Copyright. COLLEGE OP THE P^. BY HENRY HOLT & CO.PRINTER.P1 ROBERTDRUMMOND. . V. NEW YORK. 1896.2. r SEP 1 2 1917 BiWiX^ 7443 1374.

1892. Ten Brink's death is a lamentable loss to students of English literature. Dr. Alois far back as 1877 he was at once recognized by scholars to be one of the leading authorities in all that concerned the earliest period of English literature. however. still in the author's hands awaiting his final touches when he was suddenly struck down by death in the prime of life on the 2Qth of January. for with the appearance of the First Volume of his "History" . and Volume III. This Second Part * was. Brandl devoted himself to his task with so much zeal and assiduity that before the close of the year (1892) the present volume was in the hands of his German readers. of the . * It has been found more convenient to issue the translation two Parts as Volume II.and entrusted with the MS. The First Part of the SecondVolume had at least passedthrough the press under his supervision and had received his latest corrections. Dr.was appointed one of his literary executors. THE pathetic circumstances connected with the publication of the Second Volume of Ten Brink's " His- tory of English Literature" naturally cast a deeper shadow still over the last part of his work.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. and his subsequent treatment of Chaucer is admitted on all hands to stand well- nigh unrivalled. In his Preface. material left by the eminent Dutch scholar. who succeeded Ten Brink in the Chair of English Philology in Strassburg.

May. although carefully arranged. of Book VI. was unpaged. to the end of the chapter). Brandl very appropriately quotes in connection with Ten Brink's own sad fate: " Great things he might still have accomplished. Dr.Vi PREFACE.beyond two blank leaveswhich Dr. Brandl tells us that up to the end of Chapter IV.the pages numbered and evidently finally revised by the author. but what he did accomplish has not been lost to posterity. on the untimely death of the Earl of Surrey. viz. 211. we have others which had not been looked for. and by which he had attracted students from all parts of the world. only a few pages were to be found. of taking up his subjects as the spirit moved him. which had been referred to by the author as far back as 1889. he found all practically ready for the press. DORA SCHMITZ. Brandl has filled in to the best of his ability (this passage occurs in our volume on p. His " History " remains unfinished. a subject which he had already made a part of his University lectures. and although some of the promised notes are wanting. II." L.. 1. and this is the more to be regretted as the next volume would have presented the more serious discussion oi the Elizabethan era. Dr. yet with- out gaps. The remainder of the MS. in any case. 1896. Ten Brink's last words in this volume. . This is a further proof of the method Ten Brink is said to have adopted in work. Of the Appendix. and this may possibly also account for the omission in this volume of some writers whom Ten Brink may have intended to deal with in their turn before finally arranging his material for publication.

. Blanchardyne and Eglantyne.. Life of Adam and Eve . X. Godejroyof Boloyne. He translates and prints The Game and Playe of the Chesse.. Pn se-versions of King Ponthus of Galicia . the Four Sonnesof Aymon.. treatise on the Difference betweenAbsolute and Limited Monarchy... William Caxton. and the Gesta Romanorum. Maundeviile* Travels.-BOOK AND V. the Pelerinages of Guillaume Deguileville.. Translation of the Legenda Attrea. Fortescue'sstruggle for the Lancastriansbecomes useless is pardoned by Edward IV. Reynart the foxe. . (continued).-Legend of The ThreeKings. Translation I'egetis and^EgidiusRomanus of by Trevisa. Le livre du Chevalierdeta Tour-Landry. and of the Potychronicon an anonymous by writer and by Bokenham .CONTENTS VOLUME III. Governor of the English Merchants in Bruges. LANCASTER IX. His Legends.Jerome " Christina Mirabilis . the Life and Miracles of Robert^Earl of Oxford. his Declaration .) YORK. Development of Political Prose.. Malory's Morte d?Arthur .. and St.. Festtal\yyJohn Mirkus. Articles addressedto the Earl of Warwick. an apprenticein London. The Burgundian Court. the Dictes and Sayenges 3-16 of the Philosopheres. Injormacon for Pylgrima^es to ihe s Holy Londe. His Book of the Illustrious Henries. St.. the Lyf of /ason .. (Continued. Catherine of Siena. Caxton learnsthe art of printing. his . Merlin. A great reader. Sir John of Fortescue's De Natura Legis Natura .-John Capgrave's Chronicle of England. the Lyf of Charles the Crete. his Commendation of the Laws of England. His Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. The Commodytes England. the story of the Knyghte Parys and the fayr Vyenne. 16-46 . of Iflomedon . the Horologium Sapientuz of Heinrich Suso. His Dialogue betweenUnderstandingand Faith...

Influence of Henrysonand Chaucer. XI. Why come nat to Courte Skelton dies ye ? in the sanctuaryof Westminster 93-I2I III. Mummings. Political troubles after the death of James IV. I. Translation of Ship of Fools. Huchownof the awle ryale. John Skelton.viii CONTENTS. His Eneados. and Masques the at court of Henry VIII.. the Visitation of St. Boke of Philip Sparowe Skeltonianmetre . King Hart. Eclogues. VI. Lament of the Makars. Religious Poems. The Moral Play or Interludium in its full development. his Boke against Skelton. his Legend the Chnste of Susannah andGest . Minor works by Barclay .Latin Moral-playof Luther andhis Wife. Dance of the Sevin Deidly Synnis. Hycke Scorner. Petitions. His Pastime of Pleasure. . The court of JamesIV. the Justis betwix the Tailyeour and Sowtar. His maiden-speech against Henry . Parrot. and Sir Jhan the Priest. Speke. Francis. Johan the Husbande. Flyting of Dtuibar and Kennedy.-Scotland. Play of the Wether. his Tyb Ther sites and the miles Pardoner. Neybour and Pratte. 65-93 II. gloriosus*Translation the Celestina RodrigodeCota 122-144 of of IV. 46-61 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. Satires: Twa maryit Women and the Wedo. 'wife.-Stephen Hawes at the court of Henry VII.. Translations from Ovid. The Todand the Lamb. The war of independence. Tydinges fra the Session. Nature of the Four Elements. John Heywoodand his Interludes Dialogue Wit and Folly.-William Dunbar.-Sir VLL.. The Worlde and the Chylde.. The Four PPs. His youthful works. The Palace of Honour. Merle and Nychtingaill. Collection Legends theSaints of of BOOK John harbour's Troy-Romance his Bruce. Marriage of King James. Satireson Cardinal Wolsey : Colin Clout. Play of Love : on . and dies in London . Curate. or the DevilCs Inquest.and fragmentof a Commentaryon the significance of Myths. Alexander Barclay. influence of Chaucer and of Dunbar. Influenceof Chaucerand Lydgate. Against Swearing.. Skelton's Necromancer his Magnificence. More'spoetical in Thomas More.. Disputations. Deaths of Dunbar and James IV. Friar. Nature by Henry Medwail. Gawin Douglas. despisedas a traitor. Testament of Master Andro Kennedy . Bougeof Court. written in heroic rhymed- couplets. his . Dirige to the King at Stirling. The Goldyn Targe. The Oxiord Humanists London. of Arthure.. Erasmus in England and the Oxford Humanists.-Appearance of professional actors since the days of Henry VI. Dunbar's failing health and infirmities. The Thrissel and the Rois. Gawin acts as a diplomatist.

His poetical prototypes. His translation of Vergil. IX attempts. Town Mouse and Field Mouse. rondeaux. Supplicacyon for the Beggars. Latin-English Lexicon. Wyatt's erotic poetry . natural religion. Surrey a Maecenas. translatesGuevara's Dispraise of the life of a Courtier. Appearance of Luther.'s divorce. Confutacyon of Tin dale's Reply. a picture of the position of the English people at the time . two Elegies on Wyatt. Image of Governance Of that Knowledgeivhiche . Robert Fabyan's Concordaunce Hystories. 144-187 V. a follower of St. its sources. . Thomas Starkey. Augustine. Elegy on Cromwell's fall borrowed from Petrarch.-Lord Berners translates Froissarfs Chronicle^ French prose-romancesand Guevara's Boke of Marcus Aurelius. Wyatt's arrest. on the Catholic side . Lord Chancellor. Starkey's Dialogue between Pole and Liipset^ a supplement to the picture given of England in Utopia. Epigrammatical sketches of character. Love-poems alternately with satires. Satire on the Citi- zens of London. Surrey's sonnets on Wyatt. Edward Hall's Chronicle. Preservativeagayns'eDeth. Pasquil the Playne. Bankette of Sapience. Love-poems on Geraldine. Utopia. R.New military undertakings arrested Elegy$ . Henry VIIl. Anne Boleyn. Paraphrase of the Penitential Psalmsand of the Thirty-seventh Psalm.Sir FrancisBryan. Castel of Helth. Erasmus's Instructions of a Christian Prince. his home-life. Theeducation children . translation of Ecclesiastes somePsalms.CONTENTS. Earl of Surrey. William Tindale. Historie of Kyng Richardethe Thirde.»» 212-263 265-277 . His fellow-workers. Apology. Ottava rima and canzonettes. Pole sends Henry VILI. Surrey's military proceedings. his Declaration. His Sonnets. ThomasWyatt. Ambassadorat the court of the Emperor Charles V. Distinguished and dangerousfamily relations. Blank-verse. 187-212 VI. Berncrs' nephew. . -New court-poetry in Henry VIII.'s reign. On Wyatt's translation of the Psalms. his pamphletsand adherence to Luther. More's fall. """<. Beheaded. Journey to Italy and influence of Petrarch. Marriage. His Bokeof the (jovernour . John of Leland's and John Bales'santiquarian collections . his relation to Erasmus. Sir Thomas More. imitations of Horace and Alamanni. his Translation of the Bible printed against the consentof those in authority. Embassyto Flanders. his edition of the Greek Testament. Continued influence of Wyclifism. and retires from public life. Terzarima. . is acquitted. makelha Wise Man . his De unione ecclesiastica. Supplicacyonof Souls in Purgatory. and Appendix . execution . Sir Thomas Elyot. Doctrinal of of Princes. Defence Good of Women. Henry Howard. Friendship with Erasmus.




however. too. (Continued). symbolical motives. Characteristic. to the spread of which. This had been the case with one of the versions of the life of Adam and Eve.compiled a life . Hampole so essentially contributed. his confessant. whether by forming the centre of the legends-as the heroines-or by inducing writers to turn foreign works into English. part and parcel of the whole tendency of the age. One English priest. were turned into prose. It the successof the subject also led to the general acceptance of the form of composition in which it appeared. is the part which women played in this branch of literature. where the Biblical nucleus of the legend had been supplemented by a variety of attractive. As early as the second half of the fourteenth century occasional instances are met with where works. in England. and had thus tempted several English poets-and subsequently prose-writers as well-to take the subject in hand. It has been considered that this legendaryliteratureevery now and again gives distinct evidence of the increasing tendency to asceticism and mysticism. ThreeKingstranscripts legend bearwitnessto itsof increasing of THEnumerousmade is possiblethat the popularity The duringthe decline of the Middle Ages. originally written in metrical form. The groundthus gained by prosewas. During the fifteenth century a number of the Lives of the Saints were translated from Latin into English prose-in some cases repeatedlyand even the Miracles treating of the Legends of the Virgin sometimes assumed this form.HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. IX. out of regardfor a noble lady. both in prose and poetry.

in order that this lady and others might team therefrom how to live and how to die. there being a kind of transition to it in the alliterative verse(indigenousto that part of the country). Catherine of Siena-there is distinct evidence of the above-mentioned tendency to asceticism and the beginning of the fifteenth century-again a book intended in the first in- stance the useof priests.for his admixtureof south and north English linguistic forms-translated. a monk. its aim was to be a comfort to preachers." the distribution and influenceof which wasstill on the increase. In prose. another an Italian.Jerome from the " Legenda Aurea andfromletters " self.but also well adapted being for for communicated verbally to the congregation. Again. The author. was a regular canon of the Augustinian friary at Lilleshall. among other things. and. and-drawing from a Latin source-wrote his Instructionsfor Parish Priests in very readable rhymedcouplets." still Mirkus followed it with freedom and discrimination.he was cautious enough simply to omit the more obscure passages from the Scriptureswhich he foundquotedin his originals. provide them throughout to the ecclesiastical with homiliesand legends Sundays year for and Church festivals. Western detail as . especially distinguished itself in this domain at an early date.he wrote his Festial. He seems.4 LANCASTER AND YORK. the first cycle of prose-legends arose. to have thought that prose was more suitable for the people. in Shropshire. Cyril. was also the sourceand prototype for "Festial. In the Lives of theseSaints -three of whom are Belgian women of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It was on the borders of Wales that. one of them being Christina Mirabilis. who probably who excuses himwrote in the north-eastern Midlands-and of St. which had passedbetween St. Augustine and St. produced Trevisa and Pecock. accordingly. the legends four femalesaintsfrom Latin into his of own language. when presented without archaisms and without any claim to a higher form of poetry. Various districts in England were engaged in the production of prose-legends. as we have already a postscript. at the requestof his prior. The "Golden Legend.however. Mirkus had also tried his hand at verse. John Mirkus. however.

and several new histories. and of St. by his "Pfclerinage TAme Humaine. one of his copyists. had the happy thought-not uncommon in those days-of entering instead a number of 1 'worthy scholars and doctors of divinity. is proved by the success it met with. . patron saint of Lilleshall Church. The anonymous writer calls himself a "pore sinner".and then (in 1358)addedthe "Pblerinagede * Vol. 5 well as a whole. On the other hand. Wenefrede of Wales. whose name and profession are unknown. from the "Gesta Romanorum" and other sources. DEVOTIONAL LITERATURE. and in the course of time even the arrangement of the parts was altered. indeed. A name specially often met with in this domain." In 1335 he remodelled de both poems. although supplemented by several new ones. and. is also apparent in the devotional literature of allegorico-mystical tendency. the " Legenda Aurea. experienced all sorts of modifications and amplifications. a monk and prior of the Cistercian Abbey of Chalis.JOHN MIRKUS. at all events he did not make his translation from the original. is that of Guillaume de Deguileville." Perhaps he was even unacquainted with Latin. whom we first came across when discussing the religious bent of Chaucer's mind." and it was followed. The number of legends with him is smaller than in the collection of Jacobus of Genoa. found a more faithful translator. of wrotehis "Pklerinagede la Vie Humaine" between 1330 and 1331. ii. 60. together with that which proceeded from Latin sources. which he has followed carefully upon the whole. new copies were perpetuallybeing made. but from one of the two existing French versions. however." Such appellations would scarcely have suited the pious " sinner. Alkmund. How opportune this undertaking of the pious Augustinian monk was. and in many cases the contents. and in many passagesword for word. the number of homilies is considerably increased. when about "midway on life's course. from the earlier one by Jehan de Vignay. such as that of St. About a generation after the version made by Mirkus. p." in 1438. The demand for " Festial" was extraordinarily great. and on such occasions the language. in the diocese Senlis. French influence.* Deguileville. after a short interval. were incorporated.

and the morechoicehis diction. having made use of the earlierversion. the less his work impressesus with any direct force. in all cases. upon the version by Gallopes. like most allegoricalwriters. as we learn in the South-English dialect. he wasnot the sort of man able. at all events. however." with the mental state producedupon him by reading the famouspoem. in many respects. or. full of trivial matter. also based upon the earlier form of the poem.0 LANCASTER AND YORK. In 1426. in the . surnamed Galoys. Still.Jean Gallopes. were meant so to reproduce it. About the same time. first "Pelerinage"-based upontheversion the of 1355-was turned into English in short rhymed-couplets. It may not only have fertilized his imagination.but have also aroused in him the distinct intention of creating a religious and. the more correct he is in his sentiments and ideas. And how well de Deguilevilie hit the spirit of his day is shownby the immense and lasting successhis poem met with. turned the first two " Pelerinages into prosetowardsthe beginningof the " fifteenth century (previousto 1435).and le said to have been of English extraction. the original text of the "Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine " was turned into prose English prose version was produced in the northern dialect. at the request of the Earl of Salisbury. and at a later period another from Lydgate. Still. and allows them too little scope for action. equallydeep-rooted significance.he his makes his personifications hold discourses of too great length. The author of the " Pelerinages had at his disposal " knowledgeof variouskinds. the more equalthe constructionof his plan. All of thesetranslations adopt theABC Hymn to theVirgin in the formwhich Chaucerhad givenit. of which he givesan accountin his first " Pelerinage. and was by no means want- ing in imagination. by a work of pendantto a poemwhich waswholly secularin character. possibly." which so powerfully influenced literature the declining the of Middle Ages. who was residing in Parisat the time. he was rich in inward experience. but in connection with the readers for whom it is written. Deguileville wrote under the sway of the " Roman de la Rose. He himself connectshis own vision. a book must not be judged only by itself. to throw life into the artistic form in which he expressed thoughts. JesuChrist" as a final part to his trilogy. A Frenchpriest.

t The name ot a Kempis I make use of here only as a familiar symbol. Those acquainted with-let us frankly say those who admire-" The Imitation of Christ" would find Suso's "Booklet" frequently remind them of a favourite work : not only do we find it pervaded by the same mental and spiritual atmosphere. 7 Cotton ManuscriptcontainingLydgate'swork.wrote his "Btichlein derWeisheit. purified and mellowed by rich experience." Less far-reaching. but we find. and do not mean to express any literary conviction . As late as the seventeenth century." a work which has remained much more closely in touch with the present day. . in 1413. the General of his * It appears to be based upon the above-mentioned South-English version." and others-I have never made the subjects of learned inquiry. was the influence exercised upon English spiritual life in the fifteenth century by a work of German mysticism." which. a free English adaptation had been made. the space for the Master'spoem-which in the text is expressly mentioned and praised-has remaineda blank. In the mean time.and. but even more intense. the same depth of insight. an abbreviated version of his " Pilgrimage of Human Life" * enjoyed a certain circulation in manuscript. The influence of Guillaume de Deguileville did not remain confined to the Middle Ages.the thoughts clothed in the self-same language. the famous Dominican.INFLUENCE OF GUILLAUME DE DEGUILEVILLE. But what in Suso appears linked with a youthful exuberance of poetic feeling. when the first English version of the French " Pylgremages " had appeared. and had dedicated it to Hugo of Vaucemane.Hemrich Suso. it was subsequently printed by Caxton. Somewhereabout the samedate. books with which I have been intimately acquainted from early youth-such as " The Imitation of Christ. under the title of " Horologium Sapientise. during the Middle Ages." and a certain share in this work is again ascribed to Lydgate ." before 1341. and thus-like everything visionary on the borderland between the natural and spiritual-exhibits a morbid touch. in many instances. above all. the same intensity of emotion. Suso had translated his " Booklet of Wisdom " into Latin. within a narrower sphere. and probably may have come into Bunyan's hands and have thus suggested his " Pilgrim's Progress. under the title of " Pylgremages of the Sowle. in Thomas a Kempisf strikes one as wisdom. enjoyed an even wider circulation in Germany than the u De Imitatione Christi.

Order at the time. What seems in the first instanceto be a confusedand capriciouslyarranged mosaic from the " Horologium Sapientiae. we are amazed at the wanderings to and fro. The Englishtranslatorbeginsthe Prologue his adaptation to with its characteristic of YeSevern title Poyntes TreweLoveand of Everlastyng Wisdame^ with the following words : " My most worshipfull lady after your hygh worthynesse. -we have here to deal with a reproduction based upon an intimate acquaintance with the original. In taking the several parts and passagesof the English version and comparing them with the plan of the original. drawen oute in englysshe of that devoute contemplatyf boke writen clergealye in latyn the whyche is clepid the Orologe of wysdom. I am styred to write after my symple cunnynge to you. without the help of pagination. but one that? . that he of his gracehath sete in youre herte for to norrysshe sumwhat and fede that gracyous fyre of love. we are compelled to make in our own examination. consideryngyoure excellent wisdom bothe to god and to the worlde. and carried out with clear insight and great skill.8 LANCASTER AND YORK. unfortunately." on closer inspection appears mosaic a still. for we have to deal not merely with a translation-whether strict or free -nor with a mere careless compilation such as the Middle Ages delighted in and." The little treatise deservesour fullest consideration here. it seems as if we were endeavouring gatherup. I youre symple trew chapeleyne unworthy to have name of fader. namely in thys wickyd worlde that is full of decevable wisdom and faste feyned love.and felynge in experienceby the sparclesof goostly communicatyon the hete of the fyre of love to oure lorde Jhu. our own age favours. that called forth an English version of Suso's booklet. and to comforte youre goostly wysdome. as ye devoutly desyre. In its Latin form. It was the spiritual need a noble pious of and woman thiscase in again. a lytyll shorte treatyse of everlastynge wysdom and the trew love of Jhesu. and derest loved goostly dougter after your vertuous mekenes. And yet our difficulty and the impression of arbitrariness made by the English version arise solely from our own defective knowledge of the subject. it is true. to the loose leaves of a book which had got into disorder. the little book found a circulation both in France and England. backwards and forwards.

i. The Englishadapterhasnot confinedhimself-in accordance with any distinct plan-to abbreviating. and hereand there altering the expression. The mental offspringof the Germanmystic in its Englishdress appears practical. to judge by the existing manuscript copies and above all by its having been included among Caxton's prints. and Understanding " f is in a great measureindebted to "The Sevene Poyntes"for thetheological learninghedisplays. pervadedby such a glow of mysticismand spiritual life that compared to it the ecstasiesof some modern English sects might be said to resemble. Its influencecannot have beenunimportant. the rather than a poet's rapture.reducing. however. this little treatise must be acknowledged the most important memorial of English prose from the first half of the fifteenth century. . After Pecock's works. Meanwhile secular prose had commenced to show fuller development. gives evidence having been made by a skilful hand and of with a definite purposefrom stonestaken from the original. on the other hand. The very first monologueby Wisdom. asweflasthefollowing dialogue between Wisdom Spirit. rearranging. but merely what the Englishman required for his purpose. ii. The author of the Moral Play " Spirit. 9 while representing an independent and smaller picture. especially thedomainof epicrepresentation.and certainangularfeatures make it appearevensomewhat commonplace and yet it is . p.originally.ff. The t( Sevene Poyntes of Trewe Love and Everlastyng Wisdame doesnot exhibit in composi" tion and expression that invariableand harmonious gracefulnesswe admired in some of the earlier productions of English * mysticism . it displays fuller maturity and an even greater degreeof simple piety. orgies of a drunken sailor.sober.and subdued. Will. 199. p. he has yet absolutely succeeded condensinghis original according in to the object he had in view. We do not find all the substanceof Suso's book in the English version. and are taken from "The SevenPoyntes. ff. 299."andhence.which opensthe play. in One of the earliestEnglishprose-romances-ifwe disregard * Vol. from Suso's well-known work. that even several decades before Caxton printed the work (about 1490?) it had exercised its influence on a dramatic poet. It is extremely remarkable. t Vol."THE SEVENE POYNTES OF TREWE WISDAME.

Austria in 1448. hence. The Roman deMerlin thus supplemented was turned into English prose in the reign of Henry VI.IO LANCASTER AND YORK. In the same way as the German romance of "Pontus of Sidonia" is based upon the work of a Scottish princess. De Boron's narrative ends with the crowning of young Artus. perhaps. * Vol. The " Roman de Merlin. the Saracens are made the chief enemies of the Britons.down to the period when Launcelot comesto the court. " Apollonius of Tyre" *-is the history of King Ponthus of Galicia and the beautiful Sidonia (Sidoyne)." which was written by Robert de Boron at the beginning of the thirteenth century. daughter of the King of Little Bretagne. of Scotland. in place of the Saxons. the best known and most widely circulated continuation carries on the history of the king and of the heroes interwoven with the saga. But it was not upon English soil that the remodelling had been effected. under the French form of the name. Under changed names and in a new locality.daughter of James I. who married Duke Siegmundof ." Thereupon writers directed their attention to that vast mine of French romances the origin of which is only now beginning to be fully cleared up by the investigations of most recent times. the figures and events of the saga of Horn and Rymenhild are here again met with. it seems. Among other subjects rendered in prose at an early date we may mention the Ipomedon(Hippomedon). p. 114. i. This translation gives throughout the impression of being a faithful one. Saisnes. in that pseudo-historical connection called the " Brut. the more trifling deviations from the French texts I have been able to consult may have originated from the condition of the copy the Englishman had before him. at first. is the fact that the translator did not recognize his own ancestors. as a sequel to his " Joseph de Arimethie.. and in this form had more than one supplement added to it." had subsequentlybeen turned into prose.f the English work is based upon a French prose version.after the manner of Geoffrey of Monmouth. t Eleonora. the Artus (Arthur) legend had also been turned into prose. the poetic figures of which will have to occupy our attention for a short time in what follows Since the beginning of the Lancastrian era. the Saxons. probably towards the middle of the fifteenth century. Noteworthy.

Charles. Oxford. although drawing from Latin sources. to translate this popular work into English. at the request of the Fellows.chiefly against the English De la Tour-Landry's father." A beginning may have been made. made towards the end of the fifteenth century. at all events * Vol. took up subjectsdealingwith their native land. the other ninety-six. in a variously changed order. . independently of each other. his eldest son.PROSE-ROMANCES. and without moralizings." The author belonged to a noble Anjevine family which had distinguished itself in war.mainly legendary. John Felton. and contains only thirtytwo narratives. also a Geoffroy. A book written by Geoffroy de la Tour-Landry between 1371-72 for his three daughters. only the smaller portion are genuine " Gesta. Two different versions which were produced at that time. More than one preacher and moralist had drawn from this rich mine. i.they had played their own part there. p.. For the "Gesta. The French proseto romance of " Ponthus et Sidoyne " was written." A third collection of them. of which. and distinguished himself. but their literaryfuturewasto beconsiderably moreimportant than had been their past." as alreadystated. had fought in 1336 under the banner of the Court of Anjou. however. have been preserved. appeared independently. In any case. and others were continually finding their way anew to the storehouse. and he himself was on no less of a warrior than his father had been or his descendants proved themselves be. belongs to a species akin to tne "Gesta Romanorum. I I The English writers who worked upon the Gesta Romanorum. some fifty have been gathered from Odo of Cerinton and other sources. about this date. The growth of the offshoots which had struck root on the Continent. 264. wrote a collection of Latin Sunday-sermons. In 1431. had hitherto been without any perceptible influence on the development of the primary root.duringthe reign of Henry VI. The one gives seventy histories. Vicar of Magdalen College. The Anglo-Latin " Gesta" had already furnished manyan Englishpoetwithmaterialandsuggestions. also somewhat abridged. which contain numerous quotations from the " Gesta. ft 11 the field of Agincourt in 1415.* are a collection of historieswhich in all probability originated in England.

. and has been handed down to our day in several manuscripts from the fifteenth century. she cannot have been De la TourLandry's first wife. Le Livre du Chevalier de La Tour Landry. It also found its way to England and Germany. yet this did not prevent his marrying twice again later in life. had various interests in literature.12 LANCASTER AND YORK. Chronicles. it is an instructive and improving work. and into the literature of both of these countries. and it is probably no mere accident that Geoffrey's grandson-Charles' son. partly. that made him take up his pen. But as a true lover never forgets the woman he has once truly loved. The one written for his daughters attained great popularity. and had doubtless beenacquaintedwith Chevalier Geoffroy's book. but his second. " his wife had been dead for many years. may have suggested the work. This princess. worthy even of being read in our century. or some one in her immediate surroundings. full of useful and more or less devotional narratives. by two priests and two clerks. At the time when gallant Geoffroy wrote his book." he was still inconsolable at her loss. His third wife was Marguerite des Roches. though we might hesitate to place it in the hands of any young girls. It seems almost likely that Marguerite of Anjou. nor did the work lack references to the " Gesta Romanorum.* It was anxiety for his daughters' future. which the noble author had caused to be collected. for the most eminent of the hero's comrades bears the name of Landry de la Tour. is a mirror of virtues and morals for women and girls. who soon after his grandfather's death became head of the family-was named Pontus." Taken as a whole. even before her marriage. The Chevalier probably expressedhimself with even greater freedom and naivete in the book he drew up for his sons . and Collections of Tales and Miracles. who in 1445 became King Henry's wife. The manuscript in which the by no means unsuccessful translation has been * As Jeanne de Rouge" was still alive in 1383. furnished a variety of material. but it has not come down to us. in honourand glorificationof his family. from the Bible and all sorts of other books which he had read aloud to him. In England it was translated into the native language as early as the reign of Henry VI. fear of the dangers to which their innocence and piety were exposed in this world. and in two printed copies from the succeeding one.

at Liege in 1371.SIR JOHN MAUNDEVILLE. however. is also said to have started on his great expedition to the East in 1322. together with many a story of personal adventure. From the inquiries of the last decade. One of the most widely circulated and favourite books during the fifteenth century was the "Travels" of Sir John Maundeville^ which. the mass of wondrous reports which accumulated round the nucleus of truth was ever on the increase. Albans. and the numerous differences the varioustexts or groupsof texts. however. French. compilers presented all sorts of mythical and legendary matter gathered from earlier as well as later writers. and its starting-point and goal are found in the pilgrimages made to Palestine. which during the course of the fourteenth century was linked to the name of Sir John Maundeville. there seems no doubt that Maundeville's " Narrative of his Travels " was originally written in French. and what had merely sprung from a lively imagination. 13 preserved. The itinerary literature of the Middle Ages has a long history of its own. in the different ." and theywere translatedinto almost all the other civilized languagesof Europe. and to have written the Narrative of his Travels on his return in 1356. it is said. was no less attracted by narratives of travel. in renderit verydifficult to solve of the questions any connected with the work and its author. who is said to have been born in St. There exist numerousmanuscripts and printed copiesin Latin. The thirst for novelties which found refreshment in stones and anecdotes. we have also descriptions of other lands in the East and their inhabitants. both statelyin appearance is and neat in workmanship. that all the other existing texts. Maundeville. owed its origin to a preceding period. It was in this manner that the fabric. graduallycame to be constructed. The enormous amount of material. became mingled with what others had seen. He died. In addition to the accounts of the Holy Land and of the roads leading thither. or said they knew on reliable authority.of his " Travels. by accounts of foreign lands and nations.and English. hence. As these early accounts frequently served as the foundation for later narratives. What a traveller had himself actually seen.

on its part. probably during the eighth decade of the fourteenth century. which is met with in various other sources as well. In Maundeville we seem to have a peculiar. As early as 1390if not earlier-an abridged copy of it was made. we find him among the followers of the Sultan of Egypt in his struggles with the Bedouins. roaming throughout long years in foreign lands. Still. The work seems. the English version then experienced various alterations. but at times changesof an incisive kind were made. We have an English knight of the fourteenth century. languages. seized with the desire to wander abroad. we find him crossing the sea. Thus multiplied by numerous transcripts. again formed the basis of a new Italian version. viz. and in the retinue of the great Khan of Cathay. the traveller's supposed native land. Nevertheless. it is difficult to believe that the tradition of " Maundeville's Travels " does not contain some nucleus of historical truth. and visiting nations afar off. and further the meagreness and untrustworthiness of the communications on important contemporary events. full of the love of adventure. which it is hoped may likewise soon be forthcoming. to have met with quite peculiar favour in England.14 LANCASTER AND YORK. the questionable nature of much of the information given. a variety of other questions await their solution from a similar edition of the English text. the connection between these "Travels" and the earlier Itineraries. as well as an attractive example of that type of Palestine-traveller who kept an account of the incidents and experiences of his journey for the benefit of future pilgrims. any attempt to break through the doubt that enshrouds it cannot well prove successfuluntil the appearance of the critical edition of the French text-of which there is some prospect in the immediate future. as a rule. Is Maundeville-as a traveller and even as a writer-to be regarded as an historical personage. The original text was there repeatedly translated into Latin and also into English.or as a mere legendary type? Much seems to speak in favour of the latter assumption. not very important. are more or less faithful translations-whether made at first or second hand-and that none of these can be regarded as having been made by the author of the an early date. which. .

and became accessibleto English readers about the same date as " Maundeviile's translator of these "Travels" rendered no Travels.SIR JOHN MAUNDEVILLE. for I was not there. both of which deal with the distant Orient. " Of Paradise I cannot speak properly. he adds. gives the names of the towns and other places worthy of a visit. for instance." The small service to his countrymen." How immensely exciting must have been the effectof this narrativeupon the older knights freemen or who were unable to leave their native land ! As stirring. The great multiplicity of subjects that had to be spoken of. which were directed towards . discussesthe question of taking food supplies. the most important stages. with the time of year to be chosen. By exercising a certain amount of discretion the author contrives to increase the impression of the trustworthiness of his communications. the most convenient means of transport. The efforts of Trevisa.when speaking of certain localities and their marvels. as. To us the earliest English Handbook on Travel is specially important in a linguistic respect. A collection of concise " Informacon for pylgrimages to the Holy Londe" deals with the routes to be taken. must have been the legends of " The Three Kings " or " The Franklin's Tale" from Chaucer. at war with the King of Mancy. These and other similar details are described in The a frank Sultan of Egypt wished him to marry the daughter of a greatpotentate. and various other matters. also. and probably even more powerful in their influence. And even an element of actual romance is not wanting. IS in Tartary. forced the translator to make a more extensive use of his native vocabulary than mediocre scribes were wont to do in those days. of medicinal safeguards against unfavourable climatic influences. explains the manner in which useful the traveller has to conduct himself towards Mahomedans or the Doge of Venice. It was in keeping with the increasing fondness for travel -which was not a little encouraged by reading " Maundeville"-thac literature should endeavour to meet the re- quirement of travellers in a more practical manner. even though he has at times misunderstood the original text. the knight would not forswear belief. but his and simple fashion.

in 1440. Trevisa himself was. ii.preserved in the same codex. and carried down somewhere to the year 1401. those chapters devoted to trie account of England which form the conclusion to the first Book of the " Polychronicon.. to whom-as Prince of Wales-Occleve dedicated his poem. It will be remembered that Henry V. Ranulph Higden's comprehensive Polychronicon was again translated.* had supplementary matter added to them during the fifteenth century." Many other works were turned into English through Trevisa's industry. still active as a writer at the commencement of the Lancastrian era. which he had compiled some time previously from Jacobus a Voragine and other sources. In addition to these. in Suffolk. or as a result of the stimulus given by him. a large connected portion of the samework." Bokenham wrote his Mappula Anglicz-as he calls his translation-for the benefit of the readers of a legendary work. by an unknown writer. viz.undertaken in the year 1408 at the request of his patron. and a translation of ^Egidius Romanus. It was. and a good deal of information about places in England. is probably from his hand . and have been discussed above. Osbern Bokenham. far as mediaeval Chronicles can lay claim to originality-was alreadybeing . by another writer who probably knew nothing about Trevisa's translation. Lord Berkeley. during the second quarter of the century. Doctor of Divinity and Canon of the Augustinian monastery of Stockclare.16 LANCASTER AND VORK. weightier subjects. in all probability. was an eager reader of " Vegetius. pp. 81. Bokenham. translated. too. and may have appeared contemporaneously with Occleve's metrical version. somewhat superfluous that the chief work of his life was re-done.and which contained the lives of a number of the English saints. A translation of Vegetius. 82. was evidently not acquainted with Trevisa's more important work-a proof that the national literature of that era still bore more or less local character. About this date an Original Chronicle-so * See vol. however. is also probably by him or one of his school. but with considerable omissions.

his own Latin is not * According to Ms own statement (Chronicle of England. and the Schoolmen.* at Lynn in Norfolk. although it occurred to him at one time to change his honest English name into the wondrous Latin form of De monnmentopileato. ed. His theological treatises. a good prior. At an early age he entered the House of the Austin Friars there. those historical notes were originally written in English. 259). and what he otherwise produced for learned readers and dedicated to some Mecaenas. intended merely for his own personal use. Duke Humphrey of Gloucester. and remained in close connection with it even after he had been appointed Provincial of his Order in England. bitter and unjust only when the subject touched Wyclif or Sir John Oldcastle. Brother John-as he generally calls himself-was a doctor of divinity. a very orthodox and zealous Catholic. in addition to which we have to take into consideration his preponderating theological bent and his belief in the miraculous. p. he Capgrave was born in 1394. The world in which he lived and worked was thoroughly mediaeval. or even merely from Geoffrey de Viterbo. and Chronicles. Capgrave possessed such critical a brain as Reginald Pecock. Hingeston. in the first instance.f Where he quotes a verse from Vergil. Lives of the Saints. what distinguishes Capgrave from the latter are qualities more negative than positive. on the 2ist of April. he could only have meant his Chronicle of England. however. 17 prepared. . Probably. from Martyrologies. wrote in the language of scholars. no and as little had he felt any breath of the awakening spirit of humanism. also a warm patriot and a good man. At all events. and with the mystic value of numbers. in the seventeenth year of the reign of King Richard II. together with that of Prior of the Friary at Lynn.John Capgrave dedicated a Latin Commentary on Genesis to his great patron. He drew his chief mental nourishment from the Bible. by which. he seems in his later years to have held this high position. t Allegory certainly stirred the blood of the men of the Renaissance as deeply as it had affected those b longing to the declining Middle Ages . a learned gentleman. because. the Fathers of the Church.CAPGRAVE. He occupied himself diligently not only with the moral application of words and matters. but also with their allegorical significance. a good monk. to judge from the context. and in his dedication quoted his Annualia. he frequently makes bad blunders. In the year 1438.

honest and. Augustine. His Genesiswas followed by Commentaries on the other books of the Pentateuch and most of the other parts of the Old and New Testaments. and. A curious Dlan is adopted as the basis of the historical . our praise would probably have referred more to his good intentions than to his intellectual ability. and for collecting its characteristic features for future generations. He produced in English verse an adaptation of the Legend of St. Capgrave was also the author. it is true. a trustworthy and well-informed authority. at a later day. and a skilful compiler. in many respects. If the Life of Duke Humphrey-which he is said to have written-had been preserved. received the name of Nova LegendaAnglia. was altered so as to give the names in alphabetical order. Capgrave also wrote a Life of St. on theological and philosophical subjects. These were succeeded by a variety of treatises. makes arrant confusion of historical matter beyond his grasp. upon the whole. Catherine. Otherwise. With such advantagesand such limitations in his character.which followed the Calender. he leaves the impression of a clear-headed.althoughin its way tolerableenough. Capgrave was one of the most prolific writers of his century. transcribed from the " Sanctilogium " of John of Tynemouth. he was the very man to make use of the variety of materials at his command for reproducing an exact picture of the vanishing era. likewise in English-though probably in prose-the Life of St. or rather the compiler. however. and narrated the deeds of some illustrious men belonging to his Order. altogetherexemplary. somewhat dogmatic in character. which is said to have been produced about 1366 . with few exceptions. of that ereat Latin catalogue of English saints which. The lives of the saints contained in this collection were. Capgrave was a very shrewd man in his own sphere. and also allows himself to be carried away by loyal zealousness. sober-minded man. In many cases the object he had in view was to combat the encroachment of heresy. of sound understanding. who sometimes. According to tradition.18 LANCASTER AND YORK. a work that has been lost. Gilbert of Semprineham. except that the earlier arrangement adopted in the Nova Legenda.

and is clearly recognized in what is stated of the first two kings of the Lancastrian dynasty.-Henry VI. A couple of years later the worthy Augustinian-probably in connection with matters concerning his Order-travelled to Rome. indeed. William Grey.and. and is too panegyrical in tendency. The first Part is a mere compilation from well-known sources disfigured by numerouserrors. and finally with twelve other rulers and eminent persons who had borne the name of Henry. the author first deals with the six emperors (Henry I. . although again not free from errors. and cheered him by his visits. as he had been by his previous intercourse with Humphreyof Gloucester. the English king's repre- sentativein Rome at the time. then with the six English kings. was produced at different dates. unavoidable. not the faintest approach to any humanistic tendency in thought or feeling. and subsequently.-The Book of the Illustrious Henries. dedicated his Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles to Grey. and Capgrave seems to have put his final touches to it shortly before the middle of the century. with more than one interruption. Henry VI. where he was detained by illness longer than he had anticipated. especially in what is reported of the virtues of Henry IV."BOOK OF THE ILLUSTRIOUS HENRIES.). The works he produced after his return from Rome-when compared with his earlier ones-do not give evidenceof any changein his historical and sesthetical views. played the Samaritan's part towards Capgrave. and taking his heroes in the order of their rank. who found himself very forlorn in the Eternal City. the third Part is both more attractive and instructive \ but the middle Part is undoubtedly the most valuable. more panicularly. likewise his classification of the various orthodox symbols. This tendency was. By dividing it into three Parts. But Brother John was as little drawn from his usual pursuits by his relation to Grey and his having met him on classic ground. and although the chapter on the princes who occupied the throne of England at the time is written with too much reserve." IQ work which Capgrave wrote in honour of his revered king. The " Book of the Illustrious Henries/' which is written in Latin. when Bishop of Ely. Capgrave was deeply grateiul. owing to the object of the work.

of which had long been in preparation.2O LANCASTER AND 1438. The moralizing character of his history. he. . and by way of recreation. the supposition that the Prior of Lynn wrote it during his sojourn in Rome. and refers to many important eventsin detailed connection. and the statements in independent value and trustworthiness. is preserved the verylast. as is evident from several small significant features. In his account of this period he frequently gives communications of his own. up to * Genesis dedicatedto Duke Humphreyof Gloucester. naturally. and in his old method. When his great Commentary on the Bible-the result of more than twenty years' labour. Much as the general character of this little book-which seems to have been chiefly occupied with favourite mediaevaltales and traditions -is in keeping with Capgrave's style. though the detail is someto times presented in a more plastic form than hitherto. however. although frequently interrupted by other work-was brought to an end. shortly after his elevation to the see of Ely. As was customary with works of this kind in the Middle Ages. as in many other similar cases.* After his return to his native land. and. Capgrave's account begins with a general survey of the world's history. The year of the accession Henry III. in his old age. has no proper foundation. gradually concentrating itself upon and ultimately changing into a special account of the writer's own country. the narrative gains in fulness and preceded the Epistles and the Apocalypse-' to William Grey. The interest of Capgrave'shistorical work-which cannot in other respects be reckoned among the great achievements of mediseval historiography-rests essentially upon his treatment of the centuries between 1216-1417. still. be regarded quite apart from his " Guide to the Antiquities of Rome" of which only a few pages have been preserved. Here. hence after 1454. but. turned his attention to the revision and completionof his Chronicle England. (1216)marksthe period of in Capgrave's " Chronicle " where this specialization of the subject is regularly entered upon. his Acts oj was tke Apostles-which very probar. and also where a system of dates is first employed by the years of the reigns of the English kings being given. Capgrave continued his literary activity with all his old industry. is absolutely is observed that in the course of its progress. These works must.

it is stated : " Henricvs Quartus . For while he dedicates his Chronicle to King Edward IV. p.CAPGRAVE'S"CHRONICLE. . quani election* * . the Liber de iltustribus Henricis." Sir John Fortescue was being driven * It must be remembered that even in his work which was dedicated to Henry VI.and at favourablemoments exhibits vivid colouring. which was forthwith to outstrip the former. where the justice and wisdom of the first king of the House of Lancaster are extolled (ed.and the meeting of the Council of Basle. 98). at the commencement of the chapter dealing with this king (p." 21 the last there is absolutely no connection between the individual groups of tacts m the way of causality. non tarn tititlo sanguinis. was writing his " Chronicle of England. indeed. full acknowledgment is due to Capgrave for his love of truth. Contemporaneously with the development of historical prose we have the rise of political prose.* Capgrave's English prose is simple and unaffected. been produced the already-mentioned translation of " ^Egidius Romanus "" The Mirror for Princes "-and.. brings his " Chronicle" to a close. and the doings of Henry of Lancaster with absolute impartiality.but tes also in prose. and the objective manner in which he views things. Hingeston. 108). While Capgrave. in undisturbed leisure. in connection with the war with France. he would have carried it further down to his own time. The first great political writer in the English language. stood in the midst of the turmoil of the Civil War as one of the most zealouspartisans of the House of Lancaster.. and in the Dedication does not fail to contrast him-who has obtained the throne by the grace of God-with Henry IV. however. Before the outbreak of these hostilities there had. the Usurper. although probably. regnavit post Ricardum secundum. The year 1447. attempts had been made to treat such themes as " Commody of England. still. The industrious and pious author died in the year 1464. On the other hand. It received its first main impetus from the Wars of the Roses. and which fo sakes him only when he comes to speak of heresiesand those who advocatethem."not only in verse. had he lived longer. in the work itself. and the firstfruits of his pen were pamphlets in which he upheld the rightful claims of his party.but clear and graphic. he describes the mis- governmentof Richard II.

and. all this Fortescue risked losing when. had frequently to give his advice on weighty questions relating to law and the State. being the head of a family. Alter the catastrophe at Towton. and he himself as content as any one could possibly be when drawn into the full current of the proceedings of those days. and to obtain fresh help for their temporarily prostrate cause. All this existence was imperilled by the Civil War. with firm determination. he resolved to take his king's part in the struggle. Fortescue. of written partly in Latin. when his years of apprenticeship were over. and then at a bound rose to occupy the very highest position of all. Appointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1442. and supported him by word and deed. had originally been accustomed to a quieter and more peaceful kind of life. and faithfully to stand by him in danger and need. his upright and kindly disposition. of with his brain and with his sword. a fugitive with the remnants of the Lancastrian party which had been routed in the battle of Towton. Descended from a family of note in Devonshire. partly in English. and successfully settled many a dispute. where he provided his royal master with the means of obtaining the necessaries life. mounted the ladder of the law. about the country.22 LANCASTER AND YORK. he had at an early age taken up the study of law. and also with his pen. Fortescue had since then. been accustomed to devote to philosophical study what leisure was left him by his official as well as his domestic duties. with a series pamphlets. by forming leagues with foreign potentates. and as a wealthy landed proprietor in severalof the southern counties . in which he upheld the hereditary rights of the House of Lancasteragainstthe claimsof the Yorkists. He had hitherto held an honourable position in life. led a most active life. It was there that Fortescue's literary activity began. by obtaining its successiveoffices and honours. he was held in high esteem on account of his learning. yet unweariedly engaged in the frequent attempts made to collect the scattered members for renewed under- takings. he had. at first step by step. as a faithful servant of his country. The most important of these treatises is one which far exceedsthe others . his time fully occupied. his prominent public position (crowned as it was by knighthood). too. also. Fortescue accompanied the royal family on their flight to Scotland.

and threecandidates the throne lay their claims before the for judgment-seat " Justice. The question is whether a woman can inherit the throneand transmit her hereditaryright to her descendant ? . The second part of the treatise is devoted to the question of hereditary right. the sovereign may have-in case of need -to act despotically. in the courseof his inquiry. written for Prince Edward of Lancaster. and. Hence. however. however. Of these. except when it is opposed to the law and injurious to his people. natural law forms the basis of political hereditary right. that. moreaccurately.SIR JOHN FORTESCUE. The discussion is given in the form of a legal dispute betweenimaginary persons. The ruler of an Asiatic country has died. That. According to Fortescue. the republican form (dominium politician). the constitutional monarchy (dominium i)oliticum et regale). and that based upon a union of both.together of with the daughter's son. in the first part of his treatise he examines the nature of the lex natures. can act only with the consent of his subjects. three forms are dealt with: the unlimited monarchy (dominium regale). According to Fortescue. by dealing with generalpolitical principles. which right he is allowed to exercise. We refer to his Latin treatise. above all things. in this case the king ought. 2j in length. De Natura Legis Natures."the claimantsbeing the brother of and thedaughter thelate ruler. so even in the constitutional monarchy somematters must be left to the discretion of the sovereign. may even have to destroy the possessionsof some of his subjects and expose them to danger for the good of the whole community . the absolute monarch-when making laws and imposing taxes and customs-acts solely upon his own discretion. in both respects. goes on to explain the origin of and the different forms of government. to sacrifice his own personal safety to the State. This subject is dealtwith in a general.such as the sudden outbreak of a war or of a revolution. that. however. in extraordinary cases. in manner. that upon this fact is based the sovereign's right to grant a pardon. as every case in the life of the State cannot be regulated by statute or custom. whereas the constitutional sovereign. an allegorical or.unmistakably connectionwith the feud existing in between the Houses of York and Lancaster. and also presents a range of subjects extending considerably beyond its immediate purpose.

be settled by mere legal argumentation. the Lancastrian heir. 1464). and often in great poverty. While in this unfortunate position. himself fell into the hands of his enemies. with the Emperor and with the Pope. After the battles of Hedgely Moor and Hexham (April and May. Henry VI. Portugal. The uncle denie s her legal power to either. Fortescue wrote letter upon letter. only by success of arms. in fact. as the hereditary right of the Lancastrian dynasty rested upon the principle that the female descendantswere excluded both directly and indirectly. In the end the case is settled in favour of the brother of the late ruler. often of a most wondrous and ingenious kind. threatened altogether to crush their prospects. as could scarcely have been otherwise. Mihel. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy. in 1465. however. negotiations. The struggle for the English crown could not. at first. in July. After having lived long in suspense between fear and hope. and Spain. The mother disputes this point of view. the fugitives were constantly occupied with plans. The disputants exhaust themselves in arguments of endless length. and travelled more than once to Paris. or even at the same time. they tried their luck with Burgundy. despatch upon despatch. and Fortescue was one of those who accompanied her. and its success seemed secured for good when. Their route led through the province of Burgundy to Lorraine. and although the Lancastrians may be admitted to have gained some victories. in the district of Bar. where the queen had been recommended by her father Rene to take up her residence in the little town St. but can transmit her claim to her offspring. Before the crisis came. 1463. the victory of the White Rose remained decisive for some length of time. and were setting heaven and earth in motion to procure confederates. The late ruler's grandson maintains that a woman cannot inherit the throne. still fortune continued to favour the Yorkists in the more important engagements. to the Continent for safety. as the result of an event which had. Alternately. and. their horizon seemed at length permanently to become clearer. upon . Queen Margaret had taken Prince Edward. and intrigues for the restoration of the House of Lancaster. and maintains she can do both.24 LANCASTER AND YORK.

whom-while he was still Count Charolais-the 25 Lancastrian party had in a great measure set their hopes. the country was torn into factions. Fortescue managed find the necessary to quiet for a new and important literary effort. and of English affairs. which must have filled the prince with pride. For years Fortescue had shared an exile's lot with his queen and the prince. The contents.FORTESCUK'S POLITICAL PAMPHLETS. 1467) than he began to his show closer interests in the House of sooner succeeded father (in June. this wasfollowed farther by a complete break between King Edward and the Nevilles (from whom he had already become estranged). sister of King Edward IV. in place of addressingthe young prince with words of consolation. Starting with an account of the difference between an absolute and a limited monarchy-absolute . and even the title of this work are all in the highest degree characteristic of the Englishman's patriotic pride and steadfast optimism. which was constantly breaking out anew-and yet it was amid such times that Fortescue wrote his work De LaudibusLegumAnglice(In Commendation of the Laws of England). and exposed to the convulsions of a civil war. the head of the family. Again he wrote a book for the instruction of Prince Edward of Lancaster. hence. represented the party friendly towards France. and may have thought the time was approaching when the prince would occupy his rightful position by the side of or upon the English throne. and who. led King Louis XL to take up the cause of the dethroned Lancastrians with all the greater energy . However. In place of lamentingthe sad condition of his country. a usurper was still occupying the English throne. In July. and the rightful king still lay in prison. In the midst of this eventful and critical period. tendency. the close union the Duke of Burgundy had entered upon with the reigning dynasty in England. he married Margaret of Y ork. the author closes his dissertation by advising his pupil to study the laws of the land which he will one day be called upon to govern. The followers of Henry VI. thus found themselves in the utmost distress. he gives him an account of the English constitution. in English politics. with the Earl of Warwick. spirit. also. 1468. and their adversaries were triumphant.

This comparison between the two neighbouring countries Fortescue carries considerably beyond the limits of his actual subject.The negotiations lastedsomelengthof . Warwick's banishment from England in March. succeeded bringing in about an arrangement betweenQueen Margaret and the King-Maker. by enlarging upon systems of government. above all other countries. The type of the absolute system appears." the diplomatic negotiations which were to to the restoration of the House of Lancaster the eve of being brought to a close. however. upon which the future of the Lancastrian party depended. and describes the former as being " disfigured by barbarisms. The incorruptibility of Englishwitnesses and judges which Fortescue extols so highly must. and. to be France under Louis XL. and he takesa delight in accounting for the evils which spring from this form of government-as well as. 1470. conversely. monarchy being made the result of conquest. any defects that may attach to them. and other social relations . In many respects the exiled patriot seesthe circumstances of his native land in a rosier light than might have been expected from a man of his penetration. the comfortable position of the English yeoman being placed in a bright light in contrast with the wretched existence of the French peasant. jurisprudence. particularly in those days . the blessings which arise fromthe constitutionalform-by comparing English conditions with those of the French. among other matters. especially of the legal world. and no small part of the charm of his book is directly connected with his detailed descriptions of life in England at the time.26 LANCASTER AND YORK. bestowsespecial praise upon the power which they possessof removing. have presented very numerous exceptions. limited monarchy of the choice of the people-Fortescue describes the English constitution as the proper pattern for a limited monarchy. and a decidedly comic impression is produced when he compares the French of the day as he had heard it spoken in France. the training of lawyers. with the traditional and mummified jargon of the English lawyers. as regards the English laws. was an event of undoubted importance for Louis XL thereupon . to Fortescue." About lead the time when Fortescue finished his "De Laudibus were on Legum Angliae. by act of parliament.

however. was killed before his mother's eyes. ed.Louis XI. the exiles at last found themselves enabled to return to their native land. or mow be practised and put in use" (see The Governance of England. again occupied the throne. King Henry * "Here folowen in articles certeyne adverti'-ementes sentebymylorde prince to therle of Warrewic his fadir in lawe. 1470. together with many others. the diplomatic procedurecould. escaped to Flanders. Warwick landed in England. and King Henry was again cast into prison. such of theym as maybethoughteexpediente for the good publiqueof the Reaume. On the very day on which Margaret landed at Weyrriouth with her son and Fortescue. 2? time. and Edward IV. Prince Edward. p. . 348. the battle of Barnet was fought (April 14) where Warwick fell.. addressed the great mediator. At the battle of Tewkesbury (May 4) the Lancastrian party were finally routed. ff. remained the winter in France with the prince. It was at this period that Fortescue wrote a memorial containing most excellent precepts. The plan of the Lancastrians was now to withdraw to the north. B. for to be shewedand comunedby hyrn to King Henry his fader and his counseile to thentente that the same advertisementes. where they would be among their most powerful adherents. defeated by Edward IV. his father-in-law. which were subsequently for the most part again utilized by the author in another work . but their intention was frustrated by King Edward's quick and energetic measures. Shortly afterwards. this memorial was written in the form of Articles sent by the Prince to the Earl of Warwick. C. one memorialafter another flowed from his unwearied pen. and within three weeks the restoration of the House of Lancaster was an accomplished fact. while Warwick ruled in his name. but the propitious moment was already past. Queen Margaret. Henry VI. followed by active measures. Fortescue still being one of her attendants . therefore. she appears to have been kept there by Louis' crafty. for QueenMargaretwasboth disinclinedand doubtful about making common cause with her old antagonist. to At length an agreementwascome to on the main points. and at the same time over-wise.policy.FORTESCUEAND THE LANCASTRIANS. while both she and Fortescue. Plummer. App. Fortescue.* In the spring of 1471. the heir to the throne. fell into the handsof the victors. Towards the middle of September. made every effort to promote the arrangement.).

and the passagehe had formerly quoted from the Bible when opposing the female right of succession-en's subpot estateviri. agenst the Kinges Title to the Roialme of England* . he perhaps showed himself a little over-eager in the matter. The war which had lasted so many years was now at an end. as well as that of his birth. Fortescue's conversion bore good fruit for himself. remained a prisoner till the year 1475. who had to attend the triumphal entry of her antagonist. too. it was only human that his own interests should induce him to look at purely theoretical questions in a new light. where he may. especially Martin's two sons. His queen. was no longer alive. 1476 . may have often brought life into the quietude of his last years. Fortescue lived to a good old age. however. 1471. affirms to refer to the Pope's authority over every woman. upon certain Wry tings oute of Scotteland. Fortescue. These were the circumstances that gave rise to Fortescue's Declaration* in which he retracts what he had previously written on the question of the succession to the throne. he regained possession of his property. have led a somewhat solitary life. this interpretation to his mind answering every purpose. and spent the rest of his life in peace at Ebrington in Gloucestershire. Fortescue's most important work. indeed. by subsequently endeavouring to bring his theory of the succession into harmony with existing circumstances. but there is no authentic trace of him after February. his wife. with harmless sophistry. and the one to which * The Declaration made by John Fortescu. as there was now no one living whom he could injure by recanting. is unknown. Knyght.28 LANCASTER AND YORK. it was only at this price that he could obtain the reversal of his attainder and look forward to having his possessionsrestored to him. perhaps. Still.was pardoned in October. In fact. and soon afterwards was appointed member of the King's Council. the year of his death. died in prison-probably a violent death. and his two daughters were married. His only son Martin had died in 1471. whose life was for a time in danger. His grandchildren. had now no longer any object. et ipse dominabitur tui-he now. The reason he gives being that he had become better acquainted with the subject. and. He was not foolish enough to attempt to resist incontrovertible facts.

a portion .serves only to pave the author'sway to his actual subject. the unduepowerof individual membersof the aristocracy. And the chief of these evils." The difference between the absolute and limited monarchy is again discussed. Fortescue depicts in bold strokes. and the influence of factions with aristocratic proclivities in the Councils of the Crown. The danger that arises from the poverty of the Crown and from the existence of too much wealth and power among the subjects." " OF 29 he essentiallyowes his place in the history of English literature. are: the poverty and consequent weakness of the kingdom. Fortescue considers. but with perfect clearnessand force. and this subject consists of the question how the English form of administration. to check extravagance. after which.FORTESCUE'sGOVERNANCE ENGLAND." the English treatise shows a greater degree of strict unity of purpose and a considerably wider range of practical deduction. from the examples of France and England. To meet these evils. The praise bestowed upon Fortescue for having been the first writer during the Middle Ages to bring the science of politics down from the clouds to earth." All this. Of the already alienated Crown lands. and the various sources of the two forms of government inquired into . and to forbid mortgages in the future. and Jess full of the details which bear upon the history of civilization. this is the treatise On the Governance of England^better known under the less appropriate title of the "Difference between Absolute and Limited Mon- archy. conducted by such admirable laws. than his Latin work " De Laudibus Legum Angliae. however. can be freed from the worst evils that were attached to it at the time." Although a work of smaller compass." The introductory chapters of this smaller work are merely a reproduction of the corresponding parts of his " De Laudibus. and so prosperous compared with other administrations. it seems to him above all necessaryto increase the revenues of the Crown. belongsto the period following the restoration of the York dynasty. with all of which evils-together with their attendant dangers-he himself had become sufficiently well acquainted during the reign of Henry VI. finds its justification more especially in his " Governance of England. the effects of the one and the other are described "ut ex fructibus eorumcognoscatiseos.

should rest with the Chancellor. Important above all. no king should be permitted to dispose of any further land. should be permanent members of the Council. however. The King's Council should.30 LANCASTER AND YORK. and bound by oath to the king. and would compel him to follow the advice of his Council-all this is done purely in the interest of the king's own authority. unless in peculiar cases. and receive their fees. other dignitaries and lords only at the request of the Council. and the Keeper of the Privy Seal. selected from the best and wisest men of the kingdom. that in future. who should far outstrip every one of his subjects in landed property and in wealth. The right to attend the meetings of this Assembly. In addition to'these. he thinks. the Treasurer. the of arrogance the aristocracy. clothing. and more especially as regards the Crown lands. but the Chancellor may act as President of the meetings which he attends. Fortescue's endeavour to check the power of the aristocracy is most prominently brought forward. by virtue of their offices . and rewards from no one but the king. A king. of joining in the discussions and divisions. chosen by the king from the four and twenty members. ought by parliamentary decree to be returned to the Crown.and then only for the lifetime of the recipient. is the fact that while Fortescue would restrict the monarch in the free disposal of all these matters. with an independent and en- lightened body of councillors by his side to assist him in maintaining his power. Hereupon follow excellent remarks on the conferring of posts and granting annuities and pensions. however. be constituted somewhat after the manner of the Judicial Benches: twelve spiritual and twelve temporal members. and the general state of insecurity. and in wisely and judiciously appointing his officers and in granting pardons-this was the form of governmentwith which Fortescue hoped most effectuallyto combat the weakness the kingdom. And in his propositions for the formation of the King's Council. unbridled proceedings of the ot the various factions. The Council should have a permanent leader or head. Fortescue rejects with indignation and horror the idea . there should be appointed annually by the king four spiritual and four secular lords. the present owner to receive compensation .

But it hath not bene sene in Ffrance that vi. but it is lakke off harte and covvardisse. Ther bith therfore mo men hanged in Englande in a yere ffor robbery and manslaughter. trewe men. would give rise to disturbances and insurrections. But ther hartes serue hem not to take a manys gode while he is present. and see another man havynge rychesse. that the king. a warm friend of his nation. ffor thai haue no hartes to do so terable an acte. xiii. Fortescue adds. should see that his peoplewere kept in poverty. yere togedur ffor robbery. ed. Wherfore it is not pouerte. p. and woll defende wich manneroff takyngeis called robbery. To impoverishthe commons. or But it. of the subsidies which the Commons otherwise willingly and fully provided him with. or vij. in times of need. and also be a blot on the honour of the sovereign . it would deprive the king himself. that kepith the Ffrenchmen ffro rysynge. Engiand. theves ffor pouerte have sett upon vj. ye English man is off another corage. trewe men and robbed hem all. would weaken the king's power of controlling his unruly vassals. he maintains. or iiij. 31 which had been raised in another quarter. theves haue be hardy to robbe iij. Ffor iff he be pouere. or vij. If the French people were easier to govern than the English. and would placethe countryin the hands of thieves and robbers. yeres. would cripple the kingdom's power of selfdefence in its most vital part.the reason of this was not becausethey were poorer.f." ' In his works Fortescue proves himself an Englishman whoseexpressions patriotismat timessurpass bounds of the of absurdity. a zealousadvocateof * Ttie Governance. Wherfore it is right selde that Ffrenchmen be hanged ffor robbery. There is no man hanged in Scotlande in vij. " It hath ben offten tymes sene in Englande that iij. wich mey be taken ffrom him be myght. a man clear in thought and humane in feeling. Plummer. while strengthening his own power. but merely because they were more cowardly than the English. And yet thai ben often tymes hanged ffor larceny. he will not spare to do so. but yff that pouere man be right trewe. then they be hanged in France ffor such manner of crime in vij. of . 141. and stelynge off good in the absence off the owner theroff. if theydid not rise againsttheir rulerseven under the worst oppression.FORTESCUE'sNATIONAL PRIDE.

While he is clear and convincing in the development of his thoughts-which are not. or even impossible. his ''Governance ot England" opened up a new path to political literature. Fortescue owes more to his vast experience. as is evident from his beautiful Dialogue between Understanding and Faith. And although of a strictly ecclesiastical turn of mind-in other words. in fact. either through such writers as Roger of Waltham. Where Fortescue gives an account of his own political principles. or from collections of extracts. and above all.Compendium morale " of Roger of Waltham. " The Consolations of Philosophy" of Boethius.within modestlimits. but also Poggio's translation of Diodorus of Sicily. which discusses. Apart from strictly legal works and the Bible. with which he was intimately acquainted. indeed. and antithesis. to by gradation. Besidesthis. and well-balanced judgment. which was written towards the close of the thirteenth century. presented altogether methodically. he is further distinguishedby the choice of his expressions. the <. and St. clear perception. Many other authors-for instance. Aristotle-he knew at second hand.from the point of view of a faithful and devout Christian. and it is often difficult. yet in synoptical order-and happy in the selection of his explanatory illustrations and detail. the difficult problem of the sovereignty of a merciful and just Providence amid the perplexed and often most sorrowful form assumedby our life here on earth. he and manages produceincreasedeffect. than to literature. repetition. ^Egidius Romanus. mainly mediaeval Chronicles. Augustine's "De Civitate Dei. the works of Thomas Acquinas.32 LANCASTER AND YORK. draws from his predecessors.a learned lawyer and devoted to his profession. by the formation and combination of his sentences in their simple appropriateness defmiteness. but even here his independence of thought betrays itself. freedomas well as of political order. Fortescue was an exceedingly well-read man for the age in which he lived. and. What constitutes the actual value of his writings." further. with a leaning toward. at times also he . to discover his attitude in the works he quotes. he. of course. his reading included a variety of different subjects-historical works. ultramontanism-he was a man of upright and sincere piety.

above all things. staunch Still less was Caxton of the Yorkists. but a practical man of business-undoubtedly of unusual cleverness. and had written only two. works-an extremelysmall number in proportion to the D . who had returned to England from Flanders in 1476. on English ground.WILLIAM CAXTOtf. And it wasprecisely this modeof procedure by that he has rendered English literature inestimable service. we again. and conscientiousness. gives him an attitude in some measure connected About the time with the Renaissance. ever anxious to satisfy the demands of the moment. and satisfactorily to arrange the relation between supply and demand. in fact. It is worthy of note that Caxton did not set up this business-which must be allowed to have been his chief vocation-till he had reached the age of mature manhood. above all. he never tried to disguise his mercantile turn of mind. is but little fitted to be compared with Sir John Fortescue. upon what was useful and practical.he wasalready fifty years of age. The Renaissance did not quite reach him. and yet his earnest inquiry into the actualities of his own domain. 33 brings his periodsto a full-soundingclose by making use of a greater flow of language. thoroughness. and who was now7about permanently to take up his abode and his work in his native country. meet with the traces of a man who had lived abroad for a much longer time. A businessman to start with. and. even though-as the result of the prominent position he had occupied abroad -he may have at times been entrusted with diplomatic work a connected friend with and his vocation. as unweariedly industrious as he was circumspect. a political agitator. William Caxton. even when he subsequently devoted his energies to the service of literature. Intent. Whenhe settledin his native land in 1476. He was neither a lawyer nor a politician. He made his mark mainly by the skilful and industrious manner in which he united the activity of a writer with that of a printer-and. at most three. from the outset had been warm adherent Neither was he a scholar nor a profound thinker. advancing carefully step by step-such was Caxton's method of attaining success. when we lose all authentic trace of Fortescue. as the first printer in England.

recommended him in so high a degree to his associates at home and abroad that. Soon after he had served his apprenticeship he had conferred upon him the freedom of the Mercers' Company. Caxton's master was a member of the Company of Mercers. one Robert Large. he had scarcely done more than make his first attempts. etc. may have at length deter- mined him to give up his positionas Governor. and the Corporation had its own house in Bruges called the Domns Anglicz. the members of which were strongly represented in the Corporation of Merchant Adventurers. to a London merchant. This influential and responsible office Caxton held successfully for the benefit of the Corporation for six or eight years. who was a Kentish man. The desire for a more peaceful life. the great mercantile centre of North-Western Europe where a number of English merchants resided. and consequent prosperity as well. a native of the Weald of Kent-a district which in his day was still a wild and wooded part of the country-was apprenticed. The Corporation of Merchant Adventurers. When Robert Large died. and in his occupationas a printer of books. Caxton remained in Flanders. or the wish to get married. industry." important privileges from Duke Philip the Good. he was appointed Governor of the English Merchants in Brabant. of the " felawship by yond the see"-with a residence in Bruges. his ability. Flanders. in 1438. in 1441.j-t LANCASTER AND YORK. for thirty-five years-the better part of his life-and in the course of time came to hold an important position there. during a very unsettled period distinguished by weighty events and a critical position of affairs. the most important and influential of all the mercantile corporations of the day. by opening up to him a new sphere of . Caxton moved to Bruges.-in fact. obtained. in 1446. which was the home of all the members residing in the town-necessarily all bachelors. Caxton. numbers which were destined to flow from his pen . a man of wealth and high repute who eventually rose to the rank of Lord Mayor. to which the Mercers belonged. Still it was the great onward roll of history also that strongly affected Caxton's future. in 1462 or 1463. under the name of the " English nation. and Caxton remained connected with it all his life. with but few interruptions.

on his restoration to the throne. Warwick having for a time succeeded in restoring the House of Lancaster to the English throne..CAXTON IN BRUGES. which the king subsequently.variousbranches knowledge of . the vivacious. an event in which the " English nation " of that city-with Caxton at its head-had taken the liveliest interest. It was. Caxton. which proved one of lasting attachment on both sides. but also desirous of obtaining the chief luxuries of life offered by art and learning. indeed. however. escaped to Flanders in October. to achieve this end : the prosperity of the Netherland towns as the outcome of the joyful rise of trade and commerce.. and enterprising spirit of the people. 1470. Caxton resigned his post as head of the " felawship by yond the see. Between the new young Duchess and the Governor of the English merchants a most pleasant relationship arose. The era of culture which wasalready drawing to a close may appropriately be termed the Burgundian. found an opportunity of rendering important services to his king. a matter of even greater significance that Caxton. the geographical position and the variety of languagesamong the peoples of the Burgundian lands. Perhaps he had already taken this step when Edward IV. and to reward them for their achievements ." and entered the service of the Duchess. In June. Various circumstances com- bined. not only for the Netherlands but for the whole of North-Western Europe. the marriage of Duke Charles of Burgundy with Margaret of York. this clearly enough expresses the prominent part played.. the brother of Duchess Margaret. the power and wealth of their rulers. during the declining Middle Ages. 1468. made up his mind as to his actual vocation. frank. while in the Duchess' service.and had been celebrated in Bruges with great pomp. gratefully acknowledged. with a number of his nobles. sister of King Edward IV. finally. in the happiest manner. who were not only fond of displaying great pomp in their brilliant festivals. painting but .and chieflythe fine arts. 35 activity. Hence. it would seem. who seemedpredestined to effect a mediation between the Latin andTeutonic races. and who esteemed it an honour to encourage scholars and artists in their work. by the provinces under the dominion of the Dukes of Burgundy in everything that pertained to intellectual culture.

the poetry of the Burgundianera-in spite of its wealth of production and the activity of a number of talented men-generally makes the impression of a certain lassitude. a result. When entering upon a closer examination of the intellectual side of this literary movement. which were of the most variousand diversified character. but also with the book itself. many had settled there and had met with a kindly welcome and powerful support. Literary activity. but were even more anxious to have existing works multiplied and decorated in an artistic fashion. more especially. literature. many of the nobility. The Dukes of Burgundy of the House of Valois. and curiosities of this kind. treasures. the dukes specially favoured French literature.. And as artistic work of all kinds had become so highly developed in these provinces.however. As was but natural. took an important rise at this time and mainly benefited the development of prose. followed the example set by their princes. In addition to original work. and the illustrious patrons of literature not only directed their efforts to encouraging fresh mental work. and also becauseof the actual contents of the books themselves. and . and authors found them generous patrons. too. a large number of others dedicated their writings to the dukes. .36 tne domain where LANCASTER AND YORK.Caligraphists. or wrote treatises at their request. translations and adaptations were also in request and produced. The prevailing passion did not concern itself only with the literary work of art and the intellectual enjoyment to be derived from it. were great lovers of books. and those skilled in making costly bindings. all found permanent and remunerative employment under the Dukes of Burgundy. it was. and among them probably Philip the Good. art and commerce meet that countless in particular-flourished there. too. likewise.chiefly in handsandingenious brainsproduced extraordinary an wealth of finished work.of the prevailingfondnessfor didactic subjects. Many of the more eminent writers of the period belonged. as the fitting and sumptuous covering of the valuable interior. The extensivelibrary gradually collected by the Dukes of Burgundy had a world-wide reputation becauseof its store of works of art. miniature-painters. to the Burgundian territories. by birth. on the one hand. becameaffected by it.

exhibits more of the spirit of the late Middle Ages than that of the Renaissance. religion. satirical or apologetical style. and then entering the service of the foreign potentate who had married an English princess. and. More vigorouslife is manifestedby /^^-composition. of evident signs of sympathy with the current emanating from Italy-still this literature.sometimes by dealingwith or imitating the valuableproductionsof the earlier epics. the art of printing. too-cautiously at first-began to lend its aid to the work. it represents a culture of a variegated and somewhat pedantic character. which was continuallyextendingthe sphereof its influence. upon the whole. it handled subjects of the utmost variety in an instructive. In Bruges were amassed quantities of books.also. For it was in Bruges that Caxton first entertainedthe thought and found himself in a position to assistthe literature of his own country in obtaining-more than it had yet done-its proper shareof the acquisitions madeduring the Burgundianperiod. miniature-painters. and ethics. and in many casesshowedabundant ornamentation after the manner of romance-writers. caligraphists. devotional. in fact. and is generally associatedwith a fantastically distorted conception of the antique. where Philip the Good had frequently held his court. and it washere. and where Charles the Bold had celebrated his marriage with Margaret of York. however. translators. 37 on the other. It seems almost like the arrangement of some higher dispensation to find a man like Caxton occupying a prominent position in this foreign town during the best years of his life. that he first thought of carryingthe new and mighty art of . or by discussingsubjects in philosophy. from later and mediaeval times.CAXTON AT THE BURGUNDIAN COURT. by presenting important works in historiography. for the most part. In this literature we meet with numerous translations from the Latin. One of the centres of the literary activity of this epoch was the city of Bruges. and numbers of the inhabitants were engagedin multiplying the copies-authors. for neatness in the allegorical form. and bookbinders . And although there is certainly no dearth of attempts to grapple with the difficulties of the actual classics. of symptoms of a genuine spirit of humanism. as all the arts and crafts for multiplying books flourished in this city.

Raoul Lefevre. This induced Caxton to consult an excellent caligraphist in Bruges. and Caxton received an appropriate reward for his gift. and which required only the necessary support for him to venture upon a larger undertakingof the kind." which. after he had translated some five or six sheets. with its newly instituted Order of the Golden Fleece. named Colard Mansion. but also to the whole English colony in Bruges. he had begun to study the famous French book of the day. 1471. however. not only to the English gentlemen and ladies of her court. he also delighted in " the fayre langage of Frenche. which was thereupon dedicated to the Duchess. great organ of literary communication-on to Shortly before Caxton had entered the service of the Duchess Margaret. produced in 1464. and it soon became evident that-in spite of an immense expenditure of time and labour-the demand could not be altogether satisfied. by which it was possible to make a large number of copiesof any book at one and the sametime.3 LANCASTER AND YORK. the Duchess requested him to finish the translation. air hough Caxton had been travelling most of the time between Ghent and Cologne. and " so well and compendiously sette and wreton. It was in Cologne. A book which interested the Duchess naturally piovel in a high degreeattractive. me thought I understood the sentence and substance of every mater. and her wish was complied with. for the work was completed some six months afterwards. who had commenced. that he put the last touches to this first of his translations. Le Receuil desHistoires de Troyes. being in prose. Two years afterwards. was-as regards contents and colouring-a somewhatchaotic and wondrouscompilation. yet well in keepingwith the spirit of the age. printing-the English soil. The result wasthat Caxton associated himself with Mansion. to make use of the new invention.and even to translate it into English. in order to get his . on the iQth of September. had been chaplain and secretary to Duke Philip the Good." Yet. and the work. Caxton was overwhelmed with commissions and requests for new transcripts of his Recuyell of the Histroyes of Troye. the undertaking came to a standstill. Caxton took great pleasure in the " many strange and meruaylles historyes" which were new to him. The author. on his own account.

