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IS 310

Chapter 9 Computer Networks

Chapter Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to:

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Describe logical and physical network topologies Explain message forwarding across local and wide area networks Describe media access control protocols Describe network hardware devices Summarize the OSI network layers Describe the Internet architecture and network protocols Describe IEEE physical network standards, including Ethernet

Network Topology Spatial organization of network devices, physical routing of network cabling, and flow of messages from one network node to another

Can be physical or logical

• Types: mesh, bus, star, ring • Differentiated by: • Length and routing of network cable • Type of node connections • Data transfer performance • Susceptibility of network to failure • Cost
Network Topologies Message Addressing and Forwarding How messages sent by end nodes find their way through transmission lines and central nodes to their ultimate destination Local area networks (LANs) • Interconnected to form WANs Wide area networks (WANs) Message Addressing and Forwarding (continued) Messages can travel through many transmission lines and central nodes before reaching their destinations Each central node maintains and uses a routing table to make forwarding decisions Logical network topology determines exact procedure for routing a message between two end nodes in the same LAN Message Addressing and Forwarding (continued) Using a master directory for all known network addresses

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to a network transmission cable OS device driver controls the NIC Function varies based on network type Performs MAC functions in CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA networks Hubs Connect nodes to form a LAN Provided separate point-to-point connections between nodes and the hub by using less expensive cabling in a physical star topology As technology has progressed. the node waits for a random time interval and then retransmits its message CSMA/CA Protocol Network Hardware • • • • • • • • • • • Network Interface Cards Connects a node.• Works in theory • In practice. the node ceases transmission • If a collision is detected. LANs have abandoned bus and ring topologies entirely Switches have replaced hubs Switches Temporarily connects the sender’s transmission line to the receiver’s transmission line Each input connection is treated as a separate LAN Dramatically increase network performance • Eliminates collisions and congestion • Multiple connections are supported Routers Intelligently forwards messages between two or more networks Forward packets based on information other than destination address Build internal “map” of the network • • • . such as a computer or network printer. has many shortcomings • WANs often use distributed approach to maintaining directories Media Access Control • Uses a protocol that specifies rules for accessing a shared transmission medium • Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) • Commonly used in bus networks to detect and recover from collisions • Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) • Used in wireless networks CSMA/CD Protocol • Procedure • A