of Jharkhand. (ii) HF/VHF SDR Tactical Radio System . B. (i) Communication System: Wideband Receiver .Cadastral: The Deptt. C. military.Orissa. (i) left bank/right bank inundation. The models showing difficult terrains and slopes with other attributes to help navigation and operational planning are being used in Control Rooms of MHA and other Government agencies dealing with internal security.19 towns of Jammu & Kashmir plus Jammu and Punch. This software contains numerous advanced features such as analog and digital signal reception.07 districts of Madhya Pradesh. Terrain Models have been provided to MHA.Governments and other users. CRPF etc. (f) rainfall recharge to rivers. (h) submergence period of a particular area/village.
CRPF. D. Other Police organisations like SSB.Uses RF. of MP. West Bengal. Govt. ITBP and State Govts. CISF and state police of Jharkhand. rural housing. Jammu & Kashmir and North-East States have also made similar requests. etc. of Manipur has requested this Mission to monitor their developmental activities like road construction.2 0 11 235 .(iv) Electronic Sensors & Fencing . has also approached this Mission for their landslide monitoring. Laser and Ultrasonic Sensors for Surveillance and electronic fencing over difficult terrain and rivers. A N N U A L R E P O R T 2 0 10.Water Level Sensors with high accuracy and remote programming and data fetch capability using GPRS Above noted communication systems have been provided to Central Police Organisations like BSF. Disaster Management and Monitoring of Developmental Activities : Besides the above activities recently the Mission has embarked upon new areas of Disaster Management and Monitoring of Developmental Activities. Similarly Uttarakhand Govt.
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