" The earliest book issued from his press-it wasnot fromhis own pen.he became acquaintedwith the technicalities of the new art. And if he cherished the hope of obtaining employment and of earning his living as an English translator and printer. as it seems.* he finished the translation of another very popular book. a new idea struck Caxton in connection with the future. of in a part known by the nameof the " Almonry. indeed. probably in the year 1474. and accordingly his first venture was quickly followed by a second. Hence Caxton at length retired from the position he had so long enjoyed in the Duchess' service-no doubt with her consent-and returned to England. it would be easier for him to have the necessarymaterial for his twofold work sent to England. naturally. For." and set up his business in " The Red Pale. The venture was a great success. than to make the numerous readers in his native country acquainted with books written and printed in Bruges. * According to the chronology of the Netherlands at the time. or to procure it there. in a very short time the edition was sold out. the year 1476. Thus Caxton's " Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. 1474).in the year 1475 Easterfell on the zoth of April.but the work of an eminentfriend-has thefollowing wordsin the epilogue: " Here endeth the book named the dictes or sayengisof the philosopheresenprynted by me William Caxton at Westminster the yere of our Lord MCCCCLXXVIJ. and it is probable that the book was set up in type with Mansion's assistanceduring the same year.FIRST ENGLISHBOOKFROMCAXTON'sPRESS."-the first book printed in the English language-was issued from the press in Bruges. and by taking part in the business himself. printed. but Caxton made use of the French version . originally written in the south-west the building. He established himself in Westminster in the vicinity of the Abbey. the idea of a new mercantile enterprise. and Caxton must have felt himself encouraged in his hopes and new plans for the future. And while engaged in this business. 39 book that was so much in demand. this wasthe politicomoral allegory of The Game and Playe of the Chesse.and." year with the Easter festival (March 31. On the 3ist of March. it was inevitable that the plan of a wider sphere of action and more promising circumstances should direct his thoughts to his native land. which began the .

throughout the remaining years of his life. always happy. although there is no mention of it even in the Prologue addressed to Duke Philip-one is struck. had best now be connected with an examination of his work. by the endeavour which is made to clear the memory of the Argonauts from the imputation of infidelity and treachery to Medea. but he. which he himself translated into English. Romances prosehad up to about the year 1470played in a somewhat subordinate part in the English book-market." abbreviated in part.managedto presenta distinct variety of subjects. Caxton translated. but " Hystoryesof Troye" are a compilationof a chaoticdescrip- . among other things. Of works connected with the ancient sagas. the development of which was very plainly influenced by Caxton's own work." and the " Lyf of Jason. The tion. is of great importance to our knowledge of the literary movement of that age. which apparently overtook him towards the end of 1491. who succeededto the business. was not. came unexpectedly. both as a translator and a printer. which throw full light upon the but little refined taste of the Burgunclian periodin its fantasticconceptionof antiquitythe already-mentioned " Hystoryes of Troy.4O LANCASTER AND YORK. A study of the works which were issued from Caxton's press. In Westminster. the third presents a version of Guido de Columna's " Historia Destructions Troise. it was Caxton-both by his pen and his printing-presswho led to its becoming a favourite and promising branch of literature. Caxton led uninterruptedly the busiest life. we think." In the latter-which directly recalls the institution of the Order of the Golden Fleece. in the first place. the process of printing which had thereupon to be left to his apprentice. The selection of the foreign-mostly French -works of this species. having just completed his last work. And this is particularly the case with regard to the prose literature of the day. never- theless. and almost invariably succeeded in winning the approval of his readers. Of the three Books into which the " Hystoryes " are divided. Death. two by Raoul Lefevre. and found him pen in hand. the attempt we have made in this and our preceding chapter to fill in the details of our sketch. Hence.

CAXTON'S TRANSLATIONS." but also known under the name of " Fierabras." Hence we have here again a compilation. At a later date Caxton again occasionally returned to the sagas of antiquity. The first two Books. appear to have been collected from the most diverse sources . The of first was undertaken at the request of Henry Bolomier. both important in their way: The Lyf of Charles the Crete. they deal. they deal with the Church legends. occasionally. and also the story of Perseus. and whose name is frequently given to the whole work . for. the text of which was finished in the summer of 1490. who had the first two destructions of Troy on his conscience. nt all events. above all. and. his " Jason " belongs. If the Troy Book forms the starting-point of Caxton's twofold activity. and the Four Sonnes A\mon (about 1489). This was assuredly the case with Caxton's Boke of Eneydos. Kyn* of Fraunce and Emperor of Rome (1485).of which only the last six Books have been preserved.and was based upon a work by an unknown writer. in fact. while the two others mainly. and by way of introduction we have the genealogy and history of Saturn and Jupiter. indeed. owe their contents to Vincent de Beauvais' "Mirror of History. one where the contents are only in part founded upon subjects of ancient and genuinely popular tradition . it can scarcely be doubted that the translator. In the spring of 1480 he completed a translation of the Metamorphoses. " La Conqueste que fit le grand roy Charlemaigne es Espaignes. The unweariedtranslator and printer further made his countrymen acquainted with the Charlemagne Sagas by two publications. a canon in Lausanne.later inventionsor with an . in this case also. which give the ancient traditions in a curiously distorted and disfigured form. 41 very rarely altered or supplemented. only in manuscript . and must have been printed shortly afterwards. The original of this translation was a but little tasteful adaptation and compilation from Vergil and Boccaccio. if not exclusively. and. to one of its first stages." the second of the three Books it contains being devoted to the epic of Fierabras. with the life and deeds of Hercules.for the English print of this work is one of the earliest productions of the Westminster press. made use of a French prose-version.

The Four Sonnes of Aymon. and The Historye of Kynge Blanchardyne * and QueenEglantyne his wyfe (about 1489)-both translations from French prose works.42 LANCASTER AND YORK." which in its French dress won the approval of critics even in the sixteenth-nay. is primarily of Catalan origin. intentional perversion of the saga. The English title. indicates the nature of the work more distinctly than the varying title of the French version." the contents of which correspond pretty well with the average character of this species of poem. The attractive and well-told story of "Parys and Vyenne. when compared with the " Chanson de Geste " by Renaud de Montauban (as it appears in the edition of the twelfth century). which on their part again are connected with earlier sources. Very much more important than any of the preceding was the gift which Caxton presented to the literature of his country in his Hystorye of Reynart the Foxe. and the effect of the work as a whole has certainly lost very much by the metrical form having been abandoned. show a number of alterations in the detail which almost invariably lead to a sacrifice of beauty. . A French metrical romance in short rhymed-couplets. still up to that time none of the larger and fuller works on the subject had appeared in English. and hence the story of the " Four Sonnes of Aymon. retains its indestructible power even in its ruder form as reproduced by Caxton. And now * A corruption from Blanchandin. translated by Caxton. the nucleus remained after all the same. and possessa certain charm only in the figure of the heroine who despises love till she comes to know what it is by her own experience. as late as the eighteenth-century. is the earliest reliable source of " Blanchardyne. Blaricandin." and their steed Bayard. indeed. as we have already seen. in fact. had stimulated English poetry to more than one happy and even excellent performance. The French prose-romance of this name. who has shown more fidelity in his work than fine appreciation of the original. More genuine and more original in character is the work. Although this fable. does. Of romances of adventure Caxton has likewise produced two . still.Thystorye of the noble right valyaunt and worthy Knyghte Parys and vf the fayr Vyenne(1485).

or the laste Siege and Conquesteof Jhenisalem. however. there was issued from the office at West- minstera statelyfolio. His Life and Miracles of Robert. The poem of the Fleming Willem. belonged probably to the genus of historical legends. which he drew from a French source while engaged with the translation of the " Reynard. this Netherland prose-version was printed at Goude in 1479 -as it seemsfor the first time. a work written it the request of John. Thus enlarged-and corrupted-the " Historic van Reynaert" was turned into prose in the fifteenth century. In ihe year 1485. that it may absolutely claim to be an original production. had it not been for Caxton's printing-press. is. the success the book second edition. and wasprobably printed that same year. not only for the Netherlands. 43 Caxton offered to English readersthe most admirableof all the forms which the grateful subject had ever assumed. We must not. and which seems LO be altogether lost. The Flemish work forms the starting-point for all the subsequent Renard-literature of the Teutonic nations." which was produced shortly before the year 1250.and was thereupon faithfully translated into English by Caxton. it is true.CAXTON'S ACTIVITY. Earl of Oxford. Earl of Oxford. though his rendering was blurred at points and disfigured by various devices. founded upon an offshoot of the French " Romaunt de Renard. gives evidence of so much genius." but it exhibits such independence of conception and representation. omit to mention here a celebrated work by another author. which. This translation was completed in 1481. entitled A Bookof thenoble Hystoryes . Willem's poem was remodelled in 1380 by a countryman of his own." is already a work from the borderland between poetry and prose. His history of Godefroy of Boloyne. met with is evident from the fact that some eight years later Caxton was enabled to publish a This finishes the list-as far as it is known-of the proseromances which Caxton himself translated. but also for the Low-German dialects-these latter being again connected with the new High-German through Goethe-and for the English as well. and had a continuation added to it. manifests so much fulness in its self-imposed limitation. " Die Historic van Reynaert die Vos. might perhaps have fallen into oblivion.

considered to rise pre-eminently above their fellows-the nine worthies. stated that he omitted such histories as were doubtful. First in the abbeyof Westmestre saynt at Edwardes shryne remayneth the prynte of his seal in reed waxe closed in beryll. Caxton. the rounde table. however. Spanyssheand Grekesshe as in Frensshe. and many other thynges. that it was very questionable whether such a King Arthur had ever existed. Item. and after founden and translated into the sayd monasterye. Britannie. in which is wryton Patricius Arthurus. Godefroy de Bouillon. than there be in Englond. as wel in Duche. Germanic. at Wynchester. that many persons had considered the traditions about him to be fables and inventions. " Fyrst ye may see his sepulture in the monasterye of Glastyngburye . David. three were heathens : Hector. in his Brutysshe book recounteth his lyf. . Judas Maccabaeus. Caesar.44 LANCASTER AND YORK. as they were called.* Italyen. .great national hero of England. in the castel of Dover ye may see Gauwayns skulle." Caxton thereupondeclared himself convinced: * Duche (Dutch) included the Low-German and the N " thenne all herland dialect. . Of the famous heroes in history nine were. of these. And also he is spoken of beyonde the see. Ye shal se also in thystorye of Bochas in his book de casuprincipum^ parte of his noble actes and also his falle. the . had frequently been asked by noble lords and gentlemen why he never published any work relating to the Holy Grail. and also of his knyghtes. in other places Launcelottes swerd. in those days. and Cradoks mantel. who had translated and printed so many works. he was told. Also Galfrydus. Alexander. Charlemagne. Gallic. moo bookes made of his noble actes. Honest Caxton. of Kynge Arthur and of certen of his Knyghtes-or. The Death of Arthur (La Morte d1 Arthur). Caxton. he was overwhelmed with proofs that Arthur was an historical personage. And in divers places of Englond many remembraunces ben yet of hyrn and shal remayne perpetually. Dacie imperator. was not let off so easily. three were Jews : Joshua. in his reply as to why he had not included King Arthur's history among his publications. briefly. where his body was buryed. or to King Arthur. and that some trustworthy chroniclesdid not make any mention of him or of his knights. and three were Christians: Arthur.

worthies. There is the " Merlin " founded upon Robert de Boron's poem. the one appearing of here to be interwoven . Where Malory himself obtained the materials for his narrative is well known upon the whole-or. which been not had in our maternal tongue. It was a happy idea of Sir Thomas's to make King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table the subject of his work. Wherfore such as have late ben drawen oute bryefly into Englysshe. which I have seen and redde beyonde the see. and the imperfect knowledge and contradictory statements that had been made about many of the personages and events connected with the legend. and many noble volumes be made of hym and of his noble knyghtes in Frensshe. emprysed to enprynte a book of the noble hystoryes of the sayd Kynge Arthur. it has more and more distinctly influenced the popular English idea of the Arthurian legend. and also in Frensshe and somme in Englysshe. were made use of. made it appear doubly desirable to possessa full and comprehensive account of them. and fifteen years afterwards Caxton brought it within the reach of a large circle of readers. at least. I coude not wel denye but that there was suche a noble kyng named Arthur. but in Walsshe ben many. or at the beginning of 1470. whiche copye syr Thomas Malorye dyd take out of certyn bookes of Frensshe and reduced it into Englysshe. bat no wher nygh alle. and furnished important material for the classic poetry both of the great era and of our own time.PUBLISHES MALORY'S "KYNGE ARTHUR. since which time. the latter parts of which. Sir Thomas had finished his compilation. by means of numbers of reprints and new editions. I have after the symple connyng that God hath sente to me. for Middle English poetry-not to mention prose-had by no means exhausted the theme. we think we know whence he took them. under the favour and correctyon of al noble lordes and gentylmen. In the year 1469. and of certeyn of his knyghtes after a copye unto me delyvered. at all events. and reputed one of the IX. and first and chyef of the cristen men." Sir Thomas Malory was one of the first men of distinction -with the exception of Sir John Maundeville-to write works in English. and this was at a time when a Scottisn king had already won his laurels as a national poet." 45 these thynges forsayd aledged. and two different continuations it.

too. and even though some monotony in the variety was unavoidable. arranged with a certain degree of skill. and the Death of Arthur. if asleep. there is " Launcelotte " in its earliest form. XL In the mean time the influence of Chaucer and his school had already spread to the northern part of Britain. however. there is. " Tristan " also.4 LANCASTER AND YORK.In many passages. it is aroused at definite points. upon the whole. and it was this alone which made it possible to compress the mass of material within a space readily surveyable. contradictions. and again. or there is extraneous matter. At the same time. and other irregularities are by no means of rare occurrence. Malory has succeeded in producing a kind of unity. it is. with the other. and had not produced a literature in any way dependent or at all national in character. still the plan and style of the narrative do not allow our interest to sleep. in simple. which is again interwoven with " Launcelotte "-all of them French prose-romances. where everything appears plain and clear. the Scottish language had formed merely a branch of the North-English dialect. is it distinctly evident that Malory may have made use of earlier sources no longer accessible to us. to Scotland. there are differences which though unimportant are difficult to account for . and was pointing out to a national literature in the full vigour of youth. The " Morte d' Arthur "-by which title the work is generally known-can in no way divest itself of the character of being a compilation : repetitions. but by no means colourless language. finally. produces a good effect. Above all. together with the earlier versions of the Search for the Grail. which shows that here. the terse style of the narrative. problems still remain to be solved. which had been added to it before Malory's day. or. for in spite of the abundance of episode. Jp to the fourteenth century. a road towards a higher artistic development. And although the foundation of the Scottishnationality had been laid as early as the tenth . in the narrative.

but from the south as well. Other circumstances. and culture. dynastic. had retarded the national development of the Scottish nation. their descendants. Still. and feudal-while they undoubtedly facilitated the English element acquiring the ascendency in Scotland. and that the Britons inhabiting the district between the Frith of Clyde and the Solway. and the hostile feelings between the clans. with four races. The northwest was inhabited by the Scots. linguistic.SCOTLAND AND ITS INHABITANTS. other influences of culture had forced themselves to the front. and thus confer a higher kind of support-a connection of ideas -upon the political unity which was constantly in danger owing to the variety of local interests. whom it is difficult to classify ethnologically. while those south of the Frith of Forth were men of English blood. Four districts. were united under the sceptre of the Scottish kings. were at an early date imbued with English culture. the fanaticism of parties. The inhabitants south of the Frith of Clyde were Britons. and ultimately gave their name to the new kingdom and its dynasty. were almost as likely to retard the development of a national consciousness in the Scottish people. not only by what reached them from the eastern district. have maintained their peculiarities of character up to most recent times. more or less different in language. who had . First of all by the Scandinavians. customs. who had originally crossed from Ireland. It must have been long before the inhabitants of the southern districts-to the east as well as to the west-accustomed themselves to regard the Esk and Tweed as the boundaries of their nationality. in place of the Clyde and Forth. 47 and more particularly in the eleventhcentury. thesevery relations with England-ethnological. It is true that the English element in Scotland did obtain vigorous support from the inhabitants of the southern kingdom. and had to be worked out. an>i hence it was only very gradually that the superior culture of the English race-their language and customs-could make its way northward. In the north-east lived the Picts. it was long before it had advanced far enough for a national consciousness to manifest itself. but who are possibly an admixture of Keltic and Teutonic blood. also. in the inhospitable Highlands. Not any one of these races was in every respect superior to the other.

:t7' " ...:'.STI7.I.i.: A. vt ie- stroyer :: ..t .: : :' :::.::.. .-. er: -": .z-:.r_T*. : took v:5r:i: Z" 7': "«:.: : :" :.. r- :-.r7... r : :": 7 : '."" ill t :7 : 7 "-.7.. ".I : :":.:.r: "".it iriiT^css:: ±e 5»:ccdsh :har2. 7: :..: ::..".. :' : .7.: ri.: ..r..i .:. 5::*::.:: .7.: j.:_7* "."... AJ-'I ..j.:.. -"' " . :: vr_::h i^ceale-i :: T * : '::. t ::...... .:. : £i_"r= ::r:r::ri ir_: i-:«ie :: :: : .-.-. ::.: . " xa : and t :^e marvelloas fartrmruf^ and gftnikras soc. :e^": .it-E..: 7 :. :::. .L: :.:::.i: :Jii r-::::. ..jcr: I".1:7 ...: ::.:".:.-. r. : :" ..: .J...5.r: " :.:. ! :'-.. 171 r .s i :: :.. : . :-.._ ::. : .. nt Ms TTTP«p^ftTiTfrym<y«pg Units mamnngfipfy^imgpcaHDEE Enmaanff SEEtti dispOSiHOQ pdfapy victotyr l^be maoi of inexfoanstiible resc-..... ..._.."::. ::t :. ::e ::.-:.7i.:. ^ ...T -_":.: :o-rr7 :.. ^'1 I : .ir: : : ::..'>-~ . .:.f.-..~ :: ! .:.i7.7 :: : i" I 17 -..:".."'-:._: -lys :-er_ ::::_.:. s'.7.Mt: u :-7 ::iT_:ril irir-ts :. .:. : .:.: :.:7 .".: v: .: "7: : ...-. -:..:r-" i.. 7!'t'l 1 . I'l ..- :::-e iteis :": ::.... :..~ri.E ii" :. : :: i -....- prrriec . :.. ±..::.-.:.: rt : : :::.:::r:.":": : 7..r77 ..1: ic^'iJi .^."". :-7i"~'t. r..._:.. : .t-i-.cter i.i:::."ii ysfi SDBCceKkd naokimg: folow.-. is": '"i.1 ".": ff..:. i.":_::!. _. .:: 7."':7. : ~.. :-..11 *J :. :.. i. ..: :>_-e u..:tr ii:r ::. .:..7..:. 7 : ""r .. -.a national poetr.:.- - _ : :' *": : '.7 t:i-'..: . th<*rn the foture ."...5 LO--JA..i vel B3 ::t :..r :*7 :".t :^ .:.T : . : : :.7 v.:. .:::.r: _::": f:s-: i Li.:' :7. ::./":.: :.-:.

" John Balfour. Its earliest existing memorials belong to the second half of the fourteenth century.BEGINNINGS OF SCOTTISH LITERATURE. of the two poetical tendencies met with in the beginnings of Scottish literature. as he is . Accordingly. earlierproductionsof which the are lost to us with the exception of a few short strophes. Now. the one in the eastern territory is distinctly national. with some practicable object-whether the subjects were secular or religious in character. also an appreciation for literary undertakings with some actual significance. The Tweed and the Cheviots mark the boundary of the countrymore definitely than the Esk. resembling the French syllabic metre. for powerfully drawn representations. The country to the west showed a preference for the alliterative form of verse.linguistically as well as ethnologically. for the employment of a rich and brilliant diction. also. North-western England on the one hand. and that it exhibits distinctly more vigour than the poetry of the west. And the traditions of literature. it is not surprising to find that. whether purely alliterative or in conjunction with the end-rhyme. continued to cross the Scottish borders. and Northumbria on the other. were soon followed by a national literature. it is natural that the literature of the eastern territory has its earliest representative in the immortal " Father of Scottish Poetry. whereas the literature of the west is associated with the name of Huchown. The country to the east showed a tiste for the short rhymed-couplet of elegant construction. and for handling the Arthurian legends. 49 The national folk-songs. were transplanted into the northern kingdom from both sides. since an insight into the requirements of the living Present necessarily produces a keener appreciation of political contrasts than would a mere contemplative inquiry into an ideal Past. the east may have shown a more definite character than the west. representing the specific Scottish element both in form and substance. and in a political respect as well they had marked it off more clearly. a poet to whom both Scotland and England lay claim. As regards language. too. Huchown of the Awlc ryalc (cle aula regia). and who has almost become a mythical character.

336.50 LANCASTER AND YORK. At all events it seems likely that we have some of Huchown's work-perhaps modified somewhat as regards languageonly-in the Legendof the ChasteSusannah^ which is preserved in three manuscripts." The legend is written in alliterative and rhymed-strophes. and the closing words of which refer to the testimony of the 4< Epistle of Daniel.* a Scottish Chronicler of the beginning of the fifteenth century. has been identified by some scholars-and not without reason-with Sir Hugh of Eglinton.J It is not as simple a matter to settle the question whether The Great Gestof Arthure is to be identified with the wellknown alliterative romance of the "Morte Arthure" (see above)." and the "Awntyre of Gawane" (Adventures of Gawayne). p. founderof the Stuart dynasty. i. 93. (1371-1390). 339.certainpeculiaritiesin which the " Morte Arthure " has in common almost solely with poetry of recognized Scottish origin. %Seevol. . Ixii. 407 Ixxiv. constructed somewhat like those of the " Anturs of Arther at the Tarnewathelan " (Adventures of Arthur at Tarn Wadling). and finds agreements between the romance and the statements made by the Chronicler either about or upon the authority of those " Gesta . . Of the three works which Wyntoun ascribes to the poet whom he praises so highly-" The Great Gest of Arthure. On the other hand. and who married a sister of King Robert and metre. called by Andrew of Wyntoun. Cronykil. A subtile inquiry of recentdate brings forward a series of weighty and important arguments for an answer in the affirmative. Sir Hugh's the lifetime might with tolerable certainty be limited by the years 1320-1381. ff. whose estates and castle were situated in Ayrshire. as well as the " Pystel of Swete Swsane" (Epistle of Sweet Susannah)-the last-mentioned appears to have been preserved." agreements also between the romance and the legend of Susannah with the alliteration regardto language. i." or " Gest of Broythys * Originate t Angl. Arch. v. that the contents of the romance do not appear altogether to coincide with the presumable contents of the " Gest of Arthure. 251." which Wyntonn mentions also under the name of "Gest hystoryal.

we might be compared with the works of Geoffrey of Monmouth or of Layamon. Arthur. i. If our conjecture be correct. all the principal points of beauty in his work-and there are not a few-probably belonged to Huchown. we should have to form of the Scottish poet in accordance wan the above supposition would coincide perfectly with the description * What nameHucho \ n himselfgaveto hispoemis uncertain. it may have been somewhatlike the following : 1he Geste hystoriale of the Broite or the %rete Geste of Arthure.HUCHOWN. in our imagination. indeed." The author-unless we are to call him the com- piler-of this poem probably wrote in the north of England at the beginning of the fifteenth century. as well as the one that occurs in Harbour. in all essential points. nevertheless. that there is more especiallya direct contradiction between the detailed account given of the death and burial of Arthur in the romance. to reproducing Huchown's work almost word for word. 272. and also the circumstancethat Wyntoun (v. "the Brwte " (mark the different form of sound). even though his account of Arthur's death is taken from some other source unknown to us. Huchown's poem no doubt actually deserved the name of "Brut. A portion of these "Geste" seem subsequently-perhaps in connection with the less comprehensive " Adventures of Gawayne"-to have become the source of the " Morte Arthure.. although. This would explain the different names given to it by Wyntoun. however."* as the Scottish people probably called it. have to pay the compiler the tribute of having selected his material appropriately. in spite of the poetic spirit with which the whole subjectis treated. 296) calls it hystoryale" as the name for Geoffreyof Monmouth's " Historia. 5l auld story." or any of the accounts connected with it. the plan and arrangement of the work he had before him must have afforded him the necessarysuggestions." or "Broite. must have been brought even more prominently to the fore in Huchown's work than in the works of his prominently brought forward and. On the other hand. If wemay imagine a detailed title for the MS. and may have confined himself. and what the Chronicler in his unbiased interpretation. indeed. that the name of " The Great Geste of Arthure" might appropriatelybe appliedto the work. and hence. 560." Further. distinctly enough states about the lack of any such account in Huchown's work. in contradistinction to the " Gest . 12. The picture which.

but Huchown equals him in freshnessand vigour of perception and representation. further. he travelled to Oxford with three students to visit the Univer- sity. without. The author of "Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight" excels him in delicacy and wealth of invention. shows genuinely human sentiments capable both of the deepest pathos as well as of the keenest sense of humour. for the purpose of study. and the construction of his strophes charming. and made use of the opportunity that presenteditself to revisit the scenes loved. Huchown's style of writing was a choice one. if ever. a highly poetic disposition is met with in the " Morte Arthure ." the author shows a lively appreciation for nature and beauty. as well as for the splendour and the renown attached to the active life of a knight. In the following year-probably for ecclesiastical purposes-he travelled to St. and-by his manly reserveand somewhat robust character-perhaps gives a more decided impression of health. as indicated by his name. for a manly and noble spirit. he devoted himself to the Church. forsook the truth. Scotland did not as yet possessa university. was the result of his great reading-a very rare accomplishment in his native land in those days. Barbour may possibly have been connected with it at an earlier date. by having invariably and in all essential points followed the tradition which. however. Of humble origin. may have been engaged in his own learned pursuits. and while he superintended their studies. towards the end of the year 1357. Denis and other shrines in France. The love of learning. More original is the figure of John Barbour. originated with Geoffrey of Monmouth. Barbour undertook a similar journey to England in 1364. i.e. although he but rarely. and rose to the rank of Archdeacon of Aberdeen. and the remote situation of a poor and small country madeit difficult for those anxious . and. We may complete the picture of Huchown by a few personal characteristics. In this capacity. a trace of coarseness.52 LANCASTER AND YORK. which evidently animated Barbour. which the Chronicler gives of him. Three years later he crossed the Channel a second time. and his temperament also shows a greater admixture of the feminine element. in company he with the young men placed under his care. his diction excellent and full of refinement. in the first instance.

BAREOUR AND HIS TROY-BOOK. And in Barbourwe have a powerfuland graphic style of diction which moulds the linguistic material with great skill. ." The archdeacon could not have remained long ignorant of the poetical talent he possessed. he had also read various of the French poets. but did so before any English poet had handled the subject. and moveson smoothlyand securelyin short rhymed-couplets of masterlyconstruction. At the same time. and perhaps in an even higher degree by poetry. the earliest was. without knowing it. His works betray not only a knowledge of the Charlemagne epics. in its fulness and peculiar development. and a longer fragment-3118 lines-which gives the concluding portion of the narrative. these fragments of the Troy Romance betray an appreciation for form which. It is not known when he began to write poetry. Apart from theological and ecclesiastical books. or what subject he first took in hand. among other matter. having by a fortunate discovery of recent years again become known : a short piece-some 596 lines of the beginning of the poem-describing part of the Argonaut expedition. 53 to learn. Many of his works may have entirely disappeared. distinct traces of his intimate acquaintance with the " Roman de la Rose. Barbour appears to have been specially attracted by historical works. It is characteristic of his intellectual vigour. Barbour-like the English author of the fifteenth century who." Only two fragments of Barbour's work have been preserved. that Barbour was not only the first of his own countrymen to treat the Troy saga in his native tongue. followed his example -founded his work on Guido de Columna's " Historia Trojana. In addition to such Latin poets as Statius. shows a considerable gap. unfortunately. no doubt. It is evident from these fragments that Barbour's poetical independence was but little developed at the time. his Troy-romance. but contain. Among those that are known. however. to participate in the gradual rise of international culture. but. is not generally met with apart from the poetic gift itself. His reproduction is a mere translation-decidedly less original even than Lydgate's-and worked out only in descriptive passages by his having occasionally filled in suggestions given by the original.

the son of Robert Bruce). as Robert II. Thus. Foreign lands and Troy hid not made Barbour forget his native Scotland.54 LANCASTER AND YORK. Barbour was clear-headed. there is no doubt King Robert valued Barbour's practical ability no less than his talent as a poet. nor was the Present and the immediate Past forgotten amid the dusk of bygone ages. 1357-1370. and the impulse for poetical production in him. and with a variety of interests in life. Barbour did not fail to make use of in order to satisfy his thirst for historical knowledge. and also a warm-hearted patriot. Still. and that he continued to draw him closer into his service. wearing the Scottish crown. and even in military enterprises. and the results of which he had. An ecclesiastic in his position. Perhaps on account of the arrangements already made for his journey to Oxford. the Archdeacon of Aberdeen was appointed one of the " auditors of exchequer. appreciation of historical events. and other qualities of an entirely different kind. of course. The period of the war of independence which lay so close to his own day. In the year 1375 we find Barbour at work upon ." The relation in which he stood to the King and to various members of the aristocracy. was not likely to hold himself aloof from public concerns and State affairs. whose son had for years-during the days of his own youth and early manhood-been kept from the throne by a usurperin leaguewith English interests.. 1374. and in Scotland.proved specially attractive to the worthy Scotchman. are found in Barbour's principal work. ecclesiastics of every rank are found taking an enthusiastic part in politics. The samecharacteristics. as well as to officers of high rank. in February. and whose nephew was now. only carried to an even higher perfection.a man of ability and moderation. more especially. himself witnessed. 1357.. as early as September. Hence it cannot surprise us to find that. all combined to induce Barbour to give his countrymen an account of the life of the great king who had founded the independence of the nation. this appointment had no actual result at the time. Patriotism. he was appointed by the bishop of his diocese to act as one of the commissioners who were to meet in Edinburgh to arrange about the ransom of the imprisoned king (David II.

Scarcely had the crown been placed on his head in the Abbey at Scone. He lacked neither the intuition for judging men and circumstances. when the battle at Methven obliged him to take to flight. Few literatures can offer an example in any way com- parable to this poem of The Bruce. among the Scottish people in the days of their strugglefor independence. the accounts of contemporaries. and. For long he wandered about in the Scottish Highlands. It might more correctly be called an historical representation in the form of a romance. philologists. In 1378 the work was finished. in fact.have declared it to be an epic.and not unfrequently . in all its bearings. already halfway through it. hunted like a wild animal. To historians it is an historical source. England hasnothing like it. scarcely ever corresponds absolutely. nor such impartiality as was likely to be met with in a Scotchman of the period possessinga patriotic spirit and a poetical disposition. The life of King Robert the Bruce was a veritable romance and in the highestdegree adaptedto stir the poetic imagination of his contemporaries. certainly also many documentary records. a picture of the fortunes and doings of Bruce that coincides with the actual facts in every feature. indeed. 55 his Bruce. Barbour's intention was to present an absolutely truthful account of the events which had occurred.without intending to contradict historians . Those who have any conception of what the nature of historical truth actually is-how a report of any two witnesses of an experience they have had in common. Many a time he defended himself in a narrow glen single-handed againsta host of wild Highlanders. and more particularly not do justice to its patriotic pathos and the national spirit whicli breathes through it. He had at his disposal valuable material.while he was ever on the alert among the mountain ravines for the baying of the bloodhounds set upon his track.KING ROBERT THE BRUCE. to give an account. the written and verbal reports of eye-witnesses. of a somewhat complicated occurrence one has witnessed.his life in perpetual danger. and how soon legend throws its veil over important personagesand events-will not expect to meet with. And yet even this definition would only half settle the matter. how difficult it is.

at length. and rousing new hopes in the hearts of the Scottish patriots. No wonder that poetry had handled this subject. by perpetually harassing his opponents. above all. in Scottish verse. By degrees his fortunes took a brighter turn. and in a bloody battle established the independence of his native land.56 LANCASTER AND YORK. and the spirit which even nowadays breathesforth from Barbour's . indeed. a comprehensive account of the life of Robert Bruce. savedhis life by castingasidehis coat of mail and climbing barefoot up steep mountain walls. whether this work-if it really existedwas even known to Barbour. At length he succeeded In reaching the Mull of Cantyre. and thereupon new adherents were constantly coming forward. But. some of their own freewill. the struggle betweenthe kingdom by and the barons. Scarcely was he in safety when he set about planning new schemes. One of the first of the aristocracy in the Lowlands to take up his causewasLord James Douglas. however. The author is stated to have been a monk of the Abbey of Melrose. and the work to have been produced in the year 1369. The more important Scottish fortresses fell one after the other into Bruce's hands. And about this time the power of England was itself crippled by internal political dissensions. that King Robert the Bruce and his faithful ally in danger and in victory-James Douglas-were favourite heroesof national songs. It cannot be said. And. and. above all. he laid siege to Stirlingthe key to the whole country. But still. Peter Fenton by name. the spirit which animated the songs. When England then roused herself to make a final and immense effort at resistance. is said to have existed before Barbour's day. Bruce succeeded in completely routing the English force at Bannockburn.and sent a large army to Scotland under King Edward. some by being compelled to do so. by the incapacity of the ruler who had succeeded Edward I. and even though it would be foolish-as has been done-to maintain that Barbour's poem was based upon the national songs. to the throne.and carried out many a bold undertaking with his small band of followers. he was not unacquainted with the national poetry treating of Bruce.yet it did undoubtedly arise under their influence. and from there escaped to the small island of Rathlin off the north coast of Ireland. but.

In his conception of men and circumstances he shows correct judgment. after having described the death of Bruce. Barbour. The method in which the poet has handled the grateful material is a proof of his artistic insight and taste. self-knowledge. and although his poem doesnot altogether disregard scholarsand ecclesiastics.or in a wrong place. gives an account of the pilgrimage made by the ever-faithful Douglas to lay the heart of his royal master in the soil of the land hallowed by the footsteps of Christ.and the effectof which the wasincreased by the form in which he presented his narrative. Barbour's "Bruce" will always be granted a prominent place among the historical sourcesfor the epoch it deals with. he carriesus forthwith back to the occurrence which-with unerring instinct-he has chosen to regard as the starting-point of his delineation. which is then followed by the latter's coronation. viz. we then see the Bruce-who carries Scotland's fate within his breast-marching from victory to victory. In a short and cleverly constructedintroduction. the murder of the traitor John Comyn by Bruce. purified by misfortune. but in making use of it as such. the genuinely human sentiments which in him are combined with a passionate love for his native land. and his bones. He shows appreciationfor all that is great and noble.BARBOUR'S "BRUCE. and historical appreciation. It cannot be denied that we have here a poetical conception of the subject. A pleasant effect is produced by his thoroughly sound and healthy views of life. And as a sort of pendant to this idea. Barbour's description is absolutely clear and connected. and political as well as psychological insight. still he is as free from pedantry as from clerical narrow-mindedness. allowance will have to be made for the peculiar light in which his authorities and he himself regarded subject. But Douglas himself meets with his death in the Holy Land. The hero's sufferings are made an expiation of this act. as well as Bruce's heart. spite of all the differences in in culture." 57 work is precisely the same. are carried back to Scotland and buried in their native earth. At timesthese passages . admirably motived. The sentences and reflections scattered about his narrative are scarcely ever thrown in with a dis- turbing effect. full of attractive freshness and sympathetic warmth of feeling.

Barbour received from Robert II. a " perpetual pension. For having drawn his materials from the national spirit of the age. with power to assign it in mortmain. must have given Barbour a foretaste of that which a grateful posterity held in readiness for him. are quite lyrical in effect. and the poet contrives. for it is probable that he had read Geoffrey of Monmouth. have written another work in the interest of his sovereign and of the Stuart dynastywhich has been lost." indeed.and on with stirring animation. The poet may. if the identification of . sings of he the power of love. in praise of freedom. On the completion of his work. is unquestionablya genuine poet. and to describe it so effectively. But the fact-thanks to a lucky constellation-that Barbour was able to give a subject of such pre-eminent national importance so appropriate a form." The traditional genealogywhich linked the origin of the Britons and Scots with Troy was not unknown to Barbour. Barbour'snarrativemarches at a rapid pace. and his productivity not conspicuousin a qualitative throw light and variety into the massof his material. about this time." Another pension for liie was bestowed upon him by the King. will secure him a reputation which far exceeds the actual value of his poetical gifts. The dispute as to whether "The Bruce" is an actual poem is an idle one. yet the reportswe have of it give it a certain connection with the contents of his " Troy Romance" and the tendencies of his " Bruce. Notwithstanding his fondness for detail. and. possibly in acknowledgment of other services. even though the range of his genius may be a limited meansof delicate shading. and almost certain that he had perused Huchown's " Great Geste. He who was able to grasp the given historical subject in so poetical a manner. and to avoid the monotonylikely to arise from the numerous adventures and battle scenes.for instance. Characters and events are brought forward with greatdistinctness.where. in praise of women. there breathes forth from his work something of the imperishable youth of national poetry.58 LANCASTER AND YORK. The recognition his work received at the hands of the better portion of his contemporaries and of his King. above all.

he endeavoured all the more eagerly to himself exclusivelyto the duties of his calling. has been lost. male and female. The later years of the poet's life proved him more tinctly the ecclesiastic. The aged poet-he was granted a long life -clearly did not wishto cease working as long as he could hold his pen. St. applied himself to writing religious epics. The whole of this work.King of Phrygiaand sonof Ninus. not found their place there. Hence. Then come . It consists of different parts which were produced from time to time. the Archdeacon of Aberdeen devoted the infirmities of old age began to prevent him attending to his official work. has been preserved. all the substanceof the Book of Legendsof the Saints^which Barbour wrote as an appendix to it.Barbour must have been personallyacquainted with him. On the other hand. as well as the descent of the Stuarts. he commences with the Apostles. who have. by filling in the actual Gospels from well-known apocryphal accounts. and when clothe the pious sentimentsthat filled his mind in a poetic form. A sort of supplement to Huchown's workalthough not exactly a " Brut"-was furnished by Barbour in an historical account.BARBOUR'S LOSTWORKS.then the Evangelists-who do not belong to the series-and they are followed by Barnabas. with the sixty-six Miracles of the Virgin attached to it.he addedone group of cellsafter the other. like a busybee. their origin being tracedback to Dardanus. however. Having withdrawnhimself from political interests. Magdalen (whom he calls the '*'co-apostol"). which seems to have been essen- tially genealogical character and dealt with the race of in Brutus. and -somewhat after the manner of the author of the " Cursor Mundi" (in the corresponding chapter of his work)carried the narrative in chronological order from the Virgin's Conception down to her Ascension to Heaven. and "Sister" Martha. 59 this poet'spersonalitybe granted. Barbour. for Hugh of Eglinton was one of the " auditors of exchequer " at the same time as Barbour. took up the subject of the Virgin Mary and her Divine Son. therefore. The "Maria Egyptiaca" wasthen-as it seems-to open a series of other repentant sinners. Peter at their head. in the first place. He. Taking the heavenlyhierarchyin order of rank.

The collection. made use of earlier complete records. as well as the poet's age. to be an unweariedinvestigatorof legendslike the editor to whom we owe the publication of the " Book of Legends of the will be found that Barbour'ssimple as well as vivid form of representation corresponds with the characterof the genus. four martyrs. in fact. The nature of the material. and other collections as well. Barbour. he was not surpassed in this domain even at a later date." however. and to the various influences and conditions which compel him to accept all manner of things not adapted to poetry. concessions of various kinds-to the spirit of the age in which the poem originated. one would need.6O LANCASTER AND YORK. to the power of tradition which even fehemost gifted poet cannot ignore. such as the " Vitae Patrum " and Vincent de Beauvais' " Mirror of History. but. Huchown in his " Susannah " exhibits greater brilliancy of diction. thus created a work which far surpassed almost everything of its kind that English literature had to show. as "brilliant a display of of talent.closes with the legends saints. It is not the inevitable defects attached to the poetry. would not allow us to expect these " Legends " to show as vigorous an expression originality. but its great merits. One main source from which Barbour drew the materials for this work was the " Golden Legend . and." The " Legends of the Saints " demand concessions from us much more frequently than " The Bruce. indeed." were not left unconsulted. as a very old man. (in and thesemakewayfor a large and somewhat mixed group of persons. as a whole. the " seven dormientes or sleperis/' six confessors four legends). that should excite our astonishment. he also. It is saying a good deal that we are able to recognize in these religious epics the patriotic singer of the war of independence."beforewe could ventureupon the conclusion that the work "might readily be regarded the as most perfect of all Barbour's productions.and best . as his poem of " The Bruce ." and. of ten female containing altogetherfifty pieces. in part. indeed. even things that are insipid. Chaucer's " Cecilia " more completely captivates our ear by the plea- santsoundof its strophes.

are scarcely ever unimportant . 61 that it is the only form which can be carried out successfully. the Apostle of Galloway. especially in poems of longer effort or in compilations. again. is followed by that of St. account a number of stories obtained In working out his details Barbour exhibits poetic invention in more than one passage. supplementing them by numerous additions. The " Book of Legends of the Saints " was probably Bar- bour's last work. The reflections aroused in him by the events he relates. . in another part he gives us the life of St. Scottish literature-can show no more brilliant figure or richer nature than his. he acts towards the plan and construction of the whole as a man accustomed to go his own way. and. sound piety. Macharius (Machar). whose story was also related by Jacobus a Voragine. manages successfully to develop the romantic element in some of the legendary material. spontaneous expressions of the poet. clearness of mind. and of a wisdom based upon a full experience of life. by adding to Alfred de Rievaux's from oral tradition. indeed. the patron saint of a church in the town. for he sometimes abbreviates and then again dilates. and whether more or less new or commonplace. and not unfrequently alters them. English literature-and. The poet died at an advanced in the age year 1396. Barbour's attitude towards the sources from which he drew his material shows much greater independence than is exhibited by the majority of poets who have handled legends. whose character even here bears the impress of sterling and genuinely human qualities. finely conceived. for the legend of St. And amid this collection of " Legends " we do not lose sight of the Scotchman-nay. And while treating the details in this manner. and worked out witu clearness. the patron saint of Aberdeen. by replacing the bare suggestions of his copy with a psychological picture of vivid action. in particular. Ninian. of the Aberdeen man . and.SCOTTISH COLLECTION OF LEGENDS. Nicholas. they are naive. the maxims he scatters about his narratives.







In the last week of December, 1501, a large banquet was given by the Lord Mayor of London. The reception was held in honour of distinguished visitors-special ambassadors from the King of Scotland-who had come to conclude negotiations in connection with his marriage with Margaret, the young daughter of Henry VII. Among the retinue of the ambassadors was a poet, small of stature and of vivacious temperament, who, on this occasion, was inspired to write a poem in praise of the city of London, and shortly afterwards received from King Henry a not inconsiderable gift of money in return. " Dunbar, the Rhymer of Scotland," is the name given in the old chronicles to this poet, whose genius so immeasurably excelled all the contemporary poets in England. William Dunbar was at this time six and twenty years

of age,but had alreadya somewhat life behind him. A full
scion of the noble family of the Dunbars, and a relative of the Earl of March, he had from his earliest youth been distined for the Church, and, it was hoped, would one day rise to occupy the highest of its gifts, which, however, it was never his good fortune to obtain. We are told that even as a babe he was sung to sleep on his nurse's knee to the refrain of " Dancieley, bishop, dandeley." And this idea was firmly adhered to even after the strong sensuousness and passionate nature of the young man had distinctly manifested itself. Perhaps, owing to his sanguine temperament, he himself held longest to this hope of being able to reach the goal that had once been held up before him, and did so, in fact, even when other paths had become closed to

He had received an academical education at St. Andrews, and took his degree of Master of Arts there in 1479. Then he entered the Order of the Franciscans, "preached and flattered," led a gay life, wandering over a great part of



Scotlandand England,and travelledeven as far as Picardy.
He contrived, however, to free himself again from these religious fetters, hence had probably never solemnly pledged himself by a vow. What his doings had otherwise been, down to the accession of James IV. (1489), remains

The reign of this chivalrous, gifted, and, in spite of all his weaknesses, amiable monarch, was the period when an the still youthful poetry of Scotland burst into full bloom. The close connection between art-poetry and popularpoetry, the free and eminently national tendency which Scottish literature had struck out for itself, in the first stages of its development, all afforded the most admirable preliminary conditions. While the favour of circumstances, the gradual rise of learning, together with Dundas's own refined and liberal education, and the political situation of the moment, including the disposition and inclinations of the King-which impressed themselves on his court-rcompleted the happy constellation. James's bravery, his affable nature, and his intellectual energy,which enabled him with ease to master a number of the European languages besides Latin, his interest in poetry, nay, even his merry and gallant adventures, which were by no means of an objectionable character,-all this combined to create an atmosphere very advantageous for poetry. Accordingly, we have a number of names of poets handed down to us from that period, without our being able, in most cases,to do more than obtain a very uncertain idea of them, and in the more favourable cases our knowledge of them is based only upon a couple of small productions which have accidentally been preserved. At King James's court Dunbar, too, found a sphere of activity, and he received recognition both as a poet and as
a man of business.

Dunbar is not one of those fond of displaying their " learning," yet his accomplishments were by no means

insignificant. He was, doubtless, intimately acquainted
with Latin and French, and, in spite of his contempt

for the Gaels, he probably-like his King-understood their language. He waswell read in Scottish poetryand
also in Chaucer and other English poets. Ovid, Vergil, and



especiallyHorace, had been studied industriously. But,
above all, he had gradually acquired a great knowledge of
the world and of mankind.

The poems of his earlier years were probably mainly of the erotic species: tender love-songs with a play upon words, allegorical poems, and also merry tales and narratives. Among the latter is the lyrico-epic apologue The Tod (Fox) and the Lamb, which, in all probability, belongs to the last decade of the fifteenth century. The poem treats of a loveadventure of the merry-hearted monarch, which seems to have had a comical end. James, of course, is the fox, the lady the lamb, and the wolf, from whom the fox tries to conceal himself, probably the jealous husband. The adventure took place in Dunfermline, where Robert Henryson wrote his " Fables." Dunbar may have obtained from Henryson a general idea as to how to dress up his material. But what a contrast we have in Dunbar's clever, piquant description and reckless spirit-nay, the whole tone of his work, with its worldlmess and even ribaldry-when it is compared with the staid and somewhat pedantic manner
of the honest " schoolmaster Great is the influence !" of Chaucer-whether direct or

indirect-displayed by these two poems. And yet Dunbar's own peculiar style is already apparent: that trait of pointed epigram which recalls the French genius, that free attitude, equally far removed from anything conventional and courtlike as from the ordinary and commonplace, and in verse and strophe-notwithstanding their strictly artistic construction and exquisite flow-a simpler method, more akin to that of the folk-poetry. To the ninth decade belong also some of his satirical poems, such as The Fly ting of Dunbar and Walter Kennedy, a poem bristling with violent invectives and coarse-grained salt; Kennedy was a poet of some renown at that period, but is little known to us now. To this period belongs also Dunbar's spirited and pungent Tidings fra the Session* in which a peasant returning from Edinburgh tells his neighbours, at their request, of his experiences at the law
* The form of this poem corresponds exactly with that of The 7W and the Lamb: strophes of seven octosyllabic lines, the last acting as a refrain, with the rhyme-order of aa bb c b c»

68 courts.

THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. Even that merry and waggish poem, Dunbar's

Dirige to the King at Stirling, which applies the images of purgatory and heaven to Stirling and Edinburgh, and
parodies the Church prayers for the dead in a somewhat profane manner, may be assigned to this period. Much as King James enjoyed amusing himself, he did not, amid his pleasures, forget the more serious duties of life. After 1489 he determined to make a suitable marriage,

and looked about amongthe different courtsfor a princess.
Spain, France, the Emperor, and even the Pope were applied to, and finally, after 1500, negotiations were entered

into with England, where his proposal met with ready
acceptance. Dunbar had not held himself aloof from these proceedings; at all events, he had joined some of the embassies entrusted with the matter-perhaps as their secretary. In 1491, accordingly, he went to France, and would have travelled on to Italy had he not been prevented by the snow on the Alps, and was thus compelled to remain the winter in Paris. In 1501, as we have seen, he was in

When Margaret Tudor, who was scarcely more than a child, came to Scotland in 1503 to be married and crowned, Dunbar received her with his poem, The Thistle and the Rose, which, according to its last line, he wrote or had at all events thought out, on the 9th of May. In order worthily to celebrate the union between the English and Scottish royal families, a poet in those days could scarcely have dispensedwith allegorical machinery, and the emblems of their crests lay here at his disposal. As a prototype for

the plan of his work, Dunbar may have had in his mind
Chaucer's " Parlement of Fowls," which had been com-

posedfor a similar occasion; but besides this there are reminiscences from other poems of Chaucer's, especially his " Knight's Tale." In place of old Airicanus we have here Mistress May, who comes to the poet early one morning and calls upon him to write something in her honour. When she leaves him, he follows her, and comes to a

beautiful gardenwhere he sees sun rise, and listens to the
the song of the birds. Nature tells Neptune and y£olus not to disturb the water or the air, and commands Juno to

keep the heavens clear and dry.

By means of three

a swallow. "The Thistle and the Rose " could not fail to display an abundance of colour and spirit. eagle. and how very differently Chaucer's humour comes to the fore! . The queen of flowers is crowned. So full of blisful. angelik beauty. Then all the birds join in a continuous hymn of praise. In richness of invention as well as of animated variety in execution." 69 messengers-aroe. nevertheless." Thereupon Nature addresses herself to the Rose. Each one of thesegroups choosesa king.e. and sufficiently praised. the brilliancy of his descriptions.and delyt. As a product of court-like the of simplicity of his plan. in ideal character and in freedom of movement. till the poet awakes. Imperiale birth. So full of vertew. no other poem of Dunbar's so distinctly betrays the influence of Chaucer. whose lineage she esteemsabove that of the Lily (i. not to hold herbs without virtue to be as valuable as those " of virtue and of odour sweet. hurt is thyne honesty. As the fresheRois. Considdering that no flour is so perfite.and sneezewort-she thereupon calls the " beasts and birds. But."THE THISTLEAND THE ROSE. the thought of his greatprototype unwittingly forces itself upon one. of cullour reid and qukyt: For gif thow dois. his wealthof noble and beautiful language. flowersand herbs to a " meeting. in the brevity and clearness the poem as a whole. The heiress of the Red and the White Rose is personally honoured in accordance with her rank." and not to let any vile nettle compare itself to the goodlyfleur-de-lis: "Nor hald non udir flour in sic denty. and thus the lion. honour. " The Parlement of Fowls " is far superior to the Scottish poem. and on this occasion Dunbar has in no way equalled him. The to Thistle she orders more especially. and dignite. and thistle are crowned and instructed by the greatgoddess exercisejustice and mercy. and receives the homage of her sisters. England above France). plesans. and even King James-in the form of the Thistle as well as of the Lion-is offered many a wellturned compliment. But even here thereis no denyingthe originality of the Scottish poet. In plan and execution.

of harmonious beauty.attains such energetic conciseness ot expression. If Dunbar's language may be said to be more equal than Chaucer's. which charmingly contrives to weave nature and mythology into a living. And a poet who. Yet close to the light we have the shadow.7O THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. Too frequently. in the same degree as Dunbar. too great an abundance of brilliancy. in this poem. It treats of a shield by means of which the noble knight Reason seeks to protect the poet against the shafts of Beauty and her train. The action is worked out in a few great scenes which produce their effect by pleasing gradations. at the same time. and which Chaucer would have accomplished in a single line. reaches the climax of his art in the domain of erotico-romantic allegory. in brief. This simple thought has been draped in the happiest manner. and not know how to regulate his wealth. Few poets are able." and in execution exhibits even greater brilliancy. D unbar. as well as by surprising contrasts. In a description of a beautiful landscape on a May morning. occasionally fall out of cadence. we have at the outset an instance of this fault. in the plan of his works. when he chooses. in Dunbar. UP Dunbar's Golden Targe was probably written not very much later than " The Thistle and the Rose. trie same thought is repeated. and hence we can here best study the merits as well as the defects characteristic of him in this species of poetry. and thus his protegee falls defenceless into the enemies' hands. to call up exquisite pictures by the choice and arrangement of a series of well-sounding words. Admirable is the flight of his fancy. and hence the effect of strophes like the following is rather weakened than heightenedby thoseconnected with them in the work :- . The invention is here unquestionably more original and more significant than in " The Thistle and the Rose. even though ephemeral whole. will generally be found to allow himself too much licence in his descriptions. too great an outlay for the object in view. and. we have too much fulness. he is less varied and suggestive. managesso to limit himself. accordingly. like the latter. The diction is full of bold splendour. and. till Presence casts a powder in his eyes which renders him incapable of resistance." scarcely at an earlier date. if he does not.

In this go cleith the. Yet it was just at this period that Dunbar began to take the matter seriously into consideration. Quhill all in balme did branch and levis flete To part fra Phebus. Her cristall teris I saw hyng on the flouris. Why should he have despaired of obtaining a bishopric through the King's interest in him. . Dunbar seems also to have been tempted in all seriousness permanently to assume the cowl of a Franciscan. And said. for weir it thow most neid . my servand. But on the flure delyverly and sone I lap thair fra. With ane religiouse abbeit in his hand. Refuiss the warld. for thow mon be a Freir. he read Mass for the first time in the King's presence. FRANCIS. did Aurora gn-te . " With him and with his abbeit bayth I skarrit. Apparalit quhite and red. 1504. any position free from care." The courtly and worldly poet who wrote such verses seemed but little fitted for the ecclesiastical profession."THE VISITATIONOF ST. Sail now be freir. How he cast the temptation from him we learn from his extremely original poem. In March. and nevir wald cum nar it. The Visitation of St. Delay it not. or. Thow that heslang doneVenus lawis teiche. Francis: or How Dunbar was desired to be a Friar : " This nycht befoir the dawing cleir Me thocht Sanct Francis did to me appeir. it mon be donebut dreid. Quhy skarris thow with this holy weid? Cleith the thairin. Quhilk he for lufe all drank up with his hete. It was only as an ecclesiastic that the poet could now hope to obtain a post of dignity and distinction. Anamalit was the (elde wyth all colouns. Lyke to ane man that with a gaist wes marrit: Me thocht on bed he layid it me abone. especially as he had also gained the favour of the young Queen? In those days of sanguine hopes and bitter disappointments. which he had already for a time worn as a young man. in to thair bouris." " Full angel-like thir birdis sang their houris Within thair courtins grene. " Quoth he. and in this abbeit preiche. wyth blomessuete. 71 The perly droppis schuke in silver schouris. in fact.

* Derntown Kirk. In me. Meanwhile he was anxiously endeavouringto obtain a benefice.cum on thairfore anone 11 circumstanceput by and excusationis. To tak this abbeit. Sanct Francis. Quhairfoir ga bring to me ane bischoppisweid. be sic sevin . " My brethir oft hes maid the supplicationis. that of thy claithes are so kynd . a placewhich has not yet been identified. with its epigrammatical and surprising end. Off all Jngland. " In haly legendishaif I hard allevin. Sweit Confessour.he addressed numerous Berwickshire.perhapsDirrington in . from Berwick to Kalice. as Dunbar has done in this pithy description. Ane feind he wes in liknes of ane freir." Only an eminent poet could have kept himself thus free fr>m conventional influences. But furder process. wes mony wrink and wyle . In me wes falset with every wyght to flatter. loving be the till. God wait. "The freir that did Sanct Francis thair appeir. bot thow did postpone. Quhilk mycht be flemit with na haly waiter . And I awoik as wy that wesin weir. Off full few freiris that hes bene sanctis I reid. and. " Quoth I. withthis objectin view. And thankit mot thow be of thy gudewill To me. In it I past at Dover cure the ferry. Bot thame to weir it nevir come in my mynd. " In freiris weid full fairly haif I fleichit. thow tak it nocht in ill. Be epistillis. The dait thairof is past full mony a yeir . nor freiris. I haif in to thy habeit maid gud cheir.72 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH.* and eik in Canterberry. and relationis. For in to every lusty town and place. Ma sanctisof bischoppis. Give evir thow wald my saule yeid unto hevin. I wesay reddy all men to begyle. " Als lang as I did beir the freiris style. With him me thocht all the house end he towk. this humorous satire. "G if evh my fortoun wes to be a freier. sermonis. Throw Piccardy. In it haif I in pulpit gone and preichit In Derntown kirk. He vaniest away with stynk and fyrrie smowk. and thair the peple teichit.

and I nocht ane. Or in their nummer to be told Als lang in mynd my wark fall bald ! Als haill in everie circumstance. Tne period in Dunbar's life to which " The Thistle and the Rose " belongs. " Sum men hes seven." He maintains that he has no desire for any great abbey. was doubled in the year 1507. but a pension which he had been drawing since the i5th of August. In those of his poems written . Quhylk wyne to drink als worthie wer ?" On another occasion he wishes that the King were more under the Queen's influence. Suld sofft yow Thrisill. or corruptioun As ony of thair werkis all. scant coverit with hather. To gif him drink that thristis sair . or consumptioun Roust. Unworthy be ane place to have. Or fyll ane full man quhyll he brist." " 73 petitions in verse to the King. Even the poet's self-consciousness occasionally finds expression. in mater and substance But wering. " The mercy of that sweit meik Rois. In forme. naive vagaries. quhidder is it almess mair. 1500." And again he asks the King" Sihir. and in 1510 even increased to eighty pounds. and pungent wit.J is recalled to our mind by the noble pride exhibited in Dunbar's Remonstrance^ where he says"And thocht that I. Quhois pykis throw me so reuthles ran God gif ye war Johne Thomsounis man !" At times he ventures to remind the King of services he had formerly rendered him. shows us the poet's many-sided talent in its fullest brilliancy. He complains that benefices are not justly appointed. I suppois. full of frank lamentations. and which includes the first seven years of the sixteenth century. cankar. Suppoisthat my rewardebe small! " A benefice Dunbar never succeeded in getting.DUNBAR'S PETITIONS. " but ane kirk. And latt his fallow die for thrist. And Horace's " Exegi monumentum. amang the laif.

which would ye waile to your wif. In the poem Against Swearing. that I have written here. The Testament of Master Andro Kennedy. The Two Married Women the Widow. and a boldness of caprice that does not allow itself to be deterred by anything. And as he achieved his best work in romantic allegory.he reveals his whole versatility and inventive caprice." The climax of this tendency. the Devil's L?quest. the views and experiences of love and marriage are discussed. Here. which manages effectively to introduce what is furthest removed from the subject. to renouncethy God and come to me." had started satire against women. recalls the best productions of the songs of the Vagantes. perfectly justifies the question with which the poem closes-a question pretty difficult to answer: " Of thir thre wanton wives. without the extravagant humour losing any of its pungency. The three ladies. a striking sense of the reachedin the Dance of the Seven . the characteristics of men and the secrets of feminine policy. who have no notion that the poet is listening to their conversation. in his " Confessions of the Wife of Bath. and their but little edifying remarks. Everywhere in the poems of this species Dunbar develops the most telling humour. Chaucer. with its effective mixture of Scottish and Latin verses. put no restraint upon their feelings. for special objects. too. Dunbar is fond of making use of hell and the devil according to the popular idea. further. causesthe Fiend to he give the prize for swearing a priest: " Thou art my clerk.74 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. if ye suld wed one ? " His satire takes a burlesque form in The Justis betuix the Tallyeour and Soutar (The Dispute between the Tailor and Shoemaker). but it receives an even more dramatic form in Dunbar's hands. The dispute betweenthe Tailor and Shoemakertakes place in hell. rich in striking and characterization and a comedy taken from the life full of force. where he causes three ivomen to converse unconstrainedly over their wine.however. a remarkable originality of fancy. His alliterative at this period he producedthe more important of his satirical poems. the cynicism of which stands in so great a contrast with the charming picture we had received of their outward appearance. and delights in the combination of the horrible and the burlesque.

which shows signs of a melancholy and serious frame of mind. Only one minstrel plays to them. it is true. of wherepreparations beingmadeto celebrate " fastern's are the even. some of them not unworthy of Dante.which probablybelongs the year 1507. one who had slain another to get possession of his inheritance. And feblit with infirmitie : Timor Mortis conturbat me." DANCEOF THE SEVENDEADLYSINS. but not without its leaving a moral effect upon the man who was now pretty well advanced in years. The rapid advance of the representation in smoothly flowing and richly freighted strophes (Dunbar here. " Our plesance heir is all vane glory. unrelieved even by his attempt at pious resignation" I that in heill wes and glaidness. The crisis was not over when he wrote his Lament for the Makars. On to the night of the 15111 Februarythe poet dreamsof Hell. yet gives the impression of animated action. During the year 1507 we have the beginning of a new stage in the poet's mental development. the feynd is fle: Timor Mortis conturbat me. We fancy we have before us a grotesque nocturne. The poem is descriptive throughout. This fals warld is hot transitory. and of having been produced under the impression of gloomy thoughts of death. drawn with bold. vigorous. Am trublet now with great a flag beforethe .no state on earthbeing secure. the abundance of rapidly sketched and characteristic traits. employs the twelvelined stanza of the minstrels). He goes on to say that the state of man changes and varies." " Mahoun " then calls upon the seven deadly sins -each accompanied by a numerous train-to lead off the dance. though somewhat irregular strokes. Some pictorial representation of the Dance of Death may have inspired Dunbar to handle the subject. popular in style. with great artistic skill. A serious illness appearsto have been the cause-an illness from which Dunbar did recover." 75 Deadly Sins. The flesche is brukle. the gloomy character of which is relieved with a grim species of humour. it is a sketch. sustain and heighten the illusion.

still. some of which are not found mentioned elsewhere. his fits of cynicism and frivolity. diminish and give place to a more deeply serious view of life. In point of dedelies veraly. wind." and " Gud MaisterWalter Kennedy. no physician or poet." " Senhe has all my Brethar tane. and Gower. it doesnot lack poetic tendencyor expression. the strong. he remains victor everywhere . no art-magicians or learned men. even at this time. On forse I mon his nyxt pray be: Timor Mortis conturbat me. all three. Death takes the knights in the field. He will nocht lat me leif alane. merciless tyrant takes the sucking infant from its mother's breast. still it is religious and moral motives which now mainly attracted him. he spares no lord in his power. his unbridled humour.76 THERENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. Then come the names of a number of Scottish poets. Death. Dunbar's love of sarcasm. carried off Chaucer. The poems of the third period differ distinctly from those of the earlier ones. the monk of Berry. reminds one of the well-knownsong (Pos de chanterm'es pres takns] where the earliest of the troubadours bids farewell to his country and people. Of Dunbar's religious poems some are of value only as devotional subjects. his vassals and child. the long enumeration of Scottish poets is more valuable for its literary and historical interest than for aestheticcharm. no clerk in his intelligence. have induced him eagerly to handle a variety of subjects. princes. the captain. while others are full of poetry. Best is that we for deid dispone Eftir our deid that leif may be : Timor Mortis conturbat me" This " Lament. He singswith fervour and poetic inspiration o(the " Nativitie" . he takes the champion. he says. the fine lady in her chamber. At the end of the list of those removed by Death is " gentle Stobo and Quintin Schaw. doth wave this world's vanities : unto the dead go all estates. prelates. Like the old song. " Sen for the Deid remeid is none. though armed with helm and shield. and potentates . And although his poetic impulse may." both in tone and form.

reminds us vividly in its construction. and at another he describes the follies and vices of mankind. And quho than ladeis suetarnychtbouris be ? " a lusty life in Luvis service bene. on the vanity of earthly possessions. the ficklenessof fortune. And with thy nychtbourisglaidly len and borrow .restraint in desire. Na gude is thyne. of the earlier poem of the " Throstle and Nightingale. and recommendsa rational enjoyment of life and a cheerful mind. For Warldis wrak but weilfair nocht availis . saif only [that] thow spendis Remenantall thow brukis bot with bailis . " Mak the gud cheir of it that God the sendis. For oft with wysemen it hes bene said aforrow : Without Glaidnes availes no Tressour." which the Nightingale opposes by maintaining in impressive words. His chanceto nycht it may be thyne to morrow . Man."THE MERLEAND NIGHTINGALE. in forms where the elegance is so rich in substance. At one time he reflects on the transitoriness of life. it would. This contrast is admirably developed in The Merle and Nightingale." and of the " giving as well as in taking . extols the happinessof contentment. not be unworthy of a Horace." The Merle represents earthly love. and its remarks occasionally give us a whiff of Dunbar's old humour- " God bade eik luve thy neighbour fro the splene. and although betraying Chaucer's influence. and to thy freynd be kynd. which. The same theme gives both substance and title to another poem of this period called " Of Love Earthly and Divine. in fact. Be blyth in hairt for ony aventure." 77 But he is above all successful in depicting the contrast between Divine and earthly love. " Be mirry. . and tak nocht far in mynd The wavering of this wrechit Warld of sorrow. To God be humill. that " All luve is lost but upone The refrain of the Merle is ever " God allone." In the end the Merle is converted-perhaps somewhat too suddenly-and the opponents unite in praise of Divine love." In his moralizing poems. He is fond of preachingmoderationin all things. in spite of a more refined style of art. Dunbar gives expression to soundworldly wi>dom-not unfrequemlyreminding one of Horace-and.

to whom we owe so many complete and life-like pictures of human nature. coincide with James's reign and be its most imperishable ornament. In dolour lang thy lyfe may nocht indure.which. as he does of the capacity for work. Dunbar is chiefly a lyrical and satirical poet. 1513). The year of Dunbar's death is unknown.he frequently employed in a non-epic fashion. it demands a greater amount of reflective power. Quhairforeof comfort set up all thy sailis: Without Glaidnes availis no Tressour. and although he frequently does not limit himself in his descriptions. the long-sustained effort and complacency of the epic-writer were foreign to him. precise. or the creative power of Chaucer. which manages obtain ever new points from a limited to circle of motives. however. nevertheless. Seik to solacequhen sadnes the assailis. in these poems. (September. A fertility of mind. and was still writing poetry in 1517which is not altogether certain-the period of his actual literary activity would. If he outlived the battle of Flodden and the death of James IV. and there are few poetswho can commandsucha far-reaching scaleof tones . His style is always clear. not to mention a fellow-workerlike Lydgate. He manifests as little of the objectivity with which Chaucer mirrors life." Dunbarhad a prototypein the scantymemorials preserved of Chaucer's moralizing lyrics-with the rapid succession of their concise maxims or examples. but because takes artistic he pleasurein his own charming delineations. The Scottish poet is a Master who shows himself in his limitation. Still.-all this is. and the art of applying simple.78 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. the working out of which is left to the reader. Dunbar's poetry does not possess altogether the directness of Chaucer's. yet striking and choice expressions amid a variety of turns and forms.found combined with a mature knowledge of human nature and a refined and kindly disposition. As an epic writer he had the talent for giving graphic descriptions and vivid representations. The calmness. this is not done with the inten- tion of becoming discursive. and pregnant.the waggishness which seerns of now to have become pleasantly tempered. it will readily be admitted that Dunbarin this domain far surpasses Chaucer.

Still. as well as in the widest sense. was not spared disappointments. too. Thanks to his high connections and his own personal qualities. too. As a writer of "occasional the sametime. but of more significance than that of his brother-poet. that of Gawin Douglas appears both more ponderous and moredignified. and had not only readthe Latin authors.where. And Gawin may have attended a monastic school before he went to the university. and third son of Archibald " the great Earl of early as 1494-at the age of nineteen-he took his degree of Master of Arts. had been destined for an ecclesiastical career. Gawin succeeded in reaching the goal thus set up before him-a goal which had so long hovered before the mind of restless William Dunbar. to admire so much gracefulness. Douglas's learning-philological as well as theologicalwas distinctly superior to Dunbar's. not only in the University of St. A scion of the most famous of all the Scottish families. Douglas's life. was the first writer actually to create classic lyrics of an artistic kind. He also knew something of . so much grotesque humour. Dun bar raised lyrics on to a higher stage. in English or the Scottish language. in fact. He had devoted himself more thoroughly than the latter to the study of Roman literature. like Dunbar." Douglas. By the side of the gracefully mobile figure of sensitive Dunbar. Andrews. Ferrarius. and so much elegance in the expression of discreet worldly wisdom. wherewe have. 79 as he. so much vigour and so intrepidity. and many intervening difficulties had been overcome." in the narrowest. Studiesin antiquity were at that time zealously carried on. was teaching in the Abbey of Kinloss. and which had alwaysremainedequally far removedfrom his grasp. also but studied their commentators. he. the goal Douglas had in view was not reached till various efforts had been made. few poets have at their disposal so much sublime and lovely imagery. and the bitterest experiences threw a gloom over the evening of his life. With Gawin Douglas humanism began to make its triumphantentry into Scottishpoetry. much intelligence. one of the most learned Scotchmen of the day.GAWIN DOUGLAS. was an active one. but also in the monastic seminaries.

inspired by the renown of the hero and author. the Italian humanists-men like Petrarch. and. . Douglas's poetry and manner of thought reminds one still a good deal of the Middle Ages. With the quickness of thought. affectedby the rhetorical fire of its poets and historians. and was. which was written in 1501. even exhibit a touch of prudery. His later works are all strictly moral in character. he never succeeded in grasping as correctly as Dunbar. however. and Landino-had perused many of their works. shows us the poet at an important period of his life.with his inward eye. In his " unbridled youth " he had. he sees. The pleasures of youth no longer engross his heart. Of the Fathersof the Church he held St. As a rector of six and twenty.devoted himself to love and gallantry. their rivalries. as it were. With advancing years he experienced an ever-increasing need to bring his classical studies into a closer relation with his Christianity.did not readily enable him to have unrestrained enjoyment in the ancient writers. we are hurried acrosscountry. Augustine in especial esteem. to someextent. acquainted with their personal relations. Valla. It wasthen that he translated Ovid's " De Remedio Amoris" into his mother tongue. and the Christian view of life which alwaysaffectedhim so seriously. On the road to the foot of this hill he is accompanied by a mounted cavalcade of the Muses in the train of Calliope. Venus and Cupid are by him. and who attained classicperfectionof form without difficulty. with a salary that was certainly little more than a sinecure. for creating and distinguishing himself. Poggio. Douglas beganto feel the necessity for work.8O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'SDEATH. His Palace of Honour. Boccaccio. the Palace of Honour rising majestically on a grand rock of smooth marble. With a mind filled with the augustfiguresof antiquity. the follies and errors of the years just passed awake in him a sympathetic smile. and amid merry singing. clothed in rich apparel. a more serious effort towards higher aims swells his breast. and disputations. This translation has unfortunately been lost. who appeasesthe wrath of Venus whom the poet had offended. whose affinity to it was elective. like others. The spirit of antiquity. and then placeshim under the guidance of one of her own nymphs. in spite of the brilliant colouring of his descriptions.

"THE PALACE OF HONOURO" 81 throughvalleysandwoods. seated on his throne. and Valla appear. who vainly endeavours. then to the west-and it is only at the Fount of. the Muses that the riders stop to enjoy a little rest. Then he sees the multitude of men pressing on and trying to scale the walls of the castle. which was the object they had in view. then his eyes behold the face of the God omnipotent. The poet. he at the same time shows beforeat the Fount of the Muses)how modestly (as he ratedhis own poetic powers. in front of her a magic mirror. And as Douglas here gives energetic expression to his consciousness the unof worthmess of his own unimportant life. and listens and watches the games they play during the banquet. he sees the wretched world far beneath him. which reflects strange and wondrous figures and events. and thus carries him across a deep yawning gulf not far from the summit. No capricious goddessis incorporated in the idea. luminousGod. Poggio. When they arrive at the top. to slack his thirst at the fountain. driven hither and thither in a storm of misery. On the wayto the glorious G . Honour is the prize obtained by high virtue and noble effort. finds-more crawlingthan walking-an entryinto the pavilionwhich has been erected for the anecstasy. first to the east. which swallows up all those that are idle and given to pleasure. riversand hither and thither. At last his conductress leads him into the interior of the Palace. and royal princes walking about in plate and armour of burnished gold set with precious stones. In Douglas's falls poem. comes to a garden where Venus is seated on a magnificent throne. Many find their graves in the flood. he sees Ovid.whose unimpeachable righteousness considers only the inner worth. overmountains. are shipwrecked in the end. He then beholds the Palace of Honour in all its splendour and glory. On reaching the foot of the mighty rock. and how Catiline is thrust back with a book by Tullius. wehavea sublime. Martial. amid the crowd. and even numbers of those whom the " carwell [ship] of the State of Grace " has borne across the waves. downinsensible. Juvenal. and at one point takes him by the hair of his head. Vergil.seas. sees the vain efforts of Architophell and Sinon. and he is blinded by the glory of God's counte- nanceand. Terence. where he sees the hall built of precious stones. his conductress leads the way.

For Douglas is a poet of powerful sensuousness. the former by its numerous foreign words and curious new formations. plan. and arrangement of the whole. His poem is a work complete in itself. while from the ancients he has learned many a nicety of diction. wherethe Muses gathering blossoms poesy. many details have been drawn from it. accordingly. and the numerous figures which people this dreamland appear to have sprung up as spontaneously. The episodeVenusCalliope-Douglas reproduces the motive Amor-AlcesteChaucer in the prologue to " The Saints' Legend of Cupid. with a certain degree of necessity. But he is also acquainted with the great English and Scottish poets. " The Palace of Honour " gives the reflex of a sterling. he revels in reminiscences of classic poetry. and is indebted to it for the pithiness of his language and a goodly portion of its richness. owing to his learning. though not very facile. and. In these passages. who has learned to spiritualize his ideas on the subject of rank. with just a touch of the lord of the manor-in fact. and mythology. and with a keen appreciation of nature. from the phase in his development we spoke of above. manly character. power of imagination. and the outcome of his own deep emotions. His descriptions otherare wise effective. He is fond of piling up synonymsand antitheses. Language and representation appear in him somewhatheavy. Humanism has intoxicated him a little. at times.82 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. are the of he falls from the slender bridge (over which his conductress has passedwith ease) into the chasm that had to be crossed -a fall which puts a sudden end to the beautiful dream. history. half knight. UP garden. is not easyfor him it to express himselfwith brevity." The idea. of great. with upright and noble sentiments-in appearance half ecclesiastic. and give evidence of the vigorous freshness of his ideas." But Douglas seems to have copied his great prototype more unconsciously than intentionally. have proceeded from a fresh impression made by that poem. an aristocrat of the first water. he is conscious of the charms of folk-poetry. . in the delineation of his own physico-mental condition. He is admirable. The fundamental idea proceeded. Those acquainted with Chaucer will at once observe the resemblance between this and his " House of Fame. while the latter suffers from too greatan amount of amplification.

