Difference between Schema & subschema

A schema is a formulation of the scheme in the language interface offered by a DBMS Or Schema is the physical arrangement of the data as it appears in the DBMS. As a result of this formulation not only the scheme, and therefore the conceptual schema can be represented in the computer but guidelines for creating and maintaining a conceptual data base are also laid down. In order to be able to do both the things, the schema is being defined in two parts. They are:A. Logical schema B. Physical Schema A. Logical schema: The logical schema is concerned with exploiting the data structures offered by a DBMS in order to make the scheme understandable to a computer. B. Physical Schema: The physical schema, on the other hand, deals with the manner in which the conceptual database shall get represented in the computer as a stored database.

selection of access methods and a specification of the manner in which different objects which enter into a relationship with each other are linked together. among others. allocation of storage space. A conceptual schema is normally split up into a number of external schemas and it is through these that users view the real world. This involves. After the logical and physical schema have been processed by the respective language translators. This means that a data base with no data in it is created. . Consequently. It gives facilities for controlling the manner in which the data structure gets represented in the computer. This database can then be operated up on to reflect any changes that may occur in the conceptual database. called Data Definition Language (DDL) and the Data Storage Description Language (DSDL). the database corresponding to the conceptual database loaded in the computer. a null database is created in the computer.In order to make the specification of both the logical and the physical schema easy for the DBA. Therefore. In DBMS terms. a means must be provided to capture the notion of an external in the DBMS. The subschema is subset of the schema. The efficiency has to be considered both from the point of view of space as well as of time. this is achieved by the notion of a subschema. data base management system provide two languages.

a subschema has a number of other good qualities. . Further. It can act as a unit for enforcing controlled access to a database. It gives to a user a window through which he can view only that part of the database which is of interest to him. A language called the Subschema Definition Language (SDL) is used to specify a subschema. if any.The subschema inherits the same property that an external schema has. the subschema can made the basis for controlling concurrent operation on the data base.SUB-SCHEMA : SUB-SCHEMA is the logical view of the data as it appears to the application program. This property which it inherits from the external schema. The nature of this language depends up on the data structure on which a DBMS is based and also up on the host language. within which DBMS facilities are used.

Some database programs may provide a "wizard" that enables you to easily create / use / save database filters. A filter simply "hides" information that you don't want to see. etc). Filters do not change any information contained in database file. Once you learn some basics of database filters you will find them extremely useful in building your reports. they don't copy information to another file either. The ability to use filters in database programs has always been one of the strongest features of database applications (dBase. Hopefully this will give you the confidence to try creating filters for various purposes.Filters & Its Functions A database filter enables you to extract information from database file(s) that you want to print on the report. if you understand some basic concepts of how to create a database filter you will find them to extremely helpful in creating useful reports. No matter how many times you create or use a database filter. If this is the case with this database application then please consult it's documentation on how to use this feature. This help file breaks down database filters into smaller pieces to help you in understand what a filter is. and how to create increasingly complex filters. Access. . Understanding database filters is crucial to printing useful reports. you are guaranteed that they will NEVER harm your database information. While they can be a little confusing at first. It is recommended that you at least glance over each topic. if you get stuck you can always reference these help topics when creating your database filter. Foxpro. which explains why they are called "Filters".

right-click. or the sub datasheet that you are filtering. or by typing the value into the field. To specify additional values that records can have in the filter. 3. Filter by Selection. After you select a value. display the sub datasheet by clicking its expand indicator. Click the field in which you want to specify the criteria. In a field on a form. a name or a number). On the Filter menu. Filter by Form. Filter by Form1. 4. and then click Filter Excluding Selection. the sub form. 6. point to Filter. 7. 1. a sub form.Functions Or Methods Of Filters There are four methods that you can use to filter records in a form or a datasheet. or a form in Datasheet view. 3. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have the set of records that you are looking for. . or a sub datasheet. You can specify criteria for the form. or a table. NOTE: You can also filter for records that do not have a certain value. Filter for Input. point to Filter. a datasheet. 2. Each sub form or sub datasheet has its own Look For and Or tabs. Enter your criteria by selecting the value that you are searching for from the list in the field (if the list includes field values). and then open the database that you are working with. and then enter more criteria. and then click Filter by Selection. select one instance of the value that you want to filter by (for example. and then click Filter By Form to switch to the Filter By Form window. a query. To filter records in a sub datasheet. 5. the main datasheet. On the Records menu. 2. the sub form. or any sub datasheet that is displayed. and Advanced Filter/Sort. 4. Start Microsoft Access. On the Records menu. Open a form in Form view. To find records in which a particular field is empty or not empty. click Apply Filter to view the filter results. Filter by Selection1. 2. the datasheet. click the Or tab for the form. type Is Null or Is Not Null into the field.

Open a form in Form view. a query. Add the fields that you need to specify the values or the other criteria that the filter will use to find records to the design grid. and then close the shortcut menu 4. and then it sorts the next field to the right. To specify a sort order. Filter for Input 1. On the Filter menu. the datasheet. or a form in Datasheet view. and so on. or a table. Open a form in Form view. To filter records in a sub datasheet. 3. 4. . or a table. or the sub datasheet that you want to filter. the sub form. display the sub datasheet by clicking its expand indicator. and then select a sort order. Right-click in the field in the form. 2. 2. 6. Microsoft Access first sorts the leftmost field in the design grid. enter the value that you are looking for or enter an expression. point to Filter. or a form in Datasheet view. Advanced Filter/Sort 1. click the arrow.3. the sub form. a query. On the Records menu. 5. the datasheet. 3. 7. click Apply Filter to view the filter's results. click in the Sort cell for a field. Press ENTER to apply the filter. and then type the value that you are looking for in the Filter For box on the shortcut menu. Click in the form. In the Criteria cell for the fields that you have included. or the sub datasheet that you are filtering. and then click Advanced Filter/Sort.

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