Walter Konhäuser VL-Nr.

0432 L 600

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 2

© Siemens, 2003

Reasons for introduction of GSM systems

Ø Governments, operators and suppliers have strong interests in the introduction of a standard for mobile communication systems for voice and data Ø High subscriber capacity Ø Improved grade of service quality Ø Fully automatic international roaming Ø Early demand in some countries Ø Universal interfaces for compatibility purpose

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 3

© Siemens, 2003

GSM/MoU obligations
1982 1986 End Early Mid 1987 1988 1988 1988 1991 1992 until until 1993 1995 Foundation of GSM Field trails Final drafts of all essential recommendations Call for tenders Final drafts of all other recommendations Contracts Pre-Commercial operation Commercial operation Service for all capitals and major airports Service for all traffic routes between capitals
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications MoU Memorandum of Understanding ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 4 © Siemens, 2003

Basic factors influencing the layout of Cellular Mobile Radio Systems
Spectrum Efficiency Cost Effectiveness

Optimum Cellular Systems

Traffic Capacity (Erl)

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

Features
Ø Fully digital transmission Ø Enhanced frequency economy Ø Privacy Ø Improved hand-held viability Ø Flexible configuration of networks and services Ø International compatibility Ø Enhanced services Ø Based on field-proven EWSD technology

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

Services
Ø Basic services
• • • • • Telephony Emergency call Short message service Fax Group 3 Data up to 9600 bit/s

Ø Supplementary services
• • • • • • • •
ICM Berlin 03 2003

Closed user group Multiparty service Call forwarding Call hold/call wait Calling/connected line identification Subscriber controlled input Barring of calls Advice of charge
Page 7 © Siemens, 2003

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 8

© Siemens, 2003

External Interfaces
Operator

GSM

External networks

Users

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 9

© Siemens, 2003

Subsystem of a GSM-PLMN
GSM-PLMN Um A RSS SSS to/from other Networks O OMS

O

RSS

Radio Subsystem

SSS OMS

Switching Subsystem Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Subsystem

Um, A, O Interfaces

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

Public Land Mobile Network PLMN Components
MobileStation MobileStation MobileStation Mobile Network Components

Radio Interface

Base Station

Base Station

Mobile Network Components

Base Station

PLMN
Fixed Network: Gateway Exchange
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 11 © Siemens, 2003

Public land mobile network (PLMN) System architecture
Base station system BSS Switching subsystem SSS Other networks

AC PSTN EIR ISDN BTS BSC TRAU MSC Data networks Mobile station OMC-B OMC-S

HLR

VLR

PLMN

Operation & maintenance centers
AC BSC BTS EIR HLR
ICM Berlin 03 2003

Authentication center Base station controller Base transceiver station Equipment identification register Home location register

MSC OMC-B OMC-S VLR

Mobile services switching center OMC base station system OMC switching subsystem Visitor location register
© Siemens, 2003

Page 12

General Definitions
Ø Location Register
To establish a call to a mobile station the network must know where this mobile is located.

Ø

Home Location Register (HLR)
A mobile subscriber is registered at one location register which functions as its home center for chasrging and billing purposes and for administering its subscriber parameters.

Ø

Visitor Location Register (VLR)
The Visitor Location Register is the location register, other than the HLR, used by an MSC to retrieve information for e. g. handling of calls to or from a roaming mobile station currently located in its area.

Ø

Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)
The MSC constitutes the interface between the radio system and the fixed networks. The MSC performs all necessary functions in order to handle the calls to and from the base station.

Ø

Base Station Area
The Base Station Area is the part of the network covered my a base station. Every mobile station in base station area can be reached by the equipment of the base station.

Ø

Location Area
The Location Area is defined as an area in which a mobile station may move freely without updating the location register. A Location Area may include one or several base station areas.