GILES'SCOLLEGIATE OF CHURCH. Poggio. and it is probable that his journeys fell mainly within the years 1494-1496. and the envoy of the " Compleyute of Venus" (aab aab baab}.probablyalso and the anxiety about his own promotion. Lydgate-and againin thosewherepathoshasaffectedhim. Douglas's Palaceof Honour" appearsto have made a " distinct impression upon Dunbar. in a characteristic manner. and to have influenced him in his allegorical poems-this would be the briefest way of expressingthe importance of the work. may have frequently claimed his time. More than a decade elapsed before metre.PROVOST ST. a church on a more extensive scale than any other in Scotland. is nowhere met with. The duties of his new office appear to have been zealously fulfilled. The " Targe " is even written in the same. although Dunbar does not carry these matters as far as his contemporary. In his " Palace of Honour " he made Ven-js a promise to turn a book she had presented to him into verse. " The Thistle and the Rose. and then again during the years of his Provostshipin Edinburgh." were produced a few years after it. Up to the year 1513 but little is heard of him. ^Eneas. whosename. Still. France. It is known that before the summer of 1515 he had been in England. . and inferior only to the Chapel Royal in Stirling. For poetic production Gawin could have found but little leisure during this periodj ecclesiastical political questions. Giles in Edinburgh. This distinguished and lucrative post Gawin held during a great part of his life. and Rome. to shortly afterwards made him Provost of the Collegiate Church of St. the nearest akin is the strophe ot the Compleynte of Mars in the poem of the samename(aabaab dec). and the full descriptions. he introduces the great men of antiquity-Martial. we are reminded of Dante. however. whom Douglashad dedicatedhis poem." * King James.kind of strophe as the greater part of the " Palace of Honour. The book was Vergil's poem on the goddess'sson. 83 as well as in others where. the richness of the language of these works. and also have spent some time abroad." and probably " The Golden Targe. he must have continued his studies. exhibit something of Douglas's style.

Up to that time. requires to be rendered with greater distinctness. some small addition is needed to give the passage correct its colouring. he had estimated correctly. only by three. accordingly. At the urgent request of a relative and patron-Lord Sinclair-he. He was aware that some forms of fidelity disfigure and obscure the sense. only one Roman poet 'of the better epoch had been made to speak in English. Considering the period in which he lived. ii. at the outset. that. was to bring Vergil as close as possible within the reach of his countrymen in as little adulterated a form as possible. the translation of the ^Eneid was completed on St. * The Poetical Works oj Gawin Douglas.84 THE RENAISSANCE SURREY'S UPTO DEATH. and the inflexibility of his mother-tongue. there existed only a few more or less faithful adaptations of some of the episodesor passages from it. carried out his long-cherished plan. any rendering of the whole work had ever been heard of. at others. After eighteen months' work. Douglas'sEneados standsat the head of a long series of attempts made to gain the classic poem of antiquity for the literature of his mother-tongue. concerning " which Douglas asserted that it was na mair like [Vergil] than the devil was like Sanct Austyne." No actual translation. 1513. based upon the French version of Guillaume de Roy. that the wording of the text. ed. at last.* His intention. and did not undervalue its difficulties. and. had despaired of being able to translate the original word for word. both in England as well as in Scotland. at times. that. the best thing. Magdalen's Day." There was also a free reproduction of the material-mixed with utterly heterogeneous elements-in Caxton's " Eneydos " (1490). in the translation. indeed. . without doubt. in certain cases. John Small. or. Douglas kept his promise. The Scottish poet wasperfectlyconscious the novelty of of his undertaking. during which urgent business must have led to frequent interruptions (some of considerable length). his want of prototypes. together with the peculiarities of the Scottish dialect. was what Chaucer had presented in his " Legend of Dido. The excellence of Vergil's style and of the Latin language. 14. meaning of one word the can be reproduced. As to Vergil's epos.

those who bear in mind that the whole period of the Renaissance-nay." 85 Douglasaccomplished task admirably. he makes use of different metres. where of or deep pathos demands expression. What he accomplished the domainof rhyming. will be lenient in their judgment of the blunders into which the aged poet was thus led. that one has the feeling as though he had not given any finishing touches to his work . At times he is extremely happy in the choice of his expressions. lack the pithy charm peculiar to his . However. although he did not always bind himself to rules with the strictness of good mediaevalpoets. in many passageshe succeedseffectively in reproducing the spirit of the original. in addition to the merit of having acted as a pioneer in paving the way for others. attain Vergil's elegant conciseness. Douglas deserves the further merit of having accomplished some matters so well. but not absolutely correct. and then again of more or lesscomplicated strophesc Douglas was a master of rhyme and of versification. hence. colour. If someof his his successorshave surpassed him in various points. nevertheless. the in in . However.the result being that the costume of the poem is so altered as to appear almost comic. by a change of system without any apparent reason. Douglas presented his contemporaries with the real Vergil in a dignified and attractive dress. construction. and also often misses the delicate touches of the Latin poet. and although he does not. as a rule. up to the very days of periwigs-followed the same tendency. His endeavour to adapt the views of antiquity to the ideas of his day is often carried to excess. still. especially where the object in view is to present a vivid representation outwardthings and proceedings. many verses exceed the regular measure of syllables. It is here. and occasionally even broke through the uniformity of a poem as a whole. their translations.DOUGLAS'S "ENEADOS. in many instances. his language full of force. and richness. His representation is sustained and varied. Douglas wrote his translation of the ^Eneid in heroic rhyme-couplets of nervous. taken as a whole. In the Prologues he has added to every one of the twelve Books. while not a few seem precisely like Alexandrines. that they can scarcely be surpassed. in particular. sometimesof a long rhymed-couplet.

In substance. Famous.. The old custom of the early English romantic poets. day. the latter the month of May with a rich fulness of colour. production. where both Henryson and Chaucer make their Douglas's this Sebastian Brand had published with the Commentary of Cristoforo Landino. to give descriptions of landscapesas introductions to epic narratives. reaches its fullest development in Douglas. in Strassburg. Douglasexplainsin a verycuriousfashion how he decided to undertake the translation of this Thirteenth Book. generally important. The Twelve Books of Vergil had received a continuation at the hands of the Italian humanist. by a Thirteenth Book. to by harsh commandsand even whippings. is manifest in the three introductory strophes of his Prologue to the Ninth Book. After walking through the fields one summer evening in June.86 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. and admirably worked out. and the figure of the Italian appeared him and inducedhim. enjoyed a great consent to .as an Augustine friar). Maffeo Vegio (who had been in the service of Pope Eugene IV. admitted it into his edition of the " ^Eneid" which In was spiteof its internal weakness. in 1502. as examples of descriptive poetry. who perhaps made use of this edition. not unfrequently makes successful use of alliteration for increasing the effect to be produced. are his Prologues to the Seventh and the Twelfth Book of his " Eneados. the Prologues are partly reflective and didactic in character. partly descriptive. to translate this Book of Maffeo's as well. a custom which is also met with in Henryson." the former of which powerfully depicts winter. which carried the epic down to the apotheosis of ^neas. in 1458." In the Prologue. The distinctive forms of poetry which originally existed between the east and west of the country seem neutralized in Dunbar and Douglas. determined. after some hesitation. Douglas. although he considered it fitted Vergil's work " more like a fiith wheel to a cart. who represent the zenith of Scottish art-poetry. style of the contemporary French poets. Douglas in other artistic forms as well. he fell asleep in a garden . The Prologue to the Eighth makes use of the alliterative rhymed strophe then so popular in Scotland. and died.

who is endeavouring to reach Italy. is the contem- plation of things Divine. And shortly afterwards the poet's father. we must. he bade farewell only to his youth and the mere worldly tendencies of his Muse. partly allegorical significance of the myths which. departed this life." Douglas appears to wish to bid farewell to poetry altogether. according to Plato. in all essential points. In the mean while changes had occurred in his own affairs. The existingfragmentis characteristic of the author and of his day." But even the whole contents of the ^Eneid are interpreted allegorically in agreementwith Lamiino: yEneas. One is struck first of all by the partly rationalistic. A commentarywhich the translator intended to have added to this work. in fact. too.PARTY-FEUDS SCOTLANa IN honour his Book in the same manner as he had 87 honoured the twelve Books of Vergil. The opposition between the partisans of the Queen and Douglas and those of the parliamentary party who had proclaimed John Stewart. bear in mind the manner in which the classic writers were interpreted during the Renaissance. But. as already said. regent of the country. entered upon a hasty marriage with her. Gawin's nephew. was drawn into the political struggle and the parliamentary intrigues. Young Archibald. in attemptingto understand the course taken by the development of poetry during that epoch. Still. and. and a number of his nobility were left dead on the field. appears not to have been carried beyondthe first Book. 1513) King James IV. The old Scottish party-feuds thereupon broke out afresh in full fury. In the Epilogue to his "Eneados. Gawin. are drawn from Boccaccio's " Genealogy of the Gods. which no man could pass through . now became Earl of Angus. and among them Gawin's two elder brothers. Several years later his poetic inspiration led him to produce a new and independent poem. having won the affections of the widowed Queen. In the battle of Flodden (September. was strengthened by the antagonism between the adherents of the English and French interests. which. as well as in the position of Scotland itself. old Sir Archibald. Duke of Albany. is the righteous man striving to reach the highest good.

who had already taken possession of it. and contradictory appeals being addressed to the See of Rome. The much-tried poet was thus enabled to take possessionof the bishopric of Dunkeld. and skilfully worked out. and then. to snatch the bishopric from the candidate of the rival party. Douglas found himself obliged to apologize and to do homage to his zealous opponent the Archbishop of St. can scarcely have brought him any real satisfaction. in many respects. been compelled to give up her guardianship of the youngheir to the throne ( here put into the simplest and most striking form. He and the Queen had come to an understanding. Douglas was arraigned before the Lords of the Council and condemned to imprisonment. and yet the thoughts which engaged his peaceful and solitary hours were. It was probably about this time that he wrote his King Hart. of a mournful and serious nature. Soon after this.but the organ of feeling . by main force. was accomplished without bloodshed on either side. was now also required to relinquish the custody of her other children. unscathed. the result being that Douglas obtained his liberty again. before July 30. Andrew's. however. The Bishop was at this time in the prime of manhood. Owing to his negotiationswith the Vatican. Andrew Stewart. The problem. not the organ of perception. it was not obtained without some difficulty. Andrew Forman. which. The Queen. Douglas'sown candidature for different high ecclesiastical preterments in Scotland. full of deep emotion. this. 1516. some years of active ecclesiastical and political activity. fled to England to be under the protection of her brother. led to the most energeticmeasuresbeing adopted by both parties. the Duke of Albany undertook the direction of affairs.who had. The centre of human nature is here held to be. and owing to the inconsiderate treatment she experienced in her own person. The images of Vicissitude and of Death often presented themselves to his soul. There now followed. It seemed as if future events were casting their shadows before. some time previously. fortunately.).THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. an allegorical representation of human life. Henry frequently handled before and afterwards. however. for Douglas. However. to which the Pope had already given his sanction.

and all slip away by a back gate without taking formal leave. some scenesfrom " The Vision of Piers Plow" man rose vividly before the poet's mind. Gelais. in spite of greater consistency. The whole course of human life. to consider the " Sejour d'honneur. and believe him to have remained. I will follow thee before thou goest a mile. good fellow. he maintains greater reserve-but he is clearer." 89 and desire. is the following feature : King Hart finds himself forsaken by Youtheid (Youthheadis of the male sex) and his brothers Disport and Wantonness. How happily invented. in its youth and old age. to disguise myself for a while. yet in this poem he has more distinctly than usual given proof of his own originality. . This autobiography had already furnished Douglas with some features for his " Palace of Honour." In addition to this work. which is readily surveyable. The author. Of suggestions and prototypes of various kinds there existed plenty for Douglas. a bishop and a translator of Vergil. shows a decidedly greater appreciation of artistic arrangement and finish. among other things. an earlier contemporary of the Scottish poet. more perspicuous. in its joys and sorrows. Afterwards." it now offered him the fundamental motives for his " King Hart. Deliverancecomesrunning up and offersto be their guide. both by the consistency of the development and the comprehensive range of its plan. who are about to ride away. and his allegory. and all who look at him from behind take him to be Youth- head. which is advantageously distinguished from many other similar attempts. follies and repentance. pulls Youthhead by the sleeve. The human Heart. Thereupon Delight comes hurrying up. and says. from tender youth up to death-with all the predominantinclinations of the heart-is vividly described within a limited space and only a small outlay of means. like Douglas." an autobiography of Octavien de St." Delight enters the castle. was. which is taken in the abstract and worked out allegorically in a mixture of prose and verse. " Abide a little. lend me thy cloak. made its is the hero of the poem. in the first place. without thy mantle I shall certainly do mischief. Douglas draws less fully from his sources than Langland-at all events.DOUGLAS'S "KING HART. is no less pregnant than that of his great predecessor. Among his direct sourceswe have.

" King Hart" is unquestionablythe most mature of Douglas's productions. The versification. given premature signs of its coming. Douglas. more highly finished than in the work of his youth. on this occasion. unlike the hero of his last poem. .and early in life. consort but little affection And yet Douglas's last days QueenMargarethad returnedto Scotland. Shaksperecondensesallegorical ideas and lifts them into a higher sphereof poetic thought). at the same time. the colour of his courtly mantle begins to fade. upon speaking to him. Douglas. Chaucer's eight-lined strophe is handled with masterly skill.for example. When Delight has enjoyed himself as much as he wished. John Small. a work seems to grow into significancewhen the but little sympathetic theme is brought home to us by the ingenious way in which it is handled. Taken as a whole.but her heart was estranged from her husband. more vivid. i.ed. the narrative reminds one of the style of the great Master in his strophic Tales ." * In " King Hart" the delineation is much simpler than in "The Palace of Honour :" we have less description. they find they have been deceived. more concrete. Angus had shown his or consideration in times of trouble and ill-health-had. It forms an important stage towards the "Fairy Queen/' And. bade good- bye to his youth of his own accord.whosespear in the end wounds King Hart were but little happy. 103. The poet has here found the most concise and. the most pithy and choice forms possible for expressing his thoughts. the approach of old age had. no mythological or learned reminiscences. threadbare. indeed. UP however. which was before time blue. less abundance and superfluity. only Chaucer is more varied. also. Douglas. considering the part which allegory plays in poems which do not altogether belong to the category(the numerousinstances where. and ready for to spill. been unfaithful to her- * The Poetical WorksofGawin. is more correct in every respect. Still. he was spared a visit from Decrepitus. perhaps.9O THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. perhaps the more concise.. " thriftless. he never knew the infirmities of old age. like failed black. and occupies a significant place in the poetry of personification.

Beaton did not fail to make use of all these circumstances. had resigned his position of Regent. The Bishop of Dunkeld found himself in the most awkward position: out of favour with his Queen and the Regent. But while he was addressing letters to Cardinal Wolsey. she also wished to avenge herself against Douglas. He caused a proclamation to be issued in the name of the youthful King James V. and was endeavouring through her mediation to obtain a pardon from the Regent. the archbishopric of St. one jeremiad after another reached him from Scotland. Soon after her return. 91 and the Queen wished to be freed from her marriage bond. turned traitor to his own cause. prepared for the worst. the Archbishop of Glasgow. for it was said to have been at his advice that Angus appropriated Ettrick Forest. Andrew's and the abbotship of Dunfermline became vacant.. In November. the Earl of Angus. and Scotland formed an alliance with France against the Emperor Charles and King Henry VIII. and Douglas's rival. The political complications favoured Beaton's intrigues. and raising complaints against the Duke of Albany in a memorial to Henry VIII. seemed disposed to consent to the Queen's wish for a divorce. Full of zeal. her interest became centred in the Duke of Albany. An intimate relation sprang up between them soon afterwards. wearied of the Scottish ftuds. the Bishop of Dunkeld devoted himself to his diplomatic task. and rejected by its head. His nephew. 1521. which belonged to her. By urgent entreaties QueenMargaretsucceeded persuading in Albany to return. but despatched his uncle Gawin to London to further his interests at the English court. By the death of Andrew Forman. his bishopric was to be temporarily placed under the control . and retired to France. he arrived in Scotland. and-at the time of the declarationof war-in the enemy's country as the representative of an unsuccessful cause. James Beaton. which declared the Bishop of Dunkeld guilty of high treason. and received a most friendly welcome. for war was declared between England and Scotland. who.POLITICAL TROUBLES. fled to the English frontier. deserted by the nephew for whose sake he had placed himself in his present position. set heaven and earth in motion to prevent Gawin's receiving these appointments. and Angus.

as an ecclesiastic and prelate. and all vassalsof the kingdom were prohibited. not long to enjoy his assistance. and voluntarily contributed material relating to the origin of the Scottish people. a devoted servant of the Muses and a zealous promoter of high cul- ture. the outcome of services rendered in common to the Muses. Gawin. and in financial distress. justice was done to his memory by the Scottish parliament declaring the accusation of high treason that had been raised against him to be null and void. As a poet he is not one of the first rank . the sublime painter . as early as September. Such was the end of Douglas's brilliant career: despisedas a traitor. Douglas has." which in 1534 was published with a Dedication to King Henry VIII. but full of genuine kindliness of feeling. above all. In accordance with the directions of his last will. As the translator of Vergil. he was buried in the Hospital Church of the Savoy. for. forsakenby relatives and old associates. not without ambition. however.or communicating with him by letter or messenger. He was a man of a firm yet frank nature. made the acquaintance of Polydore Vergile of Urbino. and faithfully attached to the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith. from assistinghim with money. under penalty of high treason. however. a man of sound religious principles. 1522. among those occupying the second stage. Andrew's. who in 1501 had been sent to England to collect the tax called Peter'spence. Eighteen months after his death. at least in the portions referring to Scottish concerns. in London. A dim ray of light illumined his last days in the form of a new friendship. enjoyed the favour and friendship of Cardinal Wolsey.92 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. Douglas took a lively interest in this work. but. Bishop Douglas was carried off by the plague which was raging in London at the time. This learned Italian had been appointed Archdeacon of Wells. opposed to scholastic a foreign land. and had eventually settled there. and-to his misfortune-was involved in the party-feuds of the Scottish nobility.he was one of the most influential. Polydore Vergile was at work upon his " Historia Anglica. been more fully appreciated by posterity. of the Vicar-General of St. Polydore was. and was on intimate terms with many persons at court conspicuous by their rank and learning.

to theology from its practical and polemical side. too. And yet intellectual interests were not foreign to him. but eminently practical. Hawes's poetry corresponded perfectly with the average level of culture attained by the court circles of those days. Barclay's work. And for poetry. And he was himself especially devoted to mathematics. and John Skelton. . He was especially fond of reading the fashionable French poetical literature of the day./ II.the keenobserver. and at times. He took care that his sons received a thoroughly classical education. is in England represented by three names in particular: Stephen Hawes.ENGLISH POETRY IN THE DAYS OF HENRY VII. was not. he had a certain appreciation. In like manner his staidness coincided admirably with the but little enthusiastic. earnest skilful delineator the and of life and of the human heart. in any way. and the special favourites of the day are those who contribute to this enjoyment by holding up to it the image of its intellectual character and possessions. however. Our history now returns to English poetry. Alexander Barclay. Douglas will be remembered as long as Scottish literature is able to attract sympathetic admirers. Hawes is a belated child of the Middle Ages. StephenHawes is peculiarly the poet of the times of Henry VII. Q3 of nature. character of the monarch who inaugurated in England the era of the modern type of kingdom. in many instances. . as a poet. it The epoch which there receives its chief brilliancy from Dunbar and Douglas. also. in the first place usually devotes itself to rest and comfortable enjoyment. who. one of the great patrons of art and learning.without pointing to new aims in any exciting manner. is much his superior . which had not yet againrisen to the eminence had attained in Scotland. and sometimes rewarded or rendered assistance to poets. Henry VII. and Skelton's character and writings are supposed to show certain peculiarities of Dunbar's talent and disposition. A country which has passed from a period of violent disturbances into peaceful circumstances. reminds one of Douglas's.

or the Historye of Graunde Amoure and la Bell Pucell: containing the Knowledge of the Seven Sciencesand the Course of Man's Life in this World. like himself. and this is only partly accounted for by the fact that Lydgate. Poetry he regards as a species of learning. without any hope of ever being able to equal him." It appeared in print for the first time in 1517. and Lydgate. He was. He is at his best in the allegorical epos The Pastime of Pleasure. Had Stephen Hawes lived at an earlier date. Dan John is to him the Master. its object. the sweet spring of famous rhetoric. and was dedicated to Henry VII. even where they deal with erotic themes. and on the other with subjects belonging to romances of chivalry. He was an accomplished man. but the psychologico-moral element is less prominently brought forward. won his favour as the possessor of various qualities of mind. In tendency the poem is closely related to Douglas's " King Hart. who entered the King's service as groom of the privy chamber. Gower. was a native of Suffolk. the author of all his learning.94 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. the prototype which he is always endeavouring to approach. he looks upon as worth nothing. intimately acquainted with the great triumvirate : Chaucer. It is characteristic of Hawes that of these three he appears to have regarded Lydgate as most worthy of honour. as it were a subordinate species of rhetoric . Accordingly. Stephen Hawes. "whose worthy power and royal dignity. A poemwritten for its own sake he considers mere idle play : love-poems or romances without any deeper significance under disguise. intel- lectualelevationand moral improvement. his own poems are always moralizing and instructive. understood French very well. all our rancour and debate gan cease. rest and peace. The poem was written in 1506." which was produced some dozen years later. and is connected on the one hand with didactical matter of a secular kind. above all. and hath to us brought both wealth. it is probable he would have written a genuine romance of . possesseda kind of encyclopaedic knowledge. and had such an excellent memory that he could repeat whole passagesfrom the early English poets by heart. and passedthrough several editions in 1554 and 1555.

" 95 chivalry." however. then. and holds up to young Englishmen of good birth.HAWES'S "PASTIME OF PLEASURE. quoth I. after many manly deeds. Accompanied by two " white greyhounds. the friendly as well as the hostile powers." " the fair lady. in the end att:ined the aim of all his desires. a mirror to show them how they are strengthened by a scholarly education. be but little edified or even fortified by the course of instruction. in riding chargers. where the " goodly portress " Countenance leads him to Science. as in the last strophes in the dialogue with Dame Grammar: "Madame. in fact. The work is in many ways meagre and unpoetical." the difficulties to be overcome. The latter sends him to Dame Grammar. and passeson to Lady Logic. And wherefore it is so called certaine ? To whom sheansweredright gentely againe . Arithmetic. and that they ought courageously to take up the struggle against ignorance and sin. This applies in the first place to the course of study which Graunde Amoure has to pursue. What a nounesubstantive is in his degre. the poet here identifies himself with his hero. Geometry. are. Astronomy somewhat more to the point than Geometry. and Astronomy. the modern reader would. how he fell in love and. for as much as there be Eight partes of speche. he would have described how his hero was instructed in the art of handling weapons. only of a moral species. in order after death to obtain the reward of true love. and in this manner he visits in succession Rhetoric. is little in the extreme. whom he leaves after having benefited by her instruction. in huntingand hawking.I would knovveright faine. As frequently happened with the allegorical writers. Music. In the "Pastime of Pleasure. on the whole." Gouvernance and Grace. and a happy life of honour and renown. Rhetoric speaks more in detail than Grammar or Logic . At times the effect is involuntarily comic. the types of character show unmistakable qualities of mind : " the fiery lover. and the hero's training is a systematic course of learning. he reaches the Tower of carving and servingat table. What the seven ladies-who represent the sciences of the triviums and quadriviumshave to say to the hero. in striking the harp and in singing.

To construeevery thinge ententifly. and consolation after their parting. and is captivated by her. Then comes the parting between the lovers. who cannot yet belong to each other.annexedproperly To every spechefor to speke formally. I marked well Dame Cramers sentement. Hereupon follows an interviewwith the fair lady in a garden. In the Temple of the " Power musicale. The hie King saide. The worde is gramer wel and ordinatly. who offers the lover advice before his meeting with Pucell. which is not without a certain degree of gracefulness.a love-scene. He did commaunde. Goinge to Logike with all my diligence. was made shortly. " By worde the world is madeoriginally. finds here a representative the certainly somewhat in tiresomefellow Councell. " And grama*is the first foundement Of every science to have construccion : Who knewe gramer without impediment Shoulde perritely have intelleccion Of a litteral cense and moralizacion. the melancholy farewell.which GraundeAmoure reachesafter completing his studies. too. at in the point where love enters into the game. For a noune substantive is well averred.viz.and Pandarus. These scenes have evidently been written underthe influenceof Chaucer's "Troilus" (even meeting the in the Temple is significant). Saing alway that a noune substantive Might stand without helpe of an was madeincontinent. to . and the grief of the "fiery" lover. al To the world the worde is sentencious judgemente." Graunde Amoure first seesLa Bell Pucell. is head over ears in love. We canonly briefly refer to the Towerof Chivalry. So all the eight partes in generall Are Latin wordes." The narrative becomes somewhat more animated at the point wherethe interestof all young women is usually awakened a romancethey happen to be reading. And of her then I did take my licence.96 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. And with a genderis declinall. and after a dance with her. " The Latin worde whiche that is referred Unto a thing whiche is substanciall.

who represents False Report. after the manner of good spirits. even. who was. in the habit of showinglesshaste and lessmonotony. The element of chivalrous romance in his poem is brought decidedly more forward than in the earlier allegories. When the three-headed giant appears." and 4'Eternity. but is unmasked in the end. give advice and assistance." " Death. 97 Mars and Fortuna. The style of art exhibited here is certainly of questionable value. joins Graunde Amoure in his adventures. and. and many features in it might be mentioned which prepare us for the " Fairy Queen. three ladies follow him. and hence we are again reminded of Chaucer. When Graunde Amoure has finally succeeded in crossing the " tempestuous flood " and killed the monster of the Seven Metals. certainly. with headings such as " Age. of Hawes's poemis not only full of reminiscences. little as it could reconcile itself with the moreimportant tendencies the day. perhaps.HAWES'S STYLEOF ART. In this portion of the poemwhere the seven-lined strophe is exchanged for the heroic rhyme-couplet-Lydgate's influence specially is manifest. but H . There- upon follow the perilousconflictswith allegoricalgiants and monsters.'. and. The end is formed by short chapters full of commonplaces. These portions of the poem exhibit a certain amount of inventive talent. in the art of invention and in working out allegorical motives. The poet becomes more concrete. to Minerva and to King Melizius. when a seven-headedmonster enters." Hawesis veryfar from being able to competewith Lydgate in poetic productivity. seven ladies are considered a necessary accompaniment." " Fame. who represent evil powers . and even comic-after the manner of Morals Plays-in the episode connected with Geoffrey Gobilive. then allegorical ladies enter. and the narrative here becomes more animated than in the other parts of the work. he is led into the arms of La Bell Pucell and celebrates his wedding. with evil intent. but we must not overlook the fact that even Hawes forms a step in the ladder that leads up to Spenser. and well punished by Correction. who dubs him a knight. yet he excells him. This recalls to our mind that we have to do with an epoch wherethespirit of chivalryseemed again to wish to assert its influence. and provide refreshments and entertainment.

" and states that Lydgate's aim was " in English language to make our tongue as clearly purified. like other poets of his clay. still. As a youth he studied at one of the universities. The less conspicuous the individuality of the poet. it is true. very little. is uncertain. Hawes's own art reminds us as little of Vergil as of times. and which describes him as having belongedto Oriel College. Classical culture had a very different significance for Alexander Barclay from what it had for Hawes.France.or at Cambridge. but he had lived in England from early youth. Of the spirit of humanism. sweet and delicious. and successful adaptations attracted him at least as strongly as the originals. Lydgate-that is.and to have visited Germany. He speaks of Vergil and Cicero as men who had clarified " the well of fructefulness. which. He shows undoubted talent for versification. he himself has not sufficiently tradition says. His language tolerably is fluent. in Surrey. it may alsobe that the type-setterhas. Meagre and dry as is the summary he gives of an antiquated form of scholarship.and Italy. with Latin pure. It proves that learning had gained access to the court. Hawes shows about as much as his master. the safer is the inference to be drawn from his work.98 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. and the progressive development of the language. he was troubled by the struggle between the rigidity of scholastic tradition. but bare and unsatisfactory. . makes the impression being the outof comeof someprescribedform. in Alter finishing his studieshe seems havetravelledon the to Continent. however. and had receivedhis education there. spoiledhis verse His work is characteristic aboveall thingsin one respect. Barclay was presumably of Scottish origin. the connection in which he communicates it is not insignificant. in many instances. smooth. His earliest English recollections were connected with Croydon. but little accurate and to the point. yet. whetherat Oxford. yet Barclay appropriated only as much of antiquity as a worthy ecclesiastic could make use of in converting and bettering his fellow-men. which he himselfrefersto casually hispoetry." Still. The barriers which separated knight from the clerk duringthe Middle Ages the had collapsed.

thus." a translation ot the French allegory by Pierre Gringoire. Mary Ottery. 99 as. is the report of most of the poets of those days as given by their biographers. and his death did not take place till June 1552. As a poet Barclay was mainly content to play the modest part of a translator. He received several preferments. in 1522 his "Mirror of Good Manners. as an intelligent and somewhat original mediator between the classical culture of the Continent and that of his own country. and several years later a Franciscan at Canterbury. but the period of his actual productivity probablyfalls within the years1505and 1522. and imitator. Barclay was. one of the prebendaries of the College of St. leading to hitherto untrodden paths. and finally-a few months before his death-the Rectory of All-Hallows in Lombard Street. His merit rests chiefly upon the fact that he brought several important works of his day. The yearsof his old age he probably spent in peace and comfort. He enjoyeda long life.ALEXANDER BARCLAY. under the title of " The Castle of Labour. In 1506 he published. indeed. one after the other. London. In 1508 we find Barclay in Devonshire." a poetical version of Dominicus Mancinus's " De quatuor virtutlbus" (1516). in Essex. his footprints can distinctly be traced in his native literature. When the monasteries were suppressed in 1539. in 1514. and one from a not far-distant past. Sebastian Brand of Strassburg. above all. having been born somewhere about 1476. adaptor. The S/iip of Fools of the IVorLie and his Eclogues. Somerset. a monk of the Benedictine monastery in Ely. And this is probably more due to the popularity of the original than to the merits of the translation. Active. attracted by moralists and satirists. first appeared in print. And to the interval between these dates belong his more important productions. The first-mentioned is the more important of these two works. by correctly understanding what they specially required. Barclay figures in the history of English literature mainly as the translator of a work belonging to the Upper Rhineland. within reach of his countrymen. who had found a second . at all events he seems during that period to have lived ratherquietly. he must probably again have become one of the secular clergy.

his satire lacks incisive acumen. is . accompanied by a treatise full of moral and satirical observations. with trenchant humour. Still. certainly with good and. although a scholar. made an extremely happy hit. in 1494. with his " Narrenschiff" (Ship of Fools). at times. was the fact that the author presented a satire on the vices and follies which affected every rank and position in life. is afterwards only casually referred to.IOO THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. What rendered Brand's work so appropriate for the period. if not exactly with Attic wit. every type of character. together with the passagesfrom the Bible and proverbs. His language is but little refined though full of animation. His worthy fellow-citizenswere delighted to find that they understood the book of the learned doctor. with his heart in the right place. what the representation lacks in unity as a whole. he knew how to hit the popular tone. and that he presented these in an allegorical form and worked them out with earnestness and emphasis. He expresseshimself. he must have been intelligible to most people. and this is partly the reasonof his success. threw life into the representation. Brand was a clear-headed man. and nodded their approval of the thrusts given by his satire. To comparemen and their follies and vicesto fools. and. without feeling themselves specially affected by them. here. he shows nothing. to presentdifferent typesof fools in word and deed. was by no means a new idea." The book is more a series of humorous pictorial illustrations of fools. Those who stood within the sphere of humanism. which served to conceal genuine moral pathos. He keeps himself throughout on the mean level of the generalreading public. and of consecutive action there is none whatever in Brand's " Narrenschiff. The unity of the poem was very defective : the allegory of the ship which stands at the head of the work. the result being a comprehensive picture of life intelligible to all. assumed the garb of the people. delighted in the numerous sentences and reflections from the ancient poets and philosophers. and. and an account of a ship of fools was a thoroughly popular themeat the time. his powers observation of and reflection are not altogether deep. and as he gives expression to sentiments that hovered on the lips of many. Of that higher flight of the imagination which is called poetry. which. home in Basle.

Barclay everywhere has English circumstances.English customs and abuses in view. to affect English readers much in the same way as Brand had affected German readers. but in most casesa dismal picture of the England of his day. without any special regard to word-accent. Even in England the "Narrenschiff" found a second translator contemporaneously with Barclay. Barclay. and a freer one in Latin. Brand wrote in short rhymed-couplets. whose abridged prose-version is based upon the second French translation of the prose edition of Jean Drouye (Paris. in reality." 101 abundantly counterbalanced the variety it offered in by accordance with the taste of the day. and partly a cheerful.* Barclay.Barclay possessed only a moderatedegreeof appreciationfor form. above all. it is more pretentious. which were constructed in Germany. At times this is done from a certain feeling of prudery. Low-German. in thosedays. And the skilful and fine drawing missed in the text. is often to be found in the admirable woodcuts which accompany it. publishedfor the first time in 1509 Wynkyn de Worde."THE SHIP OF FOOLS. also. It cannot be said that Brand was. during the sameyear. his satire gives us a vivid. The German " Narrenschiff" appearedin no less than seventeen editions. As early as 1497a Latin version was producedby Jacob Locher. Dutch. It may be doubted whether this solemn. his translator. And while he adds a great deal of his own. also made use of Locher's translation and of the French version. however. 1498). accordance with the number of syllables. In tone. and was too strict and anxious ever to forget himself or his purpose. Seealsop. 114. made use of Chaucerian stanzas. The English " Ship of Fools. although he based his adaptation upon the German original.under by . homely character of the original. and was Skelton. less earnest in his endeavour than Barclay. and in style. he expunges a good deal of what his copies contained.the first Frenchtranslationby Pierre Riviere. his idea was. has lost something of the nai've. like the rest of * Henry Watson's. but the Englishman kept the serious side of his task ever before him. Very important in the present case was the choice of metre. and. He had no intention of giving as faithful a rendering as possible of the German work. dignified dress was suited to the subject. followed. Other versions in French." accordingly.

his delineation becomes more animated. the English " Ship of Fools " is well written for the day in which it was produced : in simple. more frequently he succeedsin finding a telling form for dicta and maxims. . They are the earliest poemsof this species which English literature has to show. the difficulty of its construction encouraged in Barclay a tendency to amplification. Where Barclay makes use of shorter lines. Possessedof but little poetic fancy. Idyll and satire taken as contrasts have various points of contact . Poetically far more important than his " Ship of Fools " are his Eclogues. The example set by Mantuanus exercised great influence. Dante. more especially. where. among other places. ideality and reality so conoccasionally introduced into the idyll. At times the poet succeedsin giving a graphic picture with one stroke. their Italian imitators considered this the real character of the venientlyplacedin antithesis and eventhough the ancients . in the well-known apologue of Prodicus. even though he borrowed his materials elsewhereas well. in the sixteenth century. In no domain could the connection between Antiquity and the Present be so readily restored. his verse is in many respects somewhat awkward. he was not very competent to take advantage of the Chaucerian strophe. and Petrarch. in the hands of the humanists the idyll in many instances forthwith assumes the form of satire. have written Latin Eclogues and found imitators. too. his Eclogues were introduced into the Latin schools as reading-books.who flourished about 1400. plain language. and in none of his works has Barclay more distinctly evinced his connection with humanism.IO2 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. in England. somewhat stiff and monotonous. on the other hand. The Eclogues of Giovanni Baptista Spngnuoli. and attained great celebrity and far-reaching influence under the name of Mantuanus. experiences of their own and allusions to political events of the day. and Barclay at once took him more especially as his model. are altogether moral and satirical in character. genre. he laboured under the uncertainty of the metrical idea. In spite of all this. the poets of the transition period. yet not without force and warmth. the speech of Pleasure-with its alternating rhythms and frequent rhymes-lacks neither the characteristic element nor elegance.

who in 1486 exchanged the bishopric of Ely for that of Canterbury . were produced in the poet's youth. and all of them received subsequently considerable additions . in the harbour of Brest). to his bitter loss. who occupied the see of Ely from 1486 to 1500. Traces of the poet's corrections are found everywhere. Duke Thomas of Norfolk. Alcock's predecessor. there is an enthusiastic panegyric on Bishop Alcock. 1514. allows many a trait of a more intimate character to be pourtrayed. in the third " Eclogue " a eulogy on Morton." to judge from their substance. more than any other of Barclay's work. and was taken from the well-known Epistle of Enea Silvio (" MiseriEecurialium "). and. Barclay's originality.BARCLAY'S ECLOGUES. his pleasure in fine buildings. The same strictly moral sentiments which form the foundation of his " Ship of Fools " are again met with here . Cambridge. are no less strongly pronounced than hiszealfor religionand morality. his intelligent observation o life among the people. and then began the work of polishing. the founder of Jesus College. obtain fuller expression in his " Eclogues " than elsewhere. his lively appreciation of nature. and was afterwards more than once hunted for in vain. his personal thoughts and sentiments." sings in memory of the heroic death of the famous admiral Lord Edward Howard (April 25. in the fourth the shepherd Menelaus. in an allegorical elegy." 103 In the first three his theme deals with the miseries of courts and courtiers. combine the freshnessof youth with the maturity of manhood." " As far as is known Barclay wrote five " Eclogues. " The Tower of Virtue and Honour. with the view to reconcile the inconsolable lather. The fourth treats of the conduct of rich persons towards poets. For some length of time they remained in an unfinished state. The " Eclogues.the manuscriptwas lost." for instance. according^. in the latter two Barclay has directly followed the footsteps of Mantuan. in the first " Eclogue. the fifth renews the dispute between townsmenand countrymen. The enjoyment Barclay had derived from his travels as a young man. enlarging and altering. at last it carne to light again in Ely. This would account for the fact that these poems. fovefor whatis his . and the artistic form of the idyll enables the poetic element in the man to stand out more clearly.

His idylls are by no means idyllic in a modern sentimental sense.IO4 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. than in " The Ship of Fools. As a prose writer we owe him the first and. and it is. The manner in which he describes country life. although a certain degree of stiffnessand. he handles with great skill for that period." and his somewhat rough pen succeedsin presenting many a striking trait. that during the Middle more in keepingwith the peculiarityof the genus and the poet's manner. the first attempts at the grammatical treatment of French appeared on English soil. although not astonishing." a work probably produced in Ely between the years 15191524. than would have been the artificial strophe. It is noteworthy. the sincerity of his poetry which constitutes its main charm. if Bale . " The Figure of our Mother Holy Church oppressed the French King . If the last-mentioned works bring the classical and learned side of Barclay's character to the fore. exhibits a strongly pronounced realism. at times. The technicalities of dialogue and the poetical details of the eclogue. which he makes use of in these poems (it is only the elegy on the death of Howard that is written in stanzas). UP good and noble. and dedicated to the Duke of Norfolk."adaptedfrom Mantuan. in its way. of excessive amplification also characterize his style here. This same great patron induced him to write a work of a very different kind. the father of Lord Edward Howard. admirable English translation of Sallust's " War against Jugurtha. more rounded. in fact. though not exactly in amiable terms of acknowledgment. The form of the heroic rhyme-couplet. and his warm attachment to his benefactors. graphicpicture. his work here is more nervous. Accordingly. and.and impressive phrase. an " Introductory to write and to pronounce French" (published by Copland in 1521)." a " Life of the Glorious by Martyr Saint George. as well as in more modern times. peasants at their work or amid their pleasures. more animated. by the well-known grammarian Palsgrave in " Lesclaircissement de la Langue Frangoyse" (1530). besides his moral-satirical works has been What Barclay may have produced in the way of poetry lost. the titles of his lost works testify mainly to his zeal as an ecclesiastic : an allegory. which is referred to. his detestation of vice.

In all probability. Towards the close of the fifteenth century England began to win a placeof her own in the arenaof the new learning. How unfavourably Barclay judged Skelton is evident from a remark at the end of the " Ship of Fools. Of the various and striking physiognomies from the days of the humanists. Erasmus was a little over thirty years of age at the time. Barclay's relation to the old heathens was more cool and outward. Skelton feels himself one of the family. according to Bale. the lives of three other saints. but if Barclay. in Skelton's case." But it is not to be wondered at that he felt revolted by the style of his more important rival. and both were chiefly moralists and satirists in their writings.are attributed to him by Tanner. In the year 1497 Erasmus visited England for the first time. and it is interesting to mark how far he has succeeded in working these two sides of his inheritance into a species of unity. no greater contrast than that which existed between these two men could well be conceived. partly of the Greeks and Romans." and especially from a passagein one of his "Eclogues." 105 is to be trusted. waswritten by Barclay. both had been trained in the Humanities. he is one of the most original.BARCLAY'S "BOOK AGAINSTSKELTON. Erasmus of Amsterdam. at times makes the impression of having leaden weights attached to his heels. for he was wholly unable to recognize his merits. we feel. the " Book againstSkelton the Poet/' which. at an invitation from Lord Mountjoy. he had even become somewhat intoxicated with it. however. The discoverythat there existed enthusiasticpatrons arid eminent scholarsof classicantiquity in the Ultima Thule was made by the genial son of a kindred race. may be imagined to have been a poem. Skelton had drunk much more deeply from the source of classical antiquity than his more staid rival. as though he were wholly made of quicksilver. As regards these works we cannot venture even to conjecture whether they werewritten in proseor verse. indeed. Both were ecclesiastics. and just at the beginning of his splendid productivity and . And. whose acquaintance he had probably made in Paris. he is partly a son of the Middle Ages.besidesa treatise on the "True Faith/' and various addresses and sermons.

but alike in their love for the classics. as the most many-sided and gifted of them all. He had not yet acquired the position due to him among the learnedmen of the day. too. a favourite place of residence with him. His " Adagia. and mental tendencies. with his somewhat timid disposition and refined appearance. In England. especially in Oxford. had not yet been forced by him to admit that the highest classical culture could be obtained beyond the Alps. appeared three years later. whose works he had commenced to translate. in their endeavour to promote and encourage the study of them. and he was appointed both physician and preceptor to Arthur. he was also the first man to teach Greek in an English College. of patrons. The two Lectures on Physic Linacre founded at Oxford and the one at Cambridge. an enthusiastic disciple of Aristotle. At this time a small cluster of distinguished men were gathered together in Oxford. The oldest of the three men was Graye. his kindly humour and sprightly wit-those who met him and who possessed a keener insight into character soon became aware of his distinction. of his European fame. all three of whom had studied Greek in Italy under such scholars as Demetrius Chalcondylas and Angelo Poliziano . his wealth of learning and acute and yet always moderate judgment. who was bom about the year 1460. friends. and admirers he possessednot a few . gave iree lectures without receiving any remuneration in return.certainlycannot be compared . where he studied Greek with vehement zeal. and. the flower of the earlier English philologists : William Graye. the Italians. in his lectures as well as in his works. in his garb of an Augustinian monk. Both domains of learning received his attention. Thomas Linacre. in fact.1C-6 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. and John Colet. the young Prince of Wales. together with the service he rendered as founder of the Royal College of Physicians. he soon won friends.his speaking blue eyes and features brimful of intelligence. temperament. Thomas Linacre. divided his energies between the classics and medicine." which first brought him into tiie notice of most of his contemporaries. for wherever the fair-headed Dutchman went. at the time already fifty-five years of age. Still. they were unlike as regards age. who looked with over-weening pity upon the northern barbarians.

and. And in order that the younger generation might not seem unrepresented in that select circle. and who had come to Oxford with the best introductions. he felt himself chiefly attracted to Colet. found the study of the classics. soon recognized in More a mind closely akin to his own. with any other foundation of the kind in the domain of philology that owed its existence to him.THE OXF01RD HUMANISTS. and whose eloquence and deeply religious speculations reminded him of Plato. and the way to them paved in the pleasantest manner. As regards John Colet-the son of a wealthy citizen of London. a knight who had twice been elected Lord Mayor-it was theologyupon which his intellectual interestswere mainly centred. a means for throwing life into the study of the Bible. And. however. His favourite author wasSt. accordingly. between teachers and pupils. whose efforts were so akin to his own in weightier matters. who had been educated in the house of Archbishop Morton.his fine culture. Erasmus. hence. More occupied himself at Oxford mainly with the studyof Greek. still it was certainly moderated. although his longing for Italy cannot be said to have been extinguished. above all. the youngstudent.associated with the older scholars almost as though he had been their equal. Colet. are readily broken down by intellectual kinship. Paul. he gave free lectures at Oxford on St. perhaps. however. as early as . it also included Thomas More. and he soon found himself so at home in it that. fortunately. He attached himself to the very learned Graye as well as to the extremely accomplished Linacre .with his ideal nature yet full of worldly wisdom. who was of his own age. Graye and Linacre were both ecclesiastics. the well-educated and eloquent manthrough the influence of relatives holding high positionshad early the prospect of high Church preferments.and quick power of perception. It was from this circle that Erasmus received a friendly welcome in Oxford. but this fact is not emphasized in any one of their works as philosophers. Paul's Epistles. into ecclesiastical interests. as always happens whenlearningis a living force-which waspeculiarly its character at that period-the barriers raised by etiquette between the different stages in life. and. too. and. Like Erasmus. a student of nineteen. of good family. at the time of which we are speaking.

Thomas More had already left Oxford for Lincoln's Inn. four years previously (when the Prince. Erasmus wasstaying at the country seatof Lord Mountjoy. " Can December. who may have felt but little inclination for ecclesiastical pursuits-at all events for the state of celibacy-was ordained in 1498. at all events the Oxford Senate. While there. He wasof the sameage as Linacre. It was in the year 1499. men who devoted themselvesto the Muses. he had welcomed to his new dignity with a Latin carmen. But subsequently he must have studied at Oxford as well. or was already. probably in the county of Norfolk.IO8 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. they brought him from the King the gift of a dress (habitus)in the symbolical coloursof white and green. an honour which was also awarded to him by one of the universities on the Continent. genial. he learned to appreciate them under the guidance of his gifted preceptor. taken his degree of Master of Arts there. or sweeter than his?" (Thomse Mori ingenioquid unquamfinxit natura vel mollius vel felicius vel dulcius?) And the acquaintance then entered upon with him. considered it advisable to take orders. A pretty descriptionfrom Erasmuscarriesus back into the midst of the classical proceedings of the time as they affected court life. preceptor to young Prince Henry. a close and lasting friendship. a letter to Robert Pisco. whom. became." These laurels wereconferred uponhim in recognition his greatskill in of writing Latin verse. If the royal child at the time had no tastefor suchthings.hesays: in nature ever have formed a mind more gentle. and were without private means. At this date he became. in London. at three or four years of age. his patron. but had studied in Cambridge and. and was born about 1460. and persuaded him to pay a visit to the neighbouring stately . and in 1493. Skelton. his young friend More came to seehim. and had temporarily given up Greek for Jurisprudence. also by his " Alma Mater Cantabrigiensis. 1489^appointedhim poeta in laureatus. and in addition to bringing him titles and marks of honour.1497. John Skelton stood further apart from this Oxford circle without being a strangerto it. too. At that period. apparently. had received the title of Duke of York). in the course of years. probably Louvain. in 1484.

in three days he brought the royal children a carmen in praise of their father. which. Henry VIL.ERASMUS AND THOMAS MORE. Erasmus saw all the royalties surrounded by the courtiers. and dedicated it to thq youngPrince.which they all partook of together. in fact.and was annoyed with More for not having told him what would be expected of him. probably. is described by Erasmus as having a royal demeanour . of as little avail as most mirrors for princes. in a peculiar manner. who. Prince of Wales. On the brother's left was playing little Lady Mary. for his pupil. In the hall. with the exception of Arthur. the attendants of the House of Mountjoy. became embarrassed. as they entered. Meanwhile the Prince had to be contentwith a promise. More presented Prince Henry with some production from his pen. In the midst stood young Henry. of this the King has given proof at various periods of his reign. on his right hand stood the Lady Margaret.while Prince Edmund was still in his nurse'sarms. then a boy of nine years old. for during dinner. he sent his learned guest a little note-no doubt in Latin-in which he called upon him for a contribution from his Muse. still it did succeed in arousing in the Prince an appreciation of learning. but still in many ways with wholesome effect. immediately on his return home. four years of age. were all brought up. however. It was long since he had written any Latin verse. But if Skelton'steachingdid not prevent Henry from subsequently developing into a tyrant. In the Dedicationhe congratulates young' the Prince on his good fortune in having Skelton as a teacher.and Henry took care that it wasnot forgotten. no longer exists. nevertheless. Erasmus set to work. Erasmus. Skelton wrote a " Mirror for Princes " in Latin. After greetings were exchanged. any verses at all. Between the years 1501 and 1504 Skelton's duties as preceptor seem to have come to an end. and was. were also present. not being prepared to offer him anything of the kind. and Lord Mountjoy's suite. "this light and ornament of British learning " (Brittanicarum Literarum Decus et Lumen). the date cannot . eleven years old. it is true. who was afterwards to figure in Dunbar's poems as the White Rose. ICQ mansion-apparently Eltham-where the children of Henry VII. Hence. even at that age.

Skelton was one of the humanists. and if he possessed reverencefor the saints. full of reverence for the sovereign importance of learning. according to whom everything is a mere farce. His conception of the world and of life seems. Self-denial. As early as 1490 he had translatedtwo proseworks from . be more accurately stated. must often have forced itself upon him . between his Humanity and his Christianity. and Diss may even have been his birthplace. or without faith as a Christian. at all events. he had at his commanda sprightly wit. Norfolk was Skelton's native county. there was no lack of outward points of connection between him and his parishioners. or to keep his views always under cover. Above all. Skelton was not without religious feelings.HO THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. a secludedlife. were foreign to his nature. and a rich abundance of ideas and forms of expression which never failed him. and residing in the parish. he was fond of giving free play to his thoughts in poetry. and for both points of view. his humour must have helped him over his difficulty. inclined to play his part in the "farce" with all possible vivacity. full of enthusiasm for classical culture. pretty much that of the prelate. and fully conscious of being a richly endowed and eminently learned son of the Muses. however. His viewsof life are both thoseof a satirist and of a times. The discordance between his inner nature and his position in life. Skelton had begunto write in English at an early date. still it is not difficult to believe the tradition that his sheep were as little edified with their shepherd as the shepherd was with his sheep. Skelton was. a peculiar temperament. but his humour is often but little pleasant and much too negative in colouring. accordingly. Skelton wascertainly not worsethan most of his colleagues. it ofu n took a peculiar form of expression. a host of learnedreminiscences. peculiar ideas about many things. and he was not the man to put any control upon himself. and probably better than many of them. and somewhat in his actions as well. And although. his interests were mainly directed to secular concerns. In 1504 we find him Rector of Diss in Norfolk. but his faith was mixed with a goodly amount of scepticism. He had. and asceticism. which was but little fitted for the life of an ecclesiastic.

is inclined to ally itself with foreign elements.* Several things in verse. there are only a few which furnish any definite chronological data. of which. however. And yet these show not only a higher degree of technical skill. to which the name of satura might appropriately be applied. and also serves the purpose of satire and eulogy. Skelton has handled the most varied kinds of material and in the most varied kinds of forms. not yet been published. and Diodorus of Sicily-the latter through the medium of a Latin translation. is represented among Skelton's works only by a few specimens. He can strike every variety of tone. Of the numerous productions of his inventive brain. a greater wealth of ideas. so many have been lost that. Both exhibit uncertainty of versification. in our endeavour estimate to his mental development. of his own invention. which. the former is gloomy and ascetic in colouring. we find many indispensable connecting-links altogether wanting. his "Cicero" has been lost. and their variety in tone and style of treatment. he probably produced during the eighth decade of the fifteenth century. . the latter full of pathos and strongly suggestive of Lydgate. increases the difficulty of determining the order of their production on the ground of psychologico-asstheticconsiderations. f To the year 1489 belongs also the Congratulatory Poem addressed to Prince Arthur on his being raised to the rank of Princeof Wales and Duke of Chester. also. is characteristic of the period. mingles with the description. yet feels himself most at home in a form of art. Lyric poetry. (1483)and on the death thefourthEarl of Northumberland of (1^39). Religious poetry.! They are written in the old Frankish style. At what date the poet may have taken up his own peculiar style it is now scarcely possible to determine. the purely epic genus alone seems to have been altogether foreign to him. in fact.only the title has comedown to us. serves the purpose of Allegory. and give little evidence of the author's originality. but also greater depth and fervour * Skelton's "Diodorus" has.JOHN SKELTON. More accurate dates can be given for his " Elegies" on the death of EdwardIV. !II the classics into his mother-tongue: Cicero's Epistles to his Friends. taken as a whole. curfously enough. with him. with him. Narrative. as may be supposed. too. Of such of his writings as have been preserved.

delicice etc. that he is even successful in a tone he but rarely strikes. as it seems. than the productionsof many of the pious order of poets. alsoPasser. Vergil. only the veriest few have been preserved. in a great measureeven charming. Of actual love-songs from his pen. and here it is sometimes the tendency. were it not that the poet. who. too. offered him material in abundance. then the form which shows a falling an avalanche. and also found favour with them. and many a one. Many a lady he has sung to in his life. It is the less surprising. * Lugete Veneres Cupidinesque. The chief of Skelton's erotics is his Boke of Philip Sparowe. Erotics occupy a large space among his works. the astounding audacity of his transitions. irony.nature and human life.* But it never occurred to Skelton to compete with the Roman poet in delicacy and precision. Dalliance with him is worked out with such assiduity and persistency that it becomes dalliance and no mistake. and many other writers. One description. has been pursued by his biting. intentional pedantry. that of ascetic meditation- for his whole nature was based upon a melancholyview of the end of all things earthly.nay. humour. a necessary foil to his bacchanalian ribaldry. and buffoonery that can render the whole enjoyable. The reader would never be able to follow it all. Chaucer. clearly as he understood their weaknesses. To him the theme was merely a welcome hook on which to hang all sorts of reminiscences and strange ideas.112 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. mcce puellce. ancient and mediaevalsagas. history both sacredand profane. an elegy on the death of a sparrow belongingto fair Jane Scroupe. . . to and also impossible to realize by mere quotations. which was probably written between the years 1503 and 1507. and it is only Skelton's peculiar grace-a mixture of sensuality. being was educated in the nunnery of Carow in Norwich. wit. Skelton loved women. in the lovely verses every one knows by heart. Ovid.seemsto carry with it a series of others more or less akin to it. The absolute recklessnesswith which he presents delicate and indelicate matter. things suitable and unsuitable. cynical sarcasm. the incalculable variety of his episodes-all this it is impossible describe. mischief. therefore. The fundamental idea was furnished by Catullus. fancy.

imperious lords at court. frivolous women. and yet venture upon so much. An old. The poem is full of reminiscences. or it might be to obtain satisfaction for some purely personal grievance or personal dislike." and the questionable customers who crowd into her " tunnyng.or turn aside. and dirty ale-wife. like a scurrilous buffoon. amounting to over six hundred lines-Skeltonian short lines. his quick and trenchant wit-all led him to this genre.SKELTON AS A SATIRIST. in place of a refrain we often have bold parodies of Latin Church prayers. and learned I . of which in quick succession take up the same rhyme. again. sometimes. " Elynour Rummynge. has definitely marked off his unstrophed verse by melodious repetitions and endings that ring on in the ear. Many of the poets of the period have attempted to imitate Skelton in this style of verse. It is only in what is Skeltonian poem could have been written. triplets. At times it was higher and general interests of a political or religious kind which induced him to take up his pen. or quartets. however.or hastento a close. Skelton's true domain is satire. His keenness of per- ception and observation. There are few poets of Skelton's importance who take their subjects so little into account. and melody. but not one has even approximately attained the same degree of force. and yet as original as could be-original in plan and execution. usuallyof three accented syllables. or. merely to satisfy a whim of the moment." inspire him with the most vivid-and certainly drastic-but most humorous descriptions. fulness. as his thoughts flow powerfully in one direction. and not seldom he combines satire with the style of a lampoon. Sometimes he speaks in the tone of an earnest and cultured moralist. and more frequently. obnoxious fellows in Diss. freedom. in substance and form. as is exhibited by the grand virtuoso in verse and language. in couplets. 113 with fine musical feeling. heretical theologians. his lively appreciation of the ludicrous. his restless temperament. ugly. and. the one inseparable from the other. especially from the psalms connected with the service for the dead. Who had not had to submit to the lashes of his scorn and to his merciless rebuffs: sporting ecclesiastics. This metre calledpar excellence Skeltonianmetre that sucha thoroughly consists short lines.

to Fortuna. with a number of others. and moves on in the forms of allegorical art-poetry without appearing in any way to be an inferior after-growth.. their names . where the pot:t gives evidence of his ability to be at one and the same time both extremely correct and extremely original and significant. The ship then sets out to sea. who justly enjoyed the king's favour.114 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH.however. and the poet starts on the voyage in good spirits. and was for ever inciting his late preceptor. Dame Saunce-pere. his masterly style is perhaps more brilliant than elsewhere. Skelton depicts in his poem The Bouge of Court. The more admirable productions of our satirist are those where he pourtrays manners and customs at greater length." is despatched among a number of others. The idea of his poem seems to have been suggested by Brand's " Narrenschiff" (Ship of Fools). The Lady Desire. Soon. It is very strange that-as far as is known-Barclay. lends him the precious jewel Bon Aventure. They are friends of Fortuna.however. to renew his attacks upon Garnesch.and in favourwith her . From her.richly decorated vessel. or ventures upon attacking persons of authority in the Church or State. Here. It is written in Chaucer's seven-lined stanza.. difficult of access is to the poor poet.and refershim to the lady seated the at helm. The experiences he had met with at court.the presenceof some disagreeable fellows on board causeshim great trouble and annoyance. one of the gentlemenushersof Henry VIII.and in these lampoons poured a perfect flood of insultingand abusivelanguage upon his antagonist. and dealt with pretty leniently. who introduces himself under the name of Drede. by encouragement as well as commands. at home and abroad? Skelton carried on a men both dispute in lampoons with Sir Christopher Garnesch. " Bougeof Court " is the nameof a magnificent." The " ownerof the ship. The most remarkable part of this dispute was that the King took the greatest pleasure in it. in order to obtain the purchasable commodity Favour. board of on which Skelton has embarked. who had spoken disparagingly of Skelton s " Philip Spirowe. Drede and the othersreceive the desired commodity Favour. Skelton spared the French scholar Robert Gaguin as little as he did the English grammarian William Lily.

and finally form a conspiracy againsthim.the poet probably gained at the time-which we are unable to fix more Definitelywhen he was closely associated with the court of Henry VIII. grasps the side of the ship. Colin appears as the spokesman of the people. and may belong to the same period as his " Philip Sparowe. And yet we have here nothing beyond the exposition. signified something like private secretary. and is about to leap into the sea-when he awakes. and we have become sufficiently acquainted with the situation of affairs. When the personages have revealed their characters. On a limited space we have developedan abundanceof the finest and most lifelike characterization. When this pungent-and in its way absolutely classic- satire of court life waswritten we are unable to say. and the talk they carry on. the poet suddenly lets the curtain drop. and try to ensnare him. Harvey Hafter. given with a style and effect which remind one absolutely of the drama. The description of these figures. and with it the poetical representation. to a date later. But the further he advances the less the satirist feels the necessity of making use of the transparent veil. probably. A sharp sentence is here passed upon the clergy and monks. their behaviour. The dream is at an end. and became " orator regius. Riot." and. The experiences upon which it is based. ." which. and sometimes calls upon ecclesiastics to silence the rascally slanderers. rather than earlier. In his Colin Clout he follows Langland's footsteps in his own fashion. Full of Flattery. he repeats only what he has heard. form the nucleus of the poem. above all upon bishops and prelates \ their luxuriousness. He sees " lewd fellows " advancing towards him with murderous intent. Skelton lashed the ^ins of the clergy even more mercilessly and more vehemently than he had done the sins of courtiers. They take to watching him. and the more plainly his reproofs come to the lore. and Disceit They show them- selves little graciousto the new-comeron board."THE BOUGE OF COURT. indeed. Disdain. Suspecte. At any rate it is a production from Skelton's best period.draw him into conversation. who but hasalreadygainedso much credit." Hj are Favell. whisperabout him amongone another. Dissimulation.

the primary causeof all the misery and trouble in the Church. Skelton's method of procedure is concentred. and had lately been made the Pope's legatusa latere. avarice and pride. This characterizes the very plan of the poem. where he denounces their pride and arrogance even towards knights and barons. their indifference to all religious concerns. the story glides on in its lightly tripping verse. for the last four years. Notwithstanding all the whimsicality and oddity of his ideas and contrivances. and. of clear exposition or progressive movement it shows nothing whatever. His power in England was unlimited-after and by the side of the King. "Colin Clout" may have been written about the year 1519. moment's a peace. where the conditions of Church and State were becoming more and more unsatisfactory. Skelton had endeavoured to obtain the Cardinal's favour. simplicity. He who had attacked the English prelates could not spare Wolsey.Il6 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH.he allows his victims. humility. this is evident enough where he speaks of prelates who have risen from the lower ranks. the boundshe takes. craftiness. and make rekenyng . occasionally. Skelton returns to this theme in the most diverse variations. the butcher's son of Ipswich. indeed exclusively. and who have taken leave of kindness. have been aimed at Wolsey. had for five years been Archbishop of York. Every one must have known to whom the poet alluded when he exclaimed- "It is abery thyng For one man to rule a kyng Alone. the poet here \keeps subjectever in view. his be they ever so crazy. only in order unexpectedly to renew his attack upon them. his words and actions had aroused many an echo even in England. had dedicated more than one of his works to him. and with feline address. and Christian charity. a cardinal. But in " Colin Clout" he gave many a stab which must above all.and grace. He plays with them as a cat with a mouse. soon afterwards he was appointed Lord Chancellor. in the end all serve the object of his satire. Thomas Wolsey. Luther's name had already resounded through Europe. The form and style of the " Boke of Philip Sparowe" appear here brought to a higher stage of development.

as one of the suite of his great patroness the Countess of Surrey -mother of the poet of the same name-was residing in the Castle of Sherif-Hutton. wasvery agreeable to the poet now growing old. This was a point on which the "poet laureate" was extremely sensitive. who were not content with attacking his weaknessesand denouncing his audacity and licence. accord- ingly. 349. A life of comfort amid aristocratic society.SKELTON FETED IN YORKSHIRE. Skelton felt himself quite in his element there. and one who had been forced upon her. and a number of ladies to dance attendanceupon him.1.. An earnest and somewhat subdued spirit came * The Poetical Works ofSkclton. And." * 11/ or where he complains that no one dare venture to approachthe King without the permissionof " our Presi- dent. ed." and no one dare address the King except when the President or one of his creatures is present. ff . but also endeavoured to damage his reputation as a writer of talent and learning. Poetic renown was his special desire. the Countess's father-in-law. the prophetic words in which Skelton foretells the fall of a mighty man : " A fatale fall of one That shuld syt on a trone. and his poetical achievements as well. in Yorkshire. which in those days belonged to the Duke of Norfolk. t Ibid. The Countess of Surrey seems to have been most appreciative of the enjoyment to be obtained from literature. i. To governeover all And rule a realme royall By one mannesverrey wyt. And rule all thynges alone " f were universally referred to Wolsey. By his cutting satires and reckless lampoons Skelton had made numbers of enemies. Al.990.ff. Dyce. L 475. to receive the recognition of his contemporaries-which gave him a foretaste of immortality-was to him a necessity. perhaps she found in it a compensation for the happiness she had missed in being married to a man some twenty years her senior. It was at the Countess's suggestion (so at least the poet states) that ten noble and beautiful women made him a laurel wreath. About the year 1520 Skelton.

it is true. at the same time. the one-suiedness of ] oneunpleasantly. in semi-ironical fashion. above all. Skelton's poem be placed by the side of its prototype. It was thus that his Garlande of Laurell was produced. wilder and more reckless than ever. demands too much of his readers." was not finished till after the latter-his Muse is. the comparison will not by any means turn in favour of the " poet laureate. but. of immortalizing the Countess of Surrey and her Ladies in a poem. However this may be.between1522 and . he felt the need of explaining himseli to his contemporaries and to posterity. however. had not yet appeared in print. accomplishes all that might be expected from a poet of humanistic tendencies. of raising a monument to himself and his work. in fact. And Wolsey is here toid things by the side of which the invectives which Colin Clout indulges in against hiin seem but harmless jokes. a poem of some length in allegorical form. which appears exceedingly strange when we recollect " Colin Clout. The fundamental motives were offered by Chaucer's " House of Fame. however. And accordingly. and which. Skelton. to express his regret at having occasionally carried his satire too far. jand in so doing he endeavoured. but Skelton . did not allow his satirical Muse to rest for long." That malicious satire. but Skelton could scarcely have supposed that Wolsey had not yet heard anything of the amiable things it contained about him. In his SpekeParrott-which. by introducing every conceivable and inconceivable Kind of Batter." Rich invention and descriptive talent are not indeed wanting here.Jl8 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. although begun before " The Garlande of Laurell. Still." If. and gives the commentator the hardest nuts to rack. Skelton dedicated his "Garlande of Laurell* to the Ithe tendency which runs through the whole poem affects King and. the poet was not satisfied with this. he is almost far behind and as Chaucer 1in matters of taste and modesty. over the feted man . as he is in genius. it does not appear that the poet succeeded in winning the Cardinal's favour. in point of self-glorification. to the all-powerfulCardinal legate. He was right in supposingthat this opponentof his deserveda special chapter to himself." and the Prologue to " The Saint's Legend of Cupid.

Or for lawe cyvyll !" When Wolsey's wrathis aroused is said to despatch he his opponents forthwith to prison : . v/rotethe mostcuttingand mostpersonal all he of Into a mouse hole they wolde Rynne away and crepe Lyke a mayny of shepe .Why come nat to Courte He saysthereye ? " Our barons be so bolde 1523."WHY COME YE NAT TO COURTE? his satires. He sayth they have no brayne Theyr astate to mayntayne. Dare nat loke out at dur For drede of the mastyuecur. To whosemagnifycence Is all the conflewence. He bayteth them lyke a bere. Embassades of all nacyons. With my lordes grace. For and this curre do gnar. Lyke an oxe or a bull: Theyr wyttes." And further on" Onesyet agayn« Of you-I wolde frayne. And shakes them by the eare And brynges them in suchfeare. And Yorkes Place. And maketh them to bow theyre kna Before his majeste. he saith. Strawe for lawe canon. are dull. For drede of the bochers dogge Wold wyrry them lyke an hogge. But Hampton Court Hath the preemynence. They must stand all a far For all their noble blode He pluckes them by the hode. Sutysand supplycacyons. Why comeye nat to Court ?To whyche court ?To the kynges court Or to Hampton Court Nay to the kynges court: The kynges courte Shulde have the excellence. Or for the lawe common.

At the Cardynalshat." Extortions are made. " But yet they ouer shote us Wyth crownesand wyth scutus. yet all this myght be Suffred and taken in gre. With crownes of golde enblased They make him so amazed. It is a wondrous warke . had lytell parte Of the quatriuials Nor yet of triuials. had been wholly subduedby the brave Earl of Surrey. " Now. But all he bringeth to nought. They shote all at one marke. that me dere bought ! He bereth the kyng on hand." And the favour which Wolsey enjoys at the hands of King Henry is madeout to be a speciesof sorcery. With scutis and crownesof gold I drede we are bought and solde . we are told.I2O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. Nor Nor Nor Nor of philosophy of philology of good pollycy. If that that he wrought To any good ende were brought. exorbitant taxes are imposed at will. while the French." In the way of learning he was" But a poore maister of arte Got wot. Oute of theyr stronge townes They shote at him with crownes . and Wolsey takes bribes from abroad. of astronomy . For what birth- is there so attractive about the man? As to his " He came of the rank royall That was cast out of a bocher's stall. And his eyen so dased That he ne se can To know God nor man. By God. That he must pyll his lande To make his cofersryche. They shot all at that.



His Latyne tongue dothe hobbyll,
He doth but cloute and cobbill In Tullis faculte

Called humanyte; Yet proudly he dare pretende
How no man can him amende:

But have ye not harde this, How an one eyed man is Well sighted when

He is amongeblynde men ?"

And as to Wolsey'scharacterand morals,he is said to be

proud,arrogant, hard-hearted, ungrateful, and leadingan
and many a worse thing.
" God save his noble grace

irreligious life of extravagance, eating flesh on fast days,

And graunt him a place
Endlesse to dwell

With the devyll in hell!
For, and he were there
We nede never feere

Of the fendys blake.
For That I undertake he wolde than make

He wolde so brag and crake The clevylsto quake
To shudder and shake.

That he wolde breke the braynes
Of Lucifer in his chaynes,
And rule them echone In Lucifer's trone."

It cannot be wondered at that Wolsey's patience was worn out at last, and that the hour came when Skelton's position as " orator regius " and late preceptor to the King could no longer shield the malicious satirist from the vengeance of the Cardinal-legate. Skelton was barely able to escape from his antagonist's myrmidons, but took refuge in the Sanctuary of Westminster, where he seems to have resided up to the time of his death on June 21, 1529. Before taking our final leave of the greatest English poet of this period, we shall still have to consider him as a






It was of the utmost importance to the future of the Drama that-even before this date-its development no longer remained exclusively in the hands of dilettanti, and that there were persons who made dramatic art a profession. And even though it can scarcely be said that there were professional dramatists in those days, there were undoubtedly professional actors. A sign of the time may be found in the endeavour which the municipal authorities of York made, in 1476, to improve the art of acting. It was decreed that annually at Shrovetide four of the more eminent and skilled actors in the

city, should be called before the mayor and requested to undertake a strict examination of all the players, plays, and pageants for the performances at the feast of Corpus Christi; and that such persons as were found to be

unsatisfactory, regardstheir art, their voice or appearas
ance, should forthwith be dismissed. Such rules, however, would have been of little avail-in fact, could not have been carried out-had there been no choice but to engage honest workmen, whose custom it

had beenonce a year to quit their workshopsfor the stage,
which represented the world. There are various other indications also to prove that, as early as the reign of Henry VI., there existed a considerable number of professional actors. The account-books of York mention three players from Donington, one from Wakeneld, four from London, who had performed in the northern metropolis in 1446-1447 ; in the payment-books of the Augustinian canons at Maxstoke, in Warwickshire, there is frequent mention of players and mummers from different English towns, also of such as were in the service of the nobility, and who had visited the above-mentioned monastery. The Prologue to the so-called Coventry Mysteries, and the Prologue to the Moral Play entitled " The Castle of Perseverance," both refer to a troop of wandering players who were in the habit of performing at fairs and on other such

It is significant that in the reign of Edward IV. the



technical expressioninterludentes-playersof interludescame into vogue. For the interlude was precisely the species best adapted to further the development of dramatic art, in a far higher degree than were the numerous other performances given on the great popular festivals; and the dramaturgic advance of the interlude was mainly dependent upon the advance of the mimic art itself. Richard III., who is known to have been an enthusiastic patron of music, and to have encouraged bear-dancing and bear-baiting, was also in no way averse to dramatic pen formances, and, even as Duke of Gloucester, had his Company of Players. Henry VII. kept two special troops : the Players of the King's Interludes and the Gentlemen of the Chapel. In addition to these, shortly after the birth of Prince Arthur, there were the " Prince's Players." And other companies, also, not unfrequently gave performances at court: the Players of the Duke of Buckingham, of the Earls of Oxford and Northumberland, the players belonging to various English towns, and finally the French troop. When Henry's eldest daughter (Dunbar's " Rois ") started for Scotland to be married to James IV., there was among her retinue a troop of comedians who, partly at least, were

recruitsdrawnfrom the players interludes, of formerlyin her
father's service. Characteristic of the increasing interest in masques, plays, and other such entertainments, is the appointment of an " Intendant," whose duty it was to superintend all such matters at court, and who, under the first of the Tudor sovereigns,bore the title either of Abbot
or Lord of Misrule.

