1 Membranes

1.

The diagram below shows the structure of the cell surface membrane.

(a)

(i)

Name the molecules A and B.

A .............................................................................................................................
B ............................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Give one function of the molecule labelled A.
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(1)

(iii)

Explain why the molecules labelled B form a bilayer.
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(3)

AS Unit 1: Lifestyle, Transport, Genes and Health: Topic 2: Genes and Health

1

.................................... .. .... ........................................................................................................................... One cell’s membrane proteins were stained with a green dye and the other cell’s membrane proteins with a red dye........... The cells were then fused (merged together) to form one cell.................................... Use your knowledge of the properties of cell surface membranes to explain these results.......................................... ....................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... (2) (Total 8 marks) ........................................................................................................... The diagram below shows the distribution of the proteins in the cells before and after fusion.................................................................................................................(b) The proteins in the cell surface membranes of two cells (A and B) were stained using different coloured dyes.........................................

........ Genes and Health: Topic 2: Genes and Health 3 r e / 0 ° C 3 ........1 Membranes 2.......................... g l y c o p r o p (a) p t e i n h o s p h o l i p i d c h r o o t e i n l e s t e r o l Explain why the model used to describe the structure of this cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic model......... Transport................................. P e r m e a b i l i o f m e m b r a t o s u b s t a n c a r b i t r a r y u 0 t y n e e A n i t s / 1 0 2 T e m p 0 e r a t u AS Unit 1: Lifestyle............ .......................................................................................................................................... .. ............ One of the membranes contains no cholesterol............................................................... ............................................................................ The diagram below shows a model of the structure of the cell surface (plasma) membrane.................................................................................................... one of the membranes has a low cholesterol content and the third membrane has a high cholesterol content................................................ (2) (b) The graph below shows how the permeability of three different membranes to substance A changes with temperature......

...................(i) Describe the effects of the presence of cholesterol and of an increase in temperature on the permeability of the three membranes to substance A.................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................... (2) (Total 7 marks) 3.............................. ............................................................................................................................... (3) (ii) When cholesterol is present it binds weakly to the phospholipids in the membrane................................................................ put a cross in the appropriate box......................................................................................................................................................................... If the statement is true........................................................................................................... ........................................ (a) The table below refers to three transport mechanisms........................................ ....................................................................... ................ .................................................................... ..... ................... ....................................................................... ..................................................... Suggest an explanation for the effect cholesterol has on the permeability of the membranes to substance A........................................... Statement Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Active transport Movement of water Requires ATP Molecules move down their concentration gradient Carrier proteins are needed (6) .................................................................... Substance A moves across the membrane between the phospholipid molecules..........................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........ ........................................................ ........................................................................... ......................................................3 m 8 n S / u b s t a n c e B 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 T (i) 6 i m e 8 / h o u 1 0 r s Describe the changes in cytoplasm concentration of substance B shown in the graph and explain how these changes support the statement that substance B enters the cells by diffusion.......................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................. ...................... The red blood cells were placed in a solution containing substance B and kept at 25 °C..................... .......................................... .................................. Genes and Health: Topic 2: Genes and Health 5 ......................................... The concentration of substance B in the cytoplasm of the cells was measured every hour over a period of 10 hours.......................................... .....................................................1 Membranes (b) An experiment was carried out to measure the uptake of substance B by some red blood cells................ The results of this experiment are shown in the graph below............................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................... Transport................................................ (4) AS Unit 1: Lifestyle....................... 2 0 1 8 1 6 1 4 1 2 C o n c e n t r a t i o i n c y t o p 1 l 0a s m µg c................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................................... (a) Describe how ions such as Ca diffusion..............(ii) Suggest how the shape of the graph would change if the temperature in the experiment was decreased to 10 °C................................................................ Give an explanation for your answer.................................................................................... 2+ pass through the cell surface membrane by facilitated ................................ ............................... For example........... .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ (4) .............................................. calcium (Ca ) ions can be absorbed by facilitated diffusion from the bloodstream into muscle cells......... However........................................................................................................................................................................................... ....... ........................................ . Animals have evolved a heart and a circulation system as a mechanism which overcomes the 2+ limitations of diffusion................. ................ .......................................................... diffusion is still important in animals............................................................................................................. ................................ ...................................................................................................................... .......................... (2) (Total 12 marks) 4............................................

........ Genes and Health: Topic 2: Genes and Health 7 ................................................ ............. .................................... ..................... ................ ... ...................... (3) AS Unit 1: Lifestyle............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 2+ ions into a cell at two different temperatures 0 C o n c e n tra tio n o f c a 2+ io n s in th e c e ll / a rb itra ry u n its 8 6 K e y a t °2 a t °3 4 0 0 2 0 0 2 T (i) 6 4 i m Describe the uptake of Ca e 2+ 8 / m i n 1 u 0 t e s ions by the cell over the 10 minute period at 30 °C......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Transport.................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................1 Membranes (b) The graph below shows the diffusion of Ca over a 10 minute time period...........................

.................................................................... ................................. This process is called ........................................................................................................... (2) (Total 11 marks) 5........................................... . (Total 4 marks) .. ............................... then write on the dotted lines the most appropriate word or words to complete the account.. Read through the following account of the transport of molecules across a cell surface membrane...................................................................... (2) (iii) Suggest an explanation for the effect you have described in part (ii)..........................................................................................................................................(ii) Use the graph to describe the effect of a 10 °C temperature rise (from 20 °C to 2+ 30 °C) on the uptake of Ca ions into this cell....................................................................................................... When this movement occurs down a concentration gradient...................................... the process is called .......................................................................... ........................................................................................................ Most movement of molecules against a concentration gradient uses energy in the form of ................... Some polar molecules cross the membrane by combining with transport proteins which can change their shape.............. ..................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................ Some molecules cross a cell surface membrane by passing down a concentration gradient through the phospholipid layer........................................................................................................ .......................................................................... .................................................................................... ................................... ..................................................... and when it occurs against a concentration gradient the process is called ............................................. ..................................................................

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