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

Structure of an Intelligent Network (IN)
Data Base

SMS

Communication Interface

X.25
Communication Interface Program Interface Communication Interface Data Base

SCP

CCS 7 Network

SMS Service Management System - Management of data and statistics - Introduction of new services - Service updates SCP Service Cotrol Point - Data base for service control • Introduction of new services • Service authentification SSP Service Switching Point - Service access - Service processing

SSP

User
ICM Berlin 03 2003

User

User CCS 7: common channel signaling system no. 7
Page 14 © Siemens, 2003

Mobilkommunikationssystem als Intelligentes Netz

Communication Interface

Data Base

SMS

MS MS
Funkfeld

X.25
Communication Interface Program Interface Communication Interface Data Base

Nationale und Internationale Luftschnittstelle for MS PLMN

SCP

Funkzelle OAMC (SMS) BSS BSS
CCS 7

CCS 7 Network

SMS Service Management System - Management of data and statistics - Introduction of new services - Service updates

zu anderen PLMN

CCS 7
SCP Service Cotrol Point - Data base for service control • Introduction of new services • Service authentification

Datenbasen (SCP)

BSS: MS: MSC:

Base Station System Mobile Station Mobile Services Switching Center

CCS 7

MCP (SSP)
SSP
SSP Service Switching Point - Service access - Service processing

MCP (SSP)

CCS 7: Common Channel Signaling No 7 PSTN: Public Switched Telefone Network OAMC: Operation, Administration, Maintenance Center

Fernvermittlungsstellen (oberste Ebene)
Teilnehmer (User) Teilnehmer (User) Teilnehmer (User)

PSTN (national)
Page 15 © Siemens, 2003

Internationale Schnittstelle

ICM Berlin 03 2003

GSM – PLMN Referenzkonfiguration
22,8 kb/s Sprache Daten 22,8 kb/s 0,3 kb/s 1,2 kb/s 2,4 kb/s 4,8 kb/s 9,6 kb/s Sync/Async. 3,6 kb/s 6 kb/s 12 kb/s 16 kb/s 64 kb/s 8 kb/s 16 kb/s 8 kb/s 16 kb/s 0,3 kb/s 1,2 kb/s 2,4 kb/s 4,8 kb/s 9,6 kb/s Sync/Async. 13 kb/s 16 kb/s 3 + 13 kb/s 64 kb/s 64 kb/s Sprache 64 kb/s Daten

3,4 + 12,6 kb/s

Luftschnittstelle Mobile Station (MS) TE MT R F M MT RFM
CCU
TRAU-Frame (20 ms)

TRAU

MSC
Vermittlungs- Interworking Funktion = IWF funktion (IWE)

LuftschnittstellenVerbindungselement CC RA L2R/RLP CC

BS- MSC/IWF Verbindungselement

BS CC CCU IWE IWF L2R MSC

RA L2R/RLP GSM-PLMN Verbindungstyp (Connection Type) GSM-PLMN Verbindung (Connection)

MT RA RFM RLP TE TRAU

Netzzugangspunkt ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 16

Netzzugangspunkt © Siemens, 2003

Base Station Channel Coding Cannel Coding Unit Interworking Equipment Interworking Function Layer 2 Relay Function Mobile Service Switching Center Mobile Terminal Rate Adaption Radio Frequency Management Radio Link Protocol Terminal Equipment Transcoding and Rate Adaption

Microwave: Products/Systems

• PtP Radio Links • PtP Radio Links • PmP Radio Links • PmP Radio Links • WLL Access Systems • WLL Access Systems
PtP PmP

MSC

BSC RNC

NodeB

BTS

NodeB

BTS

OMC

NodeB

BTS

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 17

© Siemens, 2003

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 18

© Siemens, 2003

GSM Multiple Access Scheme (FDMA/TDMA)

Zeitschlitznummer 1 Zeitschlitz 7 6 5 4 3 2 Zeit 1 0 Frequenz 200 kHz Funkkanal 1 TDMARahmen ≈ 4,615 ms (1250 Bits) ≈ 0,577 ms (156,25 bits)

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

Strukturbaum der logistischen (funktionalen) Kanäle
Speech TCH Traffic Channel Data TCH/FS Traffic Channel Full rate for Speech TCH/HS Traffic Channel Half rate for Speech TCH/F… Traffic Channel Full rate for Data TCH/F… Traffic Channel Half rate for Data DCCH Dedicated Control Channel ACCH Associated Control Channel CCH Control Channel SDCCH Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel BCCH Broadcast Control Channel FCCH Frequency Correction Channel SCH Synchronization Channel PCH Paging Channel CCCH Common Control Channel RACH Random Access Channel AGCH Access Grant Channel
© Siemens, 2003