Under these circumstances, dramatic composition, too, acquired somewhat more of an artistic and literary character. Poets, who might be regarded as possessing culture and scholarship, began to direct their attention to the drama, and in many cases their works were handed

over in print, to the reading world of the day as well as to
posterity. To poets of culture and learning the Mysterium, or "religious play," had but little attraction. It remained principally in the hand of the Guilds, as an inheritance from the Past, and appears not to have developed at all, or but little, during this period. As regards the Miracle Plays, the case was somewhat better. Thus, in the reign



of Henry VII., a pious ecclesiastic in Chester dramatized the Legend of King Robert of Sicily, and this drama, at a much later date-in 1529-was performed by some of the Guilds of the town at the High Cross. But the Moralities, or Moral Plays, had even greater attraction to industrious writers, and it is no mere accident that the Moral Plays of this epoch are always referred to under the name of interludium. It is in keeping with this that the Interludes-although of the same tendency-nevertheless present a somewhat more secular character than the Moralities of an earlier date; that we look in vain among the dramatis persona for "God," and even very rarely find the Devil introduced; and that, on the other hand, the number of personagesis, in many cases,a limited one. The Moral Play entitled " Nature," from the pen of Henry Medwall) chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Morton, may have been written in the last decade of the fifteenth century-at all events, no later, for it was performed in the presence of the Cardinal, who died in 1500. This play dramatizes the same theme as the " Castle of Perseverance," is divided into two parts, and introduces a tolerably large number of persons; still, the subject is here not regarded so strictly from a theological point of view, it is treated more philosophically, if we may say so. But, above all, Medwall, in his representation, exhibits far more intelligence and talent than his predecessors. His play is also eminently distinguished by the flow of his

verse,the changingmeasures which are, in one passage, of
even joined to a short passage in prose. Another drama by the same author has been lost. It was performed at

Christmas, 1514-15, at Richmond, before Henry VIII.
and his court. But, according to a witness-who is not altogether impartial, however-" it was so long it was not liked: it was of the finding of Troth who was caried away by Ignoraunce and Hypocresy. The fool's part wasthe best, but the King departed before the end, to his chamber." * The beginning of the sixteenth century, probably, saw the first appearance of The Worlde and the Chylde, the title
* As it seems the witness is William i. 64, ff. Cornyshe-of the Chapel Royal-author of

another Interlude, played on the sameoccasion see Collier, Annals of the Stage> ;



of which, as is often the case, applies only to the first part of the action. The hero, who is first introduced as the Chylde, appears in the further course of the play under different appellations : as Youth, Manhood, and Old Age. Hence, here again, we have in all essential points the same subject we have met with already on various occasions. Noteworthy is the simplicity of the construction of the play. With only a small outlay of means the poet manages to attain his object, at least as well as any of his contemporaries. Besides Worlde and the Chylde-who proves himself so capable of development-only three other personagesappear on the stage : Conscience, Folly, and Perseverance. We hear of others-such as the Seven Deadly Sins-and they also interfere with the action, but do not appear in person. With such limitations and reserve, the play affords but little nourishment for the love of theatrical representation; however, it is by no means poor

in dramatic life, which, indeed, is effectivelydisplayedon
various occasions in the dialogue as well as the monologue. Hycke Scorner^which belongs to about the same date, is, above all, a drastic satire on the godlessness,the dissoluteness, and the coarsenessof the time. The dramatic action makes a curious impression; it lacks lucidity and proper

consistency; yet the representationis very animated, at least in those passages where the poet's satirical humour hasfree play. In the centre of the action standa dissolute trio: Freewyll,Imagynacyon, and Hycke Scorner,who has
just returned from a journey to distant lands; they all look upon scruples of conscience with contempt, and scoff at all virtue and religion. Is Hycke Scorner to be considered to represent an abstract idea, or, as seems more likely, a type of character ? In the latter case, perhaps, he must be looked upon as a man who has been spoiled by the world. His intercourse with his two wild companions, thtir extremely realistic doings, and their talk among one another even about themselves-which makes one forget the ideas they represent-do not altogether enlighten one on this point. As little are we assisted in this by the iact thai the name Hycke Scorner had become proverbial-perhap^ even before the appearance of the drama-as a designation for a sophist or frivolous scoffer at religion. Be this



as it may, the action is developedsomewhatin the following manner: the three comradesquarrel, and cudgel one
another; Pytye enters in order to establish peace, but is seized by all three and put in chains, whereupon the mischief-makers quit the field. Contemplacyon and Perseverance rescue the prisoner, who thereupon goes off in pursuit of his tormentors. Freewyll returns, and after a good deal of talk to and fro, is converted by Contemplacyon and Perseverance; Imagynacyon acts much in the same way, and-as it seems-mainly to please his friend. What happens to Pytye and Hycke Scorner we do not learn. At the beginning of the reign of Henry VIIL, and at latest in 1517, there appeared a curious play called The Nature of the Four Elements. In this drama Knowledge is brought upon the stage, and takes possessionof it much in the sameway as it had done at an earlier date in allegorical romance-Stephen Hawes's principal work-only in a more pronounced manner. And, in fact, this constitutes the actual interest of the play; for it gives a reflex of the proud spirit of the period which exulted in its extended knowledge and new discoveries, more especially the discovery of America. Otherwise the serious part of the action is but little animated, and not exactly attractive with its disquisitions on physics and cosmography. Nature-Naturate and Experience hold rather lengthy discourses, and the allegorical representation becomes absurd where StudiousDesire, thrown upon his own resources during Humanity's absence, receives instruction in geography from Experience. A dramatic element is introduced into the action by Sensual-Appetite and Ignorance. They try to entice the

hero (Humanity) to leavehis studies,persuadehim to lead
a voluptuous life, and, with this object in view, introduce him to somewhat loose company. A comical Taverner then appears, dancers come forward, songs of a fantastic and popular character are sung, and all sorts of loose and coarse humorous remarks are let drop.

It is upon this backgroundthat Skelton's activity as a
I dramatist now presents itself for our consideration. The j poet-laureate directed his attention to dramatic poetry

apparentlyat different periods of his life, and, so far as is
/ known, wrote altogether four plays.

with Measure as his adviser. The necroinvokes the Devil and summons the court. a morall Enterlude and a pithie. learn we something through Warton. he is then led astray by Fancy (who assumes appearance Munificence). and whose conversion is. warm-hearted liberala and 1504. it would seem as if we had here a retrogression towards the earlier Moralities. date of The Garlande o/ Laurell.* who had the good fortune to seea copy of it." The main substance of the piece is the trial of Simonyand Philargyria or Avarice. It wasprinted by Wynkyn de Worde. and ends in their being found guilty." All the figures in the play prove themselvesto be personifications of abstract ideas-even the hero himself. the .t not long before "Colin Clout. and the Public Notary as an assessor or scribe. iii. ed. which has been preserved. at first in the society of Felycite and Lyberte. and before 1523. The play was intended to represent type of man. indeed. 127 Of one of which he Devil trips up the necromancer the heelsand disappears by amid fire and smoke. In reality we have to welcome the advance presented by a specialization of the old problem. Accordingly. but this is only apparently so. 287. The Devil acts as judge. who succumbs to a special kind of temptation. but with one individual of a special kind of disposition.SKELTON AS A DRAMATIST. then effected in the customary manner." "The Comedyof Achademios"-of which nothing whatever is known beyond the titles-and lastly his Magnyfcence. Skelton's drama does not deal with mankind in general. Hazlitt. At the end of the dance the manceropens the play with a long prologue. written by Maister Skelton laureate. The last scene closes with a view of hell and a dance between the Devil and the necromancer. on Palme Sunday.which has wholly disappeared. of France died. by the of * History of English Poetry.the year in which Louis XII. and plaied before the King and other estatys at Woodstock. f Certainly after 1515. ff. and bore the title of " The Nigramansir. Three other dramas are mentioned by Skelton himself in his " Garlande of Laurell:" "The Sovereign Interlude of Virtue. with sin and virtue in general. This Moral Play -probably the earliest in the series of Skelton's dramasmay possibly have been written about i5i7. as Magnificence.

" Bouge.'7 Of the qualities of mind which constitute the dramatist."as it seems. he does not trouble himself about other considerations. and his " Magnyficence" held up a mirror to the rich and mighty. is robbed. Courtly-Abusyon. a sereant at law. the faculty of allowing an action which has proceeded from its primary source in the brain.128 Counterfeit-Countenaunce. Content with elucidating his theme very fully after the manner of a Morality. and handed over to Poverte as a prisoner. Somewhere about 1507 John Roo. Still. And. he does not more ! frequently let us hear the tinkling sound of his own peculiar "' verse-the Skeltonian metre. Skelton was not the only one-and perhaps not even the first-to give the Moral Plays a more specific character. it is to be regrettedthat in \ the comic passages of the Moral Play. a lessgeneral significance." On the other the variety of his ingeniousideas. and strange vagaries. the more important gift. however. but at the right moment Goodhope and Redresse (Repentance in the positive sense) come to his aid. Of the corf-- cisenesswhich Skelton aimed at and attained in the " Bouge of Court " there is little to be found in his " Magnificence. the performances given at the Inns of Court had. we recognize the hand of the great master of language. great1 disappointment is felt in passing from Skelton's better poetry to his " Magnificence." Also as regards elegance of expression and correct versification. still.! and the poet himself. ClokydColusyon. introduced Moralities with a political tendency. Dyspare and Myschefe offer him a rope and knife to commit suicide. till he is attackedby and Adversyte. Skelton has taken less trouble here than in his. Crafty-Conveyaunce. besides. the author of " The Bouge of Court" possessedseveral in no mean measure.-msir. If his " Nigram. attend to its own further development-this he lacked altogether. to present itself before spectator's andthento j the eyes.. attacked ecclesiastical abuses more especially. . at an earlier date.. is said to have written a play on the following subject: " Lord Governaunce was ruled by Dissipation and Negligaunce. Foly. In the gaol.he had no notion of the demands made by dramatic form. and he is ultimately saved by Cyrcumspecyon and Perseverance. In the working out of his plan.! satirical bent of mind.

he might well have regarded " Magnificence" as a warning to his Majesty's own conduct. in the presenceof Cardinal Wolsey. full of life. but upon subsequent representation that the performance had been misapprehended. For during the very first years of his reign-at court festivals and in his own household-he began to manifest a love of display which might frequently have been regarded as extravagant. of a robust physique fully developed by a variety of physical exercises. balls.SKELTON'S " MAGNIFICENCE. masquerades. perhaps a poet. pageants. banquets. German. and musical performances were given in crowded succession. displays of magnificence. and artistic feats of every description. sent to the Fleet. and a mind endowed with many intellectual and musical gifts. performances of all kinds. but above all a musician and composer. and on other special occasions-and very often without any special occasion-his court presented the most brilliant and animated appearance." According to Hall. which causedRumor-populi. and had the author of the piece and one of the young gentlemen who had taken part in it. It can readily be imagined that he patronized plays.and captivated eye and ear by the magnificence of the arrangements. and would have made his father's economical household appear a most miserly establishment Henry VIII. At regular annual festivals. entertainments. the Chronicler. and enamoured not only with the power but also with the splendour of royalty . The brush of Italian and even of German artists. at Gray's Inn. Tournaments. K . The suspicious prelate took the satire of the play to refer to his own government. they were released. the piece was played at Christmas. and French actors. Even in the field the King could not dispensewith the delight he took in his accustomed pomp and aesthetic pleasures." 129 by whose misgovernaunce and evil order Lady Publickewele wasput from Governaunce. the genius of Italian. 1527-28. with extraordinary pomp. If King Henry had beenas sensitiveas Wolsey. were engaged to assist native energy in enhancing the splendour of his entertainments. Inward-grudge and Disdaine of wanton Sovereegntie to rise with a great multitude to expell Negligaunce and Dissi- pation and to restore Publicke-wele again to her estate. at this period was a man in the flower of his youth.

too could not withhold this influence. Since 1514 the number of * That such masquerades were also favouriteamusements Elizabeth's reign. 2 of Love's Labour Lost. too." * Disguisings and mummings were no novelties in England. In the evening. to musicians. but it may not have been customary to give them with all the magnificence and splendour that had attached to them in Italy . Much in the same way. basing his representation on Cavendish's report. and accompanied by six men dressed in silk bearing staff-torches. has made such happy use in his " Henry VIII. above all. itself from And the drama. In the samewayas King Henry kept in his serviceand paid good salaries a wholebevy of trumpeters. who entered the hall apparelled garments in embroidered with gold.the Queenand her ladies were surprised by a visit from twelve men of lordly and magnificent appearance. or to make any other part of the circle at court join in the semi-improvised play. . it had not hitherto been the custom for any part of the court circle to take part in the performance for its own amusement. and caps and vizors of gold. which exhibited a peculiardevelopment in this direction. From Italy. an incident of which Shakspere. These were the King and eleven gentlemen of his household. came the "masques" which are said to have been introducedinto England on the Feastof the Epiphany in 1513. a brilliant company assembled at a banquet at Cardinal Wolsey's-minus the entertainer-and were surprised by the King and his suite in the attire of shepherds.I3O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'SDEATH. andsingers-in fact. but in various ways connected with actual dramatic performances-or a frame-work for them-were affected by the influence of the Italian masques. The ladies were invited to join in a dance-some of them at first refusing-and then all danced and amused themselves after the manner of officialsand caterers everypossible for kind of entertainment-so likewise the fees to actors form a much heavier item in his budget than they had done in the reign of his predecessor. and. and masques were known there of old. sc. But even the pageants and maskballs which were not in any way improvisations. is in shownby the unsuccessful ventureof King of Navarreand his nobleswhen disguised in Russian habits.after the banquet.whereupon the gentlemen took their leave. in 1516. in Act V.

What was generally called an interlude. indeed. a very diversified character. Paul's School-not to speak of the young men at the Universities-also made attempts in mimic art. wasfollowed by the nobility. the scholars of St. received much larger remunerations for their accomplishments as actors." was supplemented by a new troop under the title of the " King's Players. The love of theatrical performances increased to such an extent. the performance being given by the Gentlemen and Children of the Chapel. Among the festivities with which the court was entertained at Richmond during the Christmas gaieties of 1514-15-when Medwall's Morality had so little satisfied the King-was an interlude by William Cornyshe. and now from time to time began to receive the more appropriate title of " mumming. and of receiving the very highest awards. Among othei things the Goddesses tame a savageman. which now figured as " the old players of the king.MASQUES AND MUMMINGS.and. and an interim dium cameto be a necessary addition to everygrandbanquet. Early English forms of the interludium-some of them temporarily forgotten-were connected with new forms which had developed under the influence of foreign works and of the may be imagined. were also very on and well remunerated. but also in substance. accordingly." The exampleset by the sovereign. At a subsequent date we hear of another body of children under the name of " The King's Children." And the "Gentlemen of the Chapel. after the manner of the young lawyers at the Inns. that families of distinction rarely celebrated a festival without some dramatic performance being provided. not only as regards equipment." of whom he kept thirty-two. more correctly. like the King's troop. they often travelled about the country to give dramatic entertainments. 131 the a playersin the king's interludes had been doubled. And. It described the triumph of Love and Beauty over all their enemies. This work had the good fortune of meeting with the very highest favour. Most of the high aristocracy appearto have kept their own company of players. and a lion " that was made very rare and . Even the " Children of the Chapel " on variousoccasions appeared the stage. " or. the existing company. under the direction of Master Cornyshe himself." assumed.

" representing the siege of Terruenna (1515). . no women among the professional actors. a traditional popular dance.132 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. what was liked of all that heard it. " " Love and Riches. they passed " by a long gallery richly hung. At a brilliant fete which the King held in honour of the French ambassador on May 5. Eight members of the Chapel Royal appeared on the one side of the stage. When the knights quit the stage." in England. (that is to say) by love to be obeyedand served." and. each actor calls " in to his assistance three knights clad in full armour. a faire battle" is fought before " a bar all gilt that fell down out of the arch " and delighted the spectators. a Dialogue. or Morris-dance. formed the nucleus of the interlude. there being. at most extravagantstyle. at this period. the two actors commenced their dialogue. every staff ending after this sorte" *Bowe you downe. into a largechamber.' "masque. a solemn joust was followed by a luxurious banquet in a hall speciallyerected for the purpose." As they cannot come to an agreement.'" In this play the female figures." he says. UP natural so that the king was greatly pleased therewith. in this case.were represented by ladies of the court. roof of which wasconningly the made by the astronomer. It was a dispute as to whether " Riches are better than Love. leading in an actor magnificently apparelled. immediately thereupon the same number of exactly similar persons entered from the opposite side. it was followed by a mumming and a morris-dance. and the guestshad admired a large painting on the wall by " Master Hans. and do your dutye To Venus and the GoddessBeauty: We trymphe hye over all King's attend when we do call. a kind of disputation. are both necessary to a prince. the ground thereof was made the whole earth environed by the sea.* On another occasion. an old man with a silver beard enters to settle the dispute. after a Latin oration. When the banquet wasover. had assumed the name of " it seems. When the members of the Chapel Royal had finished singing. belonged to a much earlier date than the modified under southern influence. * The Moresco. 1527. the performance began. Venus did sing a song with Beauty. Probably.

" further.Veritas. The Latin Moral Play which wasperformedby the " Children of Pauls/' on November 10. predominated. His tragedy of " Dido " had the honour of being performed before Queen Elizabeth in 1564. Ecclessia. but the secular element. in the presence of the King. and the French ambassador. represented Wolsey as the promoter of peace. but more pronounced actuality. and a Cardinal who. Lady Peece.INTERLUDES AT THE COURT OF HENRY VIII. the Apostles Peter. As had been done on this occasion. above all. Poull. Biblical figures and motives were not excluded from the Interludes or from the accompanying pageants. War. and Jhames. at Greenwich. The typical dramatist of this Henry had " an excellent for the entertainment of had been left in England the treaty relating to the epoch is John Heywoodl Endowed a goodvoiceand musical with ability. it seems. and with riches to reward his lovers and friends. Falls-Interprytacyon. so far as we can see. Lewter (Luther). who as hostages for the execution of surrender of Tournay.was one John Redeman. Corupcyo-Scryptorris. Paul's School . the Dauphin of France and his brother. at times. however. Apparently the theme was the conflict aroused between the Church and the State by the Reformation in Germany-a conflict which. no doubt. like a frow of Spiersin Allmayn. again gave place to peace and order-at all events in secular affairs. Master of St. in whose: . The play presented figures such as-Religio. Latin plays were frequently given at court when foreign guests were entertained. Cardinal Wolsey. The chief part was naturally still occupied by the morality which. This play may have been the work of John Rightwise. in "russett damaske" and black " taffata. 1528." also Luther's wife " in red silk. which. and is otherwise known as a writer of dramas in Latin. thirty-two years after his death. took a very remarkable form. showed a certain affinity with the Ludus de Antichristo.was an ecclesiastical satire. Rightwise himself superintended the performances of the boys. and." 133 The author of this interlude. perhaps. Lady Quyetnes and Dame Tranquylyte. also Errysy (Heresy).hewasall an early age attached to the court of Henry VIIL. In 1520 King comedy of Plautus " performed the four French gentlemen. and others as well.

and the sixth has come down to us in manuscript." and in later as a " player on the verginal. Of dramatic development. The pieces which have been preserved probably all belong to a date anterior to 1530. may have obtained for him the post which he held during the last decade of Henry's of the band of reign. had the honour of amusing the Princess Maria with " his children. dramatic delineations. Accordingly. above all. were written partly before and partly after 1520. He was a man of penetration. and years have been immortalized in a number of anecdotes. partly by reminiscences left on his mind by having read Chaucer. among other things. At that time he was " Master" Children Comedians who probably acted principally in the plays he wrote. . His happy disposition and ready wit "-things upon which great value was set in the days of Thomas More-made Heywood a favourite in society. Four of them were printed in 1533. and so far may be compared with the one-act plays of the modern stage. The poet's intention seems mainly concerned in presenting some sort of moral truth. however. they cannot be said to possess anything. The story in them is generally as simple as one of ^Esop's fables." In this capacity Heywood. presumably even before 1527. His plays are light in construction and of no great length. and one who. and his genius was stimulated partly by contemporary productions.for the delectation of the spectators. and also possessedthe gift of giving vivid and.134 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. knew how to look at the comic side of situations." But in addition to these accomplishments he developed others of an entirely different character." Heywood's dramatic remains consist of six pieces which. or even a moral incident in a couple of vivid scenes. The poet very likely began his activity as a dramatist somewhere about the time when Skelton's came to a close.again in 1519 with the express epithet of "singer. His gradually increasing reputation as a dramatic poet. combined with his wellknown merits as a musician. and were perhaps identical with the troop called " The King's Children. more especially. UP Account Books his name is mentioned in 1514. probably. How long he continued to work is unknown. a fifth without a date. he began to write pieces for the stage.

the advocate of the tool. James. even though they may not have exactly been presented under this title. The Dialogue on Wit and Folly which-like the similar work of John Redeman-was performed before the King. and the treatment of affecting or terrifying subjects. Jerome comes in to settle the matter. The six plays all belongto the genusInterludium. who is ever present in the Moral Play. otherwise the characters are all from actual life. but types which one feels sure existed. Inclination and a knowledge of his own powers wisely determined him to limit himself. we shall find that Heywood's plays present all of the then existing forms of the interlude. once under an abstract name. That Heywood was not the inventor of the genus he cultivated. and Heywood. declares himself vanquished by protesting he had rather be " SageSolomon than sot Somer " (the well-known jester of Henry VIII.JOHN HEYWOOD. and some of them with genuinely individual features of character. In one of these plays several mythological personagesappear. And yet his works may be said to mark an epoch in the history of the drama. typical characters. yet the buffoon. The era in which he lived had gropingly attempted to produce dramas of various kinds. by taking up such as were best suited to his ability.). threw new life into forms of mediaeval dramatic poetry that had almost become extinct. Towards the end. who have madetheir own experiences in the matter. John and James dispute the question as to whether a fool or a wise man is the happier . from the theorizing disputation to the dramatized farce. to concentrate his faculties. I 35 Of allegorical figures we have in them as few as we have of Biblical personages. appears in two of the plays. it is true. mainly by the fact that the contradictory opinions are here discussedby persons who may be said to be justified in so doing-nay. The Play of Love already contains somewhat more dramatic life. If we leave out of consideration the actual Moral Play. an appellationprobablyfirst met with in Heywood. need scarcely be mentioned to those who have attentively followed our account. A Lover-not-Beloved and a Woman-Beloved- . but in both cases described as Vice. consists simply of a learned discussion. and by developing them after his own fashion.

all three together. finally. And this dispute we have reflected in two regions-among the weathermaking gods. Merchant. checks. First we have the sun-god Phoebus. at one and the sametime. and to create a chaos. However. Heywood has here.THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. this one individual. not-Loving each maintain their own condition to be the most wretched. and when the excitement has calmed down. where the one interferes with. The intrigue here was not capable of any actual solution. Wind-Miller. and frustrates the doings of the other. called together to settle the dispute in heaven-a Gentleman. would be thrown into the saddest plight. Jupiter. in which the play has a religious ending. The chief god and supreme judge. Hence he declares. Water-Miller. everyrank in life take the let weather as it comes-sometimes one way. In The Play of the Wether we no longer have a theoretical controversy. brings a merry element into the dialogue.frosty Saturn. and Landerer (laundress). and appealing. on learning that the house of the WomanBeloved-and-Loving is on fire. and evenamongthe audience-a hugejugful of burning squibs on his head-and runs about terrifying the assembly with the alarming cry of "Water! Water! Fire! Fire!" The Lover-Beloved. determines to abide by the conditions hitherto existing. by an ingenioustreatmentof . would be to destroy the one by the other. falls down unconscious. and watery Phoebus quarrelling among one another. to the wind-god ^Eolus. To satisfy everybody. And the action. the representatives of mankind. a boy who delights in snowballs-and create new confusion by all desiring different kinds of weather. all proves to be but a silly joke of Vice's. but a dispute of interests. even. too. Then. who plays the part of the Vice. and. And if all the others were to be sacrificed for the sake of a single individual. the controversy begins anew. Ranger. the disputants finally agree to a kind of compromise. is enlivened by the fact that he comes tumbling on to the stage. and gives the motives for his determination with convincing clearness. sometimes another-and have confidence in Jupiter's wise arrange- ment. A Lover-Beloved and a Neither-Loved- nor-Loving disputethe questionas to which is the happier. The latter. Gentlewoman. and among the mortals who desire different kinds of weather.

At the suggestion of the Pedlar. The four individuals. and all had fire-brands in place of rackets in their hands."THE FOURPP. On this occasion he plays the part of Jupiter's messenger. who. who has offered his wares to his three companions in vain. they devise some pastime for their own amusement. a story full of fun and humour. Two circumstances had greatly facilitated the undertaking. 137 the subject." and were playing at ball. enter upon a controversy as to which of their professions is the more important. in apparell mete for the day. and leads to a discussion about_w. However. When . found an even greater advantage in the fact that the devils all disliked the societyof women. The Potycary. the Pardoner. however. The Pardoner maintains that the indulgences he sells so cheaply lead people more comfortably and safely to heaven than any sort of pilgrimage. given a very ancient idea something of the this play.ornen. The Potycary remarks that no one can enter heaven who has not died first. aswell as in the precedingone. and "whom have ye known dye honestly without help of a Potycary ?" The arrival of the Pedlar creates a diversion. It happened that a festival was being held in hell. Then comes the Pardoner with a delightful farce. of how he had rescued from hell a lady-friend who had diedwithout having receivedspiritual aid. and joke and jest. Potycary. and finally strike up a song. are his best customers/ The poet's intention to prepare us for what is to come seemsunmistakable. and bears the name of Merry Report. and Pedlar-is a merry play full of satirical thrusts. all the devils " stood in array. therefore. the anniversary of Lucifer's fall. and the more advantageous for their soul's salvation. At length they come to an agreement that whichever of them can tell the biggest lie shall have the preference. the Pedlar thinks. the intermeddling Pedlar is made the judge. Lucifer himself wasin the merriest humour. relates in drastic Mtinchhausen fashion an effect produced by his syringe. the Pardoner contrives to renew the old dispute about their professions. and be considered superior to the others . Pardoner. who appear one after the other. The Four PP-so-called from the initial letters of the It is noteworthy that Vice appears in persons represented : Palmer." charm of novelty. as the rescuer.

and his vanquished opponents are offered an indulgence which they are rather unwilling to accept. The ingenuousness with which Hey wood-after the fashion of the Middle Ages -makes fun of everything connected with religion and its representatives. it wasadvisable the closeof the play to takethe at .138 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH." This idea the sly Palmer immediately links to another. but I have beenthorough. nor knewe. to be expected. brings the play to a close. in which the Pedlar again takes the lead. I never saw. yf thou our frende wyll be tryed A ply thy pardons to womenso.and gave the nameof the lady he wished to release-Margery Corson"Now by mine honour sayd Lucifer No devill in hell shall withholde her. was. And this I wolde ye shulde understande. they shulde goo. within thys den Have more to do with two women. the Pedlar maintaining it to be the "most excellent" one he had ever heard. which strikes one as strange in this case. Yet in all places where I have ben. And yf thou woldesthave twenty mo. And oft with them have longe time taried.and had even roused many an echo in England. Wherefore. Not one good cytye.however. For all we devylls. the Pardonermade his appeal. town. nor borough. Any womanout of patiens. The Palmer thus wins the wager.was somewhat risky in the days when Luther's voice was beginning to reverberate throughout Europe. Hence. That unto us there come no mo. In Cristendom. I have sene women five hundred thousande. And many a woman in the whyle. Yet have I sene many a myle." All presentmaintainthis to be a most monstrouslie. Of all the women that I have sene. Wert not for justyce. which is to appear absolutely beyond belief and inconceivable. in my consciens. An edifying discussion. The religious ending. Then with all charge we have besyde. and hence asks how it is" That women in hell such shrewes can be And here so gentyll as farre as I se.

In the heat of the fight the Curate enters the church to put a stop to the riotous proceedings."THE PARDONER. Only a few scenes are introduced. contrives to frustrate the one disturbance by the other. and intermeddling Neybour Pratte comes off witli a bloody head. The pious congregation have. and each now begins to harangue the congregation in his own way. common to both. the one. the other at the altar steps. died in 1521. as Pope Leo X. then of the other is heard. The Frere and the Pardoner. but neither is willing to give up his position. they are developed with irresistible fun. ANDNEYBOUR PRATTE. FRERE. while the Frere challenges the Curate to a fight. still. one after the other. accordingly. and in the play he is mentionedas being still alive. two sermons to listen to at one and the same time. Heywood. Finally. first a few words of the one. have been treated. The two competitors then direct their attention to each other with abusive language. it is true. and praises the salvation he offers with all the vehemence of a mountebank. each continues his discourse in a voice louder than ever. takes up his position in the pulpit. Upon what facts littrary historians have ba^ed the current assumption that the play is the earliest of all the existing dramas of Heywood I have been unable to discover." an inference drawn mainly from the different style in which some motives. The Pardoner prays Neybour Pratte's forgiveness in vain . A grand cudgelling ensues on all four sides. He calls Neybour Pratte to his assistance. in these sceneswe have a struggle of interests in a genuinely dramatic fashion. in the most delightful manner. to The Mery Play betweenthe Pardoner and the Frere. and there is nothing whatever of an intrigue. The absolutely wrong supposition that Heywoodwrote mostof his Interludes about 1530 surely can not be considered a sufficient foundation. in order to have the two fellows put in the stocks. . and end in a regular fight. the Curate and Neybour Pratte* appears to be older than " The Four PP."139 dangerous edge off the fun by exhorting his audienceto pioussubmission the authority of the Catholic Church. the rival orators lose all patience and take to their fists. We here find ourselves completely on dramatic ground. enter a parish church. it seems. so that both are in * This play can be given a more definite date than the others. till the Curate cries out for help under the Frere's blows. in between the storm of abusive and spiteful language and vehement denunciations which the two preachers hurl at each other.

He prepared the way for it much in the same way as the commedia detfarte served as the first stage to Moliere's art. and when it turns out that the pitcher has a hole in it. to follow them forthwith. wife and guest fall upon him. flings the pitcher on the the Mery Play between Johan the husbande^ Tyb his wife. in his wrath." And this of itself wasno small merit. No less dramatic. and prove fatal to himself. the development of an effective though drastic speciesof comicality." and then leave him to himself. despatched to fetch water to wash their hands. The guest arrives. but it then strikes him that the return of the insolent couple might alter matters. but in her presence acts the humble. In his bestpieces-in " The Four PP. Tyb and her spiritual friend finish the pie. This piece introduces a hen-pecked hero who. The earlierblossoms English Comedy of cannot compete .14O THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY*S UP DEATH. dramatic animation. to invite to supper a man whom he detests and also suspects of being a false friend-the Priest Jhan. and with even a fuller delineation of individual character." and in the one describing the hen-peckedand deceivedhusband (though less evidently in thelast)-Heywood hasutilized. Johan feels somewhat elated at being left master of the field. and Sir Jhan the Priest. that the husband's suspicions are only too well founded. therefore. Heywood did not actually create English comedy." the " Play betweenthe Pardoner and the Frere. is fond of playing the bravado. an inexhaustible fund of whimsical ideas. and it soon becomes evident from his behaviour to the wife. Meanwhile. and skilfully dramatized delightful motivesfrom " The Canterbury Tales. he is given wax to mend it. Johan finds himself compelled by his wife. Successful delineation of character (even though not carriedto any greatdepth). when his wife is absent. supplemented. to see what they are about. He himself is treated like a menial.combined. the end only too glad to let the disturbersof the peacebeat a free retreat.-these are the qualities we specially value in Heywood's works.but certainly many of its essential elements. He determines. This outburst of feeling does him no good . Johan finally loses all patience and. beat him. and " make the blood roune about his erys.

and the Plowman On gentylnessand nobylyte* when compared with Heywood's " Dialogue on Wit and Folly" ! Many of the playswritten duringthis period have beenlost. still there is no reason to suppose that just the better plays have all disappeared. In their own period. shows itself in the fluency of his language and the free change of his rhythms. As an historical production it is of considerable interest. How tedious.which was written in 1537. and these are carried to excess. Meanwhile. the statement at the end of the (undated) print: "JohannesRastell me fieri fecit. A remarkable production is the Interlude Thersites. a strange species of humour. at times also. and bumptiousness. The principal qualities of his mind are : coarseness. was the author of the play as well. It exhibits a certain classical style. at the same time. and. We miss here. the possession of the most reckless spirits. which. exist only to illustrate the character of the hero. AN 141 with his modest one-act plays in freshnessof life and vigour. as a parody on ancienttradition. so far as they have any object in view. In more than one series it forms the earliest well-known link : as an attempt to describe the miles gloriosus. The author must be granted the talent for laying on colours thickly. in spiteof its buffoonery -as a drama of character. they stand unrivalled. and in their own way. he has not Skelton's wealth of ideas.and brought forward with most realistic detail." hasbeen concluded meanthat the printer. is the Dialogue betweenthe Merchant. Still. the one more absurd than the other. in spite of the introduction of obligato invectives and the awkward use of the cudgelling motive. and-above all. and his Muse so revels in coarsenessand nastiness that it becomes more than one can tolerate. a very elementary form of wit. it is true. There is something of Skelton in him. the Knight. not only-as in Heywood-dramatic complication."THERSITES." INTERLUDE. John to Rastell. which delight in running over into absolute nonsense. . for it has no action of any kind of significance or connection. a series of loose scenes. cowardice. very little taste and even less appreciation for the demands of dramatic art. dramas with a serious and sentimental tendency had likewise come to the fore in the frame of the * Without sufficient reason. as a dramatic representation of ancient personages. not a little power of language. and.

solely to her infernal machinations and utter hypocrisy. authorsof*' Celestina" belonged the to what weshould nowadayscall the realistic school. and the host of translations of it into foreign languages. was turned into an English interlude. and on the other the brilliancy. with her high intellectual gifts.142 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. The terrible truth of the representation on the one hand. What was new in the drama was the knowledge of human nature it displayed. (l it would be divine if it more fully concealed what is human. and met with extraordinary success. is poetically untrue. and dialectics. The evil in it hasabsolutelynothing to counterbalance it. the first of which was probably written about 1470-75 by Rodrigo de Cota. the intellectual culture and poetical genius with which all the motives were handled. a woman unable to control the combined effects of her own hot blood and devilish seduc- tive arts. and also by the poetry of the common people. made " Celestina " a work to mark an epoch.there is nothing whatever this idealizaof tion in " Celestina. However. This success not the result of any novelty in was the subject of the action. Cervantes says of it. and.-all this. however. And althoughthe deathsof the .tragi-comedia Calistoy de Meliba. Such subjects had already been treated by MidLatin poetry. above all into Italian. consisting of twenty-one acts. Celestina. which vie with one another in giving a dramatically vivid and psychologically accuratedelineation." a cele- brated Spanishwork. reachingits climax in the demoniacal figure of the procuress Celestina. consults a procuress. in order to gain possessionof the object of his desire. some ten to twenty years afterwards. together with the beauty and richness of the language. and. as well as other excellencies. their work." he had better have said." In spite of their refined culture and their moral philosophy. as a whole. Interlude. where a gay young man is madly in love. It was published for the first time in 1500. which are devoted. accordingly. as is evident from the immense number of new editions issued. poetry. The original is a narrative in dramatic form. the other twenty acts were added by Fernando de Rojas. sin is without repentance. rhetoric. About the time when Heywood wrote his delightful farce the "Pardoner .and.and the Frere. if what is human had been purified by what is Divine.

the very earnestnessand persistency exhibited by the Spanish poets in the treatment of so dismal a subject. He broke the point of the action and forcibly bent it in another direction. was opposed to his moral feeling. 143 bawd and of the miscreants at whose hands she falls. Yet it was not the catastrophe alone which displeased him. feeling both attracted and repelled by the method pursued in " Celestina."CELESTINA: A TRAGI-COMEDY. how pitiable the death of Melibea. The pessimistic conception of life upon which the whole representation is based. that the play bears the title of: "A new comodye in englysche. Accordingly. wherein is shewed and dyscrybyd. It is only theyr * In the original he is called Pleberio. Whereupon the interlude ends by Daniogiving an edifying speech. may have gone against the grain with him. appears to be shaken. Melibea7 father Danio* s appears in the interlude. is the death of the hero who falls from a ladder in the dark. full of anxiety." And how much healthier than the admixture of naturalism and morals is the naively humorous cynicism with which the Middle Ages narrated the story of the little weeping dog ! The catastrophe in "Celestina" was not to the taste of the English dramatist who handled the subject." the English dramatist settled his difficulty in a peculiar fashion. yet how arbitrary. . He follows the realistic narrative of the original up to the point where his heroine's virtue. correspond to poetic justice. who in her despair throws herself from a tower ! Compare this with the poetical justice of Chaucer's somewhat questionable " Troilus and Cresside. Immediately after the great scene between Melibea and the bawd. Fortunately nothing had befallen her that could not be remedied. which closes the fourth act of the original. At the father's request Melibea beseeches God for forgiveness. having been warned of what was happening by a distressing dream which had shown him his daughter's fate. He succeeds in inducing his dear child to return with him and to tell him all that has passed. as well the bewte and good propertes of women. and then makes Providence interfere and come to the rescue in a somewhat wondrous way. therefore. and merely accidental. ryght elygant and full of craft of rhetoryk. in manner of an Enterlude. where her steadfastness.

. Even at that early date. we again find ourselves led to that circle of humanistsupon whom we have already directed a passing glance. a man above all adapted to form the centre of our discussion. The actionlackssustained connection and firmness of texture. made one mistake by placing him in an epoch the storms of which could not fail to ruin a nature such as his. a fact. and a truly dramatic presentationof important situations-possesses importan ance in the history of the English dramanot to be undervalued. IV. this interlude-owing to elements of striking characterization. who waits at table. And on this occasion our attention will be mainly engaged with Thomas More. the latter was in the habit of saying to his guests." And at a later day Colet's words in regardto him were. More was a man full of genius and quick intuition." No further words need be wasted on the English dramatist'sgross mistake. with a morall conclusion and exhortacyon to vertew. will prove a surprising man. endowed by good fairies. who. Nevertheless. born to good luck. And yet he deservesthanks for having brought the essential substance. here. " England hath but one wit and that is youngThomas More." More was. and held its position on the stage for more than half a centuryafter its first appearance. with a thorough know- ledge of the Ancientsand a devotedstudentof their works. however. lost their effect. many excellent points of the original have been lost in the adaptation.the more important motives of the first four acts of " Celestina" on to the Englishstage.when More was still acting as a page to Archbishop Morton. or have.144 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. whoevershall live to see it. althoughtreatedsomewhat carefully for that day. at least. the figure of Celestina appears divested of her demoniacal grandeur. vycys and evyll condicyons. a distinguished lawyer and historian. cannot at all be compared with the fully developed prose of the Spanishwork. language and verse of the interlude. "This child. In now turning to prose-literature.

the consequences threatened becomeserious. and the unaffected way he would join in social intercourse. His manly. and appears to have soon gained renown for his legal knowledge. his modesty.CLASSICAL PROSE!SIR TtfOMASMORE. for the youthful statesman-a very triumph. which at times even took the form of self mortification. of deeply moral sentiments and genuine humanity. About this time he also delivered lectures in St Lawrence's Church in Old Jewry.. on Augustine's " De Civitate Dei. above all this. More. only five and twenty years of age at the time. literature. shed a sunny cheerfulness upon all around him. His fervent religiousness. More began his career under brilliant auspices. Yet. and this often found expression in witticisms which never left anything but a pleasant impression. Even amid the most perilous circumstances he would retain his light-heartedness.his love of fun and harmless mischief. and. and sympathetic nature. 14$ a keen and unprejudicedobserverof life. Meanwhile. gave his presence an irresistible charm. convincing words triumphed over the hesitation of a Parliament accustomed to be submissive." to be content had demanded. friendship." the first Books of which he discussed from a philosophical and historical point of view. owing to the opinions expressedby Henry VII. rose to oppose the grant." with royal benignity and grace. and every kind of intellectual interest. and more than all this. His unselfish. His temperament. he was called to the bar. His maiden speechwas a brilliant success. who thus found himselfcompelled. and his ministers. which was so happy in itself. a man with a perfectcommandof language. kindly. and defeatedthe sanguinehopes of the King. with less than one third of the sum that he The result was as honourable as could be. was combined with the harmless enjoymentof the noblest pleasuresthe world can offer: family life. At the last reading of a bill which had granted an enormous subsidy to the money-loving Henry VII. Not long after this-in the spring of 1504-he was elected one of the burgessesof Parliament.they took their to L . After finishing his studies in law. whose demands became greater from year to year. of manly simplicity and strength of character. both in speech and writingin Latin as well as in English.

and in May of the following year came into actual possession of the preferment. The uncertainty of his position. the arrest of his father. which he could regard only as the result of a manly action.-all this. and he seriously entertained the thought of entering the ecclesiastical profession and of taking orders. and of his eloquence which flowed from the purest sources. gradually helped him to overcome these inward struggles and doubts. the Gospel of St. the blow to his cherished hopes. he put himself to the test by living. Matthew. meanwhile. and now noble Colet. Time.146 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. It was fortunate that the Oxford circle in which More had felt himself so at home as a youth. to give plain but exhaustive accounts of the earliest Christian records and their historical foundation. Hence the son. and soon gave proofs of his rich learning. in which. His words bore testimonyof his deepest . the actual culprit. who was one of the Commissioners appointed for calling in the subsidies that had been granted. the intercourse with his older friends and original work. Upon a trifling pretext. was about to take up his residence there. receivedfull elucidation. threatened to rob him of his joy in the struggle for existence. John More was sent to the Tower and kept a prisoner there till he had paid an amends of a hundred pounds. as it had formerly been in the Lecture-room of the University. and retired from public life into absolute seclusion. or the Apostles' Creed. Paul's. In 1504 he had been elected Dean of St. was now gradually reassembling in the metropolis. revenge on More's father. his Christian virtues. considered it advisable to withdraw himself from the King's displeasure. in accordance with the strict rules of the Carthusian friars. of his power and gentleness. For some years previously Graye and Linacre had been in London. Colet had now a wider sphereof action. assumed a more definite form. This period marks a crisis in Thomas More's life. in order thus to arouse the spirit of Christianity in his audience. in his London hiding-place. The sermons he preached in the cathedral formed connected discourses. luvas Colet's endeavour in the pulpit. for example. The inclination towards asceticism which slumbered in him. too. the Lord's Prayer.

also. which was wholly in keeping with his teaching. to a life of fervent love and voluntary asceticism. at an early date. More. again as a youth. In Pico della Mirandola. without its having obliged him. exalted his mind. He also felt himself affected much in the same way by his study of the Life and Works of an Italian. like the original. to enter a cloister or to become unfaithful to Learning.MORE'S INTERCOURSE WITH COLE! I4/ convictions and holy enthusiasm. as a pleasant exercise for his intellectual energy. and some spiritual poems. at times. of genial mind. even though later in life he occasionally produced poetical work. All of these works are imbued with a deeply religious spirit and fervent piety-a simple form of Christianity without any discussion of dogmas. in his " A merry Jest how a Serjeantwould learn . on that account. More found a man who had been converted by Savonarola's influence from a more or less theoretical form of Christianity-Platonic or neo-Platonicto a full life in the Christian faith. The poetic impulse was not exactly powerful in him. and his actual life. also managed to give happy expression to deeper sentiments. His poetical remains show us that he handled the Chaucerian forms with ease. More's translation. owing to the state of his mind at the time. yet full of reverence for the Scriptures. In both forms of speech the language is simple and expressive. the famous scholar and distinguished student of Oriental languages. is partly in prose and partly in verse. He was sometimes successfulin writing poetry of a lighter species. More had. a Commentary on the i6th Psalm. tried his hand at English verse-as a mere boy in his parents' home. was so greatly attracted by Pico that he translated his Life into English. He took up poetry as a relaxation. and perhaps. and. Thomas More was conscious that his intercourse with Colet produced upon him an influence which cleared. calmed.more popular in tone. and. as a rising barrister in London. and also some of his works : three important Letters. recalled the apostolic times. the poetical portions giving proof of a skilful handling of metre and strophe. who had recently died at the age of fifty-three years. that he equipped allegorical figures with striking attributes. at the same time.though not \vith the power of a master.

" In later years. and in Rome. Soon after his marriage. The influence exercised upon him by William Lily was even more powerful. in these productions striking thoughts and happy ideas are often clothed in elegant and vigorous Latin. have again powerfully aroused in him his old leaning towards the study of the classics. And More subsequently continued this exercise alone much in the same way. where a practical object did not call for the use of English. Lily had for some length of time withdrawn himself from the horizon of his English friends. More's renewed intercourse with Colet. generally. in the first place. His wife. gave preference to the language of the Romans. however. though checked by his father in every possible way. on the Continent. though not with much point. as an enthusiastic humanist he. He was now living with More in London. received a visit from Erasmus. Lily was an old Oxford student of Magdalen College. They were drawn to each other. and by their ascetictendencies. and also wrote epigrams. Erasmus had meanwhile. a few years younger than Colet. a perpetualstrugglewith in . the daughter of a gentleman of property in Essex. proved herself a loving companion to him. In the year 1505 More married-it is said at Colet's advice. where he had distinguished himself in his study of Greek. to play the Friar " he tells an amusing anecdote with much humour. at that critical period of enforced leisure. which. by the religious views they held in common. short satires. partly after Greek models and partly of his own invention.148 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. in the latter's hiding-place. and an intimate relation sprang up between them. Graye. They competed with each other in translating Greek epigrams into corresponding Latin forms of verse. Jane Colt. Rhodes. Latin poetry attracted him more than English. by her he had three daughters and a son. been working his way throughlife laboriously. the metre being the same as in " The Nut-brown Maid. but certainly known to him from former days. and other small things in verse. and Linacre. also by their mutual but studies. eulogies. More. indeed. must. and an apt pupil in spiritual matters. in his new home in Bucklersbury. had been in Jerusalem. had never been entirely suppressed.

" in particular." an admirable guide to a deeper and simpler conception of religion. and in his " Adagios. still the perils he had drawn upon himself by his short parliamentary career were by no means overindeed. As early as 1509 he was . If More's marriage put a happy and definite end to the period of his extreme asceticism and struggles with his conscience.-who had been a pupil of learned Skelton's. if possible. publishing original work. and whom More. and. More's work exhibits the rare acumen and readiness of speech which made him such an excellent advocate.MORE AND ERASMUS.'s reign. trying his fortune first in one place. and Erasmus followed his example by himself choosing some for similar treatment. in between. Many hopes were linked with the young monarch. At length. to collect the means for his long contemplated journey to Italy. but found him directly interested in the subject he was himself engaged with at the time. More received from Erasmus not only various kinds of suggestions and encouragement. giving wide proofs of his many-sided learning and superiority of mind. With the accession of Henry VIII. More was one of those who found reason to rejoice at the change of ruler.however. and. crowned the miser paid the debt to nature. which not only obliged him to refrain from taking any part in public affairs. in his " Enchiridon. then in another. the two friends both wrote a reply to this declaration. with the King's growing love of money and the terrorism exercised by his ministers. where he hoped to finish his studies. at More's suggestion. He had now come to England in order to refresh his spirit in the societyof his old friends and. More was busy in turning some of Lucian's Dialogues into Latin. and not a few were fulfilled within a short space of time. had been allowed to approach-England began to breathe again. 149 poverty and delicate health. but ever uninterruptedly at work devouring Greek authors and. at an earlier date. but often madehim fearfor his life. Hence the young father was perpetually troubled by the uncertainty of his position. they seem rather to have increased during the last years of Henry VII. In like manner Lucian's Speech in favour of the murder of tyrants was translated.

John's College (1511). and. at least. that in almost all the important disputes in the kingdom. he had not. his secretaries and mandatories. offered them encouragement. a luxurious and vigorous undergrowth was observable. appointed to the honourable office of Under-sheriff of the City of London. And by the side of the old masters. in spite of his strict orthodoxy and ascetic inclinations. His influence had been exercised not only on the occasion founding a Chair of Divinity in Cambridge of and in Oxford. More's domestic happiness was no longer disturbed by constant fear. for his sense of justice and his knowledge in all legal matters became so widely recognized. Latin. by any means. or. was making one conquest after another. The King himself was favourably disposed towards classical study. endowed with three had attracted to the new institution a number of eminent . in Yorkshire-who was appointed Bishop of Rochester in 1504. There was Fox. In this responsible position he gained both the confidence of his fellow-citizens as well as the favour of the King. a subject which More had so much at heart. and Divinity-and who the activeBishop of Winchester. Among the English prelates and highest dignitaries of the State there were not a few who took part in the efforts of the humanists..ISO THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. but also in establishing two extremely important colleges at the former university. the one or other party generally endeavoured to secure the assistance of Thomas More. Besides being so successful in his profession.who in 1516had founded Corpus Christi College at Oxford. There was pious and learned John Fisher-born in 1459 at Beverley. was nevertheless liberal-minded enough to prove himself a friend to learning and scholars. the revival of learning in England entered upon a period of renown and splendour. won for him additional reputation. made a narrowhearted use of the influence he gradually obtained in that position. so that his position at that time appeared a very enviable one. Christ's College (1505) and St. As fatherconfessor to Margaret. With the reign of Henry VIII. his immediate surroundings. too. mother of Henry VII. His practice as a barrister. professional chairs-Greek. Even humanism. included eminent students of the ancient languages. Duchess of Richmond.

Subsequently. showed himself kindly disposed towards the humanists. and completed the undertaking started by his former favourite. Colet appointed his friend William Lily first headmaster of the new institution. and as Dean of St. 1524. but does not appear to have satisfied Colet's immediate object. further. And. Printed by Pinson. Even Wolsey offered a contribution. Warham. Hence he made attempts of his own. which had already made considerable progress. Colet had come into the possession of a large property on the death of his father in 1510. Paul's School.* which subsequently enjoyed a great reputation.a college which war to surpass in magnificence everything that had hitherto existed of its kind. there was Wolsey himself -Warham's successor to the chancellorship-who. !$! scholars. lastly. There was. and on reaching the highest rung displayed grand though cheap munificence in the service of learning when a favourable opportunity presented itself. whatever may have been his reasons. and received canonical recognition. Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England up to 1515. For in 1528 he laid the foundation stone for the Cardinal's College. . with some modifications. Paul's he now applied his wealth in founding St. which were supplemented by works of Erasmus and Lily. The want of a Latin Grammar suitable for beginners induced Linacre to produce a large work in eight books. and for some time no further steps were taken in connection with it. an institution which became a model one for a classical and Christian education. and eventually-under the latter's name-became famous throughout the the * De Emendata Structura Latini Sermonis. and has exercised a far-reaching influence on the spread of classical culture.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING UNDER HENRY VIII. took the matter in hand himself. By the side of these brilliant institutions the one established by Colet possessed value and importance peculiarly a its own. partly from abroad. while mounting Fortune's ladder. richly endowed with the wealth of suppressed monasteries. such was the manner by which Christ Church College was called into life. Henry VII1. the most faithful of all Erasmus's distinguished English patrons. Libri VI. Wolsey's fall put an end to this scheme.

bold. About this time Erasmus was again in England. too. fate had. forensic. a comparison on of his Funeral Sermon on the death of Henry VII.. His sermons. asis evident. Colet. Not long after the accession of Henry VIII. Afterwards he went to Cambridge. however-interrupted only by a short visit to Paris-was on this occasion longer than usual. But this hope was not fulfilled.for instance. to the first edition of " Lily's Grammar. His sojourn in England. In the spring of the following year he was again attracted to England. for in the long run Erasmus did not find in England the life. In the Courts of Law. wasone of the distinguished pulpit oratorsof his day. in the pulpit. In the year 1514 he went to Basle in order to superintend the printing of the two editions in Froben's office. plan and tendency. Erasmus looked upon England as his second home. extending as it did from four to five years.IS2 THE RENAISSANCEUP TO SURREY'SDEATH.generallymove on the in usuallines. Its influence had probably mainly affected oratory. and gave lessons in Latin. carried all before him with his courageous soul-inspiring and words. His subjectis usuallydivided in a somewhat systematic way. ecclesiastical. and gave instruction in Greek . but before the summer was over he had again returned to Basle to finish his work there. but. destined him to be a wanderer. he was making great progress with his critical studies on the text of the New Testament and the Works of Jerome. preserves but few specimens : parliamentary. of which literature. form of a Preface. above all. he was seeking. the sphere of activity. The revival of learning had as yet but little benefited English prose. with . Paul's School." a general sort of satire.. unfortunately. and pungent. More was a master of eloquence. And the light emanating from him increases the splendour that radiates from the English learning of the period. In More's house Erasmus wrote his famous " Praise of Folly. witty." published in 1513. from time to time also he took part in Colet's efforts for the benefit of St. and was in every respect an important time. as in Parliament. John Fisher. in fact. and which was a necessity to him. he had come from Italy on an invitation from his friends in the hope of being able to settle there permanently.



his Discourse in memory of the Duchess of Richmond. Still, he fills up his schemewith rich material, and not unfre-

quently finds striking thoughts and impressivelanguage. It would be especiallydifficult to read, without emotion,
the last-mentioned discourse in memory of the noble lady
to whom he had stood in so close a relation. Fisher's

language, when compared with the earlier homilies, often exhibits-with all its plainness-a more fully developed* construction of sentence, and a more abundant use of
rhetorical device.

Historical writing made an important step in advance with Thomas More. His Historic of Kyng RicLarde the Thirde marks an epoch in the rise of English prose. Unfortunately the circumstances under which this work originated are enveloped in utter obscurity, and it is doubtful whether they can ever be brought to light. The Latin version, first printed in the second edition of More's Latin works,* cannot well-owing to its defective form-be regarded as having proceededfrom the pen of the highly cultivated humanist. There

is proof, however, that the Englishversionis basedupon it; so that More seems merely to deserve credit of having the
transferred to his mother tongue the work of an unknown writer, but more or less contemporary with him, and to have

addedsomepassages it- an assumption to which again has
its own internal difficulties, f

Be this as it may, the Englishversiondeserves praise the lavished upon it by the most eminent prose-writerof the
succeeding generation : "Sir Thomas More, in that pamphlet of Richard the Third doth in most part, I believe, of all these points so content all men, as, if the rest of our story of England were so done, we might well compare with France or Italy or Germany in that behalf." \ English prose here makes an energetic start forwards towards artistic con-

struction. Although,in many passages, may still exhibit it
something of the early Frankish character, yet by its choice and vigorous expressions, by the more careful construction of

its sentences, effective not too frequentan application by and
* t was J Louvain, 1566, p. 44, ff. That the Latin version is not likely to have been the work oi Cardinal Morton plainly enough shown a few years ago by an English historian. Roger Aschams Workst ed. Giles, iii. 6.



of antithesisand other methods of style, it rises far above
the level of everyday language, without in any way falling into affectation. More's prose seems the appropriate instrument for an historical treatise, which endeavours energetically to grasp the connection of events and, more especially, to give a vivid representation of the inner motives of the persons who take part in the proceedings. The delineation of the character of the demoniacal usurper

is given in suchclear outlines that it impresses itself upon
the reader's memory. But also the fulness of detail in the narrative, and the successful arrangement of the material from simple but effective points of view, deserve acknowledgment. The question as to the trustworthiness of the account, which has so often been brought forward and been answered in a variety of ways, cannot be taken into consideration here. It would seem as if a tradition, very evilly-disposed towards Richard III.-and perhaps started by Cardinal Morton-had cast a good deal of romantic additions round the historical nucleus; yet, on the oiher hand, it has also preserved many trustworthy reports which
would otherwise have been lost.

The account in both versions is incomplete; beginning with the death of Edward IV., the history is carried on only to the coronation of the usurper. Thomas More had been engaged with the work while acting as Under-sheriff, and seems to have put the last touches to it in 1514. It did not appear in print till after his death, at first anonymously among Grafton's Compilations,* and later in the authentic editions of the " Works of Sir Thomas More in the English Language" (London, 1557), upon which the later editions
of the " Historic of Richarde III." are based.

More's wife, Jane, had died in the year 1512. A few

yearsafterwards married a secondtime, and choseas his he
wife Alice Middleton, a widow, who presented him with another daughter. Alice never came so closely in contact with his inner nature as his first wife had done, still she was inspired with the best of wills, was a worthy and truehearted woman, and succeeded in bringing More's domestic

life again on to the path of quiet, restful happiness. The
* His edition, and continuation Chronicle, 1548. of Hardyr^es Chronicle, 1543, and of Hall's

father's whole heart was centred in his children-a


ness of feeling which finds the most touching expression in his life as well as in his literary work-and he was specially attached to his eldest daughter, Margaret. Any separation from his family he always felt to be extremely hard to bear, whether it was that a royal command took him abroad, or that his services at court necessitated his leaving home for
a time.

In May, 1515, More had to accompany an en bassy despatched to Flanders to bring about a better understanding betweenEngland and the Netherlands, and, more especially, to represent the inteiests of English commerce. The negotiations were greatly protracted, and More was unable to return home till the end of the year. However, a pleasant and fruitful episode connected with this embassywas a visit to Antwerp, where a friendly and stimulative intercourse sprang up between him and the secretaryof the municipality,

Peter Giles [/Egidius], a young man of refinementand
classical education. It was here that More's id£a of his

Utopia became fully developed; and the Second Book, the nucleus of the work, was finished in all essential points, during that year. The First Book which, in point of form, has the value of an introduction, but is essentially an antithetical illustration and complement, was written in the following year. The impulse which induced More to write his " Utopia " was his keen sensibility of the conflict between the ideals
he bore within his own breast and the harsh realities of life.

In his study of the ancient writers, and in his intercourse with Colet and Erasmus, More had formed for himself a picture of a world where the victory of Christian ideas and the advance of learning might have obtained equal consideration : the picture of a human community where justice and
beneficence would endeavour to alleviate the ills of life for

every individual, where religion and reason would bear the sceptre,and enlightenment and genuinely humane sentiments exercise their influence on the masses. And yet the reality which he had before his eyes stood in the utmost and most glaring contrast to this ideal. Short-sighted egoism controlled the relations between the European States among one another, as well as the relations between the various


ranks of society, and, indeed, between the individuals of every State. The political intrigues of the different Cabinets,
which were constituted more and more after Macchiavelli's

model, renderedit impossible the world to enjoy peace. for The Christianpotentates squandered blood and property the
of their subjects by their incessant wars, which in most cases produced no result. Relentlessly the right of the stronger asserted itself in the outward as well as the inward life of the State. Mercilessly the hand of the rich and mighty weighed upon the poor, and when the latter in their extremity, for very life's sake, were driven to seize what belonged to others, they were struck down by the harshest of judgments, without any endeavour being made to prevent the repetition of the wrong-doing. The Christian doctrine itself, which every one had on their lips, appeared to have become a mere myth, was active only when its object was to defend-with hand and foot, or even with

fire and sword-some dogmatic opinion, some proposition
of the Schoolmen against those who thought differently ; yet it showed itself powerless to prevent potentates breaking their sworn agreements, or prelates and laymen from disregarding the most sacred commands of religion or the most elementary principles of morality. And nowhere did this vice assert itself more barefacedly than in the ranks of the secularclergy, among the powerful and wealthy prelates, and on the very throne of Rome itself. Colet and Erasmus, like many other well-meaning men before and after them, had been combating the evil which was growing on all sides, with different kinds of weapons. What Colet had attempted in his Sermons and Lectures,
and Erasmus had tried in various forms of satire and

exhortation, More now, in his way, undertook in his Utopia. He here gives a sketch of an ideal State, of a condition of things where all the defects of reality are done away with, his intention being that the immense contrast should lead his readers-the learned men, statesmen,

and potentatesof Europe-to considerthe evils that afflict society,and the means which they might be remedied. by
More borrowed important features for this sketch from Plato's u Republic," and many other suggestions he owed to Plutarch's account of Lacedsemon under Lycurgus. Yet



the work, which is plannedand carried out with strict consistency, is altogether More's own, and lull of manly resolution, genial courage, and Christian tolerance. A delineation of this kind will produce a more vivid effect when it is made, not so much the embodiment of a mere postulate of the intellect or the emotion, but rather a reflex of something which exists or has existed, somewhere and in some fashion, even though it were but the truthful
narration of a dream remembered in all its details. For

the author, whether conscious that the eye of the reading public is upon him, or only of the presence of his Muse, will thus feel himself lessbiased in relation to his subject; it
will be easier for him to abstract himself from the actual

conditions of the life around him, to throw off the burden of tradition weighing upon him, when he gives the "airy nothing" he has reared "an habitation and a name." More's jocose disposiiion was satisfied with the transparent veil-opaque to duller minds *-of the Island Utopia (Nowhere). We are given a full account of the size and shape, of the physical and political geography of this country, and learn all that is necessarywith regard to the names and the customs of the neighbouring nations. As to the actual position of this favoured island and its surroundings we are, however, left in the dark. On this point, More's authority had, we are told, omitted to give him any information, and More, himself, had not thought of making inquiries on the subject. However, as soon as he again meets his roving acquaintance, this omission is to be rectified, and seems all the more necessary, as a worthy English ecclesiastic after reading More's " Utopia," contemplated going there as a missionary.f

The form which More giveshis narrativeconnects with it Amerigo Vespucci's voyages Discovery. An accountof of
them had appeared in print in 1507, under the title of " Quatuor Americi Vesputtii Navigationes;" it was there stated that Amerigo, on his last voyage, when about to return to Europe, and before leaving a place on the coast of Brazil, which has been identified with Cape Frio, left there
* Cf. The Letter of Beatus Rhenanus of Pirkheim of the 23rd of February, 1518, 'Jhomas Mori Opera Latina, 1566, f. 19. t More to Peter Giles [^EgidiusJ in the L tter t 'at accompanied his Utopia..


-on the 3rd of April, 1504-twenty-four Christian men in a castle he had built, with the necessaryweapons and appurtenances for warfare, as well as with provisions sufficient for six months. It is one of these four and twenty men who had remained behind and been lost sight of, that More takes as his Raphael Hythlodaye ; * he is said to be a Portuguese by birth, a very learned man, who has travelled far and wide, gained great experience, and has studied the customs of various nations with the eye of a philosopher and political economist. Raphael had accompanied Amerigos on his last three voyages, and on the last had provided himself with a goodly number of books-chiefly Greek-as he had

no intentionof returninghomeimmediately.After Amerigo's
departure from Cape Frio, Raphael with five of his companions-two of them, it seems, died 0,1the way to Utopia, the others may have perished later-sets out to make new discoveries, westwards, by land and sea. On one of these expeditions he reaches the island of Utopia, where he remained for five years. Then he travelled on-always westwards-till at length he reaches the island of Ceylon, and thereupon Calcutta, where he meets a Portuguese vessel
which took him home.

Admirable is the way in which More has contrived to weave fantastic with everyday experiences, and thus made them appear quite credible. Masterly is the way in which he introduces his authority, Hythlodaye, in the first Book. Connecting it with his own diplomatic mission to Flanders, his enforced stay in Antwerp, and the intercourse which, at that time, sprang up between him and Peter ^Egidius, More relates that, one day, upon quitting the Church of Our Lady, where he had attended Mass, he observed his friend engaged in conversation with a stranger-"a man well stricken in age, with a blacke sonne-burned face " and a long beard, who had somewhat the appearance of a mariner. ^Egidius introduces him to More as Raphael Hythlodaye, and briefly refers to his travels, especially to the interesting one of which they happened to be speaking. Unknown lands, however, and Utopia in particular, are not as yet mentioned by name. More and Raphael make
* The namesignifiesa personwho is an adept in meregossip-as it were, a story.
teller, or one fond of practical jokes.

and had become acquainted with some of the conditions of the country. than where he informs us of the institutions of the imaginary model State." 159 each other's acquaintance. and accustom ourselvesto that comparative method of viewing things which the account of Utopia demands of its readers. is the English episode in Raphael's narrative. yet in the most natural manner in the world. Hythlodaye serves the final object of the work no less emphatically. He says that. Happy. he had been in England for some months. to his earlier years. And what has been previously stated is in no way superfluous. and earnest man. The reader is reminded of home. He gives a report of a conversation he had joined in with some of those present at the table of Cardinal Morton. we are gradually made acquainted with what seemed strange. carried back to his own land. then European peoples. about the year 1495. For. and inclined to look upon the narrator as an old friend. for the moment. and in which the entertainer himself had taken part. they at last come to the actual subject-to Utopia. By hearing him discussfar-off nations. clearheaded. on a turfed seat. More too seems. the sound and correct judgment he gives of well-known matters. Yet the subject of their . above all others. or even dispensable. and more directly.MORE'S"UTOPIA. and also to show those with a deeper insight in things. This conversation is given with astonishing skill. and the customs. institutions. and all three repair to More's residence and to the garden attached to it. By roundabout ways. and to win his attention and confidence. makes him appear absolutely trustworthy and reliable where he is referring to unknown things. the point of view to be taken with regard to what is to follow. and find him to be an observant. the men continue their conversation and enter more fully into details. and affected by the impression this communication makes upon him. We get to know Hythlodaye from his own remarks and from the impression he makes upon More. and politics of first the one and then the other. by giving a striking and graphic account of the circumstances of the different European States and of the policy of the King of France. Everything serves to put the reader in the proper frame of mind. and there.

because the nobility keep a bevy of useless young fellows in their retinue. By such representations the reader is prepared for the account of Utopia. induce the rich and powerful to take to the breeding of sheep. A sad picture is unrolled of the position of the English nation under Henry VIL. Comparedwith Utopia. Here we have the true form of a State. and hinder those who wish to be at work. the typical European State appearsto Hythlodayeto be a mere confederacy the rich. owing to the possibility that his deed may thus remain undetected. the peasants are driven from house and home with every device of trickery or force. And the complaint in England is that the number of vagabonds is ever on the increase.. while the poor. For.l6o THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREYS UP DEATH. are here presented in horrifying form by Raphael's drastic account. the love of pomp.and the avarice the ruling classes. where the individual possesses nothing of his own. and fertile land into a wilderness . the peace-loving and righteous may breathe freely. as the punishment is the same. all the individuals exist. in Utopia. who are almost forced into crime. where everything belongs to the Commonwealth. the insecurity of public affairs and the increase of crime against life and property. of The foundation of the general welfare-agriculture-is in a state of decay. are made a necessaryconsequence of the increasing poverty of the people. the only real res publica. laws are made more and more rigorous. And this impoverization is described as the result of the warlike propensities. The tempting profits obtained from the trade in wool.for and by which. are punished with death for the smallest theft. the fields are turned into meadowland. who are good for nothing in times of peace. Circum- stancesagainst which poets and prose-writers had repeatedly raised their voices in bitter complaints. under the name and of . a position which-as the readers of More's day knew better than we can know . the injustice of which is only equalled by its folly.had in no way improved in essential matters under Henry VIII. the wise man. the thief is necessarily driven to murder. for. and become beggars with wife and child. conversation a melancholy has background. who. and remained much the same under his successors.

basins. But the chief marvel. Plates. which appeals more to the sensuous perceptions. in his account of Lilliput and Brobdignag. More." take only their own affairs into consideration. every one receives a sufficient education. which. would prove but little attractive to the communists of to-day. Gold is used for making chains for bondmen. If we do not strain this point which More himself passes by with quiet irony. which rendered it possible to have such laws and to uphold them. we hear nothing whatever of the productions of plastic art that are not devoted to some useful purpose. taken as a whole. it is true. yet most humane in tendency. For. and dishes are made of clay or glass. every one has to earn the necessariesfor a happy life. It is the ideal of a communistic State. They are. grown-up persons would be ashamed to prize such bawbles. for the ethical supposition upon which it is based is rational self-denial. somewhat Spartan in character. is formed by the morals of the people. It is an ideal. no idle folk. and not entirely satisfactory to our aesthetic ideas. however. had devised all the institutions and laws which. produces an effect similar to that which was obtained at a later day by Swift." still. The impression made by the political system of Utopia is altogether admirable. and none are over-burdened. art. as luxury is excluded from this model State. every one has the opportunity of developing himself further. and. " curiouslye and properlie made. and also of the Englishhumanism M . Pearls and precious stones are the toys of children. nothing of sculpture-a trait characteristicof excluded as well." 161 pretext of the " weale publique. somewhat monotonous certainly. and worthy of esteem. everything else corresponds so admirably with the political system that the result is a complete illusion of actual reality. by their harmonious co-operation. with remarkable sagacity. above all. Every one has to work. as a necessary consequence."UTOPIA. have led to the enviable state of affairs in Utopia. In Utopia there are no rich and no poor. rational. though only lightly touched upon. The perfect consistency and detailed accuracy of the presentation. and for the manufacture of vessels that need not be more closely specified.

or more correctly the mythological ideas connected with them. " Do unto others as thou wouldst have others do unto thee. by the idealistic sentiments of the philosophers of Utopia. andas the narrator adds with but little disguised contemptwere far from being able to compete with the " new Logicians in subtyl inventions.and during their hours of relaxation." Very attractive is the detailed statement of the ethical ideas in Utopia. even virtue strives after pleasure. of the period. thou must also consider good for thyself. The highest " felicitie " is pleasure. The philosophy of the Utopians is crowned by their religious views.but finds one of its richest sources in sympathy. stand opposed to the common fundamental form of faith: the belief in a supreme God-Creator and Providence-the belief in the immortality of the soul." and pleasure as every motion and state of the bodie or mynde. the acknowledged religion of the State. It is not quite clear whether or the manner of the not these hours of relaxation-after ancients-were likewise devotedto poetry. Pleasure. for virtue is defined as " a life ordered according to " nature. however. according to their idea. These views. of poetry there is no special mention." is held up in its inverted form : what thou considerest thy duty to do to others. Still. wherein man hath naturally delectation. take very different forms. In most branches of knowledge the Utopians had advanced about as far as the ancient philosophers. Those who do not accept it are excluded from . Very remarkable. is the energy with which the ethics of Hedonism are combated. and retribution after death. too. for the ancient maxim." The doubtfulness that might attach to such a doctrine is annulled by the manner in which these ideas are further developed. and. which exercised its influence in connection with their church services. This so-called natural or rational religion is.162 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. at the same time. excludes not only wrong-doing and all dishonourableness. above all. These different kinds of religions. and in giving proof of mutual goodwill.their public banquets. The only one of the arts cultivated is music. Every conceivable system and sect finds a place among the Utopians.

however. with the course of time. as the followers of any religious creed are not antagonistic to the religion accepted by the State. reverent. In so far. we have approached considerably nearer to the ideal which More held up? Religious tolerance has in our day become a political principle in most civilized countries. but are unremittingly active in their preparations for war. at Louvain. Public worship. Meanwhile the original edition was reprinted in Paris. is held only according to the general form of religion. and scholars on the Continent. and these are deserving. hence the Christian faith could without hindrance be proclaimed in Utopia by Raphael and hif. with Erasmus at their head. though not with the unlearned multitude. even though it had been in his power to effect it. there are only very few priests. and avoids everything that may give offence to the followers of other creeds. In 1518 two new editions were issued from Froben's office in Basle (in March and in November)." 163 all public offices. companions. otherwisethe person is not interfered with. even more . indeed. but intolerant preachers who make use of invective or violence are exiled or made bondmen."UTOPIA. and earnest. and may dispute his opinions with the clergy and earnest-minded men. English scholars were delighted with the work. they detest bloodshed. And yet who would declare the working out of such a dream to be useless? Who would close his eyes to the pleasant fact that. And as the form of worship in Utopia is extremely simple. even though the State-not being based on Utopian ideas-is often unable to carry it out consistently. god-fearing men elected by the people. The Utopians are as devoted to peace as they are ready for war. the realization of which More never for one moment considered possible-one which. they are to enjoy equal rights with the rest. Another trait in More's account may be touched upon here. however. What German will not by this be reminded with pride of his new empire ? More's " Utopia " appeared print towardsthe end of in 1516. he could scarcely have wished to see realized in every point. Every one may make propaganda for his system without being interfered with. Anything beyond this has to be attended to at home. Utopia is a beautiful dream.

above all. also his edition of the Works of St. but also that of the various States. 1516. stood as the central figures. were. In August. under the title of Novum Instrumentum. so . The same year in which "Utopia" was first published. the study of the languages. saw Erasmus reach the zenith of his astounding productivity. whom they looked up to with the utmost reverence." written for young Charles of Habsburg. and thoroughly conservative ideas. striving to accomplish. the peculiar combination of deeply moral and religious seriousness. In this respect the work appears to us the matured product of that intellectual movement in which Colet. some months previously the first edition of his New Testament had appeared.164 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH.but theydid not believethat this reformation need . above all. is the expression of More's unbiased and courageous opinions on political and religious subjects. and also contains a fund of deep thoughts and striking observations. for the treatise as a whole makes the impression of a work of art. and the master-minds of Antiquity . they further wished to see the life of individuals. inspired and guided by a purified form of the Christian conception of the universe. And much in the same way as the first-mentioned work was based upon tendencies absolutely similar to those in " Utopia. . with a fearless advance to higher culture.conditions. may briefly be stated in a few words. appeared his "Instructions of a Christian Prince. What these two writers. Erasmus. as well as noble Colet. Jerome. and with them More. Their endeavour was to do all in their power to throw new life into Christian ideas. Without doubt "Utopia"is the most brilliant achievement which English humanism of that period has to show. Yet what makes the work. a burgomaster in Antwerp had read the book so often that he knew it by heart. valuable in the estimation of posterity. afterwards Emperor Charles V." the two grand works which he edited were the outcome of the same spirit which had urged More to produce his ideal picture. and this they hoped to accomplish by independent inquiry into the subject. The choice Latin which carries on the narrative so smoothly is but one of its lesser merits. They deeply felt the necessity for a reformation in the Church.

which rejected the system of the Schoolmen who gave subtle or allegorical interpretations. Hence their earnest study of the Bible. can be set against the two other points. And thus his edition of the New Testament stands in direct connection with his edition of the Works of Jerome. and. Hence-in spite of deep reverence for the Scriptures-their unbiased manner in the interpretation of the Bible by a purely historical and philological method. as inaugurated by Colet and continued by Erasmus on the same lines with all the resources of his learning. and regarded as the representative of the old. the Latin translation and Commentary may display. Erasmus himself. and. as the living embodiment of the life. in his day. and all kindred minds. or the ecclesiastical power that had developed with the course of history. in the first instance addresses the learned. in fact. above all. and the death of its Divine Founder.IDEASFORA REFORMATION. the teaching and the example of nobler minds. They hoped that the advance of knowledge. 165 take the form of any complete break with tradition. had endeavoured to present the Scriptures in the language of the people. was the spirit in which it was undertaken and the method by which it was carried out. genuine style of theology and criticism which had " so long been obscured by the subtleties of the School. in his Biblical as well as in his other works. would gradually come to exercise a conciliatory influence upon the Head as well as upon all the various members of the Church. the teaching. of the New Testament. but his . in order to set free this spirit of Christianity. Dogma interested them much less than the true spirit of Christianity. What made Erasmus's edition of the Greek Testament a work to mark an epoch." for Jerome. their wholeconceptionof religion wasa wider one. and explained away or disregarded contradictions in the details. They attacked none of the Church dogmas. Neither the excellencies nor the errors which the criticism of the text. nothing appeared to them more appropriate than to return to the first beginning of the Christian Church. they rejected the method which made the Scriptures an artificial system of dogmas and learned opinions. and directed to the very heart of the matter. that Father of the Church whom Colet. revered most highly among the Latin authors.