Logical Channels

USC User Specific Channel

UPCH User Packet Channel BCH Broadcast Channel CAC Common Access Channel

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 20

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 21

© Siemens, 2003

Functional planes
Operator User

OAM CM

MM RR
OAM: Operation, Administration and Maintenance Communication Management Mobility Management Radio Resource Management

CM:

Transmission
MM: RR:
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 22 © Siemens, 2003

GSM Signalling Architecture
MS BTS BSC relay MSC anchor MSC HLR

CM

RIL 3 - CC MAP/D RIL3 - MM

RIL3: MAP: RSM:

Radio Interface Layer 3 Mobile Application Part Radio Subsystem Management

MM

RR

RIL3 - RR RSM BSS MAP MAP/E TCAP SCCP LAPDm Layer 1 LAPD Layer 1
Abis -

BSSMAP: Base Station System Management TCAP: SCCP: LAPD: Transaction Capabilities Application Part Signalling Connection Control Part Link Access Protocol

SCCP MTP Layer 1
A-

SCCP MTP Layer 1

MTP Layer 1

(LAPDm): for the D-Channel (Dm-Channel) MTP: Message transfer part

Interface
Page 23 © Siemens, 2003

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Protocols and Interfaces
HLR VLR AC EIR

CC MM RF L2 L1
GSM Air Interface

DT AP

RSS MAP
CCS7

MAP TCAP SCCP MTP ISUP SCCP MTP

RSSAP SCCP X MTP

BST
MS

BSC X.25

CCS7

MSC

CCS7
line signalling

ISDN

X.25
PSTN

OMPR

OMC
e.g.

MFC-R2

PLMN
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 24 © Siemens, 2003

other Networks

Protokollstruktur SSS
MAP CP

TCAP

CP
MTP Massage transfer part (Physikalischem Sicherungs-, Vermittlungsebene) Signalling Connection Control Part (Adressierung und Lenken von Nachrichten - auch über Grenzen eines Netzes) ISDN User Part Base Station System Application Part (Auf der A-Schnittstelle MSC – BSC) Transaction Capabilities Application Part (Basis für Transaktions-Abwicklungen) Mobile Application Part (Mobilfunkspezifische, transaktionsorientierte Nachrichten zwischen Einheiten der SSS)
© Siemens, 2003

BSSAP

LTG

SCCP

ISUP

LTG
ISUP

SCCP

C P, L T G

BSSAP TCAP MAP

MTP CCNC
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 25

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 26

© Siemens, 2003

Radio Resource Management
The technological field of Radio Resource Management is signalling GSM signalling is a split in three functional domains: – Communication Management – Mobility Management and – Radio Resource Management In a cellular system like GSM, a dedicated channel over the radio interface is provided to the mobile stations only on demand and for the duration of the call. Therefore two features are needed: – Dynamic channel allocation (dedicated mode and idlemode) and – Handover.

ICM Berlin 03 2003

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© Siemens, 2003

RR, MM und CM-Layers
n Radio Resource Management (RR) The role of the radio resource management layer is to establish and release stable connections between mobile stations and an MSC for the duration of a call for instance, and to maintain them despite user movements. It must cope with a limited radio resource (and the corresponding terrestrial resources) and share it dynamically between all needs. The functions of the RR layer are mainly performed by the handover process lies entirely within the RR layer, part of the functions implemented in the MSC are within the RR domain, in particular the ones related to inter-MSC handovers. Mobility Management (MM) The machines concerned with mobility management are mainly the mobile station (and more precisely the SIM inside the mobile station), the HLR and the MSC/VLR. The management of the security functions are done by the same machines, and more particularly by the AuC inside the HLR. The BSS is not concerned with the MM plane. Communication Management (CM) The functions of the communication management layer, or CM layer, consist in setting up calls between users at their request, as well as of course maintaining these calls and releasing them. It includes the means for the user to have some control over the management of the calls he originates or receives, though the “Supplementary Services”. The variety of the Communication Management functions makes it easier to describe as three sub-domains.
Page 28 © Siemens, 2003

n

n

ICM Berlin 03 2003

RR-session and RR connection
anchor MSC relay MSC

MSC

MSC

A - Interface
CM transactions

BSC

BSC

BSC

anchor MSC relay MSC

RR-session

Abis - Interface

BSC BTS

RR-connection

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

inter-MSC handover inter-BSC handover intra-BSC inter-BTS handover or change of channel on same BTS