166 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. to be fulfilled. And trulye I do greatly dissent from t'nose men which wold not that the scripture of Christ shuld be translated in to ail tonges. in a certain measure. that the disturbance in Germany was a mere quarrel among the monks. that they could scante be understonde of a few divines. a envyinge his awne profitte. and I wold to God they were translated in to the tonges of all men. I wold desire that all women shuld reade the gospell and Paules epistles. that it might be reade diligently of the private and seculare men and women. If he entertained the hope that under Leo X. And that the wever at his lowne with this wold drive away the tediousness of time. clesis " to his New then this doctrine Testament of Christ.-who had accepted the dedication of his " Novum Instrumentum "-learning as well as religion would reach their full development in Rome. I wold the wayfaringe man with this pastyme wold expelle the wearynessof his jorney." These wishes of Erasmus were.. So that they might not only be read and knowne of the scotes and yryshmen. and if he and his friends believed it possible that the reforms in the Church could be settled amicably-it was their Utopia. but Christ wold that his councelles and misteries shuld be sprede abrod as moch as is possible. Or else as though the pithe and substance of the christen religion consisted chiefly in this.. Martin Luther commenced in Wittenberg that mighty struggle which was to exercise a conclusive influence on the fate of Germany and of Europe. Peradventure it were moste expedient that the councels of kings shuld be kept secret. intentions went much further.. that it be not knowne. Other as though Christ had taught soch darke and insensible thinges. In the introductory " Parahe writes : " In so moch that no man at all: the sonne is not more comen and indifferent to all men. I wold to God the plowman wold singe a texte of the scriptures at his plowbeme. A year after the publication of Erasmus's New Testament and of M ore's " Utopia"-in 1517-Dr. The idea with which Rome at first comforted itself. but under very different conditions to those he had had in his mind. but also of the Turkes and saracenes. It soon became evident that there had arisen against the established . could no longer be entertained. She forbeddeth except he abstayne willinglye.

thousands had already felt in the depths of their hearts. 1520. but it became more and more evident how great directions. and that they were quickly circulated in all directions by the young printing-press. with the Emperor at their head. the death of venerable Colet took place in 1519.LUTHERAND THE OXFORD HUMANISTS. had become influenceamongthe Germanpeople in all his While this movement. any reconciliation. when the waves beganto roll high. that.surprise. and fierce in combat than any before him. The Pope had hurled his bulls of excommunication against Luther. No other decision was possible than to condemn him as an outlaw. which was agitating Germany. between Wittenberg and Rome had become impossible. and his books had been publicly burnt in Cologne and Lou vain. people eagerly devoured the treatises which flowed from his fearless pen. Erasmus was watching the struggle of in- tellectswith sympathy. and arose before all the world to give its testimony. Barely four years had passedsince the commencement of the struggle when persons with an insight into matters must have clearly foreseen that any peaceable settlement. In his treatise " On Christian Liberty " (1520) the great Man of the People had revealed his inmost thoughts and the central idea of his religious views. l6/ Church system an opponent more determined. was still in its first stages. had sketched his programme for the reformation of the Church with bold strokes. he appealed both partiesin his to . at Worms. it was as if the German conscience had become incarnate. Luther himself cast the Papal bull and decretals into the flames. he stood before the Emperor and the assembled representatives of the empire in the whole steadfastnessof his faith. What Luther now uttered. to take the great work in hand. on the loth of December. but. everywhere. with affecting as well as captivating force.and perplexity. while some were only dimly conscious of it. A few months later. In his address " To the Ciiristian Nobles of the German Nation " (1520) Luther had powerfully aroused German pride and German uprightness against the arrogance and perfidy of Rome. and solemnly exhorted all the nobles of the land. And with terror it was now perceived that his words and deeds reverberated throughout Germany. ready.

This difference is extremely remarkable. in the first instance. and of a kind that an investigator of our day-were he a true child of his age-would. With the former. recognized the vast difference between Luther's Reformation and the aims of his own party. have to be placed in the scales in Luther's favour. when compared with them. It had been easy to discourse. brought him disappointment upon disappointment. like the Middle Ages in general. and that Luther. be disposedto give his whole sympathy to the Oxford men. with the latter it was the primitive history of Christianity and Christian morality. held more liberal views. in all seriousness. while the Oxford men followed Jerome. playfully as it were. and had the courage and the power to carry the multitude with him. Colet. For Luther gave his own day what it required. the latter. and caused him increased perplexity of mind. The former avowed his adherence to an uncompromising theory in the (literal) inspiration of the Scriptures. and the most conservative in practice. dogmatismformed the centre of the religious interest. whereas the latter showed a decided leaning to tolerance. endeavour mediate. The turn whichmatterssubsequently to took. was called he upon to defend the airy principles he had put forward by his own actions. who was perhaps the most courageous of the three friends in theory. seems still to belong completely to the Middle Ages. Strict adherence to the Confession was maintained by the former.168 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. with all reverence for the Word of God. that the latter stand much nearer our modern point of view. How premature the standpoint of tolerance adopted by the Oxford men was. as long as no manifest signs of the beginning of a struggle were apparent to force . is revealed with horrible clearness by the position in which generous-hearted More subsequently found himself when. on wider views as long as there seemed no immediate danger that the existingsystemof Church and State would thereby be imperilled. had. at an early date. Erasmus. Sir Thomas More. in the judgment of History. For it cannot be denied. Luther attached himself to Augustine. and More were unable to do either the one or the other. But all this was light in weight compared with the two points which. theoretically at least.

at most. every one to take an energetic part in it. and that the advance of culture would have alienated an ever-increasing number of men from the Church and from Christianity. could be obtained only by means of fierce conflicts and violent agitations. If pious humanists and learned priests had been allowed quietly to pursue their attempts at reform. 169 The hour of danger cameat last. it was he who gave the impulse to the religious movement which spread from Germany to other lands. Priceless things have beendestroyedby it.and More seemed to himself like one who had been playing with fire and whose duty it now was. and even carried its adversaries with it. but he surpassed both by the enormouspower of his religious spirit. and. has not yet been fought out.LUTHER'S REFORMATION. the result would probably have been that existing abuses would not have been removed. in the reverence for what was purely outward. For inasmuch as Luther freed and strengthened men's consciences. with the prospect of an endlessseries of doubtful consequences. and kindled a war the consequencesof which are still evident amongus. his own country. nor perhapsas a dialectician equal to Thomas More. Knowledge and art would probably-even without himhave developed more fully and freely during the succeeding epochs. If the Christian religion has been saved. and they had not been led astray in their endeavours to make bold attacks. on the other hand. But it was Luther who stirred men's consciences.and the reformation it was panting for. would have become more and more entangled in superstition. and which. to help in quenching the flames that were spreading. while the number of thosewho cherished true Christianity would have become ever less and less. mitigated at one or the other point. in fact. he prepared the soil from which all the culture of later times was to draw its best nourishment. but greaterthan our loss has been our gain in the end. above all. The people. equal to Erasmus. He broke up the world. This danger Luther helped to avert. The time wasnot ripe for tolerance. into hostile armies. and herein lies his greatness. Luther was not. first of all. as a scholar. it is in a great measure owing to his distinguished services. or. and by the force of a nature which included the .

were-as little intelligible as the mercantile treatment of things sacred. such as is met with only in the greatest heroes of history. and it was the better men. so delectable to the quickwitted nations of the south. but only through our love for God and our neighbour. Minds were in a state of ferment and perplexity. and. man does the good which God has effected in him. the fearless courage of a man of action.I/O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. By faith we are saved and receive the certainty of salvation. was man to exist in face of the majesty of the law. which to the Italians seemed natural enough. the the robust decision. noblest characteristics of the German nationality. People had become more than ever painfully conscious of the everwidening gulf between the real and the ideal. an inexhaustible wealth of ideas. therefore. He who believes that Christ has delivered him. the sinner before the Eternal Judge ? Christ had atoned for us. Who would fail to recognize the questionableness but. in particular. Augustine's doctrine of grace Luther followed to its harshest consequences. satisfied the inmost needs of his own nature as well as the de- mands of the German character generally. between the claims and the actual performances of the Church. indeed. To the simple German mind the niceties of distinctions. insensible of good. who thirsted for comfort and support. through him. is already secured. human will appeared to him absolutely unfree. between the law and its fulfilment. the self-sufficiency. Luther's ideas arose from the depths of his own struggling soul. The fundamental thought of his system upon which -almost of necessity-everything else was based. yet how was the individual to obtain his share of the grace that had been acquired for him? By faith. is actually delivered. In many-sidedness intellect he could not competewith the of two humanists. within his own sphere. at the same time. without regard to his own future. It was then that Luther appeared. and it was precisely those ideas most apt to burden the conscience that became. the grandeur and sublimity of this doctrine? Virtue appearshere to be the fruit of joy and . Full of gratitude and love for the unmerited favour of God. but he possessed sterling nature. which. the means of freeing it. How. and needs nothing beyond this for his happiness.

in fact. and partakes of the fruits of His Passion. not the condition. through which as children we enter the community of the faithful. or implies any manner of attempt " to make assurance double sure. and the Lord's Supper. ecclesiastical tradition was also destroyed. there was to be an end to the more actual barrier of the celibacy of the clergy. In place of the priest there was to be only the Servant of the Word.LUTHER'S REFORMATION. The church service was to be centred in the sermon.inevitable. For. therefore. that even doubts its absolute certainty. Happiness is granted solely by the Divine grace through faith. and is. All else that does not proceed from the central dogma.although greatly diminished in numbers. That the German Reformation found receptive ground in England above all other countries was. Such a doctrine left no scope for any device to remedy the evils in the Church with all its complicated apparatus. to the life of anchorites . of the Sacraments two only were retained that had any direct reference to faith: Baptism. proclaiming their own faith and arousing it in others. because it constituted an invisible barrier between the clergy and the laity. and what had to be believed. historically connected with it by the invention of the Hussite movement. it may even be said to represent the crowning point-the fulfilment of WyclifFs system. 171 love-the result. the congregation were to join heartily in the singing of hymns in their native tongue. but. of course. There was to be an end to the Sacrifice of the Mass. . even hurtful and damnable. the Lollard sect still existed there in secret. whereby the faithful Christian-but he alonereceives the Body and Blood of Christ. the proclaimer of the glad tidings. And the Bible alone was to teach what had to be preached." is unessential. m connection with it. of happiness. there was to be an end to religious houses. By annulling the authority of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. nay. Luther's doctrine was in more than one respect allied to Wycliffism. dispensable. to all the institutions and devices invented by anxious solicitude for the avoidance of sin or the acquisition of spiritual benefits. and to Latin in churches. there was to be an end to the adoration of saints. to the worship of pictures and short. in spite of the bloody persecution of the fifteenth century.

The interest in theological concerns which we observed in Henry VII. at an early date. On more than one occasion King had given the proof of his zeal for the Catholic cause. Henry VIII. and. The English prelate who at once and most energetically followed the King's example was the Bishop of Rochester. but also at the universities and among the lawyers and clergy. B. 1521 ." with special reference to Luther's " On Babylonian Captivity. in a remarkably heightened degree. " Full often "-said the orator-"whan the daye is clere and the sonne shyneth bryght. for and secular authorities Still. When Louis XII. in 1521. A certain contemplative kind of nature with considerable energy of mind. Luther's writings. the more zealouswere the ecclesiastical in their determination to combat it. so that the weyke soules and feble hertes be put in grete fere and made almost * First edition. London. Mayor.and a reckless policy formed a strange combination in him. and thondereth terrybly.1/2 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. Worksof John Fisher>ed. was proclaimed the Most Christian King and Defender of the Faith. manifested itself in his son Henry VIII. Antwerp.ff. before a large and brilliant audience. the greater the danger that threatened the old Church in England. found numerous readers. that darketh al the face of the heven and shadoweth from us the clere light of the sonne. at one of the Romish consistories. That same year Henry wrote his treatise " Against the arch heretic Luther." a Latin thesis on the seven sacraments. and stereth an hydeous tempest and maketh a great lyghtnynge. In these spheres. 311." f which was shortly afterwards printed by Wynkyn de Worde. * and thus his claim to the title of defemorfidei received brilliant confirmation and recognition. At the command of Wolsey" within the octaves of Ascensyon Day"-he delivered. 1522. second. ryseth in some quarter of the heven a thycke blacke clowde. and won enthusiastic disciples hisdoctrine. forfeited the title. a proposal was even made to confer upon him the predicate of rex angelicas. a most eloquent and learned discourse " against the pernicyous doctryn of Martin luuther. UP and had adherents especially among the artisan and mercantile classes. i. and of his reverence for the Pope. t The English. . strong passions. John E.

worked secretly in spreading the new doctrine. Like William Langland and Nicholas de Hereford. Love for the Scriptures and an earnest desire to study them. At the table of Sir John . a certain moderation which affects us favourably when we consider Fisher's strict. He had first studied at Oxford.WILLIAM TINDALE. luxurious priests.and by a new edition was issued. where he came under the influence ot Erasmus and studied Greek. and impressive as the sermon is. energetic. it neverthelessexhibits. than he was of the principles upon which they agreed. 173 desperate for lacke of comforte. In his Latin controversial writings we. bloody means for the suppression of heresy.and ambitiousprelates. unswerving orthodoxy. Tindale. indeed. in spirit and tendency." Pathetic. and already close upon forty. whan the lyght of fayth (that shyneth from the spyrytual sonne almyghty god) hathe bene clere and bryght a good season. and stered suche a tempest and made such a lyghtlynge and so terribly thondered that many a weyke soule hath myscaryed therby. and honestly shared their detestation of idle monks. Luther's German translation of the December New Testamenthad appeared September. Accordingly. the ignorant clergy. he was born on the borders of Wales. at first. where he had seen Colet-and may even have heard him-afterwards at Cambridge. and he was the first to advise forcible. in 1522. a gentleman in Gloucestershire. Meanwhile the religious agitation had found its spiritual centre in England. Owing to the preeminently practical bent of his mind. look in vain for any such moderation. For both men Tindale entertained the deepest veneration. It was about this same date that William lindale formed the plan of translating the Holy Scriptures into English. was at that time preceptor in the house of Sir John Walsh. who was an ecclesiastic without a living. sophistical schoolmen.hathe rysen many a time some blacke clowde of heresy. are said to have been an early trait in his character. he was less clearly conscious of the differences that existed between these two teachers. which.and in the school of the great Dutchman he became ripe for Luther's doctrine. the seeds scattered by Erasmus fell on fertile soil in his case. and already pretty well known on account of his bold religious views. In lyke maner it is in the chyrch of christ.

And with regard to the Lord's Supper. he sacrificed not only the peace and comfort of life." Where he enters upon this subject in his works. in the interests of peace he zealously endeavoured. we occasionally meet with a want of uniformity. in the end. at last even to spiritual inquiries being instituted. with a species of timidity endeavouring to mediate. at all events in expression.distinguished more'for solid than for brilliant qualities of mind. but. This led to many unpleasantries. He there preached several times in St. When he could no longer remain in Gloucestershire.yet. in him. life itself. he continued his studies and work. Tindale was a man of sincere piety. as far as possible. and with a certain degree of inconsistency. peaceloving. to suspicious. and to his receiving strong reprimands. And to his convictions and to the task he had set himself. and meanwhile looked about for employment. Dunstan's in the West. kindly. And while constantly studying his Bible. and translated an oration of Isocrates and the " Enchiridion " of Erasmus into English.174 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY*S UJ? DEATH. He expected wonders from the circulation of the Bible in the language of the people. not to bring this subject became diluted with a certainamount of English " common sense. and hence took in hand the work by which he hoped-as Erasmus had done-shortly to enable every ploughboy to understand the Scriptures as well as the theologians who had made life so hard for him. Luther's doctrine of justification by faith he took up eagerly. in the autumn of 1523. However. Walsh and elsewhere. The praise . and truth solely in the Holy Scriptures. Tindale. in the course of time Tindale arrived at a conviction which differed from Luther's and was more in keeping with the views of Zwingli.I dissent prominently forward The essential point for Tindale was to do away with the Papal system. persevering.and of insignificant appealance. repaired to London. and self-sacrificing. modest. and hostile feelings being raised against him. However. Tindale had to fight out many a battle with doctors and priests on the theological questions and the theological lions of the day. his religious convictions were ever taking more definite shape. unwearied. in order that freedom and grace might be looked ior solely in Christ.

felt that he would be freer in every respect. who was in Cologne at the time. William Roy. where he remained for a year or more. he could have his translation printed-in fact. which had not got beyond the Gospel of St. During this period Tindale seems to have revised his translationof the Gospels St. till Cochlseus. Of theseeditions. Cochlaeus stirred up the friends of the English Government and of the Papacy. completed in quarto. and through their intervention succeeded in getting the civil authorities in Cologne to stop the printing of the dangerous book. ever. too. but Tindale had to put up with his society as long as he required his help. who now assistedhim in revising and collating his text. uncouth individual. With him he lived for six months. . this Roy was a somewhat turbulent.and did not halt till they reached Worms. 1862. he would have to quit his native land. in his writings. with the view of having his New Testament printed. formerly a Franciscan.f one complete and one * Perhaps with interruptions. nothing has been preserved.but was fortunate enough in finding a home in the house of Humphrey Monmouth. Tindale was unsuccessful. Bristol.Bishopof London at the time.TINDALE IN COLOGNE. He was accompanied by a fellow-countryman. In Germany. 1^5 which Erasmus. Luther's well-known opponent. Mark.* In the summer ot 1525 he repaired to Cologne. Both editions were published at the beginning of 1526. to travel to Hamburg. Matthew and St. Tindale here forthwith made arrangements for a new edition of his translation in octavo form. more sumptuous in form and furnished with marginal references and glosses. however. men acquainted with Hebrew. Some connection with the Hansa Steele Yard in London may have determined him.howot "("Facsimilereproductionby Fry. The printing was carried on briskly in the printing-office of Peter Quental. and had the one which had been commenced in Cologne. The two Englishmen escapedup the Rhine with their printed sheets. in order to complete his task thoroughly. hard at work with his translation of the New Testament. and in Germany. in the first instance. inducedtheidealist to try and obtain a chaplaincyunder him. Of the octavo edition.a wealthyand benevolentcloth merchant. had bestowed upon Cuthberi Tunstall. Matthew. till it became evident to him that. got wind of the matter. In this. Tindale knew he would be sure to find men ready to help him in his undertaking.

. and if this verdict has even been confirmed by his admirers of our own day. while as regardsthe workswhich influencedTindale's viewsand his choice of expression. 1611. or at all events the contents. is one of the most successful that has ever appeared. Erasmus's Latin version must rank first and Luther's translation only second. he also proves himself to have been wholly dependent upon his German predecessor for the outward arrangement of the quarto edition. the latter in to be found only in the quarto edition-he quotes morethan half of Luther's short preface. is the one which has exercised the widest influence. above all.of course. This first attempt at an English translation of the Bible since the efforts of Wycliff and his friends. If Tindale's adversariesreproach him for having in all essential points merely reproduced Luther's version. acquainted with Luther's translation. being particularly excellent as regards language. is the first of a long series of English editions of the Bible. fragmentary copy have beenpreserved. of most of the glosses introduced. Tindale was. and also for the wording. But. and. on the other hand. t The former had appeared in 1519. and in his Prologue-which.THE RENAISSANCEUP TO SURREY^ DEATH. London. The only copynow existing of the quarto edition contains merelya is true-of thefragment printed in Cologne by Peter QuentaL* This translation of the New Testament is an achievement which deserves to occupy our attention somewhat.which wasnot brought to a close till nearly a centuryafterwards.of attemptsin translationand revision. later inquiry has thrown fuller light upon the injustice done him. The conspicuous feature of originality which hasjust been insisted upon is not the only trait by which Tmdaie's work is distinguished. and it had been carefully compared . The influence exercised on Tindale by the Latin Vulgate and WyclifFs translation of it wasmuch less-nay. Here the original Greek text of Erasmus's second or third edition | was unquestionably his actual source. This earliest printed form of the New Testament in English. it is a very different matter as regards the actual translation of the New Testament. likewise. altogether insignificant. in It is a universallyadmittedfact. 1871. that the AuthorizedEnglish * Facsimile reproduction by Edward Arber.

It is a fact as widelyrecognizedthat the English Bible has exercised an immense influence upon the whole culture of the nation. Now. but also by persons in other spheres of life. and determined to take energetic measures to suppress it. among all those who have helped. and new means smuggling publicationsinto England and for his . copies of both editions were sent to England. and threats of punishment were issued against all such persons as read the heretical Bible. than to William Tindale.there is no one to whom so large a share of the whole successis due. The resistance which the authorities met with in these endeavourswas the more persistent. who secreted copies or helped to circulate them. Some months later the authorities had their attention drawn to the encroaching danger. especially in Antwerp. and they had at their disposal no inconsiderable sums of money and a variety of means of communication. as it was carried on in secret.strong protests. raise this magnificent to structure-which was completed in the reign of James I. several appear to have existed there. The main body of their party wasformedby English merchants on the Continent. and could neither be watched or even estimated Tindale's adherents formed a close phalanx.TINDALE'SNEW TESTAMENT. by sketching the plans and hewing the stones. being in most cases known only to one another. the individuals as such. they were joined by a number of persons of the mercantile and working classes in England. As early as the spring of 1526. who held similar views. as it contained over three thousand errors. Tindale was continually being provided with money for carrying on his work. Whole basketsfull of the work were burnt in public. Cuthbert Tunstall delivered a sermon at SL Paul's Cross-probably in September-which left nothing to be desired in the way of vehemence and resoluteness. and on the development of its literature both in poetry and prose. on its life as well as its thought. he condemned the new translation of the Bible as heretical. Other measures followed: pastoral addresses. Soon after the publication of this New Testament. and warned all good citizens and Christians against reading it. 1/7 version of the Bible is a work in which the English language is presentedin its full and simple grandeurand vigorous beauty.

New editions-sometimes surreptitious reprints-were for ever being issued by the Antwerp press. again in Antwerp. in vain that Bishop Tunstall. then again in Marburg. they persecuted people as well. and endeavoured to place every conceivable obstacle in his ^Yay. or persecution awaited him. tortured. wandering life . In his Prologue to the quarto edition of his New Testament. that some of the heretics and those who befriended heretics-those who read or concealed heretical works-were regarded as responsible for them. proved a great boon to the followers of the new doctrine. were ever being devised. great as were the difficulties he had to contend with. Subsequently he published the main contents of this Prologue. and the money which the English prelates spent in trying to suppress the heresy. doctrinal. ever zealously at work with the continuation of his greatundertaking-the translation the Old Testament. as a separate tract * Genesis printed in Marburg. exhortative. And in addition to this chief performance had written other smaller works : introductory and exegetical papers. and hence imprisoned. Tindale had meanwhile been incessantly at work. we find him in Marburg. Agents of the English Government were always on his track. partly again in was Marburg. purchased all the copies of Tin dale's translation which his agents could manage to collect in order to have them burnt. an Augustinian from Yorkshire. for circulating them there. and finally. had finished the other historical works of the Old Testament as far as the Second Book of Chronicles. again at Hamburg. then in Antwerp. and he was forced to lead a restless. It was in vain that Archbishop Warham.THE RENAISSANCEUP TO SURREY'SDEATH. in many places his life was in danger. in 1527. a few years afterwards. of In 1531 the Pentateuch appeared. and polemical in character. and a number of tracts. with t ome additions. and executed All such measures were but as oil to the flames. the rest partly in Hamburg. the translation of * in which he had been assistedby Miles Coverdale. at the time of his death. It also proved of no avail that in addition to hunting down the books. . Tindale. took measures of a similar kind. Tindale had already briefly declared Luther's doctrine of justification by faith to be the main substance of the Gospels.

of subjects to those in authority. which characterize the writings of the German Reformer. in his " Parable of the wycked Mammon. In the following year Tindale published the most important of his tracts. he had again handled the same theme in his " Prologue upon the Epistle of St. his various digressions. of servants to their masters. however. and connects all this with a sharp diatribe against " the Pope's false power. Paul to the Romans. In judging of Tindale as an author he must not be compared with Luther. Tindale does not lay hold of his reader like Luther. of wives to their husbands. all is unexpected. This same subject is worked out more fully and independently. above all. whereas in Luther one argument follows the other in the simplest manner.render it difficult for the reader to concentrate his attention upon the subject." The English Reformer here presents a fuller account than elsewhere of his own views as opposed to those prevailing in the Romish Church. the reader is powerfullyaffectedby the depth of his convictions. The breadth of Tindale's presentation. and. and from a broader point of view. But. and finally a vehement protest against the fourfold interpretation of the Holy Scriptures adopted by the Schoolmen. the husband. and.TINDALE'S TRACTS. He." which appeared in 1527. The concise brevity. a discourse on the Sacraments. an address on Prayer. a powerfully riveted chain which holds the reader's attention and keeps him to the subject. time and inclination are needed to enjoy him. on the other hand. broaches the subject of the obedience ot children to their parents. J/9 under the title of " Life and Pathway into the Holy Scriptures." Thereupon he explains the duties of those in authority-of the father. surprising. the lord of the manor. the master. will be looked for in vain in the Englishman. and placing it in a new light. in the first place. the duties of kings and magistrates. the striking logic. the genial flashesof intellect.the ." which in all essential points is a paraphrase of Luther's Preface to that book. each succeeding one strengthening the last. of the value to be set in miracles and the adoration of the saints. taken as a whole. "The Obedience of a Christian Man." Before the end of the year 1526. This is followed by an account and criticism of Antichrist and his adherents.

But rather be bold in the Lord. no more than the sun can be without his light. and moveth the blind powers of the world to slay with fire. and hateth that which is chosen out of the world to serve God in the spirit. fulness of his arguments. priests. and seeketh nothing but the possessionsof the world. and * Doctrinal Treatises. or treason unto his highness. that it is the true word of Go:i j which word is ever hated of the world. the world would love his own. who had taken part in Roo's political Moral Play. water and sword. a short but able treatise against the wealth of the luxurious and useless prelates. and excommunicateth them. to read the word of thy soul's health. and therefore the world hateth you. and authority in the world. for the Parker Society. and to bear a rule in the world. as Christ saith to his disciples. Tindale says.t and been persecuted by Wolsey in consequence.etc. but I have chosen you out of the world. which (as thou seest) is so agreeable unto the world. and with all wiliness driveth people from it. and comfort thy soul: forasmuch as thou art sure and hast an evident token through such persecution. affected by the sincerity of the mm. yea. and persecuteth the word of God. the force of his descriptions. both of the New Testament and also of the Old) neither can be. p. o Reader. (as thou seest in all the stories of the Bible. in his Preface. and forasmuch as contrariwise thou art sure that the pope's doctrine is not of God. or that it is made breaking of the king's peace. Cambridge. wrote. Simon Fish. 128. curseth them. and is so received of the world. ff. . by William Tyndale. that it is forbidden thee in pain of life and goods. or which rather so receiveth the world and the pleasuresof the world. 131. t See above. neither yet discourage thee. Thus. John xv. ed. and that it is but doctrine to deceive men. : if ye were of the world. and many good ideas-and.." Let it not make thee despair. and bringeth them in belief that they be damned if they look at it. A member of Grey's Inn. p. all that cleave unto it : for the world loveth that which is his." * Several other combatants besides Tindale joined in the religious literary feud. 1848. above all. and with false and sophistical reasons maketh them afraid of it.l8O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. somewhere about 1529. neither was ever without persecution.

after 1528. vehement satires. and the clergy generally. l8l monks. Wolsey's fall paved the way to More's reaching the top of the ladder by being appointed Lord Chancellor of England. More's career had been one of constant promotion.. another associate of Tindale's. Wolsey. in the form of a " Supplicacyon for the Beggars. This tract was smuggled into the King's hands. who had long been cautiously silent on this matter. and to discuss it fully and publicly. William Roy. and Jerome Barlowe-also a truant Franciscan-published. who. was imprisoned.and he is said to have been delighted with it. He had been Chancellor of the Exchequer. John Frith. it was one of the forerunners announcing the coming dissolution of the monasteries and the secularization of Church property. etc. found himself compelled to take up the ticklish question. .-all this contributed * A fruitful P. then Master of Requests or Examiner of Petitions. had been elected Speaker of the House of Commons. caused him much sorrow. The court atmosphere he breathed. After entering the service of the court. was Sir Thomas More. the responsible offices he held. as we have already seen. more especially on the Lord's Supper. In October of the following year.TINDALE AND HIS ASSOCIATES. which he. was most conservative in practice. when sent by his master to the English community. fell into the hands of the authorities. Tindale's former assistant. in the end. wrote on various subjects. he had been knighted. Paul-and who. This same subject was also handled by George Joy. Tindale himself. partly in verse. and had exhorted others to remain silent.. the personal influence of the King. The bold theoriser. and. all of their party-regarded more from Zwingli's point of view than Luther's. in 1528. Such a career could not fail to exercise a definite influence upon More's opinions and the manner in which he upheld them. against High Mass.* The chief combatant on the Romish side.347i ff- to make him more than ever conservative and and godly treatise. had been appointed by the King. and executed). on the Continent. finally. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. indeed. etc." addressed to the King. printed in the Doctrinal Treatises. too (who stood faithfully by Tindale in his later years of wandering-as Timothy had stood by St. like Tindale-and.

yet in Rastell's print (1532) occupy over three hundred and sixty folio pages-when he found himself compelled to seekpermission to retire from his post as Lord Chancellor. As matters stood. It is supposed that this work was not published till the summer of 1529. More commenced his extremely lengthy "Refutation of Tindale's Reply. More published the six other * A dialogue oj Sir Thomas More. 1532. one of the council of our sovereign lord the king. but above all. nna chancellor oj his auchy <f Lancaster. the turn which the religious agitation had taken. In March. could not dispense either with the Massesto be read for them. proceedings like Luther's and Tindale's must have aroused great displeasure in a man who was deeply attached to the institutions of his Church. When Tindale. was to him intolerable.. . where he discusses the veneration and worship of images and saints. had written a reply to More's " Dialogue. the " pestilential sect of Luther and Tindale. The most fortunate part of the matter was that in doing this More was for somelength of time again engaged in writing in his mothertongue. in 1530. it seems. Sir Thomas More began his polemical activity as Chancellor of Lancaster. . pilgrimages." He had finished the first three Books of his treatise-which refer only to thirty pages of his adversary's work. or with the intercession of pious priests and monks. Under any circumstances." and which was published in the spring of the following year. when he took up his pen to warn and to protect his countrymen against the pernicious innovations and heresies. Made in the year of our Lord. cautious. praying to saints. he obtained from his friend Bishop Tunstall permission to read heretical books with a view to denouncing them. and many other matters. knt.182 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREYS UP DEATH. Hence the King's wishes as well as his own feelings were followed. and wrote his " Dialogue. and the tendencies which prevailed in court circles brought them more home to him than ever. 1528." In the following year he replied to Simon Fish's " Supplicacyon for the Beggars" with a " Supplycacyonfor Souls" in purgatory." * a comprehensive work in four Books. 1528. During the leisure which followed his retirement. who. " . Theological iinterests had affected him deeply from early youth. which permission was granted on the i6th of May. That same year he made use of the permission obtained.

however. ff. 183 Books of his " Refutation. which. when gaiety has vanished and all beauty seems obscured. Everywhere traces of abundant talent are observable. but the occasion. still. by William Tyndale. and thus ends in contradicting his own statements. More's pen was incessantly at work." and other two controversial papers on the Lord's Supper. with more justice-to have been George The " Apology. becomes mere mannerism and even absurd. or what he considers to be errors. The literary historian.. by others-probably Joy. will always have a personal interest to More's admirers. This period also saw the publication of his treatise on the " Separation of spiritual and temporal powers. Cambridge. They certainly give us the opportunity of admiring More's enormous capacity for work.SIR THOMAS MORE'S "TREATISES. but he appears here as the impulsive advocate who-with a somewhat guilty conscienceendeavours to make amends for his own errors. the fluency of his pen. etc. very often his wit is applied at a wrong moment. We recognize in these writings the acute dialectician. ed. would very gladly draw a veil over his polemical treatiseson religious subjects." The anonymous treatise is to be found in the collection of papers entitled An Answer to Sir Thomas Mores Dialogue. and his good English applied to other subjects. . very often it gives his presentation the colour of a malicious pasquil. was already affected by the thunder-clouds looming in the distance. but one cannot help wishing that his capacity for work and his learning had been utilized for other purposes. His inclination to jest. in fact. His wit-one of his most delightful gifts -even manages to flavour his polemical treatises : very ingenious is the form given to his " Supplicacyon for Souls. for the Parker Society." and." and we meet with good ideas and happy turns here as elsewhere .* considered by some to have been Tindale. the second (1533) against an anonymous heretical writer." although not a work of art. 222. which sprang from a kindly and cheerful nature. and the fatal ditiuseness to which his ability * An answer to the first part of a poisoned book which a nameless heretic hath named " The Supper of the Lord. his great learning and command of the English language. his " Defence of his Apology. More's own frame of mind. the first (1532) against John Frith. p. throughout this short period of rest and domestic happiness. 1850. however." his " Apology" (1533).

and this was granted him. the opportunity for exonerating himself. More was unquestionably far superior to Tindale in intellect and learning. the merciless judge of heretics. and yet in his dispute with Tindale he plays a miserable figure. do not allow of any aesthetic impression being made." Fate owed More some compensation. in this capacity. and even more powerfullythan it had done before. He had so far forgotten the principles he expressed his " Utopia" that he spoke openly in in favour of burning stubborn heretics. who had become unfaithful to his opinions of former days. on many occasions he made life bitter enough to them. and to his intercourse with Erasmus. has to defend himself with wretched evasions. that. and haste have misled him. when it is compared with the glorious days of his earlier years. inasmuch as in fundamental and general matters he manifests a certain large-heartedness and moderation. Few things are more adapted to make us realize the weaknessof human nature. but in such a manner that the irony of fate again asserted itself. he examined poor wretches suspected of being heretics. Something of the old More is met with at times.184 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. We cannot forget that the man who had the heart to do this was Lord Chancellor of England. and that. His moderation in general cases is coupled with great personal bitterness against his adversaries. Rarely has fate allowed herself to indulge in such trenchant irony as in the metamorphosis by which the author of "Utopia" became the author of the " Confutacyon of Tindale. but this fundamental large-heartedness does not exclude much narrow-heartedness in his judgment of special cases. than this melancholy episode in More's life. More. Tindale can refer to his own former statements. even though he was not guilty of having ever condemned one to death-we unhesitatingly accept his own assuranceon this point-still. and the immense gulf that lies between mere theoretical speculation and the proof we have to offer of the sincerity of our ideas. More-once a preacher of tolerance-comes forward as the persecutor. Tindale appears to be playing the part of a persecuted man suffering for his faith. In the King's . and to take his opponent's supposed evil intentions as his shield.

about the year 1527.TINDALE'S "PRACTYSE PRELATES. but endeavoured Wolsey was regarded as the guilty party rather. and learned bodies were appealed to for their opinion. owing to the policy of the Spanish court. a passion was aroused in the King's heart for the lovely Anne Boleyn. and included Wolsey's proceedings. wrote a powerful treatise on the subject. theologians. 1530). More had become untrue to his better self. as a perplexed and deceived man. whenthe King now appearedthe victim of base intrigues. The King now gave him the opportunity of rehabilitating himself in the eyes of the world and before his own conscience. and a number of persons brought forward their ideas uninvited. and to some extent for the King's sake. and hence the fall of the universally hated prelate was inevitable. His endeavours to obtain the wished-for divorce through the Pope's authority had proved unsuccessful. to act in accordance with the King's commands as far as possible. canons. yet did not venture to come forward in her favour.nourished by the policy of Wolsey. entitled " The Practyse Prelates (Marburg. became of real force and importance when. Luther and Tindale were absolutely opposed to the divorce. The latter. And these scruples. Even when More had first entered upon his duties as Lord Chancellor in Wolsey's place. All Europe was occupied with the question. For several years past King Henry's brooding nature had been in doubt about the validity of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon." OF 185 service. events were already at work that were eventually to turn the Defensorfidci into the Head of a schismatic Church. and at the same time presents an historical account of the development of the hierarchy and of the crafty policy of priests from the very outset up to his own day. the widow of his brother Arthur. When a . who had recognized Wolsey's hand in the whole affair. Tindale herecenof " sures the course pursued by the Government.Wolsey had already fallen into disgrace. Energetic measures were now taken in Rome to obtain the Pope's sanction for a divorce from Catherine. When this treatise appeared. and one of the most attractive that had proceeded from his pen. in his position as Lord Chancellor. Sir Thomas More was a resolute adherent of Catherine's cause. and mainly because the Pope'sfear of the power of of Charles V.

to give his oath to the act of succession-which. UP forcible solution of the weighty question became unavoidable and was actually taken in hand. and was accordingly sent to the Tower. included the oath of the King's supremacy-More steadfastly refusedto sacrificehis conscience to King Henry. in the midst of his domestic circle and in the society of his wife. Yet. strengthof character^his his deep piety as a Christian. and although he continued the religious controversy in his former style. and lives on for posterityin his " Utopia. devoting himself to his family and to his studies. The last months of More's life and his death h^aveen- shroudedhis memoryin a glorified light . the man's faithfulnessto his convictions. with the other nobles of the kingdom. above all-as the crowning deed to a series of prefatory acts-the proclamation of the King's supremacy in all ecclesiastical matters. and died on the scaffold on the 6th of July. the pure humanity and genuinely religious character of his mind burst forth more brilliantly than ever. meanwhile. so the figure of Thomas More. A fortnight before More's execution. in literature and in history. still. 1535. combined with the fine humanity and kindly wit which adorned the character of this noblest of all humanists-were never more beautifully revealed in him than while in prison. under the combinedinfluence of patriotic sentimentsand egotistical impulses. And as the best of what existedin him. the coronation of the new Queen. children. of the national consciousnessand strong passions. the cheerful nature of his stoicism. Thomas More had. confronting his judges. events of the gravest kind were forced to the front: the King's secret marriage with Anne Boleyn. and his absolute break with Rome. John Fisher had suffered the same death for the same cause. radiates with inexhaustiblesplendouras the image of one of the greatest intellects and noblestcharacters which the English nation has ever produced. when called upon. More asked and received permission to retire from office." and culminates and is concentrated in his death. been residing at his country house at Chelsea. and. his public divorce from Catherine. his touching tenderness husband as and father. Thereupon. in consequence of preliminary formulas. Soon after this .186 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. or facing death. and dependents.

was strangled and burnt as a heretic on the 6th of October. As Chancellor of the Exchequer and at the Spanish court he had undertaken diplomatic work. The translator. of which he was a member. A great period of culture had come to an end. and yet never neglected attending the meetings of Parliament. amid great sufferings and bitter disappointments. In 1520. by accounts of great men. after a life of varied activity. follow the progress of proseon moreneutral ground. heroic deeds. John Bourchier. and already a man of fifty. had taken a prominent part in the war with Scotland at the time when the English gained the battle at Flodden. perpetualmonetary in difficulties. and remarkable . and under Henry VIII. Under the first of the Tudors he had assisted in quelling a rebellion in Cornwall. I53^. Berners was appointed Governor of Calais. and Henry VIII. and this he devoted to literary work. V.On the nth of July of that same year Erasmus closed his rich life at Basle. and was followed two years later by the second volume. He had also repeatedly acted as negotiator of peace. We shall now. with his healthgreatly impaired. after receiving many honours. Lord Berners. here. Berners was an industrious reader. whether true or fictitious. in their wars as well as in diplomatic affairs. but the more important of the questions that had been broached remained unsolved. and involved in vexatious legal proceedings. and a faithful servant both to Henry VII. and his chivalrous temperament was mainly attracted by historical works. imprisoned in the Castle of Vilvorden. in the first place. and after a long term of confinement.and with this object in view shall have to retrace our steps somewhat. he enjoyed at all events some degree of leisure.LORD BERNERS. the development which had been begun had not reached its full maturity in any one domain. descriptions of battles. was a gentleman of position. Tindale was arrested in Antwerp. In the year 1523 the first volume of the English translation of Froissart's " Chronicles " had appeared.

those will succeed best. so far as their own idiom corresponds with the naive and striking form. perhaps. however. Lord Berners' language and translation are of this kind. it aroused an interest in historical matters which could now. for the first time. That his choice should have first fallen upon Froissart. is the purely epic presentation it had received in Froissart's hands. as he calls it. and hence his version makes the impression almost of being an original work. Froissart's work waswe'lladaptedto stir up in the English people the old feelings of rivalry with France. Berners was at the same time complying with the wishes-nay.188 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. The national sentiments. therefore. who translate it with the greatest possible fidelity. drew new nourishment from Berners' " Froissart."or." for. with some knowledge of Spanish. and. "Arthur of Little Britain. adventures." . In translating the old Chronicler. and it was his wish to make at least some of these works accessible to the English barons and knights. and translated the French prose-romances " Huon de Bordeaux. Powerful. by reminding them of their lost possessionsthere. and the glorious deeds of the Black Prince and other national heroes. find gratification in an admirable delineation in native prose. with the commands-of the King. opened up to him many literary sources which were sealed to the majority of his countrymen. was the effect it produced. The most suitable form that can well be imagined for this material and a vivacious interpretation of the subject. whose policy had meanwhile taken a direction antagonistic to France. was natural enough in a Governor of Calais. thereupon directed his attention to subjects of another species. whose vivacious account centres finally upon the differences between England and France. aroused the English love of warfare. together. as well as the chivalrous and romantic tendencies of the day. therefore. In endeavouring to reproduce approximately its charm in a foreign language." " Artus de of Bretaigne. and the simple construction of the sentences of the French Chronicler. picturesque. particularly upon the English aristocracy. Lord Berners. and vivid account of an important epoch in England's past. His acquaintance with the French language. as the work presented a detailed.

and a third in 1601. " Huon de Bordeaux " is one of the best and most attractive romances of chivalry which the Middle Ages have handed down to our day. In Berners' translation the narrative lost nothing of its attractiveness. that. into England. The Hystory of Sir Arthur of Lytle Brytayne. cannot be denied. he now became a naturalized subject in English literature. a reader of our day even would find pleasure in perusing it. he was also the author of a religious drama on the Parable of the Vineyard (Ite in vineam) and he is . Lord Berners'gifts were somewhatmany-sided. If the hero of this romance won. It was not published till about 1534. For even though the French prose-version (produced about 1454) lacks strict unity of conception and construction-for. one of the favourite romances of the sixteenth century. the circle of figures connected with the poetry of England. and hence the book became. a year after the author's death. even said to have made attempts at turning Petrarch's Sonnets into English. The most important of these works is the one first mentioned. During the last years of his life he set himself a task in * Huon of Bordeaux. received a far more illustrious addition in another of the romantic characters. still." * perhapsfrom a French version. Oberon's Germanic descent. for a time. for Lord Berners' translation of " Huon de Bordeaux" introduced Oberon. king of the fairies. such happy motives for the story and the delineation of the characters. with some abbreviations. a place in the popular estimation by the side of such memorable heroes as Arthur and Geoffrey of Bouillon. however. in addition to the nucleus offered by the Chansonde Gesteof the twelfth century. it includes also the greater portion of the additions the '* Chanson" receivedsubsequently-still it contains so much grace in the narrative and descriptions." 189 and also the Spanishromanceof " The Castleof Love. a second edition appeared about 1570. If the old authorities are to be trusted. in England. and an important volume in the library of every gentleman. in addition to translating romances. in spite of Keltic and Oriental influences. . and in spite of his romantic disguisein the early French epics. and The Caste I of Love.BERNERS' "HUON OF BORDEAUX.

I9O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. antithesis and parallelism are altogether misapplied. above all. so the anxiety concerning style easily leads astray into a superstitious regard for form. One of the most influential foreign writers of that day was a Franciscan. or to add clearness to the narrative." which appeared 1529. Now. the result being that in place of style an objectionable mannerism is developed. the parable and the a conspicuous part. Of the tendencies which prevailed during the particular. and with but small intellectual depth.the of . so that the expression as such is made to assert itself. in fact. without reference to any particular subject-matter. a task that differed essentially from the kind of literary undertakings had hitherto beenengaged he with. just as the moralizing vein constantly exposes the disciple of the classic writers to the danger of degenerating into platitudes. His writings make the impression of school exerciseswhere all the forms and figures of rhetoric -so far as they can be applied to prose-are employed to excess. however. but one-sided in his tastes. On this occasion-as had so often happened in Lord Berners' career-his determinationwas affected by the request of another. a Biscayan by birth. Guevara did not manage to escape either of these pitfalls. He was a man of distinctly classical training. we find him affected specially by a pronounced inclination to moralizing. his actual sphere. and full of talent. as historiographer and preacher. however. too. Of the figures depending upon tropes. Guevaramet with great success with his "Libro aureo del emperador Marco Aurelio. But. not so much to lend its aid to the representation. it in ^is a species historical romance. in the construction of his sentences. What strikes one most in his writings. is the affectation and unnaturalness of his language. The artificial schemes of rhetorical syntax. the didactic attitude. also with an almost sickly effort at originality and perfection of style. who played a conspicuous part at the court of Charles V. as to dazzle the mind of the hearer with an endless display of unexpected relations. simile also is frequently made use of. Don Antonio de which. rich in experience. are no less frequently made use of.

and was reprinted in 1586. devoted to the task. this curious work within a quarter ot a century appeared in eleven successive editions. At all events. a somewhat tedious and pedantic patchwork. an accomplished courtier. The last months of his very active life were. perhaps. and a man of cultured mind-whose name was already known among the representativesof the new art-poetry associated with Petrarch-had probablydrawn his attention to the foreign book.LORD BERNERS' tf MARCUS AURELIUS. were. to their advantage. 1533. and his various examples of a simple. translated anotherwork of Guevara's carefullyand. and partly also. In addition. were supplemented by one full of affectation and unnaturalness. as even more elegantly rendered than the "Marco Aurelio. therefore. Guevara's book Lord Berners had in his possessionin a French translation. accordingly. However. for the first time. IQI action is obstructed by discursivemoralizing. Sir Francis Bryan himself." was completed in English just six days before "my lord deputy " departed this life. For the " Boke of Marcus Aurelius " or his " Huon of Bordeaux." was even much more widelyread by the succeeding generation than his " Froissart" Published in 1534. In addition to the meditations of Marcus Aurelius. if possible. On the loth of March." it was publishedfirst in 1548underthe title of " Dispraise . he added towards the end of his life. Guevara's mannerisms. as we think. the " Golden Boke of Marcus Aurelius. by the English translator's own peculiar method. emperor and eloquent orator. which had become a fashionable favourite and a veritable bon-bouche literature. a brave soldier. however. and complete treatises. Guevara made good use also of Plutarch's ethical works. his nephew. somewhat toned down in having passed into English through the medium of French. Sir Francis Bryan. letters. picturesque style. as far as the success of the work comes into question. in fact. it is evident that Sir FrancisBryanwasnot wrong in the advicehe had given his uncle. in dialogues. by didactic explanations the form of monologues. old Lord in Berners consented to his nephew's urgent request to undertake the translation of the already famous work. to the entertaining and attractive works which Lord Berners' industry had presented to his country.

and received by way of reward for his services merely the order of knighthood. where his father officiated as one of the judges. ThomasEtyot was the son of a distinguished judge. at the timewhen Englishprosewasendeavouring to find artistic forms adapted for the new learning. and had no regular appointment-for the post had been officially given to some one else. In 1530 he quitted the clerkshipat the Privy Council. and made him clerk of the Privy Council. for Elyot received but poor remuneration for the faithful and tedious work he had done for his King. Fortunately he was not altogether without private means. for several years. in spite of his connection with Cromwell. the needof a more highly finished style of writingthis was Sir Thomas Elyot. . and was. and had also. acted as clerk of the assize in the western circuit. Under these circumstances it was fortunate. although a vexatious lawsuit and the expenses incurred by his position . twice (in 1531-32 and in 1535) despatched on embassies to Charles V. However. Since the summer of 1511 Thomas had. As he received no regular salary. who received its emoluments-Elyot had reason to regret having resigned his position at the assizecourt. Yet the services he rendered in these different capacities never brought him promotion. the burdens of which were felt to be greater than the honour attached to it. in a more rational way. who had early determined to make him study law. or any lucrative Government appointment. Wolsey then tempted him into the service of the Government. it was. Sir Richard Elyot." and appearedin a new edition in 1575Hence. the patronage of the powerful prelate proved of but little advantage. He found himself called upon to transact important business of various kinds. who was rapidly and steadily mounting the ladder of royal favour. that before Lord Berners' career had come to a close in a manner so little consistent with his earlier days. at Wolsey'spersuasion. of the Life of a Courtier. another prose-writer came to the front with the object of satisfying. led into very doubtful byways. very much against his inclination. at the very outset.1Q2 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. thrice to undertake the duties of a sheriff. Elyot was not much more fortunate later in life. for instance.

After More's fall. when reflecting on the fate that had befallen several of his friends. who makes the impression of a highly cultured dilettante of rank. He had never attended a university. and in this way sought consolation for the King's ingratitude. with whom he stood in a close and friendly relation. he was led by Linacre to study medical authors. to his unwearied industry . partly. partly by purchase. for Wolsey. In the evening of his life he may even have considered himself fortunate. only to feel the whole force of his cruelty in the end. Yet he was not one of the Schoolmen. When still a youth. Sir Thomas Elyot appears the scholar. enjoyed the King's favour.SIR THOMAS ELYOT. for the King's suspicions once aroused were not easily allayed. also. and had not received any tuition after his twelfth year. he acquired a good deal of sound learning of a variety of kinds. o . however. and more especially in Cambridgeshire. Margaret Abarrow. When compared with Lord Berners. and Cromwell had all. 1546. with medical literature-that it is quite astonishing in a man of his profession and of such varied activity in life. He owed his culture mainly to his own enthusiastic energy. probably about the age of sixty. being essentially a self-educated man. and was even so intimately acquainted with other entirely different domains of knowledge-for instance. to the stimulus and encouragement he received from his intercourse with contemporary scholars. Elyot felt some unpleasant consequencesof the intimate relation in which he had stood towards his friend. he was thus enabled to devote his chief hours to study and literary work. at first. 193 and title were not exactly adapted to improve his financial circumstances. and which we are told by contemporaries resembled a university more than a private school-was frequentlyvisited by Elyot as well as by his wife. The famous " School" which More had opened in his house-an informal gathering of learned men and of all those desiring knowledge. More. He also owed much to Sir Thomas More. he gradually acquired property in Oxfordshire. He was so well-read in the classics. Being a man of moderate requirements. a full classical culture. Cambridgeshire. at his residence at Carleton. Elyot died on the 26th of March. Partly by inheritance. However.

So far as they are found at all. lost for the greater part to our age. Scientific literature has become strictly specialized. think of writing a " dial of princes " ? It was with a species of " dial of princes " that Sir Thomas Elyot began his literary career. the dedication of which was graciously accepted by Henry VIII. and of genuine piety. which sets forth the general principles of education. the tendencies by which it was upheld are to be found now only among our poets.194 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. and in popular writings we handle by preference natural science or history. The year 1531 saw the publication of his Boke named the Governour. rather than ethics or pedagogism. When our writers pursue practical objects. and an ornament to English knighthood because his extensive of knowledge. joyous hopefulness. he is also greatlyindebted to Giovanni Pontano's treatise " De principe. has become almost unknown to our day.of the " Polycra- ticus " of John of Salisbury. the impulse to learn and to teach. Sir ThomasElyot standsas a characteraltogether typical of the period. not primarily in the interest of theory. but in an eminently practical sensefor the educatedworld." and. This middle kind of literature.a man strictly honourablein nature. of politics. upon which he bestows extravagant praise. and not least so in England. In addition to this we have in him that naive. they deal with subjects sharply distinguished and narrowly defined-burning questions of the day. above all. cleverdiploa matist with a grand capacity for work. as an ablelawyerand manof business. the faith in the power of aiding the enlightenment and improvement of men by meansof popular moralizing writings. and is one of the pleasantest figuresof the time. Whoever would.. The unselfish Renaissance-zeal for culture. nowadays. and during the period of the humanists this work had been continued with increasing zeal. of Erasmus. party interests. and his entire literary activity testifies to the fact. The domain which Elyot thus entered had frequently been cultivated during the Middle Ages.and of the " Institutio principis christiani. live vigorously in him. of morals. to the work of Francesco Patrici of Siena (Bishop of Gaeta between 1460- . Elyot was well acquainted with the literature in question and made use of many of the works of his predecessors.

and in such a way that what is stated about them applies likewise to the governor-inchief." Being intimately acquainted with the ancient writers. These " inferior governours of the second and third orders. Elyot then deals with in the further courseof his work. Both as regards the plan and very many of the details. it distinctly shows us the author's individuality: a clear-headed man. and who sets out towards his self-imposed object by somewhat roundabout ways. historians. For example. in the long run. " The Governour " is more than a mere compilation.ELYOT'S 1496). a man with thoughts and convictions of his own. but by no means undigested wisdom. it is true. poets. except when controlled by " one sovereign governour." the first edition ot which had appeared in 1518. compacte or made of sondry astates and degrees of men. after stating that he means to defer his examinationof the organism of the State-the limitation and sphere of action of the several offices of the State-to a later opportunity.and then broaches questionasto what principles the should be inculcated upon those appointed to offices in ." He then tries to prove that a commonwealth cannot." and goes on to show that this chief governour requires " inferior governours called magistrates to superintendthe " " various branchesof the State. be successful. and collectors of anecdotes . the paths by which he endeavours to reach it are paedagogicand ethical. and thus was produced a book such as the period delighted in-a book full of borrowed. the monarch. he turns to discussthe educationand training of those who may one day be called upon to fill leading positions in the common- wealth. and the first French translation of which was printed as early as 1520. The object which Elyot has here in view is a political one. whose learning is supplemented experienceand applied with by judgment and tact. whiche is disposed by the ordre of equite and governed by the rule and moderation of reason. but with conscientious endeavours. In his introductory chapters he investigates the nature of the State which he defines thus : "A publicke weale is a body living. great similarities have been pointed out between Patrici's work and "The Governour. Elyot gathered in handfuls from the Greek and Latin philosophers. "De regno et regis institutione.

) ii. and shows us an experienced. more especially where the question of archery is mooted. the State." f But Elyot narrates most fully the story of Titus and Gisippus.* the work " is infarced (stuffed full of) with histories and sentences" from classic antiquity and the Bible. 133. 61.|| or even Johannes Sturm. 8. are in no way without interest. as the pattern of true friendship^ perhaps not directly from Boccaccio's " Decameron. however.196 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. \ Ibid. where teaching is discussedwe have the enthusiastic student of classical learning.^[ betray. ii. yet his own version differs in essential features both from the copy he had before him. In the course of half a century the book ran through eight editions. ff. \ De educandiseritdiendisqiieprincipum liberis> also left its mark on the literature of the day. The other two Books. as well as from the original. able. and what virtues they should cultivate. in particular. II De Tinstitution du prince. ed. The rest of the first Book is devoted wholly to psedagogicalsubjects. t Ibid. the opinions of a large number of Englishmen of the upper classes. The abundance of subject-matter in " The Governour" and the attractive manner it was dealt with. well-intentioned man and a warm patriot At the same time. Even though it may be doubtful whether Bude. i. any knowledge of Elyot's " Governour. 27. the second to ethical matter. Specially interesting are the Books referring to education. won for it a large circle of enthusiastic readers. partly also. x." § but from the Latin version of Filippo Beroaldo. from later times as well. borrowed many an episode from English history. No." still it is certain that subsequent educational and ethical works in England are in many ways * The Governour. . the downright Englishman in all his intensity. Croft. 1547. where physical exercises and games are dealt with we have a man of refined culture and wide views and. as the author himself remarks in his Introduction. Elyot has. and by having influenced the intellectual culture.. in their works on the subject. § Giorn. ff. the whole work is rich in good and striking thoughts. and the third to the Governour. and the admirers of Shakspere will be interested in the fact that the story of Prince Henry and the Lord Chief Justice is met with first in " The Governour.

of intentional deceptionwith regardto this work.1549. as what is peculiar to him as a man and a writer is exhibited. 197 connected with his book. It is probable that he was deceived himself. Much as Elyot wrote and publishedat a later date." Among Elyot's political treatises we have "The Doctrinal of Princes" (1534)." Many of the themes which Elyot only touches upon there. and is closely connected with it-in fact. received special and fuller treatment in his subsequent works. traces of his influence are observable even in the historians and poets. he fully believed the statement of a later Greek treatiseno longer extant-which claimed to be the work of Encolpius. a supplement to it.ELYOT'S POLITICALTREATISES. this first work of his has remained the most famous of all his productions. in accordance with Plutarch's principles. a contemporary of Alexander Severus. and another " dial of princes " of more doubtful origin in " The Image of Governance compiled of the actes and sentences notable of the moste noble Emperour Alexander Severus. Knight. of Elyot has been reproached." and is dedicated " to his only entirely beloved syster Margery Puttenham. and that. and the accounts given by it he afterwards supplemented from communications given by other ancient historians and other authorities. one is a translation from it seems wrongfully. This treatise was his chief authority. as exhibited in his * Other editions appeared in 1544." late translated out of Greke into Englyshe by syr Thomas Elyot.* The first sketch of this last work belongs to the period when " The Governour" was produced. 1556. . Of his paedagogictreatises. in fact. and simplicity of representation. a translation of the famous oration of Isocrates to Nicocles. In tendency and plan it reminds us of Guevara's " Marco Aurelio/' but is superior to it in genuine richnessof substance." in his Introduction he expresses the hope that she will endeavour. Elyot's tendency in philosophy. in the fauour of nobylitie" (1540). And perhapsjustly so. besides this. greater in steadfastness form. most fully and from the most varied points of view in his " Governour. and that. and is entitled " The Education or bringinge up of Children. " to adapte and forme in [his] lyttel neuewesinclinacion to vertue and doctrine. probably.

with an introductory letter in Latin. But his activity far exceeded the limits to which tradition or prejudice would have confined it. while one copy. and then had the work published in 1538 under the title of Bibliotheca. and publishedin 1550. As a humanist he set himself a strictly philological task in undertaking to compile a Latin-English dictionary. in fact. finds its most beautiful expression. in spite of all the defects attached to it. with variousimprovements . it we may say so. but. perhaps. This Dictionary not only far surpassedeverythingof the kind that had hitherto appeared in England. When almost half of the first draft of this work had been set up in type. is his Defenceof Good Women. which had been suggested to his mind by reading Diogenes Laertius. works. After Elyot's death the work wasagain in remodelled by Thomas Cooper.which in addition to defending the weaker sex from its calumniators. In the above-mentioned works Elyot moves in domains which are gladly conceded to a man of refined culture in his position in life." Altogether serious. his " Diain logue" between Plato and Aristippus. and. which is satirical and half jocose. was dedicated to Lord Cromwell. deals with the theme of speech and silence. on the other hand. afterwards Bishop of Lincoln. Elyot remodelled it entirely by making use of material which Henry VIII. was also written with the view of teaching good wives to know their duties. He very properly dedicated the work to the King.198 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. A second edition appeared 1545. more specific in character. and again in the following year. had placed at his disposal. These dialogues exhibit a certain resemblance to the poetical contests of the Middle Ages. under the title: Of that Knowledge which makelh a Wise Man. above all to the dramatic disputations that John Heywood and others wrote for the stage. Two other Dialogues by Elyot deal with subjects less far-reaching. and more especiallyas regardsmoral philosophy. and introduced local types from that city: " Dialogus Marphorii et Pasquilli. His Pasquil the Playne (1533 and 1540). and may perhaps have been suggested by a work that had shortly before appeared in Rome. marks a very important advance in the field of Latin lexicography. and which was published in 1533.

1557. 1534) together with a translation of the twelve " Rules " of Mirandola-The Rules of a Christian lyfe madeby Picus erle of Mirandula-the same * It probablyappeared first in 1534. In his Bankctte of Sapience? a collection of moral maxims from different authors dedicated to the King. was dedicated to Cromwell. he ventured to enter domains that are jealously guarded by members of the confraternity. which was entitled The Castel of Helth. draws his material chiefly from the Fathers. from the outset. 199 and additions. he had displayed in undertaking this work of professional philology. He had. in 1547. . and he proves himself to have been as intimately acquainted with his Bible and the Fathers of the Church as he was with the classical authors. 1563. under the title of Thesaurus. can hardly have become reconciled to the book considering the success it met with. had looked disparagingly at Elyot's proceedings. however. his intention being to induce the public to take a rational care of their health. when. This was published (July i. and ridiculed the knight who tried to play the part of a physician. become acquainted with medical literature. and in case of illness to help them to understand the physician's reports. on another occasion. as a dihttante. and subsequently 1542. must have appeared as early as 1534. and he was somewhat skilful in treating his own ailments. who. had led to his constantly doctoring himsdf. Accordingly. The professional men. competed with the clergy. As Elyot had here entered into competition with medical men. He translated in ml) a sermon which St. at an early age. he. and had run through at least ten subsequent editions by 1595. injured by continuous work. the thought struck him to note down the results of his own observations and experience in a medical guide. and was pretty well read in almost all of the authorities of antiquity and of mediaeval times that had come within his reach. A second edition appeared in 1552. he. This treatise.ELYOT'S ACTIVITY*. His own indifferent Elyot required an even greater amount of couragethan health. Cyprian had delivered on the mortality of man when a plague was raging in Africa : A swete and devouteSermon of Holy saynt Ciprian of Mortalitie of Man. A deeply religious temperament is evident throughout all his literary work.

by the meane of his dignitie . we are astounded at his capacity for work and its many-sidedness. while The maner to chose and cheryshe afrende is a compilation. however. was published on the 2nd of July." In glancing back at Elyot's literary activity. and that most chiefly.. when the close of his life was drawing near.d. he wrote a little book-in keeping with this feeling-which was intended to offer comfort.. Some anonymous treatises. in his preface to his " Governour." * addresses the following noble words which are characteristic of his whole life : " A knyght hath received that honour not onely to defende with the swerde Christis faithe and his propre countrey agaynst them whiche impugneth the one or inuadeth the other. which he named A preservative agaynstedeth. To such persons as may have considered a work of this kind adapted to their position. as a near neighbour. and although no great weight is attached to a remark of one Bale. edification. not without good reason. Croft. the unwearied controversialist. partly translated from Plutarch. that " he had written many other things. clxix. p. a friend made in his later years in business transactions. most pernicious ennemies to christen men. 1545.2OO THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. partly compiled from various classical authors. which. And the number of his productions is not exhausted by those that have been mentioned above. and combined passages from the Bible and the Fathers of the Church with reflections drawn from the depth of his own heart. according to which he is said to have had in hand an histonco-national work. . t From Plutarch he translated : Howe one may take profite of his enmyes. This treatise. Elyot came forward more independently as a religious writer in another treatise. and exhortation in view of death. by no means fully occupied his life. but also. author who had given occupation to the pen of Sir Thomas More at an earlier date. and he may have already felt the chill of sunset upon him. De rebus memorabilibus * F. In 1544." still we cannotdoubt the well-authenticated report. and dedicated to Sir Edward North. his tunge and his penne. hauinge thereto for his swerde and speare.f are also assigned to him. he shuld more effectually with his learning and witte assayle vice and errour.

on the one hand. and vivid. adapter. on the other hand. He created a style which was both thoroughly adapted to his own purpose and to the requirements of his day. it does not exhibit that higher inspiration. 201 Anglia. however. rests upon his importance as a writer of good By nature Elyot was more receptive and reproductive than gifted with creative power. flight.and a sufficient command of rhetorical means. With this object in view he. and communicator of rich and varied material. and not undeserving of the friendship of More. as a rule.for instance. introduced many new words into the language from Latin and French sources. And even this he did not acquire accidentally or without labour." Upon the whole. when spinning a simile into an allegory. his presentation is simple. Elyot's chief merit. not only to communicating knowledge. were in the main successful.whichproceeds from theinwardworkingsof a creative . and for this his handling such writers as Isocrates must have been a good training. however. From the commencement of his career as a writer. always. his endeavour was directed. even though. stil!taking him all in all-he was a worthy contemporary of such men. that sublimer mind. his desire was to confer upon the English formation of sentences something of the peculiar style of the Greek mode of expression. Elyot's efforts. at least that by which he has most distinctly influenced the development of literature. correct views. or by the connection in which they appeared-their meaning should at once be intelligible .a complicated constructionof periods. and only very rarely fallsinto affectationand pomposity. he is altogether moderatein the manner he applies them. as a compiler.ELYOT'S MERITS AND STYLE. in which King Henry took a lively interest. taking into consideration that-either by their relationship to words already in use. clear. while showing a considerab e wealthof words. he has rendered inestimable services to the English culture of the epoch as the contributor of popular literature. Although Elyot occupied a less prominent position in life than Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. For. but as much to forming the English language into an instrument that might rival the idiom of the classics in power of expression. as happens in the Preface to his " Bibliotheca.

At Oxford he had studied of theologyand the classics.settled matters with himself by means of a species naivehypocrisy.with some political ambition. win overto hiscause manto whose to a opinions he . through Cromwell'sinfluence. in Italy. a clearer idea of things afar off than of those close at hand. with interests and knowledge of a variety of kinds. but more endowed with theoretical acumen than with a knowledge of the world and human nature. even at that date.2O2 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'SDEATH. drove so many consciences. who occupiesthe central position among the prose-writers of that period. attacked the Pope's supremacy in his treatise entitled " An Exhortation to the people." Henry VIII. there are grouped a number of authors who worked upon a variety of different materials. and affectionate. with the viewof playing a political part. but. for he was a staunch adherent of the Reformed Church. made use of him in the first place. and had probably. took up the studyof Roman law. and. otherwise a man of sound principles. owing to the narrow confines within which the despotism of Henry VIII. in consequence of some new ebullition. towards the beginning of 1535. although his influence remained a limited one. an ecclesiastic. although not altogether steadfast in character. In temperament he was patriotic. pious in his way. finally.he was made chaplain to King Henry.he devoted himself with enthusiasm to the " contemplacyon of natural knowledge. waselectedone of the proctors of the University of Oxford. in order that he " mygrit thereby make a more stabyl and sure jugement of the polytyke ordur and customys usyd amonge herein our countrey. both as an ecclesiastic and as a politician. he had. wherehe had made and a number of learned acquaintances. instructynge them to Unitie and Obedience. Around Elyot." thereupon. in fact. in 1530 Arch- bishop Warham appointed him to the rectory of Great Mongeham. kindly." us At Wolsey'sinstigationStarkey. each in his own way. in the diocese of Canterbury. In this capacity he hoped to be able to render servicesof importance. Thomas Starkey takes a prominent position. became a zealous student of the Scriptures. yet do not exactly show any connection among one another. Of 1522. inasmuch as his books werenot printed. He wasa man of good family.

Unfortunately. in 1537. he was. appointed Master of the Collegiate Chapel of Corpus Christi. The new court-chaplain appeared to Henry a fit instrument for assisting him in this matter. attached to the Church of St. owingto his connections . A few months afterwards-in spite of remonstrances and threats from England-Pole accepted an invitation from Pope Paul III. and was accordingly chosen as a mediator. but also on the King's person and character. as usually happens under such circumstances (for but few men are without enemies). Pole contrived to keep his correspondent in suspensetill the proper moment seemedto have arrived. the hopes he had aroused in the King were discredited in the crudest manner. In consequence of these proceedings. proved himself in no way Pole's equal as a diplomatist.THOMAS STARKEY AND REGINALD POLE.His death. to draw Pole over to his side had long been a thought that engaged Henry's mind. In the early summer of 1536 Pole forwarded to King Henry his De unioneecclesiastica. and in the peaceful enjoyment of this living. Pole would not give his assent to Henry's divorce and to the separationfrom Rome . zealous and confident as he was. Still. Starkeyhad beena fellow-student and travelling companionof Reginald Pole who. How- ever. and received his permission to reside on the Continent. he had hitherto avoided coming into personalconflict with the King. Lawrence in London. his learning. Starkey. 20$ attached much greater weight than to those of his courtchaplain.his talents. as well as the King's favour.. devoted himself to literary work and theoreticalspeculations. and then his utterances were such that they acted like a thunderbolt.however.among others for having beentoo indulgent in his references the Pope to in some sermon he had preached. which was not only a vehement attack on the subjects of special interest to the King. The result was that Starkey had to retire from court and give up taking part in practical politics .which took placeabout .he had Plantagenet blood in his veins. he would have given a good deal to get Pole to express his opinion in favour of the divorce and against the supremacyof Rome. he was then found fault with for various reasons. and. and was thereupon created a cardinal. Starkey's position at court wasconsiderably shaken.seemeddestined to fill the highest position in the English Church.

accordingly somewhere about the end of the year i529-t The theme of the Dialogue is similar to that of More's " Utopia. London. and had lectured in Oxford on rhetoric. again. f Cf.. (p. ii. by Thomas Starkey . Besides which the discussion is regarded as having taken place at a period when Pole had not yet drawn the King's displeasure upon himself. Ecclesiastesi sive de ratione concionandi appeared as a first edition in 1535. it also proves that Henry had not at the time given up the hope of seeing the renegadeconverted to his own views. was still an open one . it . is true. Pole. was only twenty-three yearsof age). however (who. The interlocutors are Pole and Thomas Lupset. the actual leader in the dialogue is Pole. for the reformatytHi of thys hys commyn wele. If this may be said to do honourto Starkey's sense of justice. and under what conditions it is most prosperous.2O4 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY*S UP DEATH. The principal speaker. in fact. still. a later date is assumed compare. He first examines the idea of the " common wele." This can refer only to the parliament which was opened on the 3rd of November. 484. 860. 25) : " Seyng that our most nobul prince hath assemblyd hys parlyament and most wyse conseyl." Here.. 1871. ff. in 1523. A Dialogiie between Cardinal Pole and Thomas Lupset . as the Dialogue is dedicated to the King. M. a very practical object is made the basis of the theoretical discussion. . For after 1523. i. Wolsey(who. the discourse is about a commonwealth. the Boke as . the contrast between the ideal and real is brought to the fore . passages. and the scene in the Dialogue is in England. In other (p. where Erasmus's of the Precharis mentioned a particular. 3.Starkey presents his account in the most systematic form possible. here. too. ed.had to deliver up the Great Seal) had avoidedcalling a parliament . 1529. Z538> a prematureend to his literary activity. J.1529. Cowper. however. whoseintellectual ability is set forth in a bright light. who had also stood in a close relation to Sir Thomas More. but one Put ripe production has beenpreservedin his Dialoguebetween Cardinal Pole and ThomasLupset* a work dealing with subjects in political economy. But whereas Thomas More presents his theory in the form of a poetical fiction. when. all the ills and wounds in the * England in the reign of Henry the Eighth. many a question which had since then found an answer. 210). here. i. . on the i8th of October." what it is based upon. which leaves him free to carry out his ideas in all their completeness. likewise. Then we have the question in how far the England of the day corresponds with the idea thus developed. f. a wellknown scholar. did not return to England from the foreign universities he had visited till 1525 .

he brings forward the remedies to be applied." and the growing evil of " ill-occupied people " and luxury . at the same time.. some matters are only hinted at or left in semi-obscurity. a supplement to it. remedies are looked for. laziness. and. and the English State transformed into a real commonwealth. which is less able now to defend itself against enemies . by the permanent members representing it. owing to considerations of public peace. more moderate than those of his contemporaries . is discussed by him more fully and exhaustively than almost anywhere else. the consequence of inadequate education . the decay of the " crafts." 205 organismof the Stateare then exposedto view dispassionately and without regard to consequences.STARKEY'S "DIALOGUE. He condemns in the strongest manner the unlimited power of a king who has possessionof the throne by inheritance. in treatises. the miseries resulting from enclosing lands. It would be a better plan. and in the universal rudenessand ignorance of the nation. Starkey (or rather Pole) considers to lie in the tyranny of the rulers. the corruptibility of the judges. the subject. Single features are met with in other writings of the period. with characteristic courage. and pamphlets. that is. he lays his colours on less thickly. on the other hand. the scarcity of the population. who are to watch over the . The root of all the evil. the egoism and wealth of those in power. by meansof which the evils referred to may be checked. to the traditional custom of long years standing. And. the ill-feeling between the various ranks of society. the covetousnessof lawyers . Starkey's descriptions are. finally. sermons. in many instances. the weak state of the country. All essential points are brought forward by him : the decay of villages and towns. the ignorance. also in poems of a popular character. The picture of the condition of England we obtain from Starkey's Dialogue" corresponds theone in " Utopia. and the increase of poverty. or by a Council of fourteen." " with and is. at all events the royal power might be placed within definite bounds-on the one hand. he thinks. the immoderate attention bestowed upon sheep-farming at the expense of agriculture . as a whole. and if this should prove impracticable. petitions. by parliament. that the ruler were appointed by parliament. and immorality of the clergy. however.

2O6 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. Starkey further hopes to securethe observance of the laws. who. and to carry out the necessary measures appointingcensors.and other officials. In his educational plans. Only learned and pious men are to becomepriests-and then. would be simply to introduce Roman law.for in the samewayas the king shouldnot be allowed to undertake anything without the consent of his parliament. and also to give their decision in all matters connected with foreign confederations. together with the king. latter are themselves appoint the the to bishops. the members of which should in future be elected. in almost every case. are to bear the burden and responsibility of the government. And the young nobles are to be prepared not only for times of peace-more particularly by studying the laws-but are to be trained for warfare by chivalrous exercises. which are to be attended only by such students as are capable appreciatingthe teachinggiven there. and of where the instruction is to be carried on in the spirit of Erasmus and Sadoletus.and for regulatingtrade . be retained.the Popeshouldnot be able to decide any matter without the sanctionof his Collegeof Cardinals. whereas annats are. In both cases.however. And the Pope's power. laws on the part of the government. No Englishman should be permitted to appeal to the Pope against the authorities of his own land. while those destined for the Church are to devote themselves to Latin and Greek." the better plan. in war and peace. Laws for keeping luxury within bounds. moral and religiousprecepts to be inculcatedwhilethe mental are faculties are being trained. to be done away with. he proposes public schools and-at all events for the nobility-a species of compulsory school-attendance. by a Council of ten members. not beforethey haveattained their thirtieth year. The Pope may appoint only the archbishops.he thinks. The schools for the clergy would thus serve as preparatoryinstitutions for the universities. he thinks. The custom of Peter's-pence might. Starkey pays special attention to the nobility and to the clergy . should be as much kept within definite bounds. except in cases that concern the unity of faith. Current laws are to be simplified and divested of the "barbarous tong and olde French. on the other hand. he thinks. by ediles. though specially in the latter.

We recognize the disciple of Plato and Aristotle. which is thoroughly English. would have but little coincided with the object in view. and the election of abbots and priors is to be only for a term of three years. As a whole. Hence the Dialogue is an important document in a double respect : it furnishes us with a report on the economic as well as on the moral conditions of the England of the day. and yet many others are excellent. above all. some. even though the author of them might in the course of time have felt disposed to see some of them modified-not by any means all. the right of entail is in some casesto be done away with entirely. One of Starkey's earnest endeavours is to promote marriage by conferring favours upon those who particular. if realized. Starkey's classical training is also exhibited by the whole arrangement and treatment of his subject-even though it may not be entirely free from a certain kind of pedantry-but.STARKEY'S "DIALOGUE. are no doubt framed for the most part upon Pole's own ideas. in others-among the higher grades of society-to be altered. Some of the ideas are no less Utopian than the conditions described in Sir Thomas More's ideal State. In order to encourage religious sentiments among the people. it is demanded that the Church Service shall be held in the language of the country. The system of monastic life is not absolutely condemned. and even suggests that bachelors should be taxed. and that an English translation of the Gospelsbe circulated. are to do all in their power to direct the economic needs of the nation . the treatise shows a breadth and impartiality of view which distinctly marks the influence of a classical education. who has likewise studied Roman history. by his language. two measures. and also watched the contemporary state of affairs in Italy. but in order that the abuses that have become attached to it may be removed. and. and at the same time givesus an idea of the stage of culture which the better portion of the nation had attained undei the influence of the study of the humanities. It is also proposed that celibacy among the secularclergy should be abolished." 207 and commerce. more especially in Venice. under Pole's name. are to come into force : the admission of youthful novices is to be prohibited. in . The proposals made by Starkey.

92). Side by side with the interest taken in political matters arose the interest in the history of the English State itself. His History begins with the time when the mythical " Brute entryd firste the He of Albion. and also in English for the later periods. and Lord Berners had published his charming translation of Froissart's " Chronicle. towards the beginning of 1513. It bore the title of Concordaunce Hystoryes. it is a somewhat skilful compilation from chronicleswritten in Latin and French. he retired into private life in 1502. although not distinguished by any merit in the way of style or criticism. an Italian. and also occupied himself in making memoranda the form of annals." The author.. and probably also owing to its orthodox Catholic attitude.. and in 1493 was appointed one of the sheriffs of Middlesex. probably. Robert Fabyan. wrote a biography of the first Tudor King. Meanwhile Sir Thomas More had written his " Historic of Richard III. in or more especially of the occurrences at the English court. was a wealthy citizen of London." Seven years previous to the publication of the English version of Froissart there was printed for the first time. deservesnotice as the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of the history of the nation in English prose. and died. dedicated to Henry VII. residing in England. in 1516. Metrical . in 1533. evenday-journals. who became poeta laureatus to Henry VII. Bernard Andre of Toulouse. but subseof quently received the name of " The New Chronicles of England and France. interspersed with a number of poetical exercises in style.2O8 THE RENAISSANCE tO SURREY^DEATH. a Latin history of England in twenty-seven Books. a member of the Drapers' Company. and who subsequently lost his sight. UP spite of occasional complicationin the construction. A Frenchman.. and preceptor to Prince Arthur. a work which found a wide circulation on the Continent because of its classical form. another historical work which." and carries on the course of events up to the days of Henry VIII. Scholars from abroad. and the father of a large family. set Englishmen a good example by their works on the subject. he rose to the dignity of alderman.shows both force and flexibility." so important as regards style. Polydore Vergile (already referredto on p.

. Hall's Chronicle was published in 1548 by Richard Grafton." 209 portions from his Latin sources. owing to the limitation of its subject. which is based upon the work of Polydore Vergile. and although his account may offer matter of local interest to investigators. This same Grafton. Hall's activity as an historiographer subsequently becamemore independent. Hall's career falls wholly within the reign of Henry VIII. Accordingly. acquires a kind of dramatic interest. its full information concerning the state of civilization in the days of Henry VIII. and otherwise also interspersesverse in suitable passages. to that of Henry VIII. and. and this is sometimeseffectively heightened by his naive and vivid representation. for his death took place in 1547 . had printed the metrical Chronicle of John Hardyng. All of these ventures in historical writing are not of any p .. and they are mainly confined to the author's More own lifetime.Fabyan reproduces in English verse. a few years previously." the same tendencies also colour. to that of Henry VIII. who completed the work from papers left by the author. for instance. is indebted to him for important notices relating to the firstfruits of the secular drama. attractive is the so-called " Chronicle " of Edward Hall. still but small value can be attached to his authorities as a whole. Hall's historical account.HALL'S "CHRONICLE. he proved himself not only a decided adherent of the Tudors. above all. He shows himself to have been a man of strong ecclesiastical and clerical sentiments and of limited views. The historical value of the work consists in its containing various independent communications. And with these tendencies of mind he wrote his Chronicle. and proved rather productive within modest bounds. which extends from the reign of Henry IV. his account of the reign of Henry VII.. The history of literature.and henceis frequentlyunableto distinguish between what is important and unimportant. he often devotes undue consideration to his native city. who became a judge in the court of sheriffs. and published it with a prose supplement from the reign of Edward IV. too. its title is " The Unyon of the two noble and yllustrate famelyes of Lancastre and Yorke. but also a friend of the Reformation.

He then attended the University of Cambridge. who gave various proofs of his interest in learning.9 went afterwards to Oxford. made himself acquainted with the more important Romance languagesand-what was even more remarkable in his daywith Welsh and Anglo-Saxon. their inhabitants and memorials-all aroused his attention. appointed him his chaplain and keeper of his library. Leland was born in London. He was a distinguished humanist. a period when the most terrible havoc was made among literary treasures that England had . Henry VIII. which he described or quoted. Towns. castles. style of architecture. and who had a correct judgment of personal merit. About the year 1533 he appointed him the " King's Antiquary. which was devoted. in the marshes of Calais. and of great receptivity of mind.2TO THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'SDEATH. to existing material. But the epoch we are discussing produced other works which present a more careful exami- nation of the past historyof England. continued his studies at Paris. encouraged Leland's efforts in every way. and conferred upon him the rectory of Poppeling. was one of the first eminent Greek scholars in England. eager for research of all kinds. and wrote very readable Latin verse. wherever such might be found. actual scientific value. Theseare connected with the name of John Leland. Paul's School under William Lily. cathedrals. but pre-eminently in antiquarian research. for some length of time. villages. where he took his degree of B. at the same time. King Henry. A. and accounts of them were added to the material he was collecting. and to national subjects. and the longed-for permission to make an extensive examination of the historical records of the country. at first. the first English scholar who was aroused by the study of the classics to undertake comprehensive philological work. and educated at St. as his purpose might require. He ransacked libraries for valuable books and records. Leland's nature was essentially that of a scholar. For six years. and monasteries-their position. Leland's researches were made at the time of the disso- lution of the monasteries." and granted him a dispensation for non-residence upon his living. and. engaged in extensivegeographical and topographical inquiries. accordingly-from 1536 to 1542-Leland travelled all over the kingdom. and thereupon.

ancient works of art. with renewed lamentations over the havoc made in the libraries of the monasteries. But death intervened. however.JOHN LELAND. They are the first noteworthy attempts at giving a review of the writers and literary work produced by England. Leland's object was. in the parish of St. the vehement. which. in spite of all their deficiencies. he settled down for five years quietly in his home. translated it into English. as he had promised in his Introductory Address to the King. at all event*. Michael-le-Querne. John Bale. the early circumstances of the English Church enabled them to represent the separation from Rome as nothing new. in four Books. 211 ever witnessed. and again in Bale's De Scriptoribus Britanmcis in five Books. and had it printed in 1549. Both men studied the past history of their nation the more devotedly. dedicated to him as a " Newe Yeere's Gyfte" in 1546. He gives an account of his work in a Latin Address to the King. as. Leland. Both men. his benefactor.and finally six on the islands adjoining England. etc. which dealt with the learned men and poets of Britain from the time of the Druids up to the end of the reign of Henry VIII. his own zeal for the Reformation had indirectly encouraged. and robbed him of his King. succeeded in saving a number of valuable manuscripts from destruction. were mainly concerned to prove that their own country possesseda great history and literature in the past. not destined to see the fruits of his industry reach their full maturity. This ambition found expression in Leland's work. De Fin's Illustribus. in order to arrangethe enormous massof material he had accumulatedrelating to coins. as well as those of the renowned Greeks and Romans. all manner of things connected with what we should nowadays call folklore. extracts from books. fifty on the history of the more important towns and castles. deserve the thanks of the history of literature.. unfortunately. Leland was. to a certain extent. indispensable the patron of the undertakinghe .. but the original state of affairs. and although unable to check the mischief. to the west of London. to write one Book on ancient British topography. inscriptions. and. anti-papal but patriotic pamphleteer. After having for long been accustomed to a life of travel. private collections. however.

1715. ed. however. that Edward VI. While Balewas rising from the too position of rector to that of a bishop. Leland's works remained unpublished. was venturing upon bolder flights. 1709. Hall. was endeavouring to assume greater perfection of form.212 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH had in hand. . Ant. poetry. Leland. the first in quarto. too. The Itinerary of John Leland through most parts of England and Wales* ed. It was a piece of good fortune. led the Renaissance on to national paths. and Dugdale. learned in the Latin tongue. handed over his manuscripts to the care of a scholar. Skelton alone had been able to make a break in the customary sing-song verse of the * De Scriptoribus Britannicis Commentarzi. During the very period when prose. and then lost his reason completely. became much for him. fell into a state of melancholia. Subsequently they were placed among the Bodleiana and the Cottonian Collections." and who could "sine cortice nare in Greek." His work. Mental culture had gradually reached an eminence where it could no longer find adequate expression in the faint echo of the earlier school of art. the edition of 1557 appeared folio augmented in by two volumes. with its prosaic and pedantic style of diction and its rugged form of verse. and became a powerful stimulus to the famous antiquarians of the seventeenth century. Leland had alreadybegunto feelthe necessity of looking about him for a "forward young man about the age of xx years. I7IO-I7I2 : and De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea^ ed. who was ten years his junior. and died after two years of mental darkness. Th. by the combined efforts of Lord Berners and Sir Thomas Elyot. Bale had published his work-which he considered inferior-in Ipswich. earlyas 1548. Hearne. by taking up a province peculiarly his own. and also a well-plundered mine for Camden. to a man who. Th. It was not till the days of Bentley that two Oxford men * had Leland's manuscripts set up in print. Hearne. Drayton. and indeed the best acknowledgment his antiquarian work could have received after his death. and in doing so paid a debt of honour to the father of English antiquarian lore.

Yet his language had in many ways become antiquated. if it is to exercise a fruitful influence upon national art and poetry. of The old Master. to be continued and completed. his versification too playful. the silentlyworkinginfluences with of mental culture. . The new stimulus was. however.. his tendency was too preponderatingly on the side of satire and pasquilin burlesqueform. and all the better writers endeavoured to regulate themselves by him. under was Henry VIII. source from which Chaucer had drawn his Learned culture. by giving it fresher tones. too. attained the completeness the great of era. derived at first from the same material. was now. at times too coarse. the missionof Italy. in fact remained the only English classic. his mannerwasmuch too eccentric it to for be taken as a model in style. The time had come for his work to be again taken in hand. This is no more than the infusion of the outward forms of life and the general outlook upon it and its manifestations. Consequently exercised he only a one-sidedinfluence on the development poetry. at the period of the Renaissance. partly not sufficiently correct. His spirit. Chaucer. There are epochs when a particular rank of society or a particular people become the bearers of culture and help to complete for others that essential intermediation. requires transmission through a third element which we may call knowledge of the world and practical culture. In England. continued to act with all its old freshness. What Chaucer had accomplished alone in a still immature period. 213 day. In allegorical poetry he had.and such. his method was too unequal. at a more advanced epoch.THE NEW COURT-POETRY. and had also discoverednew domainsin the realmof poetry. to be attained in a similar manner by the mutual yet differentiated work of a number of men. Herein lay the security for the permanence and continuity of the development about to take a fresh start. many of the beauties of his works could no longer be understood. his languageat times too extravagant. moreover. both thesefactorswerein operationtogether. At the period of mediaeval mmne-poetry. this was the part played by the nobility and those living in that atmosphere. And yet. preciselyin thosepoints wherehe showed most originality. upon occasions. his poetry could no longer be read correctly.

The reform in poetry proceeded from enlightened minds among the younger members of the nobility and court. since his father's promotion to the Duchy of Norfolk. On what occasion. Thomas Wyatt and Lord Henry Howard. And the first living centre round which it turned was the beautiful. who had been raised to the rank of Lord Rochford." Those who on that occasion saw the two poets. could have had no idea to what distinction the younger of them would rise in English literature.* Thomas Wyatt. was it that Surrey carried * Cf. and that accordingto the sameauthoritythe King was not present either at Anne'sentry into London. who combined a classical education with the polish of men of the world.ff. then.shortly before been despatched to the French court with an embassy in charge of the Duke of Norfolk. Lord Vaux. Sir Francis Bryan (seeabove. iii. p. and arrayed in violet robes with caps trimmed with grey. and enabled them all to take part in the festivities. one of the fortunate young men dubbed Knights of the Bath on the morning of the coronation day. There was. 191).or at the coronation ceremony . the latter." p. but not guiltless. thereis no mentionof this .indeed. Nott. Even those who stood in closest relation to him could scarcely. George Boleyn. The beginnings of the new court-poetry belong to the first years of the third decade. " Memoirs of the Earl of Surrey. the sword in questionin front ot the King ? . Anne's solemn coronation at Whitsuntide. the two heads of the new school of poetry. unfortunate. riding between the judges and Lord Rochford. being generally addressed as the Earl of Surrey. that he viewed the scene the banquet from a box in which were of also several of the ambassadors. There were. further.). and owed to Italy their determining impulse. gathered all the more eminent poets of the new circle round the throne. 1808. 779. 1533. had sung her charms in the poems of his earlier years.214 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. at the coronation banquet acted in his father's (Sir Henry Wyatt's) place as " ewerer to the king. or a little earlier. Thomas Wyatt. Thomas. Anne Boleyn. I have observed that in Hall s detailed report of Anne's coronation. The originator of the new tendency. however. and thus enabled to escort the procession of the young Queen as she passedthrough the metropolis to Westminster. above all. xxvii. as reproduced in Holinshed (ed. One of the first of those at Henry's court to devote himself to similar efforts was Anne's brother. Henry Howard is said to have carried " the fourth sword with scabbard upright" in front of the King.

at Cambridge at the age of seventeen. have foreseenthat Surrey was destined success- fully. will now occupy our attention. thirty years of age. Sir Henry Wyatt had been one of the Privy Council of the first Tudor. a youth of seventeen.A. tall and graceful in figure where " force and beauty met. In every respect he was a man to shine in the circle that . The elder of the two men. was short and of insignificant stature. and who was held in high esteem also by Henry VIII. and Henry VIII. Yet the difference in their characters. He had early entered court service and became one of the gentlemen of the king's bed-chamber. a nobleman with estatesin Kent. who had already passed the first stages of his poetical career. he had gradually to accustom himself to being called Thomas Wyatt. Surrey. Young Thomas Wyatt had. Wyatt was in the full bloom of life. yet of sustained strength of physique. as a faithful adherent of the Lancastrian and Tudor interests. though provisionally." of manly countenance. At eighteen years of age. a quiet but glowingfire in his dark eyes. and one of the executors of his will.THOMAS WYATT. The sameyear in which he took his degree he married a lady of good lamily. at all events in the opinion of his contemporaries. a penetrating light in his eyes. and then a " Knight Banneret. He had received a careful education and an academical training. created him a Knight of the Order of the Bath. yet mild in expression. In those days life was lived quickly in aristocratic circles. he received further proof of the King's favour by having landed property presented to him. 215 at the time. having had a son born to him and named after him. and he may early have tried his fortune in the complete the poedcal reform inaugurated by VVyatt. and took his degree of B. was sufficiently evident then in their outward appearance. as reflected in their poetry. He was skilful in the use of weapons. his oval face full of life and expression but with a touch of melancholy. and also took part in the jousts and feats of arms performed at court. grown up amid pleasant circumstances and in the full light of court favour. the Elder." and various appointments at court were conferred upon him. Thomas Wyatt was the son of Sir Henry Wyatt. accordingly. who had stood high in the favour of Henry VII.

and poetry art. for he was attractive in appearance and inspired respect and confidence. Hence it was no wonder that the great Petrarch. and learned to love and reverence them. and with intellectualgifts whichmade captivatingin conversation. greater than ever was the lustre which Italian scholarship. probably. In one essential point. much as Wyatt's own style may have differed from the Italian master's. who was still considered the chief Italian lyrist. as yet. may have receivedfresh nourishment there. however. him It is not known whether. And though he did not make his first acquaintancewith the Italian poets at that time. but in the year 1527. statesmanship. In learning -and probably in politics as well-they had. firm in determination. most readily find leisure and opportunity. which was then in its full spring-time. like many others of his age and rank. in business or pleasure. he accompanied Sir John Russell to Italy. at least. and were very differently prepared for a revival of poetry to what the fourteenth century had been. and their musical instinct was also about to become strongly developed.full of fine feeling. in his youth. should have pre-eminently become his model. He. of his own accord. Yet. Englishmen had. soon began to make attempts of his own in accordance with their methods. had in Wyatt's day already produced its most glorious fruits. in manly and noble in nature. of a rich and varied culture. they were. but little appreciation for plastic art. they resembledeach other . both directly and indirectly. resided in France for any length of time. aninsightinto and a knowwith ledge of human nature. still he became much more intimately acquainted with them. The Renaissance. symptoms already existed which might have revealed to a careful observer the first signs of its approaching end. rhetoric. even though not awakened in Italy. for long been receiving instruction from the Italians. It may be assumed that Wyatt's poetical talent. was free and distin- guished his bearing. In tendency Wyatt was specially drawn to lyrics. powerfully attracted by rhetoric and poetry.2l6 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. this involuntarily reminds one of Chaucer's first journey to Italy in 1372. and. he had. surrounded the throne . a form of poetry for which those engaged in active life. shed over the world. indeed.

aimed at by the poet. The uncertainty which characterizes the versification of his contemporaries seems. When Wyatt read the works of contemporaryEnglish poetshe missed their versea systematic in metricalprinciple. when the friend of Horace and Juvenal. what Wyatt had in view. for neither in respect to number of syllables nor accent was metre regulated in such a manner that the rhythm. did not produce any very different impression upon him. endeavour he often omitted to take into for in this the consideration adjustment of the relation betweenrhythm and accent. looked round for a firmer basis for his versification. only a secondary occupation-also in their endeavour to attain perfection of his case. and to have taken its stand there with a certain amount of obstinacy. on finding himself dissatisfied with the customary method. but also in other licenceswhich had cropped up amid the confusion of his own day.ifficulties he had to overcome were great. And in this respecthe not only indulged in the licences sanctionedby the usual practice throughout the Middle Ages. by the unwearied finishing touches they gave their poems. however. to have retreated to the close of the line. and. accordingly. which he could read only with the pronunciation of the sixteenth century. although he may not always have succeeded in accomplishing this in his first ventures.after all.WYATT AND PETRARCH. the admirer of Petrarch. But Wyatt. was always distinctly brought out. who occasionally took pleasure in imitating the artistic forms of strophe. was the principle adopted by him. Wyatt's musical instinct helped him overthe difficulties hismetrical of theory. In Wyatt's case there was a peculiar cause for this.found rhymesspecially troublesome. And even Chaucer's verse. Very often. in the earnestness which they devotedthemwith selvesto their poetical calling-although with both of them poetrywas. 217 distinctly. Now. as a rule. naturally the metrical principle of the Romans must have first struck his attention. Gradually. . A fixed syllabic metre was. the linguistic and technical (. and thus unaccented syllables have sometimes to bear the stress of the line. as though this were its last stronghold.

" and other such things. conventional character." or again perhaps as " frozen. and neither dead nor alive-and such untenable situations recur somewhat too often-one longs to return to Chaucer's more varied and." then as " burning " or " flaming.2l8 THE RENAISbANCK UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. and especially oxymoron. indeed. upon the whole. perhaps.any of the poets of the sixteenth century actually becomes mannerism. an apparently superfluous opportunity for impressing the rules that have to be inculcated. fiom beginning to end. at one and the same time. much simpler style. often present an unnatural. and antithesis." in place of simply "the heart." or " a cloud of dark disdain. However. in n.-all this Wyatt had adopted from them. Wyatt himself. to throw life into the representation by metaphor and simile. diligently to avoid inversions. indeed. both poor and rich. The new style of diction had indeed its drawbacks. the position of the words often obscures the sense in place of elucidating it. and produceat times a good dealof melody. when sighs at one time are spoken of as " forced. V The verse is merely a vehicle for words. could be attained.vigorously to push forward ihe thought by antithesis. not being afraid of presenting a certain uniform superfluityin the models they set up. The whole style of diction is of a kind that might readily have degenerated into mannerism. To use the right word in the right place. . as a school exercise fulfils its object only when it offers a sufficient and. especially when mixed. he became clearer and surer in his ideas. free and captive." when the poet is. are built up of faultless lines. and. Many of his poems. When we hear again and again such expressions as " the heart's forest. and also ornamental epithet. metaphor. are frequently altogether misapplied." or of "a rain of tears. From Petrarch and other Italians-and also from the Latin poets-Wyatt had acquired more refined elegance of expression than had hitherto been customary among English poets. so the gradations of expression which English poetrywas in need of. the spinning out of a simile into an allegory at times produces curious results or proves wearisome. and made it the common property of English art-poetry.only by the headsof the schoolwho struck the note. without exactly obtaining absolute consistency.

and lust s negligence Be reined by reason. i. Nott . 2IQ no meansalways favours exaggeration. And therein campeth spreadinghis banner. he quits his original. showy.and reverence. Yet he was by no means * Ed. the majority are merely translations from the Italian master. his method exhibits a feature which already proclaims the freer and more convenient practice of other English poets : the marked preference for employing the terza nma in such a manner that it ends with a rhymedcouplet. made use of other Italian lyric-writers. And there him hideth. She that me learns to love and suffer Wherewithall And wills that my trust.of which some thirty in all have been preserved.even in this respect. Wyatt. Yet the imitator is not exactly happy in his choice of the poems. and not appeareth. To give an illustration of his method.o. in fact. With his hardinesstakes displeasure. . when my master feareth? But in the field with him to live and die: For good is the life. we give the Sonnet that stands first in the collection.WYATT AND PETRARCH. pretty faithful imitations. A stately. and somewhatconventionalform of diction predominatesin Wyatt's Sonnets. but. Into my face pressethwith bold pretence. ending faithfully. Still." Besidesfollowing Petrarch. unto the heart's forest he fleeth Leaving his enterprisewith pain and cry.distinctly showa temporaryadvance. In his Sonnets Wyatt shows himself to have mainly followed Petrarch. and is neither the best nor the worst of them. over-anxious in his endeavour to construct his arrangement and order of rhymes strictly in accordance with the Italian method. at all events. or. he was. and where. To Wyatt belongsthe merit of having introduced this elegant form of art-poetry into England. the result is often not an advantage to the poem as a whole. and. in his Sonnets. What may I do. his poems. in him.* " The long love that in my thought doth harbour And in mine heart doth keep his residence. shame. as a rule. in individual features. even the different species of poetry have often a peculiarstyle of their own in additionto a peculiartone.

we find new artistic forms of unequal lines. but more frequently . Sometimes he would take a good original written in a different species of verse. by way of exception. and condition of mind. Nay. Wyatt's method is exhibited more powerfully in his poems of freer consu action. The stately structure that generally characterizes the stanzas of Petrarch's canzonets. The strophic systemswhich Wyatt made use of are of various kinds. as a rule his strophes consist. and turn it into a sonnet. It is probable that even before writing in sonnet form. to rival them in structural effect. for even in Wyatt's imitations a connection with a more or less real present is. Wyatt is at his best in courtly jests. at times. reflection. borrowing from his models only individual features. unmistakable. Sometimes. and.22O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. a rhymed-couplet consisting of Alexandrines and lines of seven feet. also. win any laurels in this domain. and Chaucer-but also very frequently from his own experiences. his psychological insight. No doubt French models may have hovered in his mind. by preference. with a distinctly musical effect. with memorials of Chaucer. and probably. and. from Spanish writers. expunges. even thoughts which are linked with national reminiscences. he did not attempt to imitate. single lines. We everywhere have proof of Wyatt's intelligence. of short lines. although he borrowed many a thought and many a line from these poems. He frequently alters. his ingenuity. in his own way. and subsequently returned to this form on occasions. or supplements. and he has even turned one of the master's sonnets into this form of verse. according to the requirements of the moment. have to adapt themselves to the measure and order in which " the tenderest and grandest of " songs were produced. yet he did not. always content with playing the part of a translator or faithful imitator. we find the seven-lined Chaucerian stanzas. Wyatt had tried his hand at rondeaux. from Latin authors. simple and graceful in construction. rondeaux in Petrarch's style. Motives and suggestions the poet drew from very different sourcesfrom Italian. upon the whole. Not all of these poems are equally successful. as a rule. he creates independently. but at times. in light-footed verse. also. endeavoured. also. or even none at all. French.

and was also necessarily the consequence of the atmosphere of the court where all Wyatt's poetry was written. Laments of mournful longing.WYATT'S POEMS. to grave in marble stone. with warnings of the punishment her proud coldness will bring upon her. And end that I have now begun. For when this song is sung and past. no. " As to be heard whereear is none. This was the result of the example set by Petrarch and many other lyric-writers. fervent entreaties to his obdurate mistress. As she my suit and affection. . Whereby my lute and I have done. he even bids good-bye to love or determines to abandon his art. "The rock doth not so cruelly Repulse the wavescontinually. Love is the great theme in by far the larger majority of these and the rest of Wyatt's poems. again. alternate with the expressions of callous resignation. and as a rule only of its sorrows. and hence the voice of genuine sentiment is not always to be heard in his poetry. there the right expression is found unsought for. 221 than could be desired he gives way to artificiality. Ode I. * Cf. As lead. his beloved lady is charged with faithlessness. My lute ! be still. 25. or moan? No. as in the lovely Ode which also makes such happy use of motives from Horace. my lute ! for I have done. or sigh. Then the voice of jealousy is heard. to meet some capricious accusation. It has even become a matter of tradition that he rarely sings of the happiness of love. Where the poet gives spontaneous expression to deep feeling.. for I have done.* purifying and increasing their effect" My lute awake ! perform the last Labour that thou and I shall waste. the poet discourses on his own faithfulness and constancy. Then. So that I am past remedy. My song may pierce her heart as soon: Should we then sing. Upon occasions the lover bestirs himself and withdraws his attentions from his heartless or faithless mistress. particularly where manly sorrow reveals itself freely and worthily.

noneknoweth truly. Unquit to causethy lovers plain Although my lute and I have done. Think not he hath his vow forgot. By whom. as in the following:" I am as I am. and so will I be . Trow not alone under the sun. I mean nothing but honesty. To causethy lover's sigh and swoon: Then shalt thou know beauty but lent. " May chancethee lie wither'd and old.222 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. unkind. in It is very rare on these occasions that any unpleasant or cynical bitterness resounds through Wyatt's poetry. as I have done. Care then who list! for I have done "And then may chancethee to repent The time that thou hast lost and spent. The winter nights that are so cold. Plaining in vain unto the moon: Thy wishes then dare not be told . my lute ! this is the last Labour. for I have done. be I bond.and evenaudacious spirit. ow is this song both sung and past. and so will I be. That maketh but game of earnest pain. " I lead my life indifferently . " Proud of the spoil that thou hast got Of simple hearts. Be it evil. "I do not rejoice. And wish and want. And usethe meanssince folks will feign. Although my lute and I have done. I am as I am. be it pleasure or pain. be it well.thorough Love's shot. "Now cease. be I free. Both mirth and sadness I do refrain. And though folks judge full diversely. with a play of good humouraroundit. My lute ! be still." . more frequentlyit is a feeling of self-confidence. But how that I am. I am as I am. Yet I am as I am. And ended is that I begun. jocose. and so will I be. that thou and I shall waste. " Vengeancemay fall on thy disdain. thou hast them won ." At times the earnest and sorrowful tones give way to strains that are lighter. nor yet complain.

Yet may I by no meansmy wearied mind Draw from the deer . helas ! I may no more. wiio. for Caesar's am. Wyatt was compelled to withdraw his attentions. though I seem tame/ "* Only for three years did the beautiful lady hold her place on the English throne. that changeth not. Who may thee hold. [Who] love rewardeth with disdain. Then. p. The vain travail hath wearied me so sore. on his part." Subsequently. he calls to his beloved" If thou seekhonour. and eke my sore. And eke the causerof my pain. p. Who list her hunt. when a relation sprang up between her and the King. it would seem. There is written her fair neck round about. and some of his poems clearly prove to be a declaration of this passion" What word is that. Nott. which she had ascended in * Ed. The fundamental motive of this sonnet is taken from a sonnet of Romanello's. had borrowed from Petrarch . There seems. Nott. but thou thyself unbind ?" Finally he givesup all hope" Whoso list to hunt ? I know where is an hind ! But as for me. 571. ' Noli me tangere. as a young man. Yet it was not without a struggle that he quitted the arena. I put him out of doubt As well as I. Though it be turn'a and made in twain ? It is mine Anna. and justifies its being found to contain a personal reference. Since in a net I seek to hold the wind. God it wot. I am of them that furthest come behind. to separate the different lovedramas which they reflect. to be no doubt that. I And wild for to hold. 22 3 We are not yet in a position to arrange Wyatt's poems in chronological order. he had been in love with Anne Boleyn. and to present all in their connection. .WYATT AND ANNE BOLEYN. may spend his time in vain ! And graven with diamondsin letters plain. actedmorekindlytowards she him. I leave off therefore. 143. The working out of the motive is Wyatt's own. but as she fleeth afore Fainting I follow . cf. to keep thy promess. Yet is it loved : what would ye more? It is my health. however. yet tormented him with her waywardness and aroused his jealousy.

and what the circumstances were that prevented his achievingmore than he did. and subsequently became Henry's ambassador at the court of Spain. presence of mind. still charm us without our knowing their first author. a favourite with women. it may be. did not last long. and the sudden changes of fortune he had himself experienced. On the ist of May. How he accomplished this task . The terrible events he had witnessed.224 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREYS UP DEATH. had met with the same ignominious death. the King showedthe first signs of his displeasure with her in public. We are less interestedin the crested . With him there sank into the grave one of the most brilliant figures at the English court. And on the igth of May the Queen's head had already fallen beneath the executioner's axe. His outward circumstances also took a new turn at this period of his life. Devotedly as he may at an earlier date have served his King. who. affected Wyatt's disposition in more than a passing manner. The question of her guilt. per- severance. it was only now that he began to play an historical part. The King.and distinct marks of his favour and confidence.during a tournament held at Greenwich. Shortly after this Thomas Wyatt too was sent to the Tower. what success crowned his efforts. the wilfulnessof youth. but conferred upon him new. however. a poet whose elegance was extolled by the old writers. had been accused of a detestable crime. where Lord Rochford and Sir Henry Norris played a conspicuous part. which would never have been doubted had any other than Henry VIII. cannotbe enteredinto here. by receiving the infinitely delicate and extremely responsible task of representing the English Government at the court of Charles V. Two dayspreviously her brother. with her. His imprisonment. 1536. and whose lyrics. and couragehe showed. occupied the English throne at the time. what measure of skill. who had dubbed him a knight on the i8th of March of that year. tact. He was first given a post in the army despatched under the Duke of Norfolk to quell a rebellion in the north of the kingdom. not only granted him his freedom again. having roused the Duke of Suffolk's hatred.-all this must be left to the political historian. In the following year he was nominated High-Sheriff for Kent. zeal.

In these apophthegms in the ottava rima. he also introduced things borrowed elsewhere. which he likewise introduced into the repertory of English forms of verse. The celebrated Letters to his son Thomas belong to this first period of his sojourn in Spain. Wyatt. still. Wyatt followed Seraphin Cimino d'Aquila with his " strambotti" taking him as his model in general and sometimes also in special cases. and give perhaps the most brilliant testimony of the depth of his religious and ethical sentiments. I think. which are often epigrammatic in character." Wyatt had. certain lingering remains of Roman Catholicism may have still asserted their influence undisturbed. therefore. this he did mainly in poems of the apophthegmatic species where the train of thought attains its object in a single stanza. and it only occasionally gave signs of its existence. however. and not controlled by any theological system. hence. representing his own life as clouded by many "follies and unthriftness." and goes on to say. my father's did for me. as well as things he had thought out himself or had himself experienced. in spite of his leaning towards the Lutherans. He delights in employing the Italian otiava rima. shall not stand you in as much effect as. " My wish or desire of God for you. was not a theologian. into this artistic form Q . This depth of feeling is associated with a pleasant sort of naivete that suggests the Middle Ages rather than of the standpoint of fully developed Protestantism.WYATT IN POLITICS AND RELIGION. Wyatt was a staunch adherent of the Reformation. nevertheless. New forms and new styles of versification begin at this period to exhibit themselves in his work and to attract attention. Fuller maturity and more earnestnessin his views of life -with even a touch of melancholy-seem to distinguish this new phase in Wyatt's existence. Nothing can be more touching than the manner in which-in the Letters referred to above-he recommends his son to follow his grandfather's example. although our attention may be withdrawn from it at times.not become unfaithful to poetry. 22^ waves that rolled over the brilliant surface of Wyatt's life than in the current that ran beneath in the depths of his soul. and may have thought that King Henry scarcely did sufficient by his break with Rome and the dissolution of the monasteries.

all grief for to expell. The tress also should be of crisped gold.226 where conciseness was much more obligatory than in the sonnet. however. its necessary accompaniment-his semi-Platonic. . to the Villa Franca." A poem belonging to the later period of his sojourn in Spain.and even to * Si & clebile il filo. * yet. With sober looks so would I that it should Spe?k without words. but lovely to behold. With wit and these. La gravosa mia Nice. The somewhat lengthy poem of stately structure is based. One stanza. With gladsomechere. accordingly. and the last syllable short. the cry of longing for his native land that reverberates through the heart. reflects. and sometimes epic-writers as well. for business in connection with this official work took him. it is true. with good taste. a cui s'attiene. semiTroubadour-like devotion to Love. however. cultivated the form with evident pleasure.-CANZONE III. such words as none can tell.perhapsto the beginningof the year 1539.might chanceI might be tried. an alexandrine combined with a seven-footed line.while the lyric-writersof the following century (as well as Surrey). Wyatt. in June. And knit again the knot that should not slide. which. as a poet. whole poem. had not altogether abandoned erotic poetry nor. has also a restless and somewhat monotonouseffect. Should not be fair. 1538. the ideal charms of a new mistress" A face that should content me wond'rous well. which may have been composed shortly before his departure for Spain.comesfrom the inmost depthsof Wyatt's own Wyatt's mission to Spain lasted fully two yearsalthough he did not spendall the time interruptedlyin that country. In spiteof all his religioussentiments. much of it may be only a reflection of another's sentiments. upon an imitation of a wellknown canzonet of Petrarch's. For poems of longer effort he invented a rhymedcouplet which appears also to have been the outcome of regulating the mediaeval uncertainty. probably lett behindin his native land. It speaks well for Wyatt's appreciation of form that he has only once or twice made useof this high-sounding metre.showsus the poet pining for his absent love.

My King. Like bended moon. Gainward the sun that sheweth her wealthy pride. both from the King and from Lord Cromwell. Of mighty Love the wings for this me give. The latter-who had full confidence in Wyatt's dexterity and in the faithful services he had rendered. 1539. which had been handied with the open-handed generosity of a man of rank. during the last months of his residence at the Spanish court. and joyfully the poet exclaims"Tagus. my Country. and was.WYATT AN AMBASSADORIN SPAIN. And. As soon as all business matters had been attended to. Wyatt longed for quiet. farewell ! that westwardwith thy streams Turns up the grains of gold already tried . he was not to enjoy this quiet life for long. The journey of . Bonner and Dr. His financial affairs too. and his appeals for permission to return became more and more urgent." Wyatt. finally. in June. the Keeper of the Privy Seal. his personal friend-reassured him as to the complaints that had been brought against him. in fact. that Dr. And beside this. doth lend her lusty side. he found himself perpetually in an awkward position as a Protestant residing in a strictly Catholic country and under the eyes of the Inquisition. However. the ground seemed to burn beneath Wyatt's feet. Wyatt retired to his country residence at Aliington. the longed-for hour of his releasesounded. Haynes-who had been confided with some extraordinary embassyto the Emperor and had since returned home-were now (especially Bonner) leaving nothing unturned to damage him in the eyes of Lord Cromwell. he was well aware that jealousy and slander had been at work injuring his reputation. profitable work in his own country. in order to demote hi< leisure to literature and other pursuits. demanded his personal presence in Ergland. This arose mainly from the circumstance that the arduous work at the Spanish court had no real connection with the success his had alreadyachievedor might yet achieve. And to the town which Brutus sought by dreams. who returned with important information. for I go seekthe Thames. Hence. At last. met with a good reception. 22/ England for a few days. With spur and sail. alone for whom I live. It was not want of change that made him feel his position irksome.

which. and which had been most energetically promoted and supported by Cromwell. At one time he had to follow the Emperor. Henry's matrimonial alliance with Anne of Cleves (January 6. a close alliance between England and the Protestant princes of Germany. viz. Sir Thomas. Charles V. again had an anxious and busy time before him. arranging with couriers and himself receiving instructions . sounding. he could as little manage to bring about as he could prevent the King-immediately after his marriage-from thinking how he could. in particular. are veritable masterpieces of characterization. of his energy and perseverance. A memorial of his activity during these months has been preserved in his official correspondence. was the cause of Wyatt's being again called upon to act as ambassador at the Emperor's court. Wyatt had quickly enough perceived what were the Emperor's intentions. Wyatt made frequent and urgent appeals be allowed to to retire from his post. and when he returned to England . rid himself of his fourth consort. and again gave brilliant proofs of his skill as a diplomatist. the important interests which came into play. 1540) had been accomplished by Cromwell. among other things. but the great political league which was to be the logical outcome of the marriage. through France to the Netherlands at the be- ginning of the winter. shows us Wyatt as a man of quick observationand an excellent writer. and from his earlier and more recent experiences. at another to travel in advance of him. on this occasionalso. and kept him in a constant conflict with difficulties. these and other matters of a similar nature engagedWyatt's attention throughout the winter of 1539-40 up to the month of May. with good grace. writing reports. inquiring into matters everywhere. before his request was granted. that energetic measuresalone would prove effectual.and the various political consilerations to which it gave rise. examining. did not prove in keeping with the erotic or even with the theological inclinations of the King. the policy which Wyatt held to be right.228 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. seeking audiences. His reports of his audiences with the Emperor. had become thoroughly convinced that no diplomatic veneering or temporizing would be of any avail with this profound politicianin fact. accordingly. However. finely drawn and true to life.

and of having spoken maliciouslyand derogatorilvof his . 22p towardsthe middle of May. he was arrested for high treason." this sonnet Wyatt has imitated. which afforded shade to my weary spirit. But more than this. the right moment had arrived for renewed accusations againstWyatt. and the nation at large. Wyatt was arrested and sent to the Tower on the double charge of having been in conspiracy with Reginald Pole. the green laurel is rent in pieces. and on the 28th of the same month his head A well-known fell on the scaffold. particularly Bonner who had meanwhile become Bishop of London. though he retains only the column and rejects the laurel" The pillar perish'dis whereto I leaned. daily assumed a more menacing attitude. And if this supposition-which is not my own-is correct. However. His enemies. in thus reproaching himself for his friend's fall. and the hostile feelings he had aroused among the nobility. he found his mighty patron's position shakento its very foundations. the poem is a proof how deeply Wyatt felt the loss of his powerful friend. To all outward appearance Cromwell still stood erect. believed that. 1540. On the loth of June. for Wyatt says that he shall hate himself as long as life lasts. for as late as the i8th of April he had been created Earl of Essex. the end of the poem differs from the original. and this is intelligible only when regarded as containing a condemnation of his own actions. sonnet of Petrarch's laments in the same breath. The strongeststay of mine unquiet mind.WYATT AND CROMWELL. the deaths of Cardinal Colonna and of his adored Laura: " The lofty column is shattered. the clergy." Thus altered. the sonnet is scarcely to be taken otherwise than as an allusion to the death of Cromwell. the King's favour had been turned against him. Wyatt must have been conscious that he was greatly to blame for the failure of Cromwell's policy. The mighty man's fall was at hand. And their poisonous falsehoods now found ears ready enough to listen to them. by his mercilessseverity. with Cromwell's fall. by the troubles which were drawingclose round his own person. Wyatt's attention was soon turned from broodingsof this kind.

both points of the accusation referred to the period of his first embassy to Charles V. and fresh of hue. or even to have . He himself wasnot allowed any legal assistance or to call witnesses on his own behalf." While under arrest. or weather. Bryan. After being undeservedly ill-used in this manner. I judge by mine ears. Since every woe is joined with somewealth. Wyatt's " Declaration" gives proof of his great dexterity as well as of the absoluteconfidence felt in his he own innocence. alas ! the scar shall still remain. this wound shall heal again. that was under the cloud. wind. and close air. Poison oft time is put in medicine." Nor does he fail to remember that good accompanies evil-^ " Venemousthorns that are so sharp and keen. In impressivelines he describeshis position and state of mind- " Sighs are my food . I trust good luck to me shall be allow'd.which would certainly have proved a pitfall to any less clear-headed man.and heard what his accusers and their witnesses had to say againsthim. previousto being brought before his judges. He was called upon to declare in what way he had committed himself. and if these beentrue. away my life wears. during his stay at the Emperor's court.230 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY^ DEATH. And causeth health in man for to renew. and especially during the days spent at Nice. I trust sometime my harm maybe my health. Wyatt was called upon to furnish a written statement of the circumstances. Majesty the King.Wyatt wasat length broughtbeforehis judges." But hope does not forsake him in his prison" He is not dead that sometime had a fall ! The sun returns. Rain. For months Wyatt was kept in the Tower in mental as well as physical torment. But yet. my drink they are my tears. Sometime bear flowers fair. Fire that purgeth all thing that is unclean. And when fortune hath spit out all her gall. Innocency is all the hope I have. or could have come under the suspicion of having committed himself. Clinking of fetters such music would crave: Stink. Malice assaults that righteousness should have. in the Villa Franca. Sure I am. May heal and hurt.

that hath suchbrakish joys. Wyatt's estates were considerably increased by grants of land." . cut through the network of Bonner's sophistry as though it had been material of the flimsiest kind." and goeson to say" Standwhoso upontheslippertop list Of high estate. the clearness with which he keeps to his points. was now. evident to him now that what alone could save him was his own speech his defence. new ones were now added in double measure.or caustic wit. and a redistribution of estates. This speech. received important additions by this. after the common trace. 1541. sharpened as it was by such a mind as Wyatt's. which had been of a very substantial kind. The bright sword of innocence. and according to his necessity or the occasion we find in his tone and the turn of expression. In one of his stanzas givesa drastic descriphe tion of the life of courtiers. who certainly had a number of one time calm deliberation. and had never beenvery capable of managing his own money affairs. manly pathos. in spite of being a wealthy and influential man." 231 thosewho had witnessed againsthim cross-examinedit was . as well as by salaries for managing royal estates and the usufructs. To the earlier marks of the royal bounty. and at others. Wyatt was acquitted and restored to life somewhere about June. together with his keen logical distinctions. deserves to rank by the side of the great masterpieces of forensic eloquence. That when my years be done \\ithouten noise I may die aged. in which has been preserved. and let me hererejoice And useme quiet without let or stop Unknown to Court. by exchanges of property in his favour.wehavea fulness presentation of which is concise as well.WYATT'S"DECLARATION. Wyatt. in a position to live much as he chose. vehement selfdefence. and compares them to prisoners " fetter'd with chainsof gold. his income. accordingly. and as an undercurrent to the whole there is a confidence that compels conviction and a continuous low appeal to the sense of justice and fairness in his judges. for. too. Life at court no longer attracted the man of many expenences. In hidden place so let my daysforth pass. and the King thereupon showed himself anxious to make his faithful servant some compensation for the ill-usage he had received.

and which. For. There he occupied himself in managing his property. And in me claim no more authority. Wyatt adopted the terza rima. hitherto. devoting himself also to entertaining his friends. Hence he withdrew to a sphere of his own. Of erotic poetry he no longer wrote any. and looking after the interests of those who stood under his protection. moralizing poetry. Therefore farewell ! go. a form of verse that had not yet been introduced into English poetry. They are the earliest . flourished in the atmosphere of Allington. and chose by preference his estate at Allington. must at all events have been an absolute novelty. In blind errour when I did persever. With idle youth go usethy property. Thy baited hooks shall tangle me no more : Senecand Plato call me from thy lore. and Luigi Alamanni. Only three Satires have been left by Wyatt. Me lusteth no longer rotten boughsto climb. and above all to the Muses. spiced with satire. the Florentine's influence in style was somewhat distinctly evident. To perfect wealth my wit for to endeavour. Hath taught me to set in trifles no store." From Alamanni. trouble younger hearts. Since Cromwell's death he had definitely relinquished the service of Love" Farewell Love ! and all thy laws for ever . though I have lost all my time. But in spite of being swayed by the influence of his models. but these may readily be regarded as among the best things that have proceeded from his poetic pen. And thereon spendthy many brittle darts . a man who had been banished from Florence and was residing at the court of Francis I.232 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. to whom Alamanni had dedicated a volume of his collected poetical works under the title of " Opere Toscane. And together with the new form of verse. The models made use of were chiefly Horace." Contemplative. a little to sport. And scapeforth. at the time. the satirist of Allington gave proof of the independence of his own talent which had now reached its full maturity.. since liberty is lever. to a sphere of more restricted duties and simpler pleasures. Thy sharp repulsethat pricketh aye so sore.

above all. The culture of the humanist we here find combined with that of the experienced man of the world-a man with a knowledge of human nature and the artistic instinct of a genuine poet.233 English satires. for it is ordered so. I. With savoury sauce the delicates to feel. where one must him incline Rather than to be. and make deceit a pleasure-and call craft counsel-I cannot.* No force for that . The " Satires " are occasional poems in the best sense of the term. nor taketh my wit away With beastliness . In these poems Wyatt is generally in advanceof the intellectual culture of his age. nor woe. no. And of these news I feel nor weal. In lusty leas at liberty I walk. This can refer only to somepublic duties he had still to attend to. In frost and snow . a sincere friend to truth and virtue. And in foul weather at my book to sit. and. Nor Flanderscheer letteth not my sight to deem Of black and white. Use wiles for wit. That I may leap both hedge and dyke full well. they beasts do so esteem. I Nor yet in Spain." Wyatt goes on to sayc< am not now in France to judge the wine . the language of the higher circles of society. To his friend John Poyntz. no. none of those who came after him succeededin rising to his level in this. Save that a clog doth hangyet at my heel. . in the senseof that artistic form which originatedin Rome. and at the same time breathe that spirit of refinement and freedom from constraint which characterizes." " This maketh me at home to hunt. for long. then with my bow to stalk. or to some temporary confinement to the house at Allington. No man doth mark wheresoI ride or go. and to hawk. it will not be. the poet replies in his second Satire with a successful imitation of the tenth of Alamanni: "' I cannot frame my tongue to feign-to cloke the truth for praise without desart-I cannot speak with look right as a saint. Wyatt here shows himself to be completely a man of honour. outwardly to seem: I meddle not with wits that be so fine. who had expressed his surprise at Wyatt's withdrawing into the seclusion of country life. or at least should characterize. however.

Theresias gives to Ulysses. With free tongue what thee mislikes to blame. exclaiming" Laugh'st thou at me? Why ! do I speak in vain? 'No. in Wyatt the only one) which brings about the tragic end.' Nay. from the contentment he feels in his present circumstances. but at thy thrifty jest. where Wyatt undertakes to prove. In the middle of his discoursehe suddenly breaks off. Sir Francis Bryan-who was still in the King's service. In doing this the poet gives his of friend advice similar to that which in Horace.poison." * In addressinganother friend. then farewell ! an' if thou care for shame. 90. And therewithal. at Rome A common practise. And for thy Truth sometime adversity. p. as water in a sieve. Would'st thou 1 should for any loss or gain Changethat for gold. not at thee. And coin to deep. then take me for a beast.f Wyatt * Ed. and also the appearance of the cat (in Henryson the second incident of disturbance. But here I am in Kent and Christendom. "f" Among the features in which Wyatt and Henryson show agreement is the circumstance that both mice are sisters. which I have ta'en for best? Next godly things to have an honestname! Should I leave that." His most important Satire on a Mean and Sure Estate is one again addressed to John Poyntz. He begins with the fable of the Town and Country Mouse. and trahison. this gift I shall thee give. Notts. Thou shalt be judge how I do spendmy time. whereChristis givenin prey For money.^34 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. . In this world now little prosperity. Content thee then with honestpoverty . Among the Muses. Wyatt's is more original in the turn but his thoughtstake and theyare also moreforcibly expressed. but undoubtedly also from Henryson's pleasant and graphic treatment of the subject.used night and day . which he knew not only from Horace's elegant version. my Poyntz for to come. happiness not to be toundwheremen that is seek for had beenWyatt's own caseat one time and who could not be persuaded to withdraw to a life of inactivity-VVyatt showshim how he may come into the possession money.where I read and rhyme : Where if thou list.with his expensesgreater than his income. UP Nor amI not.

is. from harshness of metre. by plastic vividness. the thirty-seventh. but by Dante's as well. in order to share her more flourishing circumstances. being dissatisfied with her position. when the rage doth lead them from the right. Even she is. distinguished by the power and nervous vigour of his poetic language.WYATI'S PENITENTIALPSALMS. yet not astonishing. and. without any invitation. as thou may'st of thy might. if ye list to continue your sore. accordingly. That looking backward. presents them to his readers. And whilst they clasp their lusts in arms across. He recapitulates all in the most striking manner. and to his high doom. but meets with a cruel death. Gram them. To freat inward. Virtue they may see. so goodly fair. at times. this shall be all and sum. Let present pass. And deep yourself in travail more and more." It is strange. good Lord. These wretched fools shall have naught else of me: But to the great God. that thou has sought so long before.and gape on time to come. that Wyatt should have passed from such poems to religious poetry in the narrower sense. Mad. for instance. The poet found it an easy matter then to pass over to the thoughts which lay next his heart. visits the town-mouse. translated several passages from the other Psalms. however. for losing such a loss. and produce the pleasantest effect. Henceforth. and in impressive words and vivid pictures. None other pain pray I for them to be. Perhaps no other English poet has ever so closely approached Dante's style. and does not escapewith a mere fright. In these also he made use of the terza rima. The details and tone of the narrative are admir- able in Wyatt." Wyatt's contemporaries . Wyatt's translation suffers. But. and may ao-ain have been guided by Alamanni's example. For thou shalt feel it sitting in thy mind. 235 alters the fabric in important points to suit the object he has in view: the field-mouse. in addition to this. my Poyntz. and bright . by dignity and sincerity and. as far as the subject permitted. by which remark we do not exactlyrefer to Dante's" Psalms. He wrote a paraphrase of the Penitential Psalms. and finally brings his satire to a magnificent close with a turn borrowed from Persius- " Then seekno more but of thyself to find The thing.

On English ground. led Wyatt to start off forthwith on a hurried journey. morethan the poet. After a few days' illness.236 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. to revive an interest in the Psalms. this was kept within tolerably narrow limits.his last work. he was carried to his last resting-place. additions which revealindividual thought. . In these introductory portions there might have been more display of invention. Wyatt's translation is not wanting in independent turns. Wyatt preceded the disciples of the Renaissance by the example he gave. Hence. Periods of religious agitation are wont. No poet will ever succeed in equalling the original Psalms. An urgent commission from the King requesting him. howeverhappyin itself. In the great church of Sherbourne. and from this he wasnot to recover. Owing to the soundnessand completeharmonyof his nature. the physical effort he had made. on the nth of October. which may have been suggested by Be'ze's " poetical preface " in Latin hexametres. it seems. preferred his paraphrases of the Psalms to all his other poems. will certainly not be able to subscribe. Wyatt's paraphrase of the Psalms was. The " Penitential Psalms" are introduced by narrative and descriptivepassages. at the time of the Reformation we find various attempts of this kind produced in various parts of the world.the thinker. in the Christian world. combined with unfavourable weather. brought on an attack of fever while he was on the journey.the theologian.who had already landed. The poet was not destined to enjoy his reacquired freedom much over one opinion to which posterity. in the autumn of 1542. Wyatt is not one of the greatmaster-minds. Wyatt chose for these the ottava rima. certainly but occupied one of the most distinguished positions in the history of his own nation. death claimed him in the full strength of his manhood. and what he may ventureto add of his own. being lesstheologically disposed.10 proceed to Falmouth to receive the Emperor's ambassador.but they signalize pious the Christian. will always be felt to be a disturbing adjunct.he exercisedan enduring influence upon English poetry at a period when its culture wasspeciallyin need of inward consistency. but owing to the subject and the poet's own frame of mind.

was Surrey's uncle on his mother's side. and the fantastic humourist Andrew Boorde . His fact. and who had translated Petrarch's " Trionfi " into English verse. and frequently tried his hand at verse. and Chaucer shared this preference with them. who was thoroughly well-read in the ancient as well as the later poets. or found permanent occupation at their residences. had been the patron of Barclay. and presented him with a laurel wreath. 237 When Wyatt's poetic voice was about to become silent for ever. it seems a matter of course that he must have received a thoroughly classical training. for Horace and Vergil became his favourite poets. Lord Stafford. who had written both in poetry and in prose. the poet . or connected by marriage with the great House of Howard. his mother. and some of whom had made their mark. the very roots of his existence were con- grandfather Thomas. EARL OF SURREY.HENRY HOWARD. Although there existsno information concerningthe particularsof Surrey's education. With Petrarch.that Surrey's . among others. It is an important feature which distinguishesthe youngerfrom the older poet. there was also Henry Parker. Lord Morley. to whose excellence as a prose-writer and translator of Froissart we have already endeavoured to do justice. some- times for a considerablelength of time. too. had entertained Skelton at Sheriff Hutton. in her day. Duke of Norfolk. there was a succession of men during the reign of Henry VIII. was at all events well-intentioned. had been feted by the sensitive and imaginative poet in inspired verse. he became intimately acquainted. Brilliant Lord Rochford was his cousin on his father's side. who had a lively interest in poetry. Eminent scholars and writers frequently enjoyed the hospitality of the Howards.. Surrey's lyrics began to take flights to higher subjects and purer melody. Henry Howard had grownup in an atmosphere literary of interests-in nectedwith an appreciationfor learningand poetry. had patronized. in return. In the families related to. his own father (of the same name). who had succeeded to the title in 1524. One of these was Lord Berners. the scholar Clarke. and. yet this greatlyric-writer did not and exercise upon him the overpoweringinfluence he had obtained over Wyatt. and although not rendered in Wyatt's style. Thomas.

Surrey's bent of mind was naturally contemplative. In close association with all this. It can well be imagined that the court. Tendring Hall. become acquainted with young Richmond. The two monarchs then proceeded to Calais together. 1533. thoughts of splendid feats of arms. In 1532 both young men accompanied the King to Calais. rather increasing than checking the tastes he had inherited or acquired. at an early age. and Surrey was among those who followed him to Bologne.and that it proved both fascinating as well as repellent to him. the surroundings there had ripened his poetic temperament and given it a definite tendency. and hence he could give surer proof ot his independence when brought face to face with the Romanic influence on the Continent. which he may have inherited from his mother. and created Duke of Richmond in 1525. who had served at court as a child and attended King Henry as cup-bearer. Their friendship increased as years went on. Henry Fitz-Roy. Soon after this Henry sent his son to Paris to attend the university. And in addition to this there was Surrey's love of nature and his intimate acquaintance with all its beauties. a man much older than herself. and found nourishment in the opportunities which enabled them to meet from time to time. his . who had been forced by her family to break her troth with her beloved Westmoreland and to marry Thomas. must have made a great impressionupon a youth of Surrey's disposition. with a certain touch of melancholy. in Suffolk. and when Richmond returned to England in November. at his father's country-seat. its chivalrous jousts and tournaments. UP culture was more deeply rooted in the national soil than Wyatt's had been. Ideals of chivalry. where King Henry was to meet Francis I. yet. its beautiful women and gallant men. Earl of Surrey. and were met by Richmond on the way.238 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. who was born in 1518. which had been encouraged in him from childhood upwards. Surrey. must have. A similar effect was produced upon him by the romantic friendship which had sprung up between him and a natural son of the King's. and the love of women must soon have played a prominent part in the young poet's dreams. upon the whole. with all its brilliance.

golden the the mean. spirit of moderation. Probably not long after this Surrey wrote the poem which is the earliest production of his pen that has been preserved. his first son was born to him. he was dubbed a knight in October. that the two friends spent so delLhtful a time at the royal residence at Windsor. for Richmond became engaged to Surrey's only sister. 1536. was Surrey's first cousin. in 1534. g 239 friendship with Surrey became even more firmly cemented.what hopes they had of attainingthe happiness of their dreams. Lady Francis Vere. which Surrey looks back upon with sad memories twelve years afterwards. who was executed in May of that year. golden days. July brought even wrorse trouble. 1536. The year 1536. in small harmless adventures. for on the 22nd of the month the young Duke of Richmond died. had become betrothed the year before. that he must perfectly have understood-theoretically. as well as his father. Lord Thomas Howard. Surrey led home his wife the following year. was accused of high treason and sent to the Tower. In June his uncle. proved no less eventful and terrible to Surrey. but the wedding was postponed owing to extreme youth of the young couple. Surrey. a loss which Surrey felt for years afterwards. had found themselves obliged to take part in her trial. young Richmond. When at Windsor they had engaged in manly exercises and sports. and he. where he died two years afterwards. which had brought Wyatt so much trouble and joy. The marriage contract had been signed. Meanwhile his own career continued to prosper. his bride being a daughter of the Earl of Oxford. at least-the lessons of the ancientphilosophers poetsconcerning equanimityof and the mind befitting a wise man in times of good fortune as well asof misfortune. It was during this period of waiting. an honour which Wyatt had had conferred upon him the preceding spring. who had married the Lady Margaret Douglas without the King's consent. Anne Boleyn. in soft con- fidence. the Lady Mary Howard.SURREY'S YOUTH. and had imparted to each other. he had seen so much of life himself and what he had brought for others. Fate had no such happiness in store for his friend. and on the loth of March. . In spite of his youth. too.

1538. who. and during which he had given proof of his dexterity as a diplomatist. held in honour of the new Queen. at the funeral of Lady Jane Seymour. No fuller information exists as to what offices or other important mattersmay haveattachedhim to King Henry's entourage.. and in the following July he was divorced .1540." but an As may be seen from this first verse. whose appearance had disappointedHenry the very first time they met.24° with THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. where the Earl greatly distinguished himself. or at the brilliant tournament on the ist of May. and the simplicity of the strophic system. Henry. wasnot very fortunate in his wives. who. Elegance and grace are as yet but little apparent. above all. a second son. was born to him). On shallow shoresthey keel in perill freat. Anne of Cleves. and who. the poem is nothing imitation of one of Horace's well-known Odes. in the spring of 1539. 1540. and partly at court. becamemore distasteful to him. in which Surrey tries even to surpass the original. 1537 .and they were still less fortunate with him. soon after presentingthe King with the long-desired heir to his throne. after days of trouble and anxiety. English queens. again found himself in the full sunlight of royal favour- "Of thy life. this compass well mark: Not aye with full sails the high seasto beat: Ne by coward dread. It is merely on occasions of solemn court functions that his figure is seen in some eminent position : as at the Reception on New Year's Day. day by day. in those daysdid not. Anne of Cleves. these sentiments in his mind It was that he addressed his friend Thomas Wyatt. and the treatment of the versification reveals a disciple of Wyatt who had not yet attained full independence. in shonning stormesdark. when he brought the King a rich gift. Henry VIII. Thomas. was carried off by death in October. UP that should be observedin all things in life. characteristic in this attempt are two points : the concisenessof the poetical expression. as a rule. What is. occupy the throne for any length of time . The time which Wyatt had spent at the court of Charles V. had been married to him on the 6th of January. Surrey had spent partly in his own home (where.

for in September. even beyond the court circle. however.his father's influence.and burning severalof the towns. in fact. yet of great achievements he had as yet none to show. In the September following. he married Lady Catherine Howard. for the second time in this reign a niece of the Duke of Norfolk was wearing the English crown. and it turned out that even since her marriage. Surreywasnow somewhere aboutsix and twentyyearsof aee. the distinguishedposition of his family. and was executed in February. her life had been most culpable. His high rank. many scandalous things became known of Catherine's life before her marriage . She acknowledged her guilt. 1542. 1541. had scarcely begun. to promise him a brilliant future. Thus. George's Day of this same year Surreywas even installed Knight of the Garter. Twelve months later Surrey was present at the siege of R . and he was already well known and highly esteemed. 1542. the relation in which they stood to the King does not appear to have been affected by the tragic occurrence. In October. and led to no actionof anyimportance beyonddevastating country the through which they passed. 24! from her with the consent of the highest ecclesiastical and State authorities. he accompaniedhis father in a campaign against Scotland.SURREY AS A SOLDIER. Norfolk and his high-minded son must have deeply felt the disgrace brought upon their family by this member of it who had risen to so exalted a position . owing to the constrained rela- tions between the two countries. in the sameway as Wyatt's seemed to have destined him for diplomaticwork. who were to make an examination of the English fortressesin France. On St. In November. and his own talents seemed.however. but again it brought but little honour to the Howard family. however. the whenhetravelled to Guisnes in the retinue of Lord Russel and of the Earl of Southampton. The whole tendency of his nature had destined him for a soldier's life. lasted but a short time. which. with whom the Queen was this time directly connected. 1541. A brief preludeto his military activity wasmadetowards endof the year1540. he had been elected a Stewart of the University of Cambridge at the same time as his father. His actual career. and for thirteen months felt thoroughly happy in his new marriage.

.lidsummtir of the . influence upon him. NVyatt's :erminatin.cure. 'ere nrst Doubt and then Hope are -ho takes her stand upon the . with his prelim I s. . all nature. \t up >n his life. he had soon struck out a path of his own.p »eius is one which. tor. »the depths of S . . as it were. In his preferimple. u in \\arfare aiu! ile Surrey's poetical ability ha/ itself in a brilliant manner.>n of renewed life. and. IK . It opens wit i ivid description of \ . but he was preeminently disn :. .^entleaess fidelity of his mistress. concentrated in an idually awakening to new life . in addition to the English troops 6 place. there were tendencies more p >werfullyattra.»f his m . his nuliury cau\ reUmmarystudies were . and in the war with France he was entrusted with important * which he proved himself altogether competent. .the Emperor's array^ with all it^ \ and dirfe folios. circumspection. in sp:te of the rity which e of its origin. * . m nationalities >t weapon\. and nils all \ unclouded gladness. r. the light v us dreams of the night. theme pretty well used up at that day.for his untiru andchiv. \ the most original manner the alternatiiu Sol a K>verin the . h is worked up into a most .uite qualities in him. I \aucer.-.gains and the . The poet-lover alone e :o feel t . in his leaning towards *vhat was \ the n itional spirit."ily with the view to become more intimately acquainted with the military operations of the was "uiv weic i i. his talent burs' forth in full force. While .. The poem c. accordene from . And his d< learning could not have met with a moic tasvniaSe opportunity. of mind. nature is followed . throws a sigm .Hies. and a clear insight into wh..

m the in-. uJin ( Chaucer.Jn/iioui '/i being named in -uneciion..«>l<iui i h-i.Surrey'spo < tin. soon oui'-.<. it was Wyatt's influence wiu<h." and h( u the literary "-i iiiis r-i-/ioii.n< Oth<i I. ttcd '" >"" . and thus he is in reality the founder of the New-English metrical system. on " " ma the teacher to who been sent.UM! j. tih. And it is worthy of note thai the pupil. inn. The picture o( the la ill. technical siHe ot Ins po<uy. ( haucer.«ss. : but 1 ""i'1 rhyi ed finely worked '-m n ill is I i i-».. duped in short md pi. in his versification. but he is more successful than Wyatt in adapting foreign rules to the rhymical accent of the English language.) the I>M« i. th( \> > on tions.'ht fa/.y f I nm If Chaucer's inHuence upon Surrey shows it !! n. i. iii. i m n-i one ' il. as hi ii. «i«'..i.I I. is an interesting ex.-mistheir .1 mind. i e.d remained associated jn -li<. is found to aim at smoothness d regularity. It is much the sam .</iij! towardsthe future. this ic\ «-r. less i imou . one nji'.-.i ion i-*r nature.. afifecl d ' i i-^uial.y ' \. how -i " efully MUM. Wyatt.son's m* mory among the most cherished impress rhildh^od .hose K)l h<: ha.IM-.I portioni ""! the "Book <.mppedhis teacherin independence particularly. wrhu hasthe gn iti . and ihe same endeavour is met with in Surrey.«I--.mutely conn -I 'i with his appren.tailed .v<" th< iluw <*i his r-. who had im<>htrusively i the other hand. Wyatt.!!.mi y 'A. nl.lioiild not have l>e«-n overlooked.i« lHti( I in 1l»'- i even is ri [arcfa tn and m( IJTi i .-<>\ the ' ->ntmuity of tradition i'> whicfi Mn^lihli po«-ny <.atun > il i where he ri^t . part jn hi .u abo eChaucei j. j.mi|> his fine appreciationof the peculiaritiesof nother-tongue.1 ii <lnui 10 i!.into whai i. hr less.1.""ount «>ihi i own il ttc -.uly tli> ! tC< l".'.been ih« intimate friend in Surrey's parental home.m l.u« i. within ihe sphere of human symp.. .-iih/. " ng to ihio'.m Li'/ihrr '* II P >/' were lo<>1«*ll'-r in variousdirections.SUKKKY AS A ROE! 243 The poem i. -.i. in most points. A 'I II--H: .. :JM'! drawii it were.beginning pn-pares us for Milton's "Allegro. . ti ind "i." The <i..i place.

too. but in all his poetry there are only two instances of his employing the otta>a rima. in Surrey. Surrey. in place of proceeding from the subject The high-sounding n >tes sometimes struck by Wyatt. likewisemanifestsa closerrelation to he the national poetry. And. av >i led whit was inelegantand comm>nplace he. Another systemhe is fond of employing is the four-lined stanza with alternate rhymes. the poet is fond of accentuating the close of the poem by a rhymed-couplet of the same species. of nervous force. He shows a preference for the rhymed-couplets formed of alexandrines and seven-footed lines. Once or twice he has made use of the terza rima . too. proves to be under the influence of his predecessors. in many ways. at times. poetical diction. wasfond of surprising . he. In his systemsof versification. sustained. too. by makinguse of alliterationby way of ornament to a much greater extent than does Wyatt. Yet he exhibits much less variety. Of foreign poetry Surrey had studied the Italians even . he studiously adopts a simpler and more straightforward style than in his other poems. as Surrey almost invariably choosesor constructs forms in keeping with the spirit of the English language. for which reason his diction is more equal. Surrey. And as this form shows a resemblance to the popular ballad style. meet with poetic or rhetorical embellishments which appear to exist only on their own account. There is also that freer form of sonnet which through Surrey's example became the customary one in the English lyric poetryof thesixteenth century.too. which were only very occasionally made use of by Wyatt who had introduced them. or even the playful and griceful method in which he is occasionally successful.244 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. ponderous forms.and. threequatrains followed by a rhymed-couplet. Surreyscarcely ever follows or even tries to follow. was not satisfied with the first expression found . we do not as frequently. and much lessfrequently handles artificial. we find that whenever Surrey employs it. But he does not so frequently fall into conventional unnaturalness as Wyatt. in tiie construction of his strophes. he. and captivatinghis readersby bold inversions and imagery. of simple dignity and unaffected gracefulness. Where such stanzas consist of heroic verse. knew what it meant to have the right word in the right place.

And in spite of the similarity of the situations and of certain fundamental motives. of course. and is said to occur sometimes even in our modern poets. whether of form or matter. which has been permitted to poets in almost every epoch without prejudice to their originality. yet only on the rarest occasions (generally in his Sonnets) do we find him translating or even imitating the great Italian. and. which consists altogether of six" Alas ! how oft in dreams I see Those eyesthat were my food . in a species of stanza not otherwise met with in Surrey. Two poems which place the poet's objectivity and power of imagination in a bright light belong to the last month of the year 1540. The greater portion of Surrey's lyrics are. the other presents. reminding one of Middle-English sounds.SURREY'S EROTIC POETRY. 245 more than he had the Latin poets. That yet they do me good: . perhaps and evenmoregraceful. on the other hand. in the other to those who are in the same position as herself. he owes most to Petrarch. In both poems the sorrowing wife appeals to other women to mourn with her-in the one case to those who are more fortunate than she is. more epic form of diction. the construction and attitude of the two poems is as dissimilar as their metrical form. Like Wyatt. Which sometimeso delighted me. The one. It is a distinctly Teutonic trait that the yearning and sorrow so affectingly expressed there are represented as coming from the loving wife rather than from the husband. His earliest love-poems may have included poetical studies-translations from Petrarch and such things-some of which no longer exist. Surrey was abroad at the time-perhaps for the first time in his young married life-and thus separated from his wife by the sea. I quote the last four stanzas of the first poem. thought or image. only in rare casesdoes he betray any French influence. of the erotic species. is moreelegantin expression. owing to the purer impress of its lyrical character. the customary in system unequalrhymedof couplets. with a fuller elaboration of detail. As a rule we find only that free utilizing of reminiscences. a more straightforward.

or no. my Sometimethe roaring seas. Rejoice their chief delight. Alas ! now drencheth my sweetfoe. where I shall find him. That with the spoil of my heart did go. But when I me awake. And me tormentelh so that uneath may I find Some hiddenplace. of all my great unrest.246 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. And with a kiss. his little son. Assail my restless mind.But duringthis winter a changecameover him which-althoughit left . no !" Compare this with a passagefrom the second poem" The fearful dreams I have.whereinto slakethegnawingof my mind. do That my dear Lord. doth make me burn: absent flame But when I find the lack. but. And playing. And saith : * My dear. And left me. Now he comes ! will he come ? alas ! no. Thus is my wealth mingled with woe : And of each thought a doubt doth grow. Brt ak forth and me dischargenclean. and find it but a dream.' Then lively doth he look. Thy presence bringeth forth a truce betwixt me and my care. " When other lovers in arms is it now that you haveall this pain? Wherewith the heavy cares. My doubtful hope doth causeme pain. Wherewith Whose I wake with his return.that heap'd are in my breast. oft-times they grieve me so. The anguishof my former woe beginneth more extreme. I stand in doubt. and saluethme again. " And in green waves when the salt flood Doth rise by rage of wind . To chase from me annoy. if they be true. ay me ! alas ! methinks I seehim die. Welcome. alas ! why did he go. methinks I say: 'Now welcomehome. A thousand fancies in that mood. I stand the bitter night In my window. Another time the same. to mourn my loss. doth tell me he is come. That when I wake. my knight." Surrey returned home beforeChristmas. with T. " And when the seaswax calm again. grow so high. So dread cuts off my joy. So forth I go apaceto seethat lile-somesight. Drowned in tears. where I may see Before the winds how the clouds flee : Lo ! what a mariner love hath made of me. alas ! the stay of my welfare . Lord ! how I mourn.

was even increased by the charm which surrounded her in her humble circumstances. had nominally acted as Lord High Commissioner to the King of England. in early times. a daughter of Thomas Grey.. till a rebellion. in which many members of the family had taken part. since these days. and hence related to the royal House of England. at Hunsdon. the beautiful Geraldine-for so she is called by the poet-made such an. On a subsequent occasion." Another legend speaks of the family as a branch of the Geraldi. According to a tradition accepted by many. 247 liis relation to hie wife undisturbed-gave quite a new form of life to his poetry. Surrey's Laura was the Lady Elizabeth of the old Norman family of the Fitzgeralds or Geraldines. the Fitzgeralds were descended from the Norwegian mariner Ohthern.* had. but the fascination exercised by her personal appearance and her nature. Earl of Kildare. Gerald Fitzgerald. lived in the poorest circumstances. Marquis of Dorset. but in matter or fact had played the part of an independent Viceroy of Ireland. notwithstanding the high rank of her family and the old and somewhat romantic glory of her name. at a royal festival at Hampton Court. It formed the beginning of his lyrics in the languishing style of the Troubadours. and had played a conspicuous part there. she was still on the borders between childhood At that time and woman- hood. Her father. and mother of Henry VIII. The mother. . the account of whose voyages King Alfred has preserved to us in his u Ososius. compelled the English Government to resort to measuresof severity. which had settled in Ireland some time previously.who. had been sent to England at a tender age. The latter version of the story was the one which Surrey appears to have accepted. The Lady Elizabeth. who was born in the Emerald Island. and thence passed over to England. It was at Hunsdon that she first saw the Earl of Surrey. love-sighs after the manner of Petrarch. daughter of Edward IV. and was educated in the household of the Princess Mary. migrated from Florence to Normandy. and for the literary * Thomas Grey was a step-brother of Elizabeth.SURREY'S GERALDINE. impression upon him that he elected her mistress of his heart and of his Muse.

and of being relieved of his weary burden. most part in discord.he enjoys hearing the birds warbling . as thawe'd ice should melt." Here the poet. seems well acquainted with all the torments to which a hopeless lover is subject. the one so hot. For some time Surrey was content to worship his ladylove in silence. that. these glances. were he a stone. which. therefore. He enjoys the sprouting their thanks to Nature for the happiness of their loves. when in all artlessnessshe had been enjoying lively converse with the Earl. she met with cold surprise. that whoso tastes the same. buds and blossoms. while his lady has partaken of the latter. Of a similar kind is the poem in whichagain following Petrarch's but also Ariosto's track-he describes the " wayward ways of love. A lovely poem which betrays Chaucer's influence. whereby our hearts but seldom do accord.but tne contemplationof all this happiness makeshim all the more conscious of his own sad plight. And with the spot of changeinfects the mind. after the manner of a schoolgirl.248 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY'S UP DEATH. Even the story which subsequently came to be woven round the poet and his relations to Geraldine is connected with this family legend. it seems. and makes it all the more difficult to bear. leaving home and setting out for the open country in the hope of being refreshed by reawakened nature. and then says that he has drunk of the former." the other so cold that its- " Chilling venom of repugnant kind The fervent heat doth quench of Cupid's wound. die nel pensier mio vive e regna. our wills do stand.left the young beauty suddenly silent. indeed. ." In another Sonnet Surrey speaks of the two springs in " Cyprus. and in particular his " Parlement of Foules. on a spring morning. historian also it pleasantly enough symbolizes the origin of that species of poetry with which the Lady Elizabeth inspired the Earl." producing indifference and inconstancy. he becomes madly enraged." shows us Surrey. Probably there is some reference to this-unless. betraying his feelings at most by glances. from his own bitter experience. it belongs to an earlier date-in the poem which is a translation of the same sonnet of Petrarch's which Wyatt had already turned into English : " Amor.