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 29

© Siemens, 2003

Content
3 GSM
3.1 General overview 3.2 Architecture 3.3 The Radio Interface 3.4 Signalling 3.5 Radio Resource Management 3.6 Network Management

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Page 30

© Siemens, 2003

Operation and Maintenance Subsystem
OMS-Tasks Configuration Management

Fault Management

Performance Management

Security Management

Accounting Management
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 31 © Siemens, 2003

Mobile Markets – Challenges
Market Trends
• Increasing competition
• Invest in UMTS • Increasing complexity • Up-coming data services • Market consolidation

Network Management Challenge MNO Strategy for OSS
é Centralisation

n Increasing complexity of multi-standard mobile networks n Shorter innovation cycles of network elements & services n New NM paradigms through IP and NG OSS/eTOM n From network to service centric operations n Decrease of Systems Integration Tax
NG OSS eTOM New Generation Operations Services and Software enhanced Telecom Operations Map

é Specialisation é Full automation of
operational process

MNO Challenge

é Customer orientation

é New service propositions é Quality of service é Customer satisfaction

ê Time-to-service ê OPEX
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 32

© Siemens, 2003

Business Drivers
Operators’ priorities have changed significantly Today's focus of operators on CAPEX and availability will shift towards total cost of ownership

Commercial Operation Initial Roll-out
§ Price (CAPEX) § Time to Service § Price (CAPEX) + OPEX § Network Growth § Network Quality § Network Optimization & Performance

O&M the decisive differentiator for the manufacturer
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 33 © Siemens, 2003

Economical Solutions
Understand the organization and cost structure of the mobile operator
n Analysis of business and operational processes n Identification of OPEX saving measures
OPEX 55% CAPEX Licence 15% 30%

Efficient operational concepts
n Excellent mobile network usability with intuitive management n Automation of operational processes by Self-Optimizing-Networks, Auto-discovery ...

Network Size and Complexity ... Process Automation ... GSM GPRS OPEX UMTS

Optimal tailored network and service management solutions meeting mobile operator needs
n Hiding network complexity n Full service orientation
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 34 © Siemens, 2003

Network Management Landscape
Mobile OSS OSS Service Fulfillment Service Assurance Interfaces Applications Own Products Netviewer Element Managers Message Coordinator
Microwave Mobile Radio Mobile Core IP and 3rd party equipment Enabling Services
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 35 © Siemens, 2003

Service Billing

Open Interface Policy Radio Commander

Switch Commander

IP Manager

@vantage Commander

Mobile Data

IMS

NetViewer NME
O&M Microwave (SDH, PDH and ATM based products)
n Fault, configuration and performance management of all SMC microwave links, security n Different transport technologies: SDH, PDH, ATM n Full range of payload capacity: 2x2 … 8x155 Mbit/s n Various topological scenarios (point-to-point vs. point-to-multipoint; ring vs. tree, ...) n Friendly and useful graphical user interface (GUI)

Benefits
n Standard platform (MS Windows) reduces training and operating costs n Capability to manage the whole microwave catalogue and 3rd party devices n Scalability in accordance with the network growth
SDH PDH ATM Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Asynchronous Transfer Mode Page 36 …

Managed objects: SRA family, SRT family, SRA L family, SkyWeb P-MP
ICM Berlin 03 2003

© Siemens, 2003

Radio Commander
O&M Radio (Radio Access Network)
n Fault, configuration, performance, security and software management n Future-proof and scalable system architecture n Value-adding application O&M ToolSet n Comfortable graphical user interface (GUI) and command line interface (CLI) n Open and standardized interfaces, e.g. MCCM