Her beauty of Kind . when all nature is in a state of deep peace. The poem in which he ventures to do this stands at the head of Surrey's poetical works . and as he employs the terza rima in skilful and careful construction. Bright is herhue.e 'I vento tace. Honsdon did first present her to mine eyen : Hampton me taught to wish her first for mine.SONNETS TO GERALDINE. While there he wrote the sonnet which world the secret of his loveFair Florence was sometime her ancient revealed to the " From Tuscan camemy Lady's worthy race . alas ! doth chaseme from her sight. her virtues from above. who had carried matters too far in some quarrel-the cause of which is unknownwas imprisoned for some weeks. and defies its power. her dame of Prince's blood. seat. there are reminiscences from the " Compleynte to Dame Pitie " of which." In the summer of 1542 Surrey. he says that even at night. to beseech her to show him some return of affection. a lovely imitation of * Cf.andGeraldine flight. Since I have hid under my breast the harm That never shall recover healthfulness. bena. With a King's child . there is no rest for him. there is a continuation in the terza-rima form" The sun hath twice brought forth the tender green. but not his peace of mind. 249 curses love. she Happy is he than can obtain her love !" Surrey recovered his freedom. Foster'd she was with milk of Irish breast: Her sire an Earl. for in addition to strains reminding one of Petrarch. as is well known.* Finally he takes courage and determines to open up his heart to his mistress. . at first in the Fleet. The western isle whose pleasant shore doth face Wild Camber'scliffs. However. it proves itself a product of his Italian studies. And once again begins their cruelness . From tender years in Britain did she rest. who tasteth ghostly food. and from the ist to the 5th of August in Windsor Castle. so all things now do Hold tnetr ptatel" Petrarch's Or che 'I del e la. first gave her lively heat. his "harms have ever since increased more and more/' and he remains without love's help " undone for ever more. "Alas. Twice clad the earth in lively lustiness: Once have the winds the trees despoiled clean. And Windsor. but of his study of Chaucer as well.

how I do find my sore ! And if I flee. repeating.he probably learned to show patience. alas ! may serve for to disarm The frozen heart.25O THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREY'S DEATH. Gradually poetbecomes the morehopeful. and by my death be seen. What warmth. For I. may be quoted here as speciallycharacteristic the poet'ssympatheticcontemplaof tion of nature- " The soote [sweet] season. yet my sorrow and springs.that bud and bloom forth brings. The hart hath hung his old head on the pale. The adder all her slough away she flings . and I may plain my fill Unto myself." Surrey's confession love doesnot appearto have been of graciouslyaccepted his mistress first.that wither thus and fade ? Alas ! I seenothing hath hurt so sore t time. The busy bee her honey now she mings . The nightingale with feathersnew shesings. at all eventshis by at complaints are continued in various forms. The winter's hurt recovers the warm." In this same tone the poet continues his complaint. I carry with me still The venom'd shaft which doth his force restore By haste of flight. At the end he says" Lo ! if I seek. The turtle to her make [mate] hath told her tale. Summer is come. The fishes with new repaired scale . One Sonnet. With green hath clad the hill. that mine inflame hath made? What cold again is able to restore My fresh green years. Rue on my life ." also learned to be satisfied with little. The buck in brake his winter coat he flings . and eke the vale. with The parchedgreen restored is with shade. Amid his love-troubles he . or else your cruel wrong Shall well appear. alas ! in silenceall too long. Of mine old hurt yet feel the wound but green.summing up. probably from the spring of 1543. Each caredecays. unless this careful song Print in your heart some parcel of my will. at all events he And thus I seeamong these pleasantthings. for every spray now springs. sometime reduceth a return : t time my hurt increasethmore and more. and varying earlier motives. The swift swallow pursueththe flies smale. Winter is worn that was the flowers' bale.

. In temperateheat. or in longest day. But pains contentedstill endure.SONNETS TO GERALDINE. Set me in high. Shall I not learn to suffer then ? And think my life well spent to be. In presence prest of people. In lusty youth. As it by writing sealedwere: And virtues hath she many mo' Than I with pen have skill to show. In clearest sky. So after raging storms of care. evil fame or good. although my chancebe nought. Or brightest day the darkest night. Or where his beams do not dissolve the ice . or at large. mad or wise. Serving a worthier wight than she?' " Therefore I never will repent. in earth. ye lovers. For like as when. here before That spent your boastsand bragsin vain. 2$ I remembers the troubles and anxieties of the Greeks at the siege of Troy and says "Then think I thus : * Sith suchrepair So long time war of valiant men. or yet in low degree. Sick. In longestnight." And goes on to sing as Horace and Petrarch had done in their day"Set me whereasthe sun doth parch the green. or where the clouds thickest be . alive where-so I dwell. My lady's beauty passethmore The best of yours. Was all to win a lady fair." And with joyful pride he praises his beloved as the most perfect of Nature's works" Give place. or Thrall. or in health. rough winter spent. Joyful at length may be my fare. wherehe is felt and seen. or else in hell. Hers will I be. or dale. and only with this thought Content myself. I dare well say'n That doth the sun the candle light. "And thereto hath a troth asjust As had Penelope fair . or when my hairs are grey : Set me in heav'n. the For what she saith ye may it trust. in In hill. in the foaming flood. The pleasant spring straight draweth in ure.

' She could not make the like again. Now certes. there-the . Sir Anthony Brown. should at times show mild attacks of jealousy. Of other Braces follow needs there must. To match the candle with the sun.252 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH." A poemwhich may have beenwritten in France in the summerof 1544describes-like the Allegro-Penseroso mentionedabove 243). I know it. if that I would. And this was chiefly all her pain .' " Sith Nature thus gave her the praise To be the chiefest work shewrought. And what she said. Than to compare. let not thy mind infect: But mercyhim thy friend that doth thee serve. I. The like to whom shecould not paint: With wringing hands. UP " I could rehearse. How thou art made to shew her greatestskill. as ye have done. how shedid cry. Where beauty so her perfect seed hath sown. Whose hidden virtues are not so unknown. who is unwearied in the assurancesof his own constancy. since all this is true. There was no loss by law of kind That could have gone so near her heart. Garret. Nor changeof minds.but not in the formadopted (p. and hence it is natural that the poet. When she had lost the perfit mould. Who seeksalway thine honour to preserve. and accepted his harmless courtesies. In a tenderSonnet he reminds his belovedof her duty" The golden gift that Nature did thee give. Such a relation necessarily presupposeson the lady's side a certain amount of coquetry. But lively domesmight gather at the first. methink ! somebetter ways On your behalf might well be sought. With form and favour taught me to believe. who had meanwhile married an elderly man. That from abovethy gifts are thus elect. To fastenfriends. In faith. " I know sheswore with raging mind Her kingdom only set apart. began to find pleasure in the Earl's devotion. Do not deface them then with fancies new." Geraldine. and feed them at thy will. The whole effect of Nature's plaint.

but very soon repented the step he had taken. and the poet expressedhimself more and more bitterly against the cruelty. increased by the late events. the faithful Earl was insulted by his lady . however. love of admiration. The poems characteristic of this period. my will it is that still shekeep my heart. rather die a thousand times.SURREY'S SONNETS. but of the origin of this dispute there is no reliable information. with the same motive as in the case already referred to" Why should I mistrust So sweeta wight. He had the eventful campaign in which he had played a conspicuous part and where he had narrowly escaped death to look back upon. partly also by an allegorico-epic ibr. so wise. when he invited her to dance. Somewhere in December of that same year Surrey returned to England. however. And when this carcase here to earth shall be refar'd. Hope comes off victorious. and. Meanwhile matters became worse. Soon a misunderstanding arose between them. And if my feeblecorpse. so sad. alternatingfeelings the between fear and hope which fill his heart when separated from his mistress. I do bequeathmy wearied ghost to serve her afterward. His feeling of self-confidence. From day to day the estrangement between them increased . the poet writes as though he were an onlooker or reporter of what had occuired. and all f which are written in the sort of bal'ad-style referred to above. waile . that is so true and just? For loath she was to love. As a rule. or faint. through weight of woful smart Do fail. again. than once to false my faith. addressesher in a tone of apparent indifference with biting satire." The eternal service referred to here was to be of short duration. may have rendered him less disposed to put up with the waywardness. he vows that*' Yea. at last. The further off the more desired.ii of presentation. 253 lover'sstateof incessant restlessness. Surrey took his revenge in a poem. and wavering is shenot. whom he thereupon renounces. he was ' contemptuously refused. Here. and fickleness of his mistress. At a court ball.the small or great capriciousness in his mistress. are distinguished by lifelike objectivity." At the close of the poem.

And to myself I said. and. ' Alas ! those days In vain were spent.' And with that thought I met my guide. who is not mentioned by name. They shine less by what is called intellect. sometimes by a despairing shepherd. in accordance with heraldic inferences. soon after he had been made Governor of Boulogne. d Brought me amidst the hills in baseBullayne Where I am now. but in inward richness. this . he wrote the following sonnet. sometimes by a friend to whom he offers good advice. but is easily recognized. Out of the way wherein I wander* wrong. A friend and a new favourite of Geraldine's replied to this cutting satire in the same strain and the sameform of verse. in they surpassthem. the difficulty does not so much arise from the form-which is almost invariably clear-as fro MI the subject-matter. as restless to remain Seemed of late to rue upon my wrong. Surrey was. UP his own part in the drama is represented some other by figure-sometimes by a lion which. originality. Simple truth is their distinguishing feature. which is frequently of greater depth than at first appears. till I saw faith more strong. and gives a merciless picture of the behaviour of the lady. That thought by flight my painful heart to please Someother way. In the last poem of this order Surrey envelops himself in the mantle of a careless onlooker. Against my will full pleasedwith my pain. to run the race so long. the last of his love-poems. even though they are occasionally difficult to understand. And I forthwith did pressout of the throng. is opposed to a white she-wolf. than by depth of feeling.254 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH.Wyatt to cultured life. that plain. not quite cured of his love. nevertheless." Surrey's love-poemsexhibit outwardly less fulness and variety than Wyatt's. That hath alway beenen'my to mine ease. Surreystood closerto nature. from which it is evident that before his departure he had made a vain endeavour to forget Geraldine in a new love"The fancy. He was still full of it when he had again to leave for France at midsummer 1545 to open the last and eventful campaign of his military career. And bade me fly the cause of my misease. which that I have servedlong. In September of that year.

." the terza rima of which. which is written with graceful discrimination. and that his lyrics contain few things beyondhis lovepoems. at all events. the same thought is worked out in all seriousness in his " Satire. apt to brood deeply over matters-sometimes made his quick. at an earlier date. It was written in April. may have acted under the influence of wine. therefore. in lines of eight syllables. went at midnight . still. that his lively imagination-which was. at a later date. 255 accounts for the fact that in Surrey's poems we do not meet with anything comparable to the satires of the elder poet." It is scarcely possible that this can be a wilful untruth.. but excused his misdemeanour in an extraordinary way . I." The epigrammatical charactersketch which the Italian Renaissance delighted in. upon the "happy life.SURREY AS A SATIRIST. who was still a young man. They resembled the manner of Papal Rome in her corruptest state. for Surrey felt the . is represented by his Sonnet on Sardanapalus." he. nevertheless. where Surrey was a prisoner at the time for having-in company with Thomas Wyatt the younger. in the Fleet Prison. besides which.. to remind them of the suddenness of that punishment which the Scriptures tell us Divine Justice will inflict on impenitent sinners. he maintained that he had been led to the act because " it grieved me to see the licentious manners of the citizens of London. . 1543. Ad se ipsum. A curiousproduction is his " SatireAgainst the Citizens of London. there are among his poems others of a kindred species which owe their origin to personal attachment. for such would be as little in keeping with Surrey's character as it would be a proof of his wisdom . determine both the date of its origin and the character of the poem. wrote an admirable imitation of Martial's verses.. In the same way as Surrey. The Earl. had sung in praise of the " golden mean. impulsive actions afterwards appear to him to have the semblance of some higher justification. and young Pickering-caused disturbance to the citizens of London by shooting stones at their windows from a crossbow. It is mainly his relation to Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder that comes into consideration here." It shows.

that out of Persia chased Darius. As on T stithy. A visagestern. above all. what worthy sepulture. Who feignedgests of heathenprinces sung. in his mind . but never none shall hit. Where Rulers may seein a mirror clear. The stedfasthope. To Wyatt's Psalmsshould Christians then purchase? Where he doth paint the lively faith. And virtue sank the deeperin his breast: Such profit he of envy could obtain. In the rich ark Dan Homer's rhymeshe placed. in virtue to rejoice: Amid great storms. where some work of fame Was daily wrought. The bitter fruit of falseconcupiscence . warmestsympathyand admiration for him. Surrey probably had Henry VIII. To live upright. that serv'd in foreign realmshis king . Whose hammers beat still in that lively brain. How Jewry bought Unas' death full dear. however. which we will add here" Wyatt resteth here. and smile at fortune's choice. . It is certain that Surrey did not regard the wondrous saint who occupied the English throne at the time. a worthy guide to bring Our Englishyouth. Of just David. A hand. an Elegy written in the form of an epitaph. Ought them awake out of their sinful sleep." In referring to the " sinful sleep" of princes. with the respectful demeanour of Wyatt. by travailuntofame. A tongue. who was so loyal and yet so moderate. A mark. to turn to Britain's gain. The following Sonnetwaswritten on Wyatt's paraphrase the Psalmsof " The great Macedon. whom Ljraceassuredso. and pure. the which (unperfectedfor time) Some may approach. A head. -"here wisdom mysteriesdid frame. Wyatt's death drew from his friend Surrey two Sonnets of warm appreciation.of whose huge powerall Asiarung. and mild . where both did grow Vice to contemn . the sweetreturn to grace. that taught what might be said in rhyme . by many. That reft Chaucer the glory of his wit. that quick could never rest: Whoseheavenlygitts increasedby disdain . by perfect penitence. In Princes' hearts God's scourgey-printed deep. What holy grave. Whose courteous talk to virtue did inflame Each noble heart.256 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREYS UP DEATH. been found to contain allusions to that monarch. even his sketch of Sardanapalus has.

The celebrated Hadrian Junius. His interests in art and learning were many-sided : he was a highly cultured Maecenasas well as the leading poet of his day. but as much in his verses on Thomas Clere. and at whose invitation Junius c<me to England. To swell in wealth. and ran the race. 1545. whosejudgment no effect could blind. Which left. and thus became indebted to him for a life free from care .the heavenspossess ghost. Clere saved the life of his severely wounded master and received himself. Lived. or yieLl unto mischance. And these traits are manifested not only towards Wyatt. he received irorn Surrey a pension and a suit- ableresidence his country-seat Kenninghall. with such as covet Christ to know. and his grateful remembrance of services and kindnesses rendered. where dread was never so imprest To hide the thought that might the truth advance. this jewel have we lost. and foes to reconcile . But to the heavensthat Dimplesoul is fled. In neither fortune loft." his Prominent and pleasant features in Surrey's character are his cheerful recognition of the merits of others. but for toes. Another at at member of the Earl's household was young Thomas Churchyard. Thus for our guilt. An eye. reposed. Witness of faith. The intervalsof leisurewhich his military careerleft him. A valiant corpse. The earth his bones. 257 Whosepiercing look did representa mind With virtue fraught. S .SURREY A PATRON OF ART AND LEARNING. Of manhood'sshape. the most prolific of the poets who 1 nked that period with the Elizabethan era. A heart. alas ! too happy. his faithful friend and attendant. that nature set.where shethe mould did lose. on that occasion. his deep appreciation for true friendship. that he owed his whole mental culture to the Earl's generosity. whose acquaintance Bonner had made at the siege ot Landrecy. Churchyard recognized in after years.void of guile. nor yet represt. Friends to allure. a wound the consequences of which proved fatal on the 14th of April. For plastic art. with gratitude. Surrey did not devote entirely to the developmentof his talent as a lyric-writer. at the siege of Montreuil. Sent for our health. but not received so. found a home in Surrey's family as housephysician. that never shall be dead . where forceand beautymet: Happy.

Surrey had a cultivated taste. To none of the poets of that day did Vergil's spirit stand in as close a relation as to Surrey. or Francesco Maria Molza-and like Schiller long years after him. His Italian predecessor had set him an example in this. too. Like an Italian poet who had preceded him by a short period-whether Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. and the Fourth containing the development and catastropheof the Dido episode-they seemedas if created for Surrey. he could not possibly have been ignorant of other Italian attempts of a similar kind. but the Earl was not destined to enjoy his palatial residence in its full splendour beyond a few years The period which saw the palace completed was probably also the period during which Surrey made his translation of Vergil. In his case. whether in the domain of the drama or in elegies. also. it was an attempt in the epic style. UP too. Surrey confined his translation to these two Books. The building was completed about the year 1543. near Norwich. Surrey chose the heroic verse. had tried his hand at it. The Latin poet stood incomparably nearer to all the educated persons of that era than he does to the present generation.more especially. However this may be. and was the first edifice of the kind that England had to show. This wasthe case. and if Surrey was unaware of it. with those two Books of the ^Eneid which have enjoyed the full interest of every epoch-the Second with the account of the downfall of Troy. Leonard's Hill. which was built in the noble forms of a purely Grecian style of architecture. and in his " Songof lopas" made the attempt to develop Vergilian suggestionson the Ptolemaic system.258 THE RENAISSANCE TO SURREY^DEATH. For a short time " Mount Surrey " became a very home of the Muses. Wyatt. and the selection of a measure for his epic was thus a matter of great importance. with his so-called blank-verse Surrey handed over to English poetry a form of art without which its whole further development inconceivable. an almost inevitable custom for such an undertaking in those days. but in doing this Surrey was the first Englishman to make the successfulventure of using this verse in simple successionwithout any connecting rhymes. and he devoted much time and attention to erecting a new and magnificent country-seat on St. It may be doubted is .

nevertheless disturb the illusion by introducing unusual. although vividly graphic. . Still. Numerous passages. And in pregnant brevity and elegance. in the case of a compositionin independentlines. the later translation. makes an entirely different impression. However. BishopDouglas's translation the ^Eneid did not existin of print at the time. in the happiestmanner. already shows a certain variety and. and in longer poems the modern reader would. those who take into consideration the demands of the epic style. The manner in which he handles the blankverse cannot. the Scotch " Eneados " can in no way compare with Surrey's version. still. doubt that any other form of verse than blank-verse would only have proved a drawback to the full development of his matchless works of art. as regards the position of the pauses. as a whole. Still. be compared with the fully developed method of later writers. occasionally whole lines. With much greater consistency than his predecessor. Occasional harshnesses the accentuation may in * The first edition was publishedin 1553. it cannot be denied that to Surrey is due the credit of having furnished his fellow-countrymen with the first translation of an ancient poet that can rank as a masterpiece. and do not undervalue the difficulties of a first effort. in Surrey'stranslation give evidence of the influence exercised upon him by the Bishop of Dunkeld. BLANK-VERSE. as a rule. however. taken as a whole. which. and especially all such expressions which. modern ideas into the ancient world.* and yet it was well known to Surrey.often meets the requirements the preof sentation. and he did not hesitate to make use of it.SURREY'S/ENEID. a speciesof versewith greater epic breadth would perhaps have been more suitable. will fully appreciate the nervous construction of Surrey's verse. Hence. it is not deficient either in vivid animation or dignity. unwillingly miss rhyme.Surrey avoids all that is trivial and inelegant in expression. 250 whetherthis speciesof versewas the appropriate form for the object he had immediatelyin view. particularly of the dramatic poets. Many portions of the English translation are admirable . there is " Paradise Lost" to remind theorizers that there are exceptions even to this rule. except with injustice. and if other parts exhibit a certain demureness. No theorizer acquainted with Shakspere's dramas can.

among other things. For the second time.probably by the fact that the poet was not destined to put the final touches to his work. therefore. As Governor of Boulogne he showed the greatest zeal in his duties. After a life rich in experiences. had more and more to be devoted to military affairs. Rest was foreign to his nature. a schemefor driving the French from the positionsthey had gained possession of. when no opportunity offered itself for action-and Memorial in connection this must often have occurred-he with the alterations to be made was in busily occupied in making projects. towards the end of his life. partly. the Duke of Hertfordwasappointedthe King's lieutenant-general within the English pale in France. his own responsibility. On this occasion the remembrance of the happy days he had spent there in his youth in Lord Richmond's company. for. Surrey. As a result of this he was arrested and taken to Windsor towards the middle of July. the hot-tempered man gave wayto violent and recklessexpressions insulting to Hertford and irritating to the King. on which resultedin the battle of St. However. whose health was failing. Surrey had vowed he would be avenged on Hertford under Henry's successor.Impatient and exasperated by this treatment. be accountedfor by thestill imperfectlydeveloped character of the English language. while Surrey was recalled to England to give the King an oral statement with regard to his plans for the proposed altera- tions in the fortifications. at first. led to his taking active measures. then. in January. the royal residencebecamehis prison. Surrey's activity. sooner had Surrey left Boulogne than Lord Grey de Wilton was made Governor of the town in his place. and which endangered the safety of the town.and in disin tractions. 1546. shortly afterwards. to which he gave . Thus he drew up a the fortifications of Boulogne.260 THE RENAISSANCE UP TO SURREYS enterprise that did not prove as successful as he had anticipated. received no further reward than generalpromises and indefinite prospects. An unexpected occurrence. A few months later he found himself removed from the command of the army. In return for all the faithful serviceshe had rendered. The contrast between the past and present filled the poet with deep melancholy. interests. forced itself upon his mind. Etienne.

Image after image in rises up before him from bygone days. Echo.SURREY'S " PARAPHRASES. Returnsthereto a hollow sound of plaint. Meanwhile the ailing King was rapidly approaching the end of his days. both language and versification reveal the mature artist. and in the end he exclaims- " * O place of bliss ! renewer of my woes ! Give me account. still. In more than one passage the final touches of the poet's own hand are missed. Want of caution on the part of the Howards gave their adversariesan advantagethey * Cf. t Cf. and their enviable woes. In prison pine. followed the leadership of the Howards. each image only increases his longing. Laid in my quiet bed. their pleasuresfree from all care. the advocates for a complete reformation recognized as their head the Earl of Hertford. and ever keener around his bed of sickness. To this period belongs. Prince Edward's uncle on his mother's side. probably. which included the majority of the older nobility. where is my noble frere ? Whom in thy walls thou did'st each night enclose. became the struggle of the two parties who were fighting for England's study as I were. . where all my freedom grew. f the sudden change in his own position and various other experiences had made him sceptical about so-called happiness. When Windsor walls sustainedmy wearied arm} and My Ratcltf^ when thy reckless youth offends. Thus I alone. alas ! that doth my sorrow rue. and the King's were not slow to make use of. To banish the less.* The poet felt himself getting old before his time. comprising the first five chapters from the Scriptures. Surrey's old opponent. but unto me most dear. with bondageand restraint: And with remembranceof the greater grief. and the spirit is also successfully rendered. his sadness. The conservative party. but the elegiac mood continued for months. To other lief. I find my chief relief." 261 full expression a well-known elegy. Surrey was declared to be favourite at the time." Surrey's imprisonment lasted only a few weeks. his metrical paraphrase of Ecclesiastes. in their endeavour to obtain the upper hand during the minority of the heir to the throne.

alas ! and now is dead. . Danger well delight. For the default is set a pain foreknown. hath made this prison free. was said to be involved in various suspicious proceedings.262 THERENAISSANCE TOSURREY'S UP DEATH." Surrey'strial took place on the i3th of January. Surrey had to appear before the Privy Council on the ist of December. entertaining ambitiousand treasonableintentions. is only blest] Thraldom at large. together with the trust in God felt by a man who acknowledges himself guilty in face of the Eternal Judge. No company so pleasantas mine own. the clouds are overblown . but guiltless in face of his earthly judges. On the igth or. and Surrey's own sister testified against him. But when my glass presentethunto me The curelesswound that bleedeth dayand night. Witnesses were called with the view of obtaining from their declarationsa plea for a formal charge. where heapsof griefs were grown. that hath no heart to fight To spill that blood. He was condemned to death as a traitor for having assumed on his shield quarteringswhich interfered with the rights of the King and of the Prince of Wales.wise enough not to accept her testimonyin the formalcharge subsequently drawn up against him. the Duke of Norfolk.1547. His adversaries-unlikesome later historians-were. And in the heart. And humble cheregreat rigour hath represt. To think. The sweetrevengehath planted mirth and rest. By degrees Surrey became reconciled to his fate . that hath so oft beenshed For Britain's sake.and his father. alas ! suchhap should granted be Unto a wretch. remembered. On the I2th of the same month both he and his father were sent to the Tower. [Who lives in privacy. Of ling'ring doubts such hopeis sprung. The poet's state of mind during the time of his last imprisonment is reflected in his poetical Paraphrase of some of the Psalms. And patiencegraft in a detenned breast. The deepest mental emotion finds its expression here. however. the last poem that we have from his pen-according to the testimony of his own sonbreathes a spirit of resignation so far as a man of his dispositioncould be resigned'* The stormsare past. pardie ! That nought I find displeasantin my sight.

The Duke of Norfolk remained a prisoner till the successionof Queen Mary. A few days afterwards.DEATH OF SURREY. but what he did accomplish has not been lost to posterity. unfortunately only a few days too late. Surrey's tragic end in the flower of vigorous manhood was an immense loss to English poetry. King Henry died. . 263 the 2oth of January his head fell on the scaffold. Great things he might still have accomplished.



Thefollowing notesrefer to passages Vol. II. (Part /.). in birth I adhere meanwhile to the traditional date 1324, for I see as little necessity for moving it back (with Lechler and Matthew)

To p. 5, 1.7 from below.-With regard to the year of Wyclifs

to about 1320,as for bringing it (with Buddensieg)forward to
about 1330.

To p. 8, 1.17.-The pamphlet against Gamier.-For what reasons does Matthew ( The English Works of W., ed.E.E. T.S., 1880,p. xiii.), I should be glad to know, refer this tract to the beginningof the reign of Richard II. ? To p. 18, 1.2.-A critical examinationof Wyclifs works started
by Shirley in the Catal. and the Fasc. Ztz. has scarcely as yet touched the works written in English ; however, in connection with his Latin works a very good commencement has been made

by Lechler, and above all by Buddensieg in his Lat. Streit-

schriften. The question of their chronological order is by no means satisfactorily settled, and even as regards the genuineness of some of the treatises published by Arnold and Matthew, all sorts of uncertainties and doubts remain to be solved (even where no mention of them is made by the editors). I shall here refer only to the circumstance still in need of explanation that the passages from the Bible quoted as texts of sermons and otherwise, in the Sermons published by Arnold, do not altogether correspond with the wording of Wyclifs Bible.-A careful examination is above all necessary with regard to the relation in which the English tracts and sermons stand to the Latin ones,

and, in fact, not only in such cases where the question deals
with different forms of a treatise in reality identical, but the treatises generally Compare, for instance, De Christo et Antichristo C. 11-15 (see, more especially, p. 683, f., ed. Buddensieg) and the English treatises De Papa C. 2 (ed. Matthew, p. 462, f.); also De Offitio Pastorali C. 32 (more especially Matthew, p. 457). The last-mentioned tract, moreover, does not appear to exist in



its original shape: it would seemabsolutely clear that Chap. 15
(Matthew, p. 429, f.) belonged in a different connection, and was here an interpolation. Hence a whole series of questions still

needsexplanation. Without a careful study of the languageand
style, it can scarcely be hoped that much advance will be made in the criticism of Wyclif s writings.

To p. 21, 1. 21.-Struggle againstthe mendicant friars. When

referring the beginning of the systematicstruggleto 1381(comp.
Englisch. Uebersetz.,ii. 143). After what was said above respecting Matthew's treatise it seems to. me somewhat hazardous to

began it is uncertain, still Lechler may be right in

draw with him (p.xliii.,f.) far-reachinginferencesfrom the English
version De Off. Past, and the supposed date of its origin. point must be taken into consideration. If Wyclif As

regards Buddensieg (Lat. Streitschr.^. xvii. note 2),the following
in his

struggle with the mendicant friars remembered predecessors, his
and among them Richard of Armagh, and said in regard to them (Lat. Streitschr., p. 92) : Que ergo mail suspicio, si nos inlrantes

in laboreseorum,ex innovacionescelerisfratrum, addimus super
eos ? this in no way means to imply that the thought of con-

tinuing the work of his predecessors had led him to openthe
dispute, and much less that this thought had struck him immediately after the death of Richard of Armagh; and yet this is the point in question.

To p. 48, 1. 23.-Chaucer invariably follows the rhyme system:
ababbcc,whereas his prototypes more frequently show ababbaa.

By the changeof rhyme at the closeof the strophe,the arrangement gains in clearnessand the ending in decision. To p. 74, 1. 3.-In the Shirley MS. in Trinity College,Cam-

bridge(R. 3.2O)? poem the bears title: Loo yeelouers the glade]?e and comfortej?e of J>allyaimce you. etraytedbytwene J?e | hardy and furyousMars. J>egod of armes and Venus]?edouble |

goddesselouemade Geffrey of by. Chaucier.|>e at comandement of ]>e renoumed excellent and Prynce lord pe DueJohnof my
To p. 75, 1. 29.-" The long Compleynte Mars : " of
it consists

of 5 x 3 and of an introductory strophe. The strophe of the Compleynte shows itself to be an extension of the seven-lined stanza employed in the other portions of the poem : aabaabbcc. To p. 107, 1. 8.-The House of Fame has not come down to us altogether perfect in form. The structure of the traditional text, however, does not warrant the inference that it proceeded thus from the poet's hand, and taking everything well into consideration this is not exactly probable. Fortunately the missing end (for what the prints offer as such seems to have originated mainly with Caxton) can scarcely have consisted of many verses, although perhaps very interesting ones.



To n. T26.1. T2.-That we have an independent poem in the Preambleto 1 he iVyf of Bathe-after withdrawingthe parts from lines 163-192,and from lines 829-856(in doing which, however, 1.828would probably have to bealtered)-and one that originated
outside of the frame of the Canterbury Tales, seems probable

for the following reasons: (i) becauseof the great length and singular nature of this delineation in monologueform ; (2) becauseit begins quite independently(an important criterion for recognizingearlier portions of a large collectivework, that have subsequently beenbrought into a new connection,cf. the stories
of the Doctor, the Shipman, and the Second Nun-in

presentcase this is of coursemuch more important where the


question deals with a Tale) ; (3) because it in no way seems intended to lead over to any other regular story, but to have

itself as its object, cf. lines 1-3 and 193-195(while among the supplementarylines 1. 831 contains a subsequentcriticism of itself meant to anticipate that of the reader) ; (4) becausethe
sketch of the Wife of Bath which adorns the general prologue to the Canterbury Tales appears rather to be a resume than to have developed from it ; (5) because it is mentioned in Lenvoy de Chaucer a Bukton as an independent work ; and (6) what is more important, because it figures precisely in the same manner

in the story of January and May (the Marchauntes Tale).
"With regard to the last-mentioned Tale, it is evident from the reference to the Wife of Bath that it cannot have been produced used in some wider connection-which

long after the latter (which is probablefor other reasonsas well); further, that the story of January and May, if intended to be
is not necessarily to be

inferred from 1. 1106, f,-can neverthelessscarcely have been
written with regard to the Canterbury Tales. To p. 131, 1. 2 from below.-Very different in form-even though connected with the fundamental motive of the fable (probably belonging to the East)-are the contents of the detailed story in the ComasdiaLydice of Matthieu de Vendome

and thoseof a well-knowntale from the Decameron (vii. 9), also
made use of by La Fontaine. To p. 143, 1. 23.-The picture which Chaucer gives of his

Mendicant Friar coincides exactly, in many an individual feature, with the accountsgiven in the poetical pamphlets of the time of the pious friars, generally without any attempt at delineating individual characters. See more especially the Son* against the Friars (by a neophyte who had again withdrawn from the order) in Wright, Political Poems and Songs, i. 263, ff. Another poem,I.e., p. 268,ff., is directed against the
Franciscans in particular. Mendicant friars and monks are

both sharply rebuked in a curious Latin poem written in 1382
by mi adherent of Wyciif s, under the influence of tne London



Council and of the Oxford disputations,I.e., p. 253,ff. The poet, who had himself beena Benedictineneophyte,subsequently left
the order (hence is not, as has been said, identical with the

author of the Song against the Friars), in the first half of his
poem is clearly under the influence of an English satire on all

classesof society written in the reign of Edward II. (Seethis work, vol. i. p. 318,ff.). He, again, seems have exercisedan to
influence-as regards form at least-upon the author of the Satire against the Franciscans. The three above-mentioned poems are also printed in Breuer, Monumenta Franciscana, pp. 591-608, in part from the better texts. To p. 150, 1. 14.-To my mind it is an arbitrary proceeding to make two fragments out of the group: Clerk, Merchant,

Squire, Franklin, which in the earlier stagesof the Canterbury
Tales represents four fragments, yet at a later stage forms a definite whole. And I call it an act of violence, in so doing, to take the connecting-piece before the Merchant's Tale, which leads over to the following one, and to cut it right in two, although the traditional text preserves the unity, in spite of the variety of application. To p. 160, 1. 14.-The large majority of the MSS. read squier in place of sompnour, and this-in spite of the contrary opinion of so distinguished a Chaucerian scholar as Bradshawcan as little correspond with the poet's first as with his last intentions. Only one manuscript, which is not specially trustworthy either with regard to the text or the arrangement of the parts, reads: Shipman. It must be confessed that of the pilgrims who come into question here, the Shipman would be the one best fitted to fill the vacant place. And, further, it cannot be denied that by connecting the fragment of the story begun by the Shipman, with the Man of Law's Tale, a number of difficult questions with regard to the poetical chronology and geography of the whole series would be solved. Hence it may, therefore, be advisable to accept this order in an edition of the Canterbury Tales. Why we have not made it the basis of our presentation

has already been stated on p. 165. I shall here confine myself
to the remark that it cannot have been Chaucer's intention to

place the words originally written for the sompnour into the which induced him to assign the sompnoura position different to the one at first intended, the poet was probably also affected by the knowledge that it was wiser not directly to touch upon
any question concerning the Lollards in his poem. To p. 161, 1. 5 from below.-Fabliau of Don John, subsequently Shipmanes Tale. The subsequent intention of the poet is placed beyond doubt by the testimony of the traditional texts, and above

shipman's mouthunaltered-the lessso as,amongthereasons

all by the connecting link which Chaucerinserted betweenThe



Shipmanes and The Prioresses The first tale, however, T. T.
remained unaltered, and its transmitted shape still assumes it to have been related by a woman,and, indeed, a very worldlyminded, lascivious woman.

To p. 164,1.9 from below.- Le Dis de le vesciea prestre by Jacques de Baisieux. Compare Fabliaux ou Contes,etc., par Legrand D'Aussy, 1829, iv., at the end p. 18,ff. ; also,among vol.
the Publications of the Chaucer S., the Or. and An. of some of Ch:s C. T., ii. 135, ff«

To p. 165,1. 10.-Clertfs Prologe. An examination of the descriptiveintroduction to Petrarch'snarrativein connection with 1.41-55 of the Prologe (Hertzberg,79i7~7930 appearsto me t-^ point to the fact that Chaucerhadalso translatedtheintroduction
but omitted it when he incorporated the poem with his C. /'. To p. 170, 1. 4 from below.-The singular position which we have vindicated for this Preamble is not shaken by this. The confessions of the Pardoner differ very essentially from thost of the Wife of Bath, by the fact that they are not autobiographical, and that they stand in close connection with the following

To p. 171,1. 12 from below.-Parrfoneres Tale. Its sourceis
one of the Lento Novelle anttche, Ed. 1525, No. 83 ; Ed. 1572, No. 82. The two versions differ considerably from each other, the one in the edition n. 1572 stands closer to the P. T. than the other. A third version, in Latin, exists in Morlini Novella, No. 42. Compare Ch. Soc. Or. and An., ii. 131, ff. see also v. During). To p. 173, 1. 12.-Numerous names of Christian children said to have been killed by Jews and, hence, subsequently canonized, are given by the Bollandists. In England the stories of Hugh of Norwich and Hugh ot Lincoln were current. The latter is the hero of an Anglo-Norman popular song from the days of Henry III. (Fr. Michel, Hugues de Lincoln, 1834; F. Wolf, Ueber die Lais, Sequenzen und Leiche, p. 443, ff.), and also of a later Scotch ballad (Athenceum, Jan. 19, '67, p. 96), while a third version, communicated by Percy, i. 32, ff., retains the name Hew while the scene of the action is transferred to Mirryland toune (Milan). The Latin prose-legend of Alphonsus of Lincoln has

beenpublishedby the ChaucerSociety(Originals and Analogues, ii. 107,ff.) from the Fortalitium Fidei, Lugdiin, 1500. England
is likewise the scene of the action in the version of the Miracle

versified by Gautier de Coincy (seeOriginals and Analogues,iii. 251,ff.). On the other hand, a Paris beggarboy is the hero of
the Middle-English legend in rhyme, edited by Horstmann from

the Vernon MS. in the Bodleian(Herrig's Archiv, 1876, 4, ff.; p. Originals and Analogues,iii, 277,ff.). It is oneof that collection of Miracles of the Virgin mentioned in our first volume on



p. 226. In Chaucer'saccount,the sceneof the action is a large
city in Asia. Its actual source is unknown ; yet apparently it already contained the apostrophe to Hugh of Lincoln which occurs in the last strophe of the Prioress' Tale. To p. 175, 1. 8 from below.-Albertans v. Brescia, Liber consolationis, etc., ed. Thor. Sundby, Pro Societate Chauceriana, Londini, 1873.-(See Gaspary, Gesch. d. ital. Lit., note to p. 189.) -The French version which Chaucer made use of is at present usually ascribed to Jehan de Meung.

To p. 176, 1. 8 from below.-Monkes Tale. Definition of tragedy. This definition seemsessentiallya quotation from one
of numerous glosses in Chaucer's Boethiiis (ed. Morris, whether or not the poet may have drawn his idea of (which we became acquainted with when discussing his from Dante's letter to Can Grande or originally from 887, f.), tragedy Troilus) a Latin

glossto the original text of Bcethius. To p. 177,1. 12from below.-M. T. An attempt madea few yearsago to settle the order of the origin of the severalgroups
from the succession as preserved in the texts (Skeat) is based

upon unjustifiable premises. To p. 178,1. 6.-Cf. the edition of Ernst Martin, i. 2, 23to 468.Mediaeval writers of fables also (among others Marie de France) have handled this subject, which-like Reinardus Vulpes and Reinhart Fuchs-was at an early date introduced into the

Animal-epics of France ; yet, to judge from the products of the plastic arts, it must have been even considerablyolder. To p. 179, note.-The first words which the story of the
Melibeus and Prudence draws from Mine Host are in all

essential points identical with the contents of the seven-lined
stanza which was originally to lead over from the Clerk's Tale to the following one, but subsequently became superfluous

owing to the connection Clerk-Marchaunt.

Accordingly, after

Chaucer had eliminated this strophe, he made use of the thought it contained for a new continuity.

To p. 181,1. 9.-In the fifth year of the reign of Henry IV. it
was declared to be a felony to multiply gold or silver or to

practise the art of multiplying them.

'i o p. 182, 1. 20.-Head-link to M. T. Connecting Parson with Manciple. One result of this connection was probably the absurd reading of: Ten of the clokke, in place of Foure of the

clokke,Prologe of the PersonesTale 8, yet it is given thus in
the best manuscripts. To p. 183, 1. 4.-An ingenious critic who has endeavoured to prove that Chaucer was a follower of Wyclif, says of the Parson's

words in question : "Why all this, if he had wished to follow the well-trodden pathsof the usual Church doctrines? It has
no sense except in the mouth of one with different views, and

1. but as regards subjectmatter is certainly connected with an earlier period. To p.-It may here be observed that. 188.g their political songs.-Cower's French Ballads. 72 Anglonormannische . 183. 271 Wyclif havmg himself. it not unfrequently signifies the Singer in contrast to the Harper or cittern-player. It is noteworthy that the parts referred to- as has recently been proved-are the very ones which show great agreement with corresponding parts of Le Somme de Vices et de Vertue of Friar Lorence. declared himself ready to retract his statements wheneverhe was convinced that he was in error. John Cowers Minnesang und Ehezucht-buchlein. i. and that even in the third part.note. is not Chaucer's . To p. Cf. which might be accounted for by the influence of the earlier lyrics of the minstrels. 1. 1. The strength of Wyclif and his disciples lay in their interpretation of the text of the Bible. would have suited no one better than a Wyclifite. 283). 20.-In a ballad of Robyn and Gandeleyn-which belongs probably to the fifteenth century. that the treatise on the Seven Deadly Sins which is interpolated in the second part of the sermon.-All that can meanwhile be main- tained with certainty is. 7 from below. e." But has Chaucer's company of pilgrims the smallestresemblanceto a religious tribunal ? Ii a pious exhortation to repentanceto be regarded as much the samething as a defence a theological thesis? This is a clear of instance of the danger which is coupled with the desire to prove too much. 192. at the beginning of 1378(beforethe ecclesiastical Court at Lambeth. 13. at all events in the form it has come down to us . stands out from the well-known cycle-Gandeleyn (whom some critics would identify with Gamelyn) appears the faithful servant of Robin and the avengerof his death. English and > cot ish Ballads. 188. 19. To p. v. like Luther at a later date at Worms). that the rest of the second part was not written by him. ff. p. traces of interpolation and corruption are recognizable. and have since then found more than one English translator. 2. and this custom became an established one in the course of time when the word did not-as was frequently the case-stand for Singer and Harper in one and the same person. on the other hand. To p. 1.-The long lines differ in structure from the customary ballad metre especiallyby the more archaic treatment of the unaccentuated syllables. and he and his followers were distinguished by anything rather than by timidity or even an excess of modesty. Child. To p. that were translated by Dan Michel into Kentish prose (see vol. Earl Gower'sfor the Roxburghe Club (1818) . occasionally. Editions : i.APPENDIX. last line. the word Minstrel seems to signify the Harper as opposed to the Singer or Segger. 187. 39.

Anglia. \at al the for with heteof brennyng lecheriehe quenche me blessid in maiden Marie (Mod. A. f. p. But above all the manner in which the poet describes his own moral and religious circumstances appears to me more direct and particular than is usually the case with Chaucer. J.'thurgh thy benignitee(34.. Furnivall. SeeJohn Koch. as upon a closer examina- tion even the presentation shows more resemblance Occleve to where he surpasses himself. But even the fifty ballads forming the collection were probably not all produced during the same period. ii. The closing strophe to King Henry was doubtless a subsequent addition . There are doubts about B. was apparently written in the ninth decade of the fourteenth century. Of the three parts comprised in Stengel's edition. 1. f. vi. f. iii. 216. ft (Chaucer Continuation of the Compleynte to Pitie : The Balade of Pytee printed in Odd Texts. Anz. my soule .. ff.1. f.).. the reverse was the case. and Minor Poems. and aiso by the wight of everich lust and fals affeccioun (St. to begin with. C. more especially B." after the coronation of the first Lancastrian. To p.-Of Shirley I know only scattered notices. oneof thesebeing a strophein independentrhymes. 35. iv. vi..1886. 8. still. newly publishedby Edmund Stengel..-On the Moder of God. 34. Marburg. by F. . of God. 183. To p. To p.).i. i.). probably No. i. so far as I see. instance. . On the Dignity and Excellence of Marriage. are surelyverygeneral compared. pt. than to Chaucer. I have unwillingly be:ome convinced that this poem is Occleve'sand not Chaucer's . last line. also 43).there are no definite criteria for determiningthe date of their origin.272 APPENDIX. pt. 51 also did not originally form any part of the collection (cf. Cecile.ed. as seems to me almost more likely. 221. " Two French Ballads in honoitr of Henry IV. p. for the like formation his seven-line strophes. or andfro temptaioun delivreme ofivikkid thoght. syllabic verse. 101. or whether. Balladen. besides other matters. one is all the more ready to yield to the testimony of the traditional text (in my opinion the most weighty of all the arguments brought forward by Koch). is evident above all from the title of The Cronycle made by Chaucier. printed in Odd Texts of Chaucer's Society). which comprises fifty ballads and a poem of three strophes without refrain (51). although. 71. Expressions such as. 104. f. heading to B].-The year of Lydgate's birth can be inferred only approximately: (i) from the time when he became Sub- .. 212. That he was at times far wrong in the authorship he gives to the poems he copied.27. Under thesecircumstances. it cannot be determined with certainty whether Chaucer is indebted to Gower for the structure of his ten- for various poetic motives (cf. . . that troubled is by the contagioun of my body.

ff. 273 deacon (1389) .. the peculiar character of the poem must be well taken into consideration.e. (2) from the statement in the Prologue to the Storie of Thebes. the assumption that the poet would not have failed to bewail the death of Henry V..APPENDIX. 76.ff. With regard to the position of Marie in the fable-literature of the Middle Ages. the years 1371 and 1373 being suggestedas the limit. 46. section 46. is dated the 2nd of October of that same year. ff. do not seem to Storie of Thebes. 1422. in his Epilogue. in his notice of Sauerstein's treatise. however.The fact that good MSS. died in that year. and as regards the closing date.p. between April. however. from 1. 532)which Johannes Baret " armiger " drew up in his and Lydgate's names. is scarcely sufficiently well-founded. Complaint of the Black Knight.. de Premierfait.) respectingthe different editions of Edmund and Fremund I cannot subscribe to. in my opinion is certainly not Lydgate's own . finds this "exceedingly doubtful") could be proved among other things by there being no mention of Romulus in the Prologue.ff. iii. more particularly. the able essay by E. Mall in Grbber*sZeitschrijt IX. Lydgate's journey to Italy. When Lydgate addresses an inspired farewell to the King in his Falles of Princes.-That it is not derived directly from Marie de France (and even Zupitza. hence that it must have been producedwithin the period 1421-1424. compare. consequently.only justify 1. The only thing that can be maintained with any degree of probability is that the Storie of Thebes might find a place between the Troy Book and The Falles. p.and the 3ist of August. and his death Lydgate mentions in his Philomela. 1421. Translation of ^Esop. commenced somewhere about the years 1421-1423. When the poet's death occurred can still less be stated. accordingly. 93. and. i6i. more especially. had the event already occurred. The reasons p. etc. and. I learned years ago from T . For the chronology of Lydgate's chief works. and the receipt communicated by Zupitza (Anglia.-Its impossibility has been discussed by Koeppel. The last traces of his life are met with in 1446 : Henry. L. Lord Warwick. 532. These two points. see Koeppel. I do not see the necessity for bringing the year of the poet's death down into the days of Edward IV. Horstmann'sopinion (I.. so far as the version represented by the manuscript. of the fable of the Cock and the Jewel. assign this poem to Lydgate. 14. The openingdate must be self-evident every to reader . which lead Koeppelto assign the origin of the Storie to exactly within the period me satisfactory. for the beginning of the Storie of 'Ihebescan only be assignedto the period 1421-1423with any degree of probability (see below). ff.

in fact. 1. iv.-Ludus super iconia sancti Nicolai. unfortunately it is multilated at the beginning and also divided into two parts : Isaac and one drama. and no reference to liturgical hymns (different in this respect to the two Mysteries of Hilarius) . However.-This is the term given by Koeppel (L. other poems the genuineness of which he does not question in the least degree. Specimens. note 4. 15. however. probably than all the other parts of the cycle in which it was subsequently incorporated. Minor Poems. thirty-one if the separation of the piece into two " paginae " (Isaac-Jacob] is looked upon as warranted by the later mode of presentation. To p.) so distinctly shows the impress of another hand. Hence the Lazams^ too. To p. To p. 24.274 APPENDIX. and the fabliau of the Lady Prioresse (Halliwell. who. p. du Me'ril. indeed. seems in part (see p. The assumption that few of the rhyming words have been altered in their transmission would. Publications of the Surtees Society. f. And this alone can be taken into consideration here. Hist. allow of the supposition that the drama might have been produced in the north of the East-Midland territory. 76. still forms. ff. p. the Saint's pillar has a special actor to represent it. earlier than most of the others. The only two persons that speak are Barbarus and Saint Nicholas. ed.) is. above all.1. 1. Pseudo-Lydgatean poems. 1836.7. Yet the ballad of London Lyckpeny (Skeat. 43-48). p. de Premierfait. rather than in the southern districts of Northumbria. . cf. p. note i) to a number of the pieces printed in H alii well's edition of the Minor Poems. in Hilarii versus et ludi. p. litt. 257. remains dumb. there is no chorus. and this is confirmed by Skeat in Bell's Chaucer. 244. ff. H. xx.. Less certain is the local origin of the piece. 107. where the question is the result of the development. it originally formed. All this can easily be proved by means now at the disposal of philology. 13from below. 34. that no further words need be wasted on the subject. which was produced independently without regard to any cycle of mysteries. and. and. Furnivall. Origines latines du theatre moderne. at all events not in the form it has come down to us. Champollion-Figeac. . p. 272. Bradshaw. is reckonedone of them. There are. 238.through the courtesy of Dr. which would coincidevery well with many other peculiarities of the work. assuredly no work of Lydgate's.-Thirty if Jacob and Esau is considered as one play. but this is not the place for entering into the subject. a supposition Jacob. For Hilarius. for instance. 627. 84) expressly to recognize as genuine. in fact.-This play has been handed down in the Towneley Collection (The Towneley Mysieries. 373. which points to the want of a suitable image. however. ff.

1.1. the action appears but little developed. Thomas may be inferred. f. 272. The original dependence of the play of St. the shouts of " Hail ! hail! " by the citizens at the closeof the Entry into Jerusalem. and consequently was entered after the Last Judgment. the one to be excluded altogetheris the Suspensio Jttdce. p.. 185. and does not become a distinct play in itself. but also Peregrini. above all. The Processus prophetarum.-All the more so as the style occasionally shows Western influences.2. it is generally a questionof interpolations from foreign (not exactly into foreign) works. York PlayS) p. 1. ed. . likewise.APPENDIX. 269. and. To p. 273. more especially Resurrectio domini. where the To p. as well as in the so-called Coventry Mysteries. iv. 257. Collier.1. To p. so fir as it has beenpreserved. which is copied by a considerablyyounger hand. cf. However. however. is met with in the Alexandrines with middle and end rhymes in the Woodkirk strophes consisting of alliterative long lines are met with. P. To p.-That the Conspiracio et capcio consists of two separate plays has already been assumed in another quarter. 16. plays. On the other hand. from the fact that in the Chester Plays.) may have been the original system of the Resurrection plays in the Towneley MSS. f. is.1. introduced in a few lines at the clo^e of the 34th and also of the 35th play..-It is here in some measure an important . The Camden Miscellany. This latter subject. stands in a wrong place between Jacob and Pharao.for instance.-A part similar to that played by these long lines in the York Collection of Mysteries.) would lead us to suppose that the drama in question had arisen from a combination of four earlier plays. there is in it as little distinct trace of the pagina de lez Salsemakers ubi Judas se suspendebat et crepuit medius as of the pagina Molenciinariorum ubi Pilatus et alii milites ludebant ad talos pro vestimentis Jesu. 273. J. To p. Their having been connected merely an autobiography in monologue form. upon which the Processes Talentorum of the Towneley Mysteries is founded.-One record which Miss Toulmin Smith quotes (York Plays. 6. Thomas (7*he Skryvener*splay. 216. no doubt. and probably also from the fact that the strophe of the short York play of St.beginning of the speechof Pilate). In the Towneley Collection. arisen from one guild having introduced into its own play another belonging to a different guild. 275 although it was only subsequently admitted into the MS. such as the Speech of Pilate at the beginning of the Flagellacio. xxiv. and is a matter that cannot be rearranged simply by cutting the play into two portions at a given point (seep. 8 from the end of the whole group. 9 from below.

and is not even mentioned.1. p. in regard to which it is even quite uncertainwhether they are the work of the same author. although the Flight to Egypt is represented. the Descent into Hell was connected with the Resurrection in the play of the Cappers . 2. 2. and there. Compare Coventry Mysteries. the Return is not. 45. ff.. This play of the Descent into Hell. Owing to there being absolutely no connection between the two parts. There is a strange analogy in the treatment of the Descent into Hell in the case of the so-calted and the actual Coventry Mysteries. circumstance that in the Chester Plays traces of alliterative long-lines are rare. that at all events some positions of our cycle originated in Coventry. 329. as wasjustified by the poet'sintention.276 APPENDIX. in the Prologue the Purification. I may be allowed to offer a few remarks for the delectation of those with a taste for philological delicacies. according to the usual representation. which. she does not appear either in the Descent into Hell or in the Resurrection.1. appears from the outset to have had a peculiar ending : Christ's soul reanimates His body. almost probable. In the drama the Slaughter of the Innocents stands first.-More accurately with the Burial and Resurrection. 288. only it gives the Longinus episode a different position to what it occupies in the text. in the same way as in our text the Anima Christi is distinguished from Jesus . the ground we are here treading upon is too unsafe to afford any pleasure for continuing on the path. The beginning of the Descent into Hell is usually placed before the Burial. and is opposed by the circumstance that. 6 from below. the Spirit of God was distinguished from God (a point altogether ignored by Sharpe). whereas. and after His resurrection appears to His Mother (motives of which the typical Resurrection-play either gives no representation or knows nothing at all). Without wishing here to enter into inquiries into complicated details. 12. and Our Lady appears there also. except in the one that treats of the Fall of Lucifer. From this it is surely conceivable. To p. in the so-called Coventry Mysteries.-Candlemas Day and the Kyllynge of the children of Israeli. is torn in two and partly introduced into another play. As is proved by notices that have been preserved. 287. The order given in the text is supported by the custom followed in the collections of Mysteries (with the exception of the so-called Coventry Plays). it is difficult to determine which is the right order. too. and which are communicated and explained by Sharpe. 1. However. i. nay. This order is also met with in the programme set forth by the Prologue to the whole series of plays . or that they obtained their materials thence. p. To p. If the ^Purification is the work of a versifier distinct from the author of .

. 1091. 1700. Magnum CEcumenicumConstantiense Concilium." do not give any explanation why it was so called. 8 from below. 293. 12. Anstey.. To p. last line. To p." The same words. 311. xxviii. cyclical character has been correctly recognized by Miss Toulmin Smith (York Plays. which refer to the ed. 1. p. 10 from below. probably about 1561.. however. 765.-Gloucester's bequests to the Oxford Library.p. Th. O.that is.-Printed by William Copland. the two lists of books in the Munimenta Academica. Its To p. To p. iv. quoted by Karl Schmidt. f. wyth a neiveplaye for to beplayed in Maye games. von der conjunction with a mery gesteof Robyn Hoode and of his lyfe. p. Mome Elwis by san Dints.APPENDIX. H. Wright and J. seem to prove that the play was a Morality. vol. 186). 296. H alii well. 277 the Slaitghter of the Innocents." cf.-Play of the Pater Noster. ff. ff.very pleasaunte and full ofpasty me (see above. ff. there would be no object in the question: we should then simply have to admit to different arrangers. 1089. 5 from below. Berlin. 1. 320. 145. The girl swears by seynt Michel. To p. Die Digby-Spiele. i. 1. ed. gifts receivedduring the years 1439and 1443-1444. The words : "the whole was called the ' play' of the Lord's Prayer. Frankfort.1.-Printed in Reliquiceantiques.) from the words in the Preamble of the statutes of the guilds : " in which play all manner of vices and sins were held up to scorn. 13. 1884. and the virtues were held up to praise. just as the whole collection of our Register was called the Corpus Christi playe... ii. if the two actions were not originally intended to form one play. 297. 758. cf.-The source speaks only of " tableaux and gestures.


60 verbs." Surrey's. 97. i = Vol. i.Margaret. ii1. 207. Abingdon "Annals." 108 ." Luther's." 151. ii1. 91 ^Ethelward=^thelard. 71." i. 112 ii2." Erasmus's. i. 149 ter. his Let- "Achademios. his edition of St." comedy by Skelton. 127 " Cauones. Benedict. 68 . 246 Adventure. 82. 129 ^Ethelweard. trine of Martin luuther. 131 '' Adoration of Christ by the Shepherds. i. Adam of Marsh (de Marisco). 226 uEthelred = Ailred. 100. 258 ff. Prof. i. legend. 193 sius. i. 245. 155 ff. 105 et seq. of Bath. 3 " ^Eneid. 123 his promotion of education "A B C" hymns to the Holy and morals. his homilies. his victory at Brunanburh. Peter. 76 . i. 105. ii2.INDEX. ii2. Elyot. 129 Adolphus. ABARROW." ii* his leading men. his translation ^Ethelstan. Pastoralis. 70. his "ProVirgin. part H. ii1 = Vol. his translation of the " Rules of of Beda. ii2. ii2 = Vol. surnamed Bata. II. i. 254. his life 172 279 ." poem of Chaucer's. 68. ii1. 6 lator. and the " Against the pernicyous docDanes. 180 uEthelmser. i. 80. Alfred the Great. part I. 79 . 105. wife of Sir by Asser. 69. 390 . ^Eli'ric. education and literature. to the German Verrance's version. 102. King. ii1." 103^ Boethius. 99. ii2. 105." 80. 109 Nobles. II. 110. 389. 105 . his later writings." review agency in the promotion of and quotation of. 83. 43 ^gidius. 255. 113 74. 151 . 109 "Pastoral " Ad agios. 77. 390 Abingdon Minster.. 264 ." 108. 77. i. his 107." 75. 167 i. jEsop's fables. 74. Marie de 219 " Address Adenet. ii2. Abbot of Misrule. Ealdorman. 74. his writings. 256 his Bible histories." med. 266. romances of. his "Abraham and Isaac. I. his last years. his " Regula "A B C. 103 ^Elfric. i. Wttlcker on. of Rievaux."nucleus of Christmas plays. his poetry. "Adam and Eve. i. as a transii2. i. 112 ^Ethelwold. 70. 105. 76 . ii2. 84 . 106. 112. his "OroTh. ii2. ii2.

Ailred of Rievaux. etc. 49 Alliterative lives of saints." the Saga of. See "An- Anchorite's Life. 390 also below. etc. ii2. 269 Apologists of Orthodoxy. i. Roman. 54 Amicus and Amelius. 270 Ancren Riwle. 114. 165 development of Old English Alexandrines. 34. Annals of. their writers of 252 tales. and under Metre. Animal-saga. 23 Alcuin and Charlemagne. 327 Anselm of Aosta. i. i. Alliterative poetry. ib. 182. Deth.12. Luigi. 81 Anglo-Normans. 181. ii2. i. ii2. 199 Annals. i. 16. the. i. ii'2. Allegorical drama. i. erature. St. 9 169. i." Milton's. 180. i. 144 dation of. 86. 6 ii1. 129 Alarnanni. i. ii1. SeeJfflfred. the. the. 120 Alphabet." the. i. i. 166. i.280 INDEX. Bernard. 193 Alfred (^Ethelred) of Rievaux. i. i. Norii2. 97." Cynewulfs. 175 Alboiu. i. Alfred of Beverley. i. in England. 50 f. 48 Andre. Saint. 136 i. their poetical Alkmund. ii1.153. 305. 189. i. King. 182. 258 etc. . "Anelyda and Arcyte. 10 . i. Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. 267. revival of. fusion of. i. i. ii2. 233. 258 Alliterative homily. 127. foun. 90. ii2." Elyot's. their poetry. i. 180 Alliteration. Anglian territories. the. 71. 233 Book. Aldhehn. 128. 35 Alderman. 5 histories. 58 Androw of Wyntoun. their art lyric.Auselm." ii1." romance. 243. 166 "Alexander. ii1. 189 et seq. 175. in Britain. 205 Albertano of Brescia." new significance of. 306 136. 181 Alfred. the. ii2. ii2." i. ii1. i. King of Scotlaud."Apollonius of Tyre. i. i. i. the English. Anglian pre-eminence in the 115. 199 Animal symbolism. ii2. i.152. Song to. i. 327 . 164 . 22.. 333 Alysoun." 183 Sir Th. 143. his "Praise of Virginity. 67 See also Metre. See Ealdorman. i. 112. in Ger. i. 232. 1. 180. ii8. their science and lit"Allegro. 243 Albertan of Brescia. poetry. Alliterative rhythm. South. many. their language and Alfred the Great. Angles. i. Anglo-Danish traditions. 199 literature "Alexander. Alexander III. 36. 163. 308 "A Preservative Agaynste "Ameto. 10 Alphonsus of Lincoln.131. ii1. 200 ii1. All Souls' College. 218 Alexander of Paris. 55 Ariosto. 235 Albanus. cren Riwle" Alberic of Besaucon. 10. ii2. 250 " An Answer Aristocracy before the Conquest.123. Bishop Poor its supposed author. final fortunes of. Oxford. 329 See also Worcester." 35 .. See 71. to a Poisoned i. 208 "Andreas. i. development of in. i. 200. 61 man versions of. i. metre. 332 Anglia. ii1. More's. and Beda. ii1. with the Normans. 165. 11.110.

2. 163. John. ii1. Beowa. 24 version of the whole.. ii1. the. 97 Bernicia. 210. 104. i. 1^. on Steadfastness. of Genoa. i. 4 f. John. 84 Berton. i. 45 " Arthur at Tarn Wadling. 283. and Csedmon. Lord. 189 Attila (^Etla). 389. 96 ff. Barclay. 244 Arthur. 109. 271 f. Bishop." the. Richard. 164."the. i. 105. 268. ii1. i. 374. 185 "Assumption the. condemns the " Ayenbite of Inwyt. the French. Johannes. 70 i. Art-lyric. 219 Bath. 162 "Bestiary. i. Alexander.. among the AngloNormans. translations Bale. 181 Augustine. Archbishop. i. i. Roger. 12 " Auban.f 114 Baret. the. 4. 170 Bernart de Ventadorn. 77. and the King. 371. 319 Beda. 84. 181 Benoit de Sainte More. i. 271 Bertrau de Born. Bp. i." Benedict. 248 Balbo. Theses. ii2. 28l Aristotle. Thomas. and the Saxon Homi86 lies. and the Graal legends. 4 Avitus. 23 et seq. 162 Aungerville. 34. 150." i. 20 299. 135. ii1. St. 173 "Arthur. i. ii1. i. transl. dict. 141. ii2. by Dan Michel. See also under Lyric. i. ii8. Abbot of Wearniouth. Archbishop. ii'2. 93. ii2. "Bankett of Sapience. Antonio. 314 Beaton. 101 his Chronicle. and versions. 35 et Ascetic and devotional writings. 336 "Articles. 111. See Bene. the. 32.. 153 and Layamon. ii'2. Berners. 212 See also Gospels. 189 Ashburnham. ii2. Asser. 196 BADTJKING. the. his Church History. 265 SeealsoAlfred. 74. 104. 52 ff. i. The Death of. Saint. 199 Barbarus.Biscop. William.INDEX. ii3. ii2. Astrolabe. i. 168. 171. 27 " Battle of Finusburg. 107. i." the. 91 if. 91. 198 Ballads by Gower. 189 Ballad poetry. 92 Battle of Brunanburh. 336. 348 Arthur of Bretagne. John. King Eadgar at." addressedto the Earl of Warwick." i. ii2.ii1. 188." i. Beccaria. Ballad to King Richard II. i. Henry. i.317 i. i. 173. 182. Vie de. 244. 108 Art-epic. 8 Lord. 187 ff. 106." i."Bevis of Hampton. 315. 157." romance of. i. Fortescue's. Bishop. i. 27 . Saint. myth of. Giovanni. 96 Bernard. and Aldhelm. i. 273 Barons. English Ball. 96 Arthurian saga. Beket. 67. ii2. 40. Abbot. ii'2.&c. seq. ii1. 211. 30 "Battle of Lewes." Elyot's. the rule of. 168. i. i. i. Bible. ii1. ii2. ii1. of the Virgin." by Malory. ii2." the. ii2.. ii1. ii2. ii2. ii1. King. the. i. Ascham. i. 24 "Beowulf. 128 Thomas. 269 Benedict.. 246. by Berners. Beaufort. 7. 274 Barbour. Benedict of Peterborough. See also Epic. 164 " Arthour and Merlin. 34 Asser's "Life of ^Elfred/'i. 317 Arundel. priest. 183 manuscript of.

i. ii2. death of. Broceliande.201 INDEX." ii2. Homilies. 239 Boleyn. Duchess. The. i. 41. 204 Eras"Brut or Broite. 196 "Boke of Marcus Aurelius." Skel. ii1." ii2."89 i. 229." ii2." i. 2.." \\\ 7 of. 141 Britons. 9 Britauny and Cornwall. pamphlet of. 2. ii2. and Geoffrey of MOD mouth's histories of the." mus's. 223 f. ii1. 55 " Bruce. 8. Nennius'. ii2. third of " Great Etruscan Three/' disposition of. 234 Bude. William. "Bouge of Court. of Oxford. 287 Books brought to England. Andrew. 2. transl. Sir Anthony. 40. Buvford. 79. ii2. 191 f. and its marvelous spring. ii1. 193 Bolomier. Henry. ii2. 99 ff. transl. John. 134. 105 "Boke of the Governour. 198 Bourchier. " Blanchardyne and Eglantine.282 "Bibliotheca. ii2. 114 Byzantine and late Greek contri- Bury. Skelton. of Arezzo. 7. King Alfred's translations from. Robert de. i. 253 Brown. 327 . "Metra. Battle of.. 141 Brome manuscript. 259 Blickling MSS." Elyot's. his list of Plays. Lord Rochford. ii'2. 46 et seq." Caxton's." Barbour's. Osbern. 376 Bracciolini. "Burial and Resurrection of ii'2. ii1. 41. 103. Elyot's. 42 Blanche. 114 Britain. 32 Boe"thius.." by Brunne. i. 190 f. by Lord Berners. the English in. ii2. 55.. ii1. "Boke of the Prechar. ii'2. 16 Boleyn. 333 Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress.. Thomas. ii1. Lord Berncrs. the Saxons in. by Chaucer. 270 "Boke against Skelton. 337 Byngham. 227." ii1. 114 f. 138 Boethius. 214 f. Sir Francis. Anne. his Bouterwek and others on the Caedmon MSS. ii'2.. ii1. 194. The. Gian-Francesco Poggio. ii1. ii2. 271 Boccaccio. i. John. ii2. 237 Boron." by Guevara." f. the Romans in. 76. ii2." review " Bundel of Weeds. i. 321 ii1. his " De institution du prince. 57 ff. ii1. 90 "Booklet of Wisdom. his reminiscences and writings. 316 Bradwardine. 237 Bryan. 178 Bramis."Byrhtnoth's Death.. 1.42 Blank-verse. ii1. Sebastian. Leonardo. ii1. 265. 267 Boorde. his manual. 116 See Mannyng. i. the Monk. 51 Huchowu's.. 257 "Book of the Duchess. King Robert. 87 Boethius. ii2." Earclay's. 186. 41 Bonner. 106. ii2. 78. ii1. 7 Christ. 54. ii9. forest of. " Genealogy of the Gods. Bruni. 316 321 "Boke of Philip Sparowe. Burton. and Gaul. 79 et seq. ii2. ii2." ii1. i. 77. ii2. Dr. 93." Suso's. 112. Dr. George. i. 10 ton's. ii2. stories of. 135. ii1. ii2.. 196 Bukton. 237 British kings. ii2. 151 Brand. John. Bokenham. 252 Bruce. ii2. Roger. 66 et seq. Robert of. 63. See Berncrs.

374. Halls of. 112 ii2." 171. 149. 190. ii2. 122. Miller. 185. Charlemagne. ii2. 60 Cambridge University. 134 . "Pardoner "Clerk's Tale. Reeve." 160." 179. 171.i. 192. "Tale of Charlemagne saga. 70 oress's Tale. 159 . as rival ization of students 328 of." 189 " Cento novelle Cercalmon Cervantes. the. their contributions to the "Candlemas Day. Charitius. 35." 169. in England. John. 184 ." the pseudo. Stobl. 142 romance of adventure. 7. ''Knight. Dr. Pope. 169 Barclay. ii2. ii'2." i. his Hymn. " Monk's 126." 153. 9.. his Catalectic tetrameter. 5 "Annals" "Canterbury Tales. 266 324 . ii2. ii2." Moral 85. 380." 167. Celts. there. ii2. i. Sievers." Charles dc la Tour-Landry. ii1. See Charle- Capgrave. ii2."Celestina. " Castel of Helth." 173. i." religious play. 130 " Callistheues. 17ff. 379. Dietrich. "Manciple's 246 Tale. 72.. the plan of. 122. the "Annals" of." rued. on Cynewulf." contents of. style of. 84. 142 Cavendish. 189 . 143 at. ii2. 251 Tale." tragi-comedy. ii'2. the. Gotzin. i. William. 15. man's Tale. i. 189 Bede." 181 . 371 . ii2. 164. 199 magne. Play." transl. 270 Canterbury. his MSS. " Prologue. and 166." transl.. 37 f. 142 Lanfranc Winchester 72. antiche. 143. ii2. i. i. 141. 39. 161 et seq. his "Genesis. 183." i." Elyot's..Charlemagne and Alcuin.. 8. 53 " Franklin's Tale. 148 . i." 1Castle of Perseverance. 99 'Castle of Love.INDEX. i. 244. and Lord Berners. ii2.Catherine of Arragon." 157."Castle of Labour. 140. others on." Charlemaine and Roland. 168. 6 wife of Bath. 185f. 44. 381 . 39. 371. 88." 165. 220 Character of the English and Teutonic 388 races. " Squire's Tale.. ii2. 91. 126 Chaplain. 35 . Charles V. i. "The Pilgrims. 162 the troubadour. 324 . 224 . ii'2. the Emperor. ii2. ii1. "Par." 143 et seq. 4. ii2." 175 . by veuture. 32. ger. 33 ff. Charles the Great. 283 butions to the romance of ad. Chamber deacons. 9. by OEDMON. John. 112. ii2. i. ii2. 11 183 . comment on. 158. 34. 165 Caxton. reorgan. materials of the. "Lawyer's Tale. 172. 382. and "Catherine of Siena." Chaucer's. 68. ii5. " Priand Alfred. 42. Ebert." ii2. 276 Can Grande. 155 poems. and the story of " Havelok. 324 " Chanson d'Alexis. Meliboeus. Cambray. 269 i. 124 372. 143. 67. 15 " Cecilia." 181. 144 . Charles the Bold. 377-386 legend. 41. ii1. their traditions and Layamon's "Brut. ii1. i." ii1. 374 . 18 " Calisto and Melibcea. "Canon's Yeo. 136 Chanson de geste. 323. " Parson's Tale. the Ceorlas (freemen)." 177. 267 f. Robert of. Catullus." a play. 285. ii2. the object of. doner's Tale. 151.

" ii1. ii1. i. 184 265. French models of. its influence upon the secular lyrics. 209 .. 191. 157 . ii2. and epic poetry. 82 Chronicles. Canterbury. Chronicle made by Chaucier. 209. 327 Clarke. and the Clement VII. ii'. i. 32. his successors. 115 . 330. as lyric poet. and cent. ii1. ii1." Hall's. 84. 82. and Dunstan's re328 forms. ballads and envoys. 193. 59 Christina Mirabilis. i. his loss to poetry.284 INDEX. 17. 114. Manuel. &c. 98 "Chronicle. See also Church.. contents of. Rev. ii2. its disgraceful end. marriage. 111 Cimino. 26. i. 218. i. 151. 76. ii2. Saxon. 208 ii2. 34 . Anglo-Norman. 267 Children of the Chapel. See Annals. origin of. 320 Cockayne. 209 Chaucer. 249 . 131 Chivalric poetry of France. ii1. i. 6. 120 . 32. i. review of cycle. Charms and incantations.216. Norman. 54. as satirists. 113. i. ii1. 211 Chester Plays. 83. ii1. 101." i. Christ's Church. 41. ride of the troubadours." "Childhood of Jesus. his poem on the death of Duchess Blanche. 37 Christianity among the English tribes. "Chronicle of England. ii2. 38 . 143. i. 118. Clerical poetry. O. ii1. 120.ii1." the. his "Saxon Leechdorn's" referred to. iia. 213. 243. Thomas. i. degeneration of. erotic songs of. &c. "Chronicle of the World. 327 " Childe Horn. 274 et seq. death of his wife.. T. i. 278 Chicheley. 316." Cynewulfs. 331 Classical study in England. ib. i. Archbishop of Canterbury. 350. 46. 66 ff. 851 Clare Hall. English models of. Walter Map and the. 275 . ii2. 226 "Clannesse" and "Pacience. See also Clergy. 42 et seq. 131." by Fabian. 112. 28. Geoffrey. i. crusade against. med. 225 Cistercians. like the Early Irish opposed to the papacy. and culture. 98. ii2. Serafino.. 147. 205. by the Normans. 248. 98 " Chronicle. 257 Chivalry. envoy to Scogan. recital of poems in. the scholar. 809. condition of. 33. ii1. 136 Clerks. 193 .. 237. reign of. of Byzantium. 86. 288 . Chrysoloras. Codex." med. Thomas. ii1. Cambridge. 208 f. 257 Cicero." See "Horn. the Early English. ii2. ii2. tion of. his honorable appointments. 258 . death of. 7. 191 . and "Christ. 267. 60. ii1. 317 Church. corruption of. 209 Clerks. 70.. itinerant. present form of. 303 Cnut. Churchyard." Froissart's. i. Henry. ii1. 61. 268. official life. 20 ff. 217. 119. 94. Christian poetry. ii2. "Chronicles. 220. 36. i. 266. 275 . 331. 314. 29 Christ Church College. ii2. ii1. 4 Christine of Pisa. support of. youth and experience of. 62 . 206 . 195 . 96.. the. i. legend. 188 ff.Clergy. New. 272 90. 242. prose. founda. 182 the Normans. 87 gleemeu. 316. pecuniary embarrassments. 148 Cobham. ii2. 12th Chivalry prefigured.