Benefits
n Management of 2G and 3G networks by one user interface reduces training and operating costs and saves investment n Scalability for a quick and cost efficient network growth n Open interfaces for a smooth integration into the multi-vendor environment
Page 37 © Siemens, 2003

Managed objects: BTS, BSC, TRAU NodeB, RNC
ICM Berlin 03 2003

Switch Commander
O&M Core
n Fault detection and reparation for mobile core technologies n Configuration, Performance measurements n Value added applications: Network Configuration Management (NCM), backup & restore n Authorization and access control n Remote access to its graphical user interface (GUI) and automation tools

Benefits
n Investment protection by management of 2G and 3G networks with one GUI n Scalable, adaptable to network changes and extensions n Efficiency by customizable user interface and unified look-and-feel for all managed elements.
Page 38 © Siemens, 2003

Managed objects: e.g. SGSN, MSC
ICM Berlin 03 2003

IP Manager
O&M for 3rd party IP/IT based network elements
n n n n n Fault, configuration, performance and security management Powerful integration of OEM capabilities Telnet for mass data configuration Value adding applications: e.g. Mprobes, Watchdog User friendly and high customizable graphical user interface (GUI) n Open and standardized interfaces, e.g. SNMP Benefits
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

Managed objects (e.g. Gateways, Server, Routers, Firewalls)
ICM Berlin 03 2003

n Increased operating efficiency through a highly integrated O&M solution for multi-vendor IP-based network elements n High scalable (network growth), high flexible operational area n Independent rollout schedules and release cycles possible n Flexible 3rd party integration
Page 39 © Siemens, 2003

Middleware-Commander
O&M IN, Charging and IMS
n Fault, configuration, load and security management real-time performance monitoring, backup&restore n Future-proof and scalable system architecture (based on Solaris) n Comfortable graphical user interface (GUI) n Open standard interfaces (SNMP, FTP, Corba, XML) n Carrier grade availability (up to 99.95% for 2 node cluster)
SNMP FTP CORBA XML B&R Simple Network Management Protocol File Transfer Protocol Common Object Request Broker Architecture Extended Markup Language Backup and Restore

Benefits
n OPEX reduction due to centralized flexible element management and backup&restore for different network element types n Scalability: from small up to large networks n Small-footprint: 1 @vantage Commander manages whole domain (up to 80 network elements) n Dual vendor strategy: SUN or FSC for servers n “2 in 1” configuration: @vantage Commander and B&R server on one host.
Page 40 © Siemens, 2003

Managed objects: Enabling Services, (e.g. Charging), IP Multimedia Subsystem, e.g. HSS, CSCF)
ICM Berlin 03 2003

Message Coordinator
Charging gateway and billing mediation for offline charging
MessageCoordinator

n n n n

Multinetwork technology (GSM, GPRS, UMTS) Multivendor capability Data collection (FTAM, FTP, GTP´) GUI with JAVA environment, easy adaptation to the customer interfaces and its changes n Auditing n Alarming per SNMP
Bill
(Session) (Service) (Content)

MSC SGSN GGSN Radius MSP
Call Data Records (raw)

Billing Inter Accounting Call Analysis Fraud Detection
Consolidated CDRs

Benefits
n Investment protection by support of 2G and 3G networks and IP services n Redundancy (acc to 3GPP) to ensure transmission security n Comprehensive billing mediation.
Service Content
FTAM FTP GTP SNMP Page 41 File Transfer, Access and Management File Transfer Protocol GPRS Tunneling Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol © Siemens, 2003

Message Coordinator

Session

ICM Berlin 03 2003

Mobile OSS – Open Interface Policy
Siemens offers interfaces, consulting and integration support
n Northbound interfaces on element managers and network elements n Interfaces are documented in detail n Interoperability tests offered to mobile operators and to OSS vendors
OSS Systems
Service Fulfillment FM CM PM Service Assurance Service Billing

Fault Config Perform. Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt

Subscriber Mgmt

Element Element Manager Manager

Network Elements

Benefits
n Open access to Siemens Network equipment’s northbound interfaces n Mobile network operators are not restricted to proprietary solutions n Open interfaces cut integration costs
ICM Berlin 03 2003 Page 42 © Siemens, 2003

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