Coenewulf.. William. wife of Sir Th. 25. "Conte del Graal." Skelton's. ii!. William. ii2. ii1. results of the. ii2. editions of. 249. 201 Crestien de Troyes. i. 75. ii1. ii2. 218. 21 "Compendium Morale/' Waltham's. ii1. ii2. ii2. i. 333 "Complaint of the Black Knight. 290 Continental learning in England. ii2. 279 Commedia dell'arte. 164 f.'* Fabyau's. John. 127 Colleges in Oxford and Cambridge. See Cynewulf. 106 f. 208 f. 83. 144 " Contutacyon of Tindale. "Confessio Aniantis. Cardinal. 267 Cosmology. &c. Jane. 96 277 Cornwall drama. England just before the sade. 247. 120 . 155 f. 193. i.. i. festival of. the. nature and representation of. Croo. i. i.. ii2 229 Cooper. 48. ii1. Comitatus Guido de. 272 "Compleynt of Mars. ii2." med. summons a council." Chaucer's. 249..INDEX." Thomas More's." ii1. Plays. 80 "Consolatio Philosophise/' ii1. 50 f." ii1. 76. 148. 281. ii2. 32 Compendium of the Antiquities of the Catholic Faith. 282 Cornwall and Briianny. ii1. 74. prose. by Crestien de Troyes. ii1. 148. See also under Henry 127. 124. Thomas. 267 Court-romance. 78. ii1. 134 etseq. 281 i. 156. 41 quest. the Worcester 285 11 Consolation of Philosophy/' ii1. 276. 164..63 Constitutional struggles. 198 ii2. and his "Conte del Graal/'i." ii1. ii1. 266. More. ii1.. 269 Ciomwell.. 202. ii2. Pilgrimage and Con- Charlernaigne. 175. "Cokaygne. ii2."ii2. i." ii1. 193 "Compleynte to Pile. 283 et seq. ii . The Land of/'i. 182. 173 "Colin Clout. 229 f. the short. 216 lt Conqueste que fit le grand roi Crusade. 6. 115 ff. 198 f. Mysteries..i." ii1. suppressesthe propagation of Wyclif's doctrines. 250 et seq. 280 et seq. 229 "Compleynte of Dame Pitie. 174 Coniesdevots. William. Pilgrimage." by Wyntoun. 151 f. 272 Couplet. 120' " Cronykil. 237 Cornyshe. ii2. 227. 167 f. Elyot's " Bibliotheca. 180 Court and popular poetry. 25. 53 the.. 176. 121. 40. 266. i. 278 "Cupid's Letter. i. and Robert of Gloucester. 154 Copland. Columna. i. remodeller of Colt. ii2. 140 4'Commodytes of England. printer. 57 " Concordance of Histories. 113. and CruConquest. Robert. 337 Criticism and superstition. 184 Sir Colonna. 131 Corpus Cbristi Plays.. performances at. three. 203 Conflict of old and new ideas. i. ii2. 174. 192. Colman the Monk.. John." allegorical poem. 259 Colet. 5. ii2. 26 Coventry." ii1. 174. ii2.i." the. "Crede. 150 f. 248. 249 Courtenay. 266 " Compleyute of Venus. 127 " Annals" attributed to him.i.Cotton Collection. 193 Comyn. 144. 146 f. ii2." ii2. 331 Conquest.

ii2. i. 54 tilium. Leland's. 93. i. ii2. "DAME SIRIZ. 92. 353. 61 381. 92. 68 "De Scriptoribus ii2. Adam." Sturm's. of Scotland." by Bude. and the French "De epos. i." Leland's. ii*. 109 of the Cross. 80 England. 20 educandis erudiendisque guage in Mercia. "De Eucharistia. ii2. 32. 195 Danes. ii2. 287. 304 ii2. '' Debate of the Carpenter's 103. 54 Elyot's ii»." "Daniel. 264."!. "Cursor mundi." du prince." ii1. ii2. 277 Deguileviile." i. ii1. 145 ii2. Norman versions of. ii2." ii1. 211 Danish.'' ii2. 196 Cycle of Legends." ii1." Pontano's. ii2. ii1. influence of. "Cuckoo Song. PierCandido." St. 259 Library. 198 Davy. Langland and. Crusades. 88 Bale's." and other works. 211 51. in " De remedio Amoris.155. English. 121.286 INDEX. Guillaume de. 17 87. ii2. i. ditiouis. 4 i. See Boccaccio. 181 invasions. by Essex. 232 med. 234." 54. ii2. 200 "Dance of the Seven Deadly "De Reghnine Principum. ii1.. " De rinstitution Cynewulf." ii1. 74 214 "Dandeley. ii2. energy and originality of. writings of. 53. See also " De Re Rustica. traditions. 54 51. 172. ii2. i. 132. ii1. 193 poem. i. 102. and lanthe. ii2. ." RegiDante. 290 "De Genealogiis Deorum Genii1. on Chaucer. De monumento pileato. Deities. AugusTh.212 Danish boroughs. 124 principum liberis. 255 Elyot. Descent of Stuarts 139. 274. 55. 386. " De Viris Illustribus. 296: interludium. "De unione ecclesiastica. Teutonic and English." attributed to Sir Th. the. 279. 321." transl. "De Cyprian. 59 Decembrio." ii2. 383. ii2. traced back to. "De rebus memorabilibus AuglisB. ii2. Beowulf and the. Anglo-. i. 7 "De Clerico et Puella. 220 Danish. ii2.319 Dares and Dictys. Dardanus." Sir "De Civitate Dei. his "Christ. iit. state of. ii1. in Oxford tools. 386 "De Miseria Humanse ConCynewulf. 235 " Decamerone. Dandeley. William. 5ff." " De regno et regis iustitutioue." the. 65 Patrici's. the Bishop. tine's." poem by Dunbar. 183 "Declaracion. 51. i. 199 Principe." Wyclif's. 167 " Defence of Good Women." ii1.ii2. Bishop. the five. his " Vision "De 194 Mulieribus Claris. 9. i. 196 Culture. their rule in Douglas. St. and the Church." David II. the poet. his riddles. 295." Fortescue. "De Scriptoribus Britannicis. 28 made by John ii2. 113. i.50. i. i. i. ii2. Sins. 24. 67." nald Pole's. 59 Curteis." 33. i. 321 "Defence of his Apology. Deira. 83." i. 26 "De Laudibus Legum Angl se. 203 Britannicis Commentarii. 268. More's.

ii2. i. 68 Duubar. ii1. "Owl and the Nightingale." Dunbar's. 237. 98 EADMERof Canterbury." by Fortescue. ii1. 97. i. 239 Drouye." Knight. Descent and Resurrection. ii1. i. 39 f. 182 Douglas.. 45 Dit. ii2. 266. 243." by Dorset. 324. and the " Dialogue between Merchant. 336 Duchess of Richmond." ii2. and the " Dialogue between UnderstandPoema morale. Douglas. from the "Wooder's. 197 "Doctrinal Treatises. 361 Dialogue poems. William. 135 "Piers Plowman. the Stour there." by Elyot. 79 ff. 111 Dragon. 386. ii!.and Plowman. i. ii2. 204. Legend of. 51. ii1." by Caxton. on Csedmon. 234. 128 " Dial of Princes. 100 Durham College." ii2. i. the. Jean. by Bryan. 262 " Dispraise of the Life of a CourDemonology. poem on. 198 " Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres. i. ii2. Quentin. i. origin of. and Hants." the. characteristics of. rituals of. " Deor's Lament. 60 191 f. 32 259 "Dialogue" of Sir Thomas Douglas. 194 Diss. i. Oxford. ii2. ii2. ii2. by Skelton. 205. 142 " Dunbar's Dirige to the King at Stirling. 285. 65 ff. oldest extant." by Fortescue. Eustace. 389 "Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy. Duke of Suf. i." Chaucer's. 130. 239 More. on Cynewulf. 261. Prof. i. Lady Margaret. 84 " Dido. 153 ing and Faith. the first in England. William. ii*. the. i. ii2. 220 "Dido. ii2. 56 ff." 178. Gawin. ii2. 278.. Dudo of St. ii2. ii2. by Elyot. i." transl. 279 Duchess Blanche. biblical. 204 ff. 25. 110 " Dit de Morpheus. 277 Diodorus of Sicily. ii2. English. 93. 131 Eadmund the Martyr. ii2." the. Do-bet and Do-best and interlude. 29 Digby Plays. 32 " Diodorus of Sicily. 287 Delapole. 270 "Devil's Inquest. 42 et seq.141 215. 179 "Divine Comedy. 29 Drama. 376. i. Didactic poetry. Skelton's birthplace. ii1. i." Fish"Deluge. rise of the. role of the..103 "Disciplina clericalis. ii1. 87 Deschamps. ii1." i. 235. 109. Lord James. . ii2. foundation of. ii2. 241. Beowulf and Wiglaf and the. ii1.INDfcX. 180 " Dialogue between Cardinal " Dolopathos." Do-well. public desire for. 84 "Doctrinal of Princes. i. ii2. Wilts." transl. " Dialogue on Wit and Folly." transl." ii1. 153 kirk Play. 94. 123 Durham. 74 Devotional writings. 312 " Dialogus Marphorii et Pasquilli. 230 the. ii2." ii1. ii2. i. 179 Pole and Thomas Lupset. 271 tier." tragedy by Rightwise. ii1. ii2. Yorkshire." i."ii2." by Tindale. 133 Dietrich. technics of. Tareute on Starkey. 101 Dublin Drama. The. 192 Devil." Discourse in Memory of the folk. ii2.

273 " Education or briuginge up of Children." Douglas's. their original home. 306. Ely. Here113 ward and Ely. and Norman-French influence." song. ii2. " Elene.... 209. the old. East Anglian plays. 322. 5 ward IV. in Britain.. 261 quest. ecclesiastical. 19 . 62. 9 English deities. i. the. 327 English Text Society. 281. 208 et seq." by Elyot. The." i. i. Ecgberbt. i. 193 Edward II. 279. by Surrey. the. 35 Henry VIII. Bishop.ii1. i. i." by Eras- mus. See Englishmen go to Italy in search Eadward.Elyot. 247 The. ii2. 329 English romance. 247 Edward VI. 277. 234. ii2. Prince. " Elynour Rummynge. of knowledge..288 INDEX." Skel105 ton's. 314. 273.. Death of. 233 "Edmund and Fremund. 35." &c. ii2. 32 English literature. transl. 143. 285. ii1. 10 . and the 102. development. ii2. i. 1. i. 27 Edward the Confessor. its development. ii2. 192 ff." transl. version of the whole ii1. 174 "Easter Song.. 26 ff. i. 393.. 113 212 Early English Text Society. i. daughter of King of the five Danish boroughs. i. 253 Edward III. i. 382 England. i. 111 Epic poetry. 259 "Eneydos. Edward IV. 212 lisJi. 206. ii1. ii2. 143 . 204. 67 English." Surrey's. Old.. ii2. 392 267 " Elegies " on the death of Ed. 1. 321 Einenkel. and poetry. Skelton's. 148 ." its success. See Early Eng122. 256 212 ." by Starkey. 149 Ealdorman (prince. " Elegy on Wyatt. 21. 25. King. 321. 27. 23. 113 Ecclesiastical epic. and Charle204ff. ii2. 84 f. ii2. 273. 226.. 253 Easter plays. i. on Csedmon's ii2. 41 " Genesis. 92 James I. new impetus at the beginning of the thirteenth century. 286. 311 "Eneados. 97. i. Edward V. 4. 187. his annexation Eleonora. Dr. Eadmund. Ecclesiastes. Early. 23.. state of. 264. i. i. referred to. 70 . ii1. 147. " Eclogues. 38 ." by Barclay. Meidenhad. ii2. publications. pub.. i. Prof. lications 394 of. 198. 7 English language. 25. i. 154. 58 the French art-epic and the . and Christianity. 235 . by Caxton. ii'2. just before the Coniis. English Bible. 277 Eadward the Confessor. i. i. 390. ii2. ii2. 10 Elwis Home. 212 "England in the Reign of Ecgberht. 99. 149. lord). King. on the " Hali Envoy de Chaucer a Bukton. 6 "Edmund. 318. Ebert." i. ii2.. 56 " Edward I. 105 Teuton. 197 Edward I. 28. i. Sir Thomas. 13. and Old High German." Cynewulf's. of Scotland. 317 ." legend by Lydgate.. ii2. "Enchiridion. a description of.Eorlas (nobles). the monks of. 302. and Wessex. 321 English culture. i. i. Old.. E. i. ii2. magne.

i. 148 " Exodus. 152." treatise by StarkKennedy. ii2. 273 Fauvel. 6 194." 26 ff. i. 137 ff. and the English tale. 328 Erasmus 105 ff. 172 f. 21 ff. characteristics Fortescue. i. 92." Unity." trans. 316 "Filostrato.. i. 97 Epos." ii2. the. among the English tribes. ii'2. i. iia. introduced to English " Four Sonnes of Aymon. ii1. 131 Filefo. 148 Caxton's. Lady Elizabeth." or "Three Wise Men. ii2. 202 i. Fernando de Rojas. 327 Fitzroy. See Ethics. The. Forman. ii2. 182 Henry VIIL. growth of an. 301 "Fortalitium fidei. ii3. 310. 271 Essex. 56 88. ii1. ii2. the monks of. 304. i. ii2. 152. i. i. ii2.. 293 ii2. 17. ii1. Tudor. 111 Fleinmyng. 112. 155 f. 172 i. Fabyau. 11 meric. i. 309 Fingers. Fairies. ii3. i. Earl of KilEthelwerdus.Fitz Warin. 236 Florence. of. Feudal system. 176. 204. 357 Felix of Croylaud. 321 Geraldine. Sir John. i." ii3." literature. i. 206 Erigeua. 247 tor Ethelwerdus. 321. ii1." Erotic songs of the clerics. 86 289 Anglo-Normans. French. 17-22.dare. The. 187." i. literature. 149 lation of the." ii1. i. and his "Chronicle. 4 f." by Hey wood. John. The. 255.. the English. 93 . ii2." 186 232 Fitzgerald.260 " Evangelium Nicodemi. ii1. 167 f. Andrew's. i. . 325. La. contrasted with the Ho- "Falles of Princes. 180. ii2. 187. ii1. 1481. ii2. "Fierabras. See Fabius Quces.150. Robert. new. 322. the word. ii2. 131. 202 Folk-poetry. 89. Folk-song. John." poetic versions of. natural son of Eustace. of "Dame Siriz." Mirkus's. annual. i. See also Eynsharn. John. ii1." ii1. i. The.. 91 Fable and History. Ealdorman ^Ethelweard. ii2.. 109 Foreign influence upon English FABIUS Quaestor Ethelwerdus France. 90 165 ft. Archbishop of his Chronicle." Hor328 ace's.. English. 88. Fitzgerald. 254. of Rotterdam. 288 "Four PP. French. 97. 142 Ferrarius.. 33 Eruulf of Beauvais. and measure. "Fortune. See also "Fallen Angels. and Fisher. the Monk. 90. 238. Robert. 41 ii1. 208 ii2." Starkey's. Gerald." Festivals. Henry. St. styles "Fairy Queen. 73 "Exhortation to Christian " Floire and Blancheflor. ii2. ii2. ii1. Eton. Life of. 145 "Exhortation to Unitie and " Flyting of Dunbar and Walter Obedience. "Epiphany. &c. 194 259. "Exegi mouumentum.'Mi1.198 Fontaine. i.INDEX. i. the Danes in. in versions." ii3.The. i." i. 83. Francesco. 269 Fabliau. Fulke. 18 Era. 339 Epos. ii2. 326 Felton. 79 "Festial. i. 226 et seq. ib. 179.. 41 f. 67 ey. 173ff. the " Song of King Horn.. Andrew. 99 Fellows.

ii2. Geffrei conducts convent school 150. Frea. 234 Csedmon's. 118. i. 271 " Garlande of Laurell. Adventures of. thePlantageuets." transl. 127 Garnesch.. ii2. 10. 197. 139. 269 Freedom. its relations with Anglo-Kornian England. 179. 219. his "Historia 389. 328 Gautier de Coincy. Knight. ii2. 258 GABLER. Britain and.. J. 184. 104 Gerald de Bary. ii2.. i. 122. Songs against the/' ii2. 41 Gaguin. ii2. in Bruges. 24. the god. 163. ii2. 23 influence upon England. the Normans in. 127. referred to. le Galoys. 226. 49 Free. 43 Geoffroy Viterbo." German. Bishop of Winchester. 15. 185 "Geraldine. romances. i. Jean.123." Huchii2. ii1. 119. 32 of "Early English Poems. Jean. 51 1. 181 Galahad and the Graal. at St. 152 Furnivall. ii1. Sir Simon. ii2. 124. 181 Funeral Sermon on the death of Henry VII. 2 i. prosperity. ii2. art-epic. F. 180." transl. Barclay's. 88. ii1. the. 206. 15 lish. ii2. 38." med. i. the centre of learned Gaimar. the. i. ib. 127 Franks. 389 "Fox and the Wolf. and the Franks.. 182. Dr. i. Dr." by Tindale. 52 124. Gallopes." legend by Lydgate. 41. 6 '' Game and Playe of the Chesse. ii2. culture and Northumbria. "Exodus" in Middle English. temp. 186 Geoffroy of Bouillon. 349 Geoffrey of Vinsauf. 51 " Fremund. 173 culture. Skelton on. by Caxton. execution of.290 INDEX." Earl of Surrey's. 83.. " Fox and Goat. poetry. 188. 2. andOld Eng- . ii2.. 58. 164. Froben. i."i. i." Buddhist origin. "Genesis. ii2. Provengal poetry there. on Cynewulf. ii1. 145. 247 ff German epic poetry. his editions &c. 327. 267 translation of.Old High. 303 Geoffrey of Monmouth.114 Gamier. and " Friars. ii2. 391 Dr. 208 "Fruitful and goodly treatise. 321. ii2. 163 Froissart.'Mia. 125. ii1. "Gawayne and the Green effect of the Crusades on the. their early poetry. 191. ii2. 134. poem. ii2. 266. i. epic poetry in. England's rule in. 114 150 France. 17 George. his Ar" Genesis and Exodus. Fox." versions of."Skelton's. 8. and the Geats. ii2. i. i. 273 own's. 229 " Froissart. i. 163. ii1. 180. Beowulf and. John. Arnold. 66 influence of. Albans. St. 238 122. 157. 322. ii2. Caxton's. 135. Fritzsche. ii2. i. forms. on the Middle English Britonum. on Cynewulf. 131 f.. 220 50. i."med. 815 Gaunt. 50 French. Fisher's. i. political and national " Gauwayne. on. imitation of. the. i. John of. 152. Sir Christopher. ii2. 113. Awntyre of. i. 136. i." ii1. " Gawane. 259. by Berners. Robert. romance. 39 " Gamelyn. 85." &c. aspapal nuncio. ii2. Geats. 8 Gauls. 23 Fraser. Dr. Fritzsche "Friendship's Test in Time of Gentlemen of the Chapel. 285. Need." 391 thurian stories. 7.

149 99. i. 194 ff. i. i. ii". 106 Glee-wood. 193 Gloucester. 94 ff. John. 14 Legend. "Graal. 146 "Great Etruscan Three. ii'. John. 209 ii1. origin of the. 100. Dunstau. and clerics. 260 "Governance of England." i." i." poem by " Dialogues. 196 Gower. 80.. C. "theRushworth. of Iceland. 173 tion." ii2. 8 Graal. ii2. by Berners. 184 Glanvilla. i." Story of. Otto de. Pope. the. his Gesta. Grammatical and scientific writ322. Grammar Faculty.88 Godfrey of Viterbo.." ii2. i. i. 387 Gospels. 2. 11. 106. Publicke-wele. his "Pastorii2. 54. tlie Romans and. the. 264 173 1' Gesteof RobynHood. W. "Good Parliament. influence on Chaucer of. 193 ings. 50 Greek and Byzantine contributions to romance. "Graal. ii1." 190 f." 82." i. 265 transl. the. 102 Bartholomew 46 "Grail. 211 "Gesta Romanorum. Titus and. of. 135 Grettis-saga. 301 Gnomic dialogues and poetry. Lord. 298. ii1." ii2. 171." and "Le Gilbert. 269 Gregory the Great. Gregory XL. 188 " Gesippus. 13 "Grande Amour and La Bell Gloucester. Glee-men. for ii2. i. i.. ii2." Wace's. Grendel. and Lady See also Teutons. 82 Grafton. i. 43 Graye. 38. set. ii1. ii2. ii2. William. The Holy. 12 Grein. 25 Gorboduc. i. wulf. de. i. i. i. Marquis of Dortescue's. five Bills signed by. i. Boke of Marcus Au. by Elyot. expiration of. vantranslations of the. Aelfric's. and 129 "Governour. "Governaunce. 134 Godfrey of Winchester. Dr. 129 Goethe. ii1. 18 Giraldus Carnbreusis.277 f. ii3. "Golden "Golden Dunbar." i. ii2. 11. i. i." 76. 56. 271 the. 247 . 101. 111. 57 "Great Gest of Arthure. 169 "Golden relius. 39." Gervase of Ti bury. 814. &c."i. ii2. writes in English. Glastonbury and St.Gregorian saga. i. Robert of. i. 146 quished by Beowulf." the. 205. 285. 11 203.French. ii<2. ii1. Le petit saint. of his friendship with Chaucer. ii2. and Beo"Governail of Princes." For. 26 217 Grey. 172. ii2. death of. the. 83 al Care. of Lindisfarne. 44 Richard." ii1. ii1. 29 ff. ii2." by Hawes. 100 wulf. i.Grey. family and learning of. ii2. The. 70 ff. the monks Pucelle." legend by Capgrave. 326 173. La queste del saint. 196 " Gesta Herewardi Saxonis. Lord de Wilton. 9.. and Robert Mannyng. 133. 49. the sea-giant. 184. Mediaeval. Boke named Layamon's " Brut. 10. and Arthur. i." the." Huchown's. his Targe. i. i. adaptations of. on CyueGospel MS. 63. 94. 291 Germany. 109. ii1. 268 Granson.INDEX." interlude. 226. M." ii1. 316. conducts deputagrand saint Graal. "Gilbert of Sempringham. the = harp. ii2. 54. Thomas. death of. 255 '' Geste des Bretons. 11. works against King Richard. 9.

152. i. "Chronicle. 291. 182 of 1258. 271 "Harrowing of Hell.. constitutional struggles under. 218 HALES. 234. his conquests in Ireland. ii2. and 19 Dorset and the poema morale. 321. his "Re- Guilds. rise of political freedom under. Guillaume de Machault. time of. ii1. Abbot. 300. i. 30. ii1. 204." i. 329. judge. ii1. i. 6. 297." med. the battle of. Hermit of. 249. and the Celts. 276. i. 227 87. ii1. 91f.24." ii2.. Don ff. 208 ' Hnli Meidenhad. 209 Hnlliwell and Wright. King's.193 Harpists. ii2.. John. the Norman ver218. ii». ii1. i. the. Grimbald. 208.292 INDEX. Dr. "Lovesong" of. 209 Gringoire. 272 Henry V. 93. Grey. ii2. 145. 197 Harold. i. 21. 210 Henry VI. E. 114. 53 Hazlitt. Helena." the German.. 11.." ii1. 113. Langland and. by Gower. 84 Guillaume de Lords. ii2. Richard. prosperity of. 70 i. 302 Grimsby Dane. 37. 376 i. 121 ii2. 57 226. ii1. W. . i. 12 Guilhelm de Poitiers. 153 ii1. 328." Manny ng's. Haynes. i. 327 Henry VII. 220. prose. 196.. 337 Guarino of Verona. i. 45. 121 Harp. i. i. 328 Henry III. on Csedmpn. ii2. 154. 109 f. ii2. 316. 243 Hart. ii1. King. John. 226. i. Empress.27 f.. Guevara. 242... 232. 20 Hawes. ii2. ii1." Cynewulf's. 36 Heinzel. 123 f. 136 Henry II. 16.. i. 309 Healfdene. William. "Griffin and the Pelican. 154." and i. i. Thomas de. See Deguilemlle. 122. 150. 190 "Havelok the Dane. 313 Henry I. Cambridge. Pierre." ii2. Mr. 99 "Grisekla. 232 "Havelok the Hardyng. ref. Gropp." i. and harpers. ib.. 265 ii1. Bishop. 11. Hampshire. 199. 12. 306. on King Alfred's works. Rome. i. 13 Hampole." i. ii1. 157 Guillaume de Deguileville. ii1. 160. Wilts. ii1. 321 Hastings. 314. ii2. i. 84 Hendyug. Guy. 210. 219. 201 "Haudlyng Synne. 181. poems of his time. " Guthlac. Robert.. 109. i. 121 et seq. 390 Grosseteste. ii1. civil war under. William. 321 Hnil's.. Proverbs of. Chronicle.. 355. 149. 232. patron of science and literature. 227. and Lanfranc. mains" quoted. the Norman version. 255. i. 150. 66. 88. ib. 279.. 246. 353 Henry IV. Dr. 229 Guillaume de Roy's " ^Eneid. Bishop of Lincoln. 215 Henry VIII. i. historical poetry under. i. Ballad on. i. " Guide to the Antiquities of 181. i. 129 321. C. 209. 392 Hall.." the. ii1. ii1. his English proclamation sion. ii2." the. " Guy of Warwick. 248. ii1. founder of Eton School. his metrical ii2. 40.. 93 if. 329. 339 " Heliand. the Dane. ii2. Stephen. i. 218 Gunthorpe. Guido de Column a. 6 Antonio. Edward. ii2. 321.

126. on Asser's Higden. 119 " Hildebrand. 180 History among the Anglo-Norman clergy. 133 ff. ii1. 320 . Earl of Derby... i.. Holy maidenhood. Howard. iia. and Fable. 105 ents to University. 105. 16. 149 ff... 149 Heroes.." i. and the herobetray. 105 et seq. &c. Mr. 133." par Michel. 248 "Maiden Wyclif. 115. the idea. 239 Hexameters. 164 f. 110. 133 Henryson. Duke of Gloucester. Rolf. contrasted Humphrey.." the English. 139. H. Henry. 279. popular. 194." play of. ii'. is ever right and needs no advocate. 277. 283. i. Paul. ii1. 251 " Horologium Sapientise. Song of. Humanists. 277 Horace. i.. 247. SeeSurrey. 274 man. 172. 53 Historical writing. early English versions "Humanity." i. 198. 275. i. Lady. i. 301 Huchown." ^Elfric's. alliterative. fellow-worker with Homilies. H. ii2. 49 f. 167 126 Moral Play. of the awle ryale. ii1. 315 et seq. Lord. 213. 169. 261 saga. ii2. S. ii2. 7 " Horn " saga. 196 Henry of Huntingdon. his presi. 130. 87. 67. 209 "Historia Trojana. 228 f. 27 Hereward on their "House of Fame.. ii2. Homeric epos. ii2. 290 "Hood. ii1. 266 " How a Merchant did his wife the Saxon. i. ii2. 144. the NorHilarius. 182 "Horn Childe" and Rimnild. 14. 234 "Herbarium. i. ii1. 77. 99. ii2. 131. 130. Mr. the. 146 Hereford. 106. Robyn. John. 184. ii2. See also Graal. ii1. Mary. ii2. 150. early. 269 f." Columna's. 107. ii2. 328 Holy Graal romances. i." of. i. ii2. i. 82. 393 Howard." Chaucer's. 239 Heywood. 389 Plays. i." i.. 149 Howard. life. J. comment translation. Catherine. 199 198 Homer. 208 f. 148. i.. 129 ff. ii2. ii2. ii2. 90. Heritage. 7 " Hugues de Lincoln. 224. 49. ii2. 128 Hugo Vaucemane. 106.. 17.. his " Ccenobii Burgensis historia. 49: of the Blickling MSS. romance. 269 Humanistic studies." i.. i. 332. 10 "Historia Auglica. 293 114 f. 310 et seq. 18 iia. 118. 124. 67. 150. 60 Hug. i. 215. 103. on the Eng241 lish " Song of Roland.. 92. 71.194. or Rollo. ii1. 274 Hrolf." Polydore Vergil's. the. Latin. 58. ii8." Suso's. ii2." rned. 19. Lady. 198 Howorth. 201 f. 237 ff. 234. 269 Hugo Candidus. ii1.. supLife of Alfred and the Winposed author of Chester chester Annals. Hugh of Norwich. 40. the Northumbrian cycle of. 8. the. 213 Hugh of Lincoln. 160. in poetry. ii2. Thomas. i. ii1. Randulf. 146 Hugo of Rouen. review of his " Homilise catholicae. ii*. 256 Henry. supposed author of the English Vision of St." i.INDEX. 86. 237. 161. i. 15 " Hippomedon. 82. 99 Howard. with the English.

ii1. ii2. George.. 98 34 "January and May. ii2. 6 Huon de Bordeaux. Jehan de Meung]. 167. ii2. the. 106 Joy. founder of " Juliana. i. 274 Islip. Archbishop of. i. 268 John. 331 Itinerent clerks. ii2. 83 John of Ghent or Lancaster. ii2. ii2. ii1. " Joseph de Arinw thie. conquests Henry II. i.294 INDEX. 181." Joan of Arc. " Indian Summer. i. transl. 266 John of Salisbury. the. prose. of Irish Church. 70 John of Corvey. 269. 130 et seq. Don. 296. ii2. Song of. ii1. 83. 172. 67. 90 Canterbury Hall." by Erasmus." 2d drama.the god. ii'2. 125. 258 41 Ipomedon. 168 ff." Wyatt's. 7 Incantations and charms. 162 Jeanne de Rouge. ii1. 120." i. religious play. 168. King.123 Interludes. i. i." Thomas & Kempis. i.."iP. ii1. 120 Hussites. 61 Jacobus de Cassolis." i. 317 Isocrates. 219 John of Athelney. See Tlmandune. his reign. Josephof Arimathea. " Polycraticus" of. ii2. 18 Jongleurs. 332 Italy. ii2." i. ii2. by Berners. 159. International culture in the time John of Tynemouth. ii2. 303 Hycke Scorner. 61 "Institutio principis christiani. ii1. Jerome. 36. Huntingdon. 253 Ireland. of Scotland. ii1. ii2. James IV. i. 167 Jaufre Rudel. " Sauctilogium " of. Hygelac. 181 romance. ii1. Joseph of Exeter. ii2.. ii'2. 12 Jehan de Meun [Jean de Meung. St. ii2. 194 "Instructions for Parish Priests. 183 185 i. 13 252 Jacobus a Voragine. " Image of Governance. Josephus Flavins. ii2. i. 152. 270 Jerome. ii2. 7 Huss. 181 See Hippomedon. 197 "Imitation of Christ. Ilmiugdon. i. Henry of. ii2." ii1. 87. and the Ingsevones. legendof. 125 "JACOB ANDESAU. 266. i. ii2. Song of the. fabliau. 66. 10 Ippolito de Medici. i. 33 " Judas" and " Pilate. i." Cynewulfs. John. 174." transl. 197. i. i. 7." " there. i. ii1." med. 251. i.131ft'.. i. ii1. ii2. 189 f. the. i." epoch of. King of the Geats. 23 274 Hymnic Poetry of the Teutons. 187. Jordan Fantosme. 280. ii2 212 Istaevones. 194 by Mirkus. 4 Interludentes. iii. 245. 331. 123 IDEALISM and Realism. i. by Elyot." of the Plantagenets. 201 " Itinerary " of John Leland. ii2. 165. h'2. ii1. 65 Innocent III. 134. Oxford. i. 126 '' Informacon for Pylgrimages to the Holy Londe. 157 med. 217 78. his "Historia. 332 John. 191 " Husbandman. 57 . 244. 295 "lopas. Moral Play. i. 15 Ing. 32. the Normans in.

i. i. 98 Laufranc. i. William. Cristoforo. 98 188. 328. 55.Learning. i. 376 " Justis betuix the Tailyeour and Soutar. records. of the children of Laws. and politics. 89. grants of. 259 " LADY PRIORESS. versification.143. satire 374. the NorthumLangland. i. new. Walter. 190 .the. brian. ii'2." Douglas's. with the English and the Teutons. ii2. 10. ii2. 120 Landino. and literature. i. ' Lambert the Crooked. 186 . and the Arthurian legends. in England. 165 313 et seq. 315 Song of the Battle ings. 300. 180 "Brut. the. 252 King's College. ii1." ii2. and Hampole. ii1. i." poem by Duubar.144 Legend . i. of. 201 Langtoft. 166 i. Cambridge. or ring-finger. " Lament for the Makars. 135 "Kyllynge Israel. i. lish. rescinded. 63 et seq. 323 . development of. 127. 279 Kentish prose. ii1. 274. 5 Le Bee. 88ff. i. rise of." Dun. ii1. 303 "La queste del saint Graal. i. characteristics "Geste des Bretons. 194. i. and 268. proviso of. 129. i. 4. 86 Landry. 179. 253 . and culture. ii1." i. ii2. i. i. writers." i. 366 . andWiclif. 173 . 257 "Junius" MS. 10 . 185. Layamou. i. King.128. English." 276 f. 283 " King Hart. the aesthetic and hisii2. 34. 255 Kent drama. " Laece Boc " (Leech Book). 74 of his old age."by Lydgate. &c. blending of. his La Fontaine. the. 352. in Britain. 49 .. writi." 188 . ii1. The Fly ting of Dunbarand. 1. i. 189 . Julius Valerius. education of." epic.cycle. i." satire on all ranks." i. 67 Kent."the. 111. i.f 94 " King of Tars. ii1. Normandy. "Last Judgment. i. 206 . 173 Large. of Csedmon. homiletic literature in. i. 338 Kingship. ii1. and of. Peter. 165 Juuius Hadrian. advance of. ii2. i. 226. and his daughters. bar's. 130 4' Kortryk. Abbey of. 327. Latin. i. early Engreligious play. ii1." the." 187. 259 school of. and Wace's Lais." i. ii2. 366. 75 317. i. i. poetry in England. 295 Dante. 193. in Italy. Lamprecht. 113 Laurence of Durham.. 290 . 71 . 4 Language. 79 Kirkby. Robert. 188 Laity. the French. Lanfranc's '' Land of Cokaygne. ii2. influence of.INDEX. ii2. influence of. 197 "Lay of the Ash. 115. oppressive taxes. 48. i. 12 "Leech Book. 120. the Southern. 295 England. De la Tour. 315 Jutes. ii2. 3 . ii1. and his continuation of Wace's " Brut. 279 Leech. 271 . 274 torical signification of. 353. and Beda. Margaret. 321 Land. ii2. literature of the Normans in Kiuloss. i. 328 Lear." the. scholastic. 189 .ii2. 80. 295 Languages. 219. 259 the Welsh. 286. 263 " La Teseide. 206 . his " Piers Plowman/' 354. 10 " KENNEDY.136. and Hampole.

77 Lycurgus. i. ii2. 149 Ludus accidie. 98. 53. 277 Ludus de Antichristo." collection of." Barclay's. i.. Pope. 4 " London Lyckpeny. Sermo. William. the.. religious poems of. 210 ff. contrasted with that of Italy. and the story of " Havelok the Dane.. 135 "Love-song" of Thomas de Hales. 271 Louis XL. ii1." Benedeit's. on Cynewulf. ii2. 226 et seq. and "Lif of Seinte Cecile. 173 Leland." Linacre. in Old English poetry. 221. 132 Lucian. by Barbour. 146 Caxton's. ii2. " Legends. 101 Locrine.156 Lydgate. ii2. 223 et seq." ii2. ii*. Leofric of Brun. ii1. ii2. 1." legendary poetry. ii1. 271 "Luve erdly and divine. Jacob. 274 Lord of Misrule. 111 Luther.. 63. ii2.296 " Legendof Cupid. in Chaucer's time. ii2. i.. i.. i." i. i. ii3. 208 "Love and Riches. 211. Dialogue between. i. 322. 269 Lindisfarne Gospel MS. 7 f." ii1. ii1. 151." by Heywood." cycle of. Thomas. 137 ''Legend of the Holy Rood. 114. birth ii2. 265 " Legenda Aurea. iii. Brandan. i. Lincolnshire. John. Cathedral." Lydgate's.. 210 career of. 192 INDEX." ii2. ii2. Lily." acted in London. 288. 320 Louis XII. 203." 204 " Lupi. Provensal. ii2.. the great work of. 264. 172 Love. the arch-presbyter. ii1. ii2. ii1.. i. John. in England. Leo X. 97. 110 et seq. the ancient. ii2." ii1. 133 " Lupset. ii2. 323 "Life and Pathway into the Holy Scriptures. i. 133. " Le grand saint Graal. the Dominican. ii2. 48 . Dialogues of. ii2. ii1." Dunbar. ii2. 179 "Life of the Holy Archbishop and Martyr Thomas. 193 Lyric. ii2. 3. 41 f. ii2. religious treatment of. 166 1751. 178 ff. "tract by Tindale. 133 Locher. 58 " Legende of Goode Women. 332 et seq. ii2. i. 36 Life. at Canterbury. intellectual. 199. the. ff. 57 et seq. 152 "Lyf of Charles the Grete. Martin. the North French.. ii2. ii2. 172 Library. 297. i." &c.. 320 Library. 166 386 Leo. the Old Eng233 lish.. and Cardinal Life. 285.127." the. 100 Literary taste under Richard II. by Mirkus. 35. 27 ff. 238 Pole. University of Oxford. by 94. 135 Lollards. Thomas. Play of. 106 f. and the 62. i." ii1. ii2. Heinrich. i. 104 " Le petit saint Graal. 111. ii2. 266 " Legends of the Virgin. 151. 163. 123 Lorens [Lorence]. 139. 60." i. 272 f. metrical. 171 London. 165 i. his style. 5 Legends. 148 f. 231 "Lily's Grammar. 149 " Lesclaircissement de laLangue Fran9oyse. ii2. Leo. 60 " Legends. ii1. the religious. 206^" "Love. " Legend of St.." a disputation.

. 27. ii". 267. 206. 321. 297. Magdalen College. of ballads. 392. King." transl. i. Tyb his Wife. med. ii1. i. iia. 302. ii2. ii2. or romance. 38 Mantuanus. 132 Marie de France. 302 Mannyng. wife of James IV.end of. 140 "Mery Play between the Pardoner and the Frere. 45 Manciuus. 267 of Christianity on. i. i. new. Cambridge. "Merlin. 281." quotation from. 61 literature ii1. of religious poems. 92 Mercia." ii2.INDEX. Roman de. transl. 327 Margaret of Richmond. 153 Margaret of York. 177.. 332 comedy. Anglo-Norman. John. 96. 162 Margaret. 109. the troubadour.. iia. 159. 35. 315. and Wessex. by Bokenham. 99 "Maukynde/'ii1. of Layamon's" Brut. i. legend." poem of Dunbar's. 47. 297. and the " Ayenbite of Inwyt. ii2. 286 " Mary Magdalene. Oxford. Colard. 183 " Metamorphoses. 4. 12 Marian us Scotus. ii3. religious. 257. 180. St. 68. i. 205. 206 ii2. 142 f. iii." by John of Salisbury. i. Henry. 98 "MACHAR. 274. i. 289. the Maundeville. 175. 325 "Menologium. with the troubadours. ii2. Med wall. 212. 330 . ii2. rP. of the Proverbs of Alfred. degree of. Medicine and Natural Science. 97 Malmesbury Abbey." Skelton's. Sir Thomas. 104 Members of Colleges. ii2. North-eastern. See also Rhyme. Chau127 f. 301. 129 rate. i. affluence of. Walter. 139 ff. &c. influence Matthieu de Vendome. ii1. ii1. 194. ii1. Lyrical poetry. Dominicus. 291. Versification. Masques. 271. of the Court-epos. the Cu- Marcabru. 37 f. Robert de. 199 cer's. 266. 65. 180. 255 "Mappula Anglise. SWetseq. transl. 13ff." tragiMagic. " Messageof the Husband. 261 Michel. ii'2. 123 Margaret of Anjou. lays foundation-stone of Queen's College. 98. ii2. i. 130. 24. Metrical tales. 323. Holy." the. ii»." ii2. 270 Melun. the idea. i. 59." med. ii2. 90. 124 ff.. ii2. 132 Master of Arts. i. 249. 63 " Metalogicus." 189. Robert. i. and Neighbour Pratte. 328 "Meliba and Calisto. i. his History. ii9. 150. ii2. 102. Melizius. ii2. 92. 325 Mathematics and Natural His- tory. 295 ol." i. ii2. ii1." ii1. " Magnyficence. and wife of Charles the Bold." the.. Melibceus and Prudentia. and Jhan the Priest. 12. i. 25. 16 "Mery Play between Johan the Husband. ii1. Dan. 273 4'Mary at the Foot of the Cross. 34 Malory.." i. Marguerite des Roches. 304. 77 f. 10 " Manuel des pechiez. mother of Henry VII." ii2. 155. 270.45 Mead Hall. 69 " Merle and Nightingale. 286. of the legend." Ovid's. by Caxton. i. 152. 286 Map. 283 Middle Ages. 88 f. 136. ii2. ii2. 300.f 131 327. 41 Metre. sister of Edward IV. i. 128 Maidenhood. 300 Mansion. i. development of..

274 See Gospels. i. 271.. his Early Engafterwards lish Text Soc. i. ii1. Benoit de Saiute. i. 246 272 National spirit. decay of. publications reMore. 322. 319 255 Montfort. 7. 186. 265. different grades of. ii2. 216. 100 ii2. 199 "Mirror for Princes. 252 Morris dance. i.." by Odo of Cering"Mirror of Princes. 16." by Lydgate. 291 Miracle Plays. 297 et seq.. Miles gloriosus. 4 Middletou. i. i. New College. i. 218. ii2. ii>. technicalities of. A. &c. his History of the Brit124 ff. quotation Netter.. i. ii1. Alexander." transl. 208 f. 175 Neckam. Moliere..1841. transl. 274 f. ii2. 332 Moralities or Moral Plays. English. ii2. 134. 326. ii2. i. 148 adapt." allit. ii2. i. 107. 316. ii1. 235. 50 i. satire on the. 129 Monastic discipline. Monte. 205 " Mortalitie of Man. 198. 277 ons. Oxford. 141 349. Middlesex. ii2. Piero del. 21 National literature. wife of Sir Thomas Morris. worship of. ii2. 87 More. ii2. 383 from. 236 Mythological conceptions. 154 f. the. 299. Nennius. 131. ii2. Simon de.. 390 Milton's " Allegro. iia. i." ii2." Occleve's. 140 329 ics. 112. 144. 109 "Mirror of Good Manners/' " Morte d'Arthur. Henry Parker. by Barclay. 274 "Morte Arthure. 243. the religious. 45 Morton. ii2. 75. Lord. 135 Morality Plays. 187 Miracles. i. See "Nature. on Wulfstan's " Mirror of History.ii2. More. Minot. 312. ii2." med. 390 Beauvais'. 217. 349. Sir Thomas. Newcastle-on-Tyne Plays.. i.298 of. ii2. 2041. Alice. ii1. 103. ton. iia. i.235. 319. Humphrey. 132 Minne. the. 133. ii1. 103. by " Minor poems.123 Mirandula's " Rules of a Christian lyfe. Lord. National Saga. 72 Minstrels. 219 Necromancy. ii2. 204." ii1." transl. Natural History and MathematMonks. 327 oldest extant. 284. ii1. ii2." Vicent de Homilies. ii1. English. ii1. and his ballads. 124. ii1. 294 Mysteries. 115 INDEX. Elyot. 237 Middle-age romance. ii2. 66 304 of. 132 Myrgings. Rev." by Skelton. well. 40 "Moder of God. by Elyot. foundation New Testament.236. ii2. 11 by Trevisa (?). .144ff. 273. Dr. &c. 123. ii2. 108 Mummings. R. 99 NAPIER. i." Moral Play by Medalso Clergy. 159 Mount joy.. Laurence. 107 ff. i. 11 Mysteres Mimes. 124. i. Archbishop. 181. Thomas. " Mystery of Adam. 60 4'Narrationes. romance. ih. 325. ii2. 122. ii". 301. ferred to. 199 ii». Nerthus. 311. 131 Monmouth." by Malory. ii1. 206 et 154 seq. 97. influence Morley. ii1. 55.

their clerical poetry. "Of that Knowledge which 180. i. 193 Odo of Cermton [Cerington]. 148 '' OBEDIENCE of a Christian lates Old Testament. i. ii2. and grants of land. of Hereford. Orator regius. and the English tale. and and the Angles. as an ultramontane. 89 fluence. ii2. i. i. 120.. See also under Anglo-Norman. Off a of Mercia. 224 Norse pirate people. 50 f. by literature. ii2. 321 " Novum Instruraentum. Normandy. ib. i. 104. 140." legend of. the. 290 "Orosius. Old English Miscellany. 120.&c. " Nicodemi. the. the.. tional epos. trans- ballad. tradition. 130 . Sir Henry. i. Nottingham. in Italy. ii1. 198 ance with the Papacy. St. toriographers." Skelton's. 260 Osberne of Gloucester." the. i. their versions of English and Anglo-Danish traditions. and chivalry. 16. introduced into English "Nininn. Orm. referred to. 219 Norman-French. ii2. ii2. dialogue..Oldcastle. 181. 219 ." Luther. King of the Angles. 290 . 111 ii2. Dr. 315." i. Conquest.INDEX. 206. 128 ture.. 5 his disposition and life. "Northumberland. 195. 17 "On Christian Liberty. 75 . 194 " Ormulum. 272. 119. ii1. 219 maketh a Wise Man/' Elyot's. their alliii2. R." Eras"Nicholas St. i. the German. Occleve. 208 et seq. 188 Northmen." legend of." Capgrave's. Sir John. 7. fluence upon the French na. Seealso Danes. 219. Dr. 178 Death of the Fourth by Skelton." treatise by Tindale.. Gelais. by mus. 157." by Androw of Wintoun. 179 127 Oberon. ii2. 119 North. ii2. 61 "Nut-Brown. i. &c. ii2. 17 Man. its inOctavien de St. their cosmopolitanism. 11. and his "HisEarl of. i. ii1. 299 Nicholas V. iia. their in207. Normans. i. The. 68. Pope. i. i. 148 218. i. ii2. i. ii2. ii2. ii1. ii2. i. Oral contests in poetry." King Alfred's. Skeltou made. Maid. its literature 255." SeeGower. 332." cultoria ecclesiastica. ii% " Nigramansir. 212 Norfolk i. 136. i. 164 Barbour. 200 10. &c. 92 " Nova Leganda Angliee. Norris. 61 Occam. cycle of legends. 11 and the Anglo-Norman." med. ii1. the fusion. 247 " Orpheus and Eurydice. William." med.. 121. ii2. cycle of homilies. 18 Novelle. 167 " On Gentylness and Nobylyte. 285 Northumbrian. ii2. Nicolas. 81 Nobles. 111 French Oriental tale." of its circulation. ii2. 253 . i. their hisMorris's. 188 i. 189 Barbour. 88 . Evaugelium. 141 " On the Dignity and Excellence of Marriage. the. 122. Ofifa. i. 131. and the manner " Originate Cronykil. Northumbria and Elegy on the Ordericus Vitalis. 300 et seq. 115 Sir Edward. i. 119. ii2." i. ii2. Thomas.

"Pennyworth of Wit." i. 179 " Paradise Lost. ii2. 324 . ii2. The. Papacy. his " ComParker MSS." Langland's. " Pastime of Pleasure. Henry. 324.. 277 "Paternoster. i. 66 et seq. 247. i. 84 Philippa. i. 174 "Pasquil the Playne. ii1. 137 "Parlement of Foules. 220 Peterborough. 120 . 133 " Pearl." Wolfram's. 81. treatment of. i. 80 f. i. temp." Hawes's." ii2. 156 Patrici. iia 41 Persius. Bp. i. 335." Tindale's. the Norman alliance with. 354 . 333 . 259 "Paradise." ii1. effect of. reorganization of. 337."iia. in Kent and Essex. ii2. i. of Worcester. and Conquest. 334. Peter of Blois. 243. Crusade. 37 237 Philipe de Thaun.. 216if. " Palamon aud Arcite.189. proceedings of. II. 214 Oxford Library... 53 Petrarcha. 60 " Paris and the Faire Vienne.". 94." the. 182 120. The Vision of. style of. 261 " Penseroso." ii2. ii1." and 112 143. Keginald. ii1. Tindale." Milton's. ii2. 328 tions. 225. 97 "Parzival. ii2. 1291. i. ii2. of the Annals. 68. 133 " Palace of Honour." Crestien de Troyes'. Parliament." Elyot's. last days of. ii2. i. 147 f. Piccolomini. 102 Ovid. ii1. Pico della Mirandola. Philip the Good. 127 ." Old English. his sermon. Francesco. 198 i. students of. "Parable of the wycked Mam145 mon. doubts Apostles' Creed. 338 ." Caxton's. 56 " Physiologus. ii2. 265." or "Cumpoz. 237 f." Cynewulfs. ii2.2Elfric's. 323. ii2. iii. early days of. 50 316 199 " Passionessanctorum . i. ii1. legend of." i. 321 Oxford University. 252 '' Perceval. 267 " Owl and the Nightingale. 94 f. 245. 136..306 INDEX. recantation of. The Vision of. ii2. i. i. ii>. ii2. i. i. 229. 24 Pecock. 112 . 390 "Bestiare. 32." ii1. Francesco. Lord Morley. 23. 248 French language and poetry. 194 " Piers Plowman. 38 327 "Philobiblion. and the Early English and Irish Churches. ii1." religious play."i. ii2. ii2." ii1. ii*. 107 "Phoenix. A. "Pater Noster. Halls of. Children of. i. 338 Oswald. ii1. Queen. ii2." ii1. putus. distinguished as writer and theologian. 249. i. 80. 269." the." Douglas's. 182 Owain. 184 III. 229. 52. Enea Silvio de. a cultivator of etseq." 99. i. 336 . 337 Perseus. the. 235 t( Pestilential sect of Luther and 33 . Hen. " Annals" of. 69. 42 Petrarch. his influence in the advance of culture. " Paul. PAGAN and Christian incanta. iia 80. 102. i. 66 Pageants. 17 . condition of. 9. 89 Pilgrimage. 348 Peasants.104 " Pauls. and politics. 165 Parker.. i.

"Erasmus's. 2 '' Preface to the New Testament. 302. 194 PolydoreVergil." See Deguileville.209f. ii1. proverb. 5 Political contrasts." ii1. of Edward I. 191.and the "Owl Plegmund. in dialogue. 233 f. 203." Higden's." by John of Salisbury." ined. ii2. 194 "Pouthus. Laurent de. 3. Dorset. 206. 92. "b v Elyot. Lyric. Reginald. of the Teutons. 136. 211 Poetical Tales. Giovanni. Bp. and the fair Sidonia. 280. 293. 206. ii2. 153." ii1. 253 Play of Robin Hood. 106 " Polychronicon. of troubadours. 208. 180 Premierfait. 289 Play of St." i. 321 popular. i.. Poema Morale. i. George." Bunyan's. "the. ii2. earliest English. in France and England.10. 123. ii1." i. of "Prologue upon the Epistle of . Poetry. 97 Poggio. 205. i. i." or 152 185 Poetic form. 206 ii'. 261. i. 207 Policy. 92 Poetical Sermon. Paul. 200. 156. in versions. 48 "Preamble(Prologue) to theWyf of Bathe. Pontano. English. 1." the. historical. "Praise of Folly. lyrical. ii*. 38. 219 Political lyrics. i. 133 "Play of Everybody. 89 "Poetical Calendar. 80. ii1. 139." Ham- "Menologium. King of Galicia. religious. ii2. 226. 153. Richard. early English. 200 "Prick of Conscience. ii» " Prayer to Our Lady. of Salisbury. 303 Play of the Credo. 19. historic origin. 83. ii1. ii2. 4. 22. 185. the. i. i. 2(17 Predatory Excursions. 321 Politics and language. 10 Poor. 291 "Play of the Grocers. 156. and Edward III. 249." ii1. folk. 312. i. pole's. 16 "Polycraticus. 7 Pisco. « Pilgrim's Progress. i. 215 Plutarch. AngloNorman. 30." i. i. Robert. '' Proces of t he !SevyuSages. 181. iia. 293 Players of the King's Interludes. "Prisoners Prayer. ii1. 272 strollers. and international culture. 206. 214. 108 "Pitee. 60 "Pilgrimages of the Life of Man. 226 Poliziano. 129. ii2. ii'2. 81. 82. Latin. foreign influence upon. troubadours at the Court of the. Archbishop. Epic. national. hymnic. i. 156. ii2. John. ecclesiastical. i. 293 "Play of St. Compleynte to" (balade of)."Tindale's. See Alliterative. Norman clerical. 329. 314 Politics." still extant. 13. Romanic. ii2. 206 Prayers and Psalms. 158." Tindale's. the empire of. 114. 183. ii2. 205 Porteshom. i. ii1. ii*. 262 264. 162 Plato. 197. AngloNorman. i. 232 Plautus. Chaucer's. Latin. English. ii2. 70 and the Nightingale.INDEX. 255. ii1. 37. ii2. 148. 136. 83 Pole. Angelo. alliterative. 87. epic. ii1. influence of. 32. i. 130 Political progress. 67. ii2. 117 Plantageuets. ii1. 207. 227 '' Preservative agayuste Deth. 301 "Pilgrimage of Human Life. romance. &c. 186. court and popular. i. The. 254 Poetry. 200 ' Poyntz. 295 13. decline of. 249. the. ii1. i. "Praetyse of Prelates. ii2. 157. ii2. ii2." Chaucer's.

la belle. 163 Henry II."Reynart Rhenanus the Foxe. i. 48. 366. ii1. and of Graund Amoure. " Richard the Redeles. 129 Revetor. metrical 200. prelude to the. 176 of a. 133 182 Reformation. 329. 157 land. ii2. sister. ancient Southern. 141. 23 336. enthusiasm. 185 Richard of Hampole." Tindale's. 312 50.INDEX. 33. 179 and Langland's " Piers Plowman. ii«. and prayers. Proverb poetry. ii1. 71. 353. 61. 86. Historic of. 330. 284. St. of Italy." ii2. i." Tindale's. 153. 285 Psalms. tracts. ii2. 185 line. theological and 153. 97. John. progress of. prose. ii'. i. ii2." the. love in. 153. i. Prose. between Franks and Geats. i. 264. 208 . Wyatt's. i. father of Margaret of Anjou. 310. 283. Historic of Kyng. ii2. 123. love. 182." French poem. John." ii2. 339 Renaissance. SeeHampole. 327 Rhymed couplet. i. ''Proverbs of Alfred. i. 207. i." ii1. 146 218. ii1. 242 Richard Fitz Nigel. 94 "Purgatory of St.'* the. 262 Psalms. poetry. Robert de. translations of. translation of. ii1. ii2. the. Redeman." Sir Thomas More's. 47. earliest English. 303. 214. i. Kentish. 182 "Represser of overmuch blaming of the Clergy. Paul to the Romans. 159 iii. 130. revision of Rhine. Proven9al and North French 327. 235. 24 "Reply to Sir Thomas More's Dialogue. 38 ff. 206. the." SirTh. Purvey. under lyrics compared. 335 Retiues. legend poetry. 26. iiz. of the troubadours. of the English. 48. 151 Renaud de Montauban.. Richard Coeur de Lion. ii2. i.." ii2. William. Elyot's Rhyme. prelude to. ii2. i. 200 Troye. i. effect of his fall on poets. i. development Quentel. ii2. 327 "Refutation of Tindale's Reply. Bustell. i. 152 Richard II. 206. translation of. i." i. 33. from the alliterative long RANULPH of Glanvilla. ii1. Patrick. the middle and end- Puttenharn. 21. 85 Queen's College. "Richard Coeur de Lion. 270 Religion. 162. Surrey's. John." the. 89. i. Margery. 186 f. scientific. i. i. 6 English. "Recuyell of the historyes of ii1. Reginald of Canterbury. i. 201 Rhyme-song. valuable monument of English theology. 182 265. lyrical poetry. and William 32 Lang. ii2. 199 Religious agitation." Caxton's. vassalage and. Peter. 99 Prose. 130 " Reinardus Vulpes. 197 rhyme of Reginald of Canter" QUARREL between the Griffin bury. 329. 366. 367 the Bible translation. 202 "Richarde the Thirde. Psalms. ii1. ii1. ii2. 236 "Pucelle. i. i. 280." allegory of. 86. native. More's. i. ii2. 265 Rene. ii2. 7. 421 Beatus. battle on. 291 Puritanism. dawn of. 42 Property. and the Pelican.

ii2. independence of " St. 180 141. " Romaunt de la Rose. his "Le petit Roo. ^Egidius. Romanic poetry." i. Roman See. ii2. 275 Robert of Sicily." i. Legend of. 181 "Roman de Troie. 175. 172. de Renard." the. 104 . 169. Albau. French. 280 Rolle. on Cynewulf. i. i. et seq. 101 54 f. i. ii2. 10. John. i. 62 Robin Hood. 124 Roy. i. and his reforms. 58 ''Robert." the English. i. ii2. 253 "Romance of the Rose. 392 " Rules of Christian lyfe.nance. Life of. i. 220 Robert de Boron." the. early." Caxton's. 225 Romanus. St. 32 53 "Romaunt Romulus. ii1. i. 1238. ii2. 16. 45 128. of Scotland. i. 189 " St. 146 St. 122 "Roman de Ron. Christopher. ii2. the antique. i." iia. on Csedmon. William." i. the. i. 199 Rune-song. 36. 137." i." ii2. ii2. of adventure. the Rule of. 181 Robertus Pullus. 10 " Rushworth Gospels. the Legend of.. See also Hero-Saga. 111. 388 Rightwise. i. &c. 21." Wace's.. Albiu. Dr. Song of. 253." the. ii2. i. 11 the. the early English. 337 Robert of Gloucester and his Round Table. i.INDEX. the. and tale. 250 SADOLETTJS. See Hampole. 199 St. i. Duke of. i. ii1."i. 115. 4 St." i. Rollo. Richard. 142 Roger of Wall-hum. 32 " Roland. 128 "Ruin. i. Saint Graal. 8. 181 St. 376. 43. Brandan. Guillaume de. 77. 184 "Rule of St. 51 Rieger. 100 St. i. poesy. Richmond. 168. 270 St. Henry FitzRoy. iii. Benedict. Wyatt's. 149 "Robyn Hood. George.. by Elyot. Serjeant at law. 249. 9. Saga. 254 du roi Guillaume. 65 Runes. 9 Romantic literature. 260 Riddles. 103. 43 Rondeaux. rise of the. Cyprian. Cuthberht. 146 Robin and Woden. 273 i. and History. 84 play. of Normandy. the. influence of. legend. 100 Ryme couce. State from Ro. Dunstan. 103. appears in England." See Hood. transl. 6. ii2. ii2. Chronicle. i. 300. Middle Age. i. The. 133 Riviere. 50. 156 Romans and Celts. 273 ii2. 149. i. 181 "Roman i. ii2. ii2. 249. Benedict. i." ii2. i. i. i." transl. 270 "St. 119 Roman-Celtic and Teutonic culture. 43 Robert II. iii. 23 Saga-cycle. 120 Romances. ii2. i. translation of. 191. ii2. Cyril. 226. Sermon by. ii2. i. Life and Miracles of. Earl of Oxford. John. 76. 234. bis "Compendium morale. 330 101. King Arthur's. legend and Roy. iia. Bernard. 6 f. influx of. Pierre. i. conflict between. by Elyot. Life of the Glorious Martyr. 8. 206 ii2. i. West-English. 886. Rodrigo de Cola." ii2. Saga of Beowulf. 169 St.

183. i. ii2. i. 322 273 Sea. i. ii2. songs on. 314." transl." 135 Chaucer's. Thomas of Canterbury. 225. Katherine. 99 Saxons and Britons. 89 Satan. 270 St. 146 Scipio Africanus. ii2. i." autobiogtha. 117 Scandinavia. and the English. ii2. i. on all classes. 64 "Ship of Fools. 204. i. ii2. 11. 255. 273.268 Sellyng. 99 St. iia. Legend. 199. School." Savonarola. ii1. = poet and singer. i. i. 199. 68 Scogan." Surrey's. 1." ii1. 84 Satire. Michael. 120 St. i. Seealso GleeSalisbury. 316 "Satire Against the Citizens of London." ii1.82. 235. 393 Shoreham. 211. name for the swordgod Tiw. 240 Shakspere. 392 St. ii1. 63. 199. i. 183 Serfs and slaves. 178 " Sawles Warde. in the hands of the clergy. Legend. 10 Seymour. 315." ii2. 263. John of. English. 195. 100 ff. 128. William. i. St. i. Legend. Shires. The. 10 232. 125 Normans. 272 "Song of Roland. "Satires.INDEX. Seeretoruin. i. wars with the. 9. 284 Saxneat. Book of the. 2. i. Michel. Mount. literature of. lost. in the later "Genesis/' i. Dr. 88 " Sanctilogiuin. i. 264 Sherif-Hutton. ii2. 265. ii2. Science. 4 Schleich. i. the. 280. George's Chapel. 255 Satires on the Franciscans. and Medicine. Saints. i. Skelton at. by BarScandinavian influence. ii2. 255 " Satan " poems. ii2. iia. the. ii2. 8 Saxon writings. i. 98 Scientific and theological prose. Lives 8 of the. 328 " Separation of Spiritual from Temporal Powers. St. 85. 185 ment &c. 387 verse legends of the. etc.. ii«. foundation of. ii1. 118 Seggers. Windsor. Guthlac. 265. 8f. 392 St. Juliana. the. The.. i. i. 172 "Seven Sages/' the. Paul's School. 265 "Seven Sacraments. 61. ii2. 147 " Seven Wise Masters. ii2. "Saisnes" (Saxons). 233 ff. by Wyclif. William de. Wyatt's. 1. ii2. 48 "Secretuin. 266. Lady Jane. i. 211." i. 281 . i. Seealso Danes. i."S6jour d'honneur. 261 1' SevenePoyntes of Trewe Love and Everlastyng Wisdame. Sallust's "War against Jugur. 211 Scop. 199. 130." treatise by More. 271. 271 St. i. i."i. 60 ii*. by Barclay. ii2. ii2.Church and State. 268." by Henry VIII. i. i." transl. " Anglo-NormanEngland." sonnet. 268. 127. 210. clay. the (minstrels). 18 " Sardanapalus. " Saints' Legend of Cupid. 151 Scots. 104 89 Salomon and Saturnus." i. raphy of Oct. poetical. i. 5 Sermons.of the iii. 196." i. 10. 392 St. 98. de Gelais. 259 " Shepherds." John of Tynemouth's. formation of. 212. Legend. Margaret. i. ii2. on the English Shirley. ii2. Henry.

105 Sigwerd of Easthealon. Epistle of Sweet. father of the poet. 218 f. 116.. 277 Skeat. 136. ii2. 206 life. "Story of Thebes. 84 "Song Against the Friars. ii2. &c. 186 Strophic forms. 88 Stewart. 182 ff." ii2. i. i. 283 Superstition and criticism. Henry. i. 351. Skelton's patroness. 268 Song. 7 Swaefs (North Swabians). 271 " Somnium Scipionis. ii2. of the troubadours." by Sir T." ii1. 148." i." Moral Play." collection of.. 136 ff. poetry of. Earl of. More. Style and metre of the religious poets. ii2. Skelton." i. ii2.. the. his "Hist. his Early English Text publications. John. 275 " Socii. ii2. 159 Sonnet.and William Lang. i. 375. 325 "Somme des vices et desvertus. 87 odus. the. 105 f." Huchown's. 9 Sievers. Caxton's. and UnderstandSchool. i. 15. 252. 141. The. 76 " Stories of Troy.." i. 49 . See also Ballad. 182. 199 Sweet. ii2. 112 ff. in the English language. new." i. "Will. " Speculum Meditantis. i. "Skelton's. 227. ii2." by Nigellus. Maurice de. "Sir Tristrem. and others on Starkey." the. 356 et Student seq. Dr.. "Song of King Horn. Dr. i. epic. AngloSaxon poetry" referred to. 182 " Supplycacyon for Souls in Purgatory. i. i. i. i." by Friar Lorence. on Caedmon's "Ex" Sire Degarre. 375 Swift. i. i. 212. 254 "Sire Otuel. ii2. Prof." ii1. &c. ii2. modified. 93." ii1. i. i. Thomas. 225 Streoneshalh. i. 108 ff. 367 Stobl." i. 245 Siriz (Sirith) Dame." i. E.. 254 Sounds. 103 Simeon of Durham. Caedmon. the English popular. W. 245. 187 Surrey. Archbishop." ii1. 50 Suso's "Booklet of Wisdom. his edition of "Piers Plowman. 352 ing. 109 Sigeric. 337. Andrew. 118. ii2.INDEX. Earl of. " Song of Leodegar. ii2. 47 Sully. or Whitby. 131 i. 122. novel. Duke of Albany. ii2. See also King Horn. Philip. 120 Statius. Countess of. animal. 99 "Speculum stultorurn. ii2. 137 " Song of Roland. Surrey. med." ii2. ii2. 269 " Supplicacyon for the Beggars. 248.. Prof. iia. 394. 11 "Swete and devoute Sermon of Holy Saynt Ciprian of Mortalitie of Man. ii2. 303. of Sigeferth." i. 226. W.. 181. 244 Songs. 38 f. 237 ff. 256 Surrey. 161 Symbolism. 101. 377 State. 237 Surrey. Thomas. ii2. 39 Strollers. i. 147 " Sparow. i. i. i." Spirit. ii2. on Csedmon. laud. ii2. and Shropshire. 202 ff. Lyric." by Fish. 384 " Sir Gawayne. ii2. 238 " Susannah. Church. 186 i. Henry Howard. ii2. i." Stobo. 372. i. 237 " Skryveuer's play. 237." a religious play. 109 Silvio Enea. 53 Stewart." ii2. i. 238 the Normans.

ii2. 550 175. i. 235. Book of the i. John. et seq. ii2. and Homer. 11 Translation of French romances. legend of. 322 "Titus and Gisippus. 249. the sword-god. 173 ff. 188 Tournaments." 46 "Tristan French romance. ii1. "Tidings fra the Session. ii2. 91.. Tiw. ii2. 73. 180 Mouse. 237 Thegns. of. 83 Tales. 326 Tungdalus. 234 " Temptation of Christ. i. i." Elyot's. Storie of. ii2. ii2. 53 ff. ii». 205 Teiresias and Ulysses (Horace). i. i. 264 Chevalier. 182 . 234 "Testament of Master Andro Kennedy.1771. 267 253. 255 Towneley Mysteries. 105 Tarente. ii1. their poetry. and the Roman- " Translation of the Bible. 273 ft. episode of. "Thersites. the. Trevisa. 273 "Troy Romance. 68 f. and Isold. ii1. 244. 15 ined. ii2." i." Chaucer's. 146 interlude. 224. ii1." Teutons. 219. growth of. ii2. 167 by Dunbar. 92. ii1. the Rhymer. oral. ii2. heroic age. in honor of mar" Tale of Virginia. 109 Tristan saga. the. i. 6 Teutonic culture. i. i. "Triumph of Yen us and Beauty. ii2.306 TAIL-RHYME. Earl of Worcester. ii2. 8 Tindale. the god of thunder. Anglo-Norman writers of. i. Bishop. ii2. 11 "Tale of Gamelyn. i. i. 11. 96 Troubadours (Trouveres)." Barbours. 31. his "Imitation of Christ. i 157." interlude. 238 "Three Kings. Tiptoft. 309. i. 58 226. Towneley Plays.88 Terza rima. 11. John. et seq. review of. 67 Tale. 275 Trade. ii2. rise of the. 141 " Thesaurus. the. Dorsetshire. 77 Thunor. 10. 221 Tradition. 199 " Thistle and Rose. i. 143. i. i. 225. ii2. 13 " Thebes. 14. 81. 15. 7.. 16 tic Middle Age. ii2. 120 riage of Richard II. their 204 ii1. ii2. "Tristan. 8 Dunbar. " Tour-Landry." ii2. 257. Cuthbert. the ancient materialsof. if2." ii1. Tanner. 205 Tudor era. ii2." Tindale's. "Tod and the Lamb. their hymnic poetry. 5. 7 Tliomas of Erceldoun anclThomas "Troilus. significance INDEX. i. 131 f."poem Troy saga. ii2. 328 Tudor system. i. 82. 174 ff. i. ii2. their deities. William. "Troy Book/'ii1." ii1. 96. 234 f.." by Dunbar." by of." ii1. 232. The. MS. ii1. the. The. 28 tween. ii8." ii2. 158 " Throstle and Nightingale/' the. 174 Theological and scientific prose. prose." the." med. contest be. in the last centuries of the Middle Ages." Dun bar's." ii1. ii2." i. 83 Thomas a Kempis. 270 Troilus and Briseida. ii2." Elyot's." legend.Trialogus. "Town Mouse and Country i. i. 168 "Troilus and Cryseyde. 265 Tunstall. 122 '' Tripartite Chronicle. 247. i. 69 " Truth. "ii2. i. ii1. 74 Teuton and English.

183 " Waltheof." i. 61. ii2. ii2.134. 199 Vision of Piers Plowman. 60 Maker.INDEX. 81 Valle. 208." ii1. 185 Walter Map. 213 "Vision of the Cross. 245. and Layamon. 265. succession of. byDunbar. 83 ff. i." i. i. 26. 266. decline Aquitaine. Langland's." i. 81. ii2. ii2. contemporary of " Virgin. i. Francis. 157 135 "Vice" in the Moral Plays. 66. 53 Widow. transl. 31 Wallace." 194. ii2. 269 Versification. 178. ii1. 151 of the ancient.!. 206 Virgin Mary cult. 14 See Gower. religious. 48 Walsh. 18. ii2."the. of the " Ormulura. Thomas. Walter de Chatillon. Baron Fulke Fitz. ii2. ii2. 209 f." the. W. 387 Wane-deities. Henry. and Yorke. Latin influence upon. 151 "Waldere" and Walther of Thomas. the. VernonMS. 71 f. 299 "Waldef.poetry of the. ii2. 182 Wars. Prayer to the Holy. the King 41. "Visions of Adam Davy." by Ed. ii2. 218 Vespucci. 331 Virgil. Earl of. 265. 138. The. 101 i. Dunbar's. 23 "Vita Henrici Quinti Regis "UNYON of the two noble and Anglise. Bishop of Winchester. 166. 117. 286. his "Voyages of Discovery. i. 205 VAGANTES. Urban VI. Paul." 141. 333 Vegio Maffei. 300. 140." of " ii1. Vergil Polydore. 141. by Trevisa. Henry. Archbishop of Canterbury. ii2. i." 141. 192. 62. 155 286. 6 Vaux. ii'2. Warwick. 52. William. ii2." Cynewulf's. 184. 321 Married Women and the i. of the " Owl and the Nightingale. ii1. 17." £c. 53 209 "Vox Claniantis. 86 Vergil. legends the. i. 319 illustrate famelyes of Lancastre Voltaire. 127 "Wanderer. his " Romance of Rollo. Baduking. 153. 186. 100 et seq. 173f. i. ii2. 41. iia." ii1. WAGE." French romance. leader peasants' Visitation of St. i. i. 316 Vassalage and property. ii2. ii1. Lorenzo della. Warton's mention of an early Vincent of Beauvais. Amerigo. 187 iiaf 74 Valerius. i. ii2. 142 Wade = old Norse Vadi. i.182 Warwick. 196 Waynflete. treatmentof. ii2. More's. ii1. "Utopia. 27 play of Skelton's. ii2. 7 Warham. i. 307 "Turpin. 151. 96. genius and intellect of... de. 246 "Two 74 " Vision of St. 273 Virgin.. 145.ii1. Chronicle of. 202 Warin. i. ii2. Hall. Lord. ii1. his "Brut d'Engleterre. i. Waldensis. 112.. 173." of Barclay the poet.. and the Graal legends. 327 Weamiouth and Bp. 214 Vegetius." ii2. ii1. ii1. i." Sir T. 16 Wadington. 140. Tyler. . 188. 128 Valla. ii1. Sir John."poem insurrection. Watt. 92. 259 f. 96.2G6 Watson. 148 ff. i.

the storm-god. i. translation of the New Testament. i. influence of. 23. " William of Palerne. i. Wiclif and Langland. 29. 7. 44 Wright on lyrical poetry quoted. publishes twelve theses on the Catholic Eucharist. 13. 16." the. refutes anonyWilliam of Poitiers. 112." Heywood's. i. his ''Political Songs" referred to." ii1. i. on Csedmon. 330 Woodkirk Plays. 60 '' Wife of Bath.. on Transubstantiation." 12. i. 72. 82 Wessex. 334 176. 350 " Wether. 144 Worcestershire.. on King Alfred's works. 329. 390 Wulfgeat of Ylmandune. 326 " Winter Song. 132. his first idea of translating Latin into the mother tongue. and Layamon. 112. 103 radical reformer. 126 et seq. 125 Worthies. 6 et seq. ii2. 149 '* Wohunge of ure Lauerde. 243 f. 19. i. Sir Thomas. " ii2. 188 " Worlde and the Chylde. 172. ii1. as Winchester Old Minster. Dorset. i. St . 256 Wyatt's. 11. 14. 366 Widsith. 110. 3 Wenefrede. i. 129 f. appointment Winchester "Annals. 30. reaction against. i. i. 115 31. 311 Witenagemot. and Robin. 142 William of Malmesbury." 12. ii1. ii2. to England. ." i. 21. 25. "Letters to his Son. 214 ff. Play of the. 240. i. 109 Wulfsige. ii2. 184 William of Newbury. 153 to pamphlet. his policy. 144. 9. i. 18. 17. 91 1. Prof.. i. ii2. 303 et seq. 43 William the Conqueror. i. on learning. 90. The Nine. Matthias's Day.. 13. 184 Woden. the Fleming. 69 West-English romances. ii1. ii1. 203 Wolfram's "Parzifal. 181. 265 ff. ii2. ii2. 390 ma in Theologia." i. 119ff. 128. of Wales. youthWilts. ii2. Cardinal. introduction of. 188 Welsh bardic songs. 225 Weland the Smith." the. Wodan. 315 et seq. and Layamon. i. i.19.. i. and the West-Saxons. 148 Welsh. Bishop. 26. i. 112." a play. i.. i. in Theologia. on Cynewulf. i. 372. his " Summa Winchester School. The. his place in literature. to Lutterworth. 241. John. "Wonders of the Orient. storm-god. 130. 330. 108. the gleeman. 5. Writing. Worcester "Annals. Thomas. 185.308 INDEX. his polemics.. 67. 121 William de Jumi£ges. views on the Lord's Supper. i. and Hants. ii2. ii1. Bp. i. R. 388.22. 17. 108. i. 7. 390 Wyatt.." ii2. Sir Thomas. establishment of. 202 f. 5. 174 Wolsey. i. 6 the. 130 1. i. 387. ii2. SeeTowneley. John. 352. 70. 29 Willem. 248. 15. English sermons. 110 Wulfstan and his Sermons. 192 f. his "Sum76. literary personality. death. 116 ff. Wiglaf and the dragon. i. sermon on St." the." a. 312 " Why Come ye nat to Court?" Skelton's.. 230 Wyatt's. 184 Wyclif. 171. Sir Thomas.." i. his reply the poema morale. and ful career. 136 Whethamestede. life at Lutterworth. 27 Wulcker. " Declaration. 25. 5 Werferth. 5. 143. the. i. 8. 130 mous pamphlet.

. i. vol. completes YLMANDUNE. ii2. ii2. 174. mentioned on the title-page of Tindale's translation of the Bible. 277 326 Wynkyn de Worde. New College.101.. 327 109 74 35 309 of. ii1. The types point rather to Holland . 275. cf. Zwingli. Elizabeth. PP. ii2. on Cynewulf. 127. i. Oxford. . Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VI77. ii2. ii1. "Wyf of Bathe'. 1892.. ii1." cf. on Caedmon. 1175. Wykeham. Brewer. A.INDEX. 181 NOTE FORPAGE 178." Chaucer's. Wydville. 267 et seq. 172 372. p. 50 f. and Bishop Ecgberht. The Marburg printer. Wulfgeat Queen's College. Androw of. ed. founder of York Plays. No such printer ever existed in Marburg. York. Bishop. Hans Luft (air). 325. ii2. Die aeltesten Drucker ausMarburg (1527-66). iv. ZUPITZA. 388 Wyntoun. von Dommer. is what his name signifies: air.A letter from Antwerp to Wolsey refersto the printer directly " as a dweller in this town.29-32. i. Prof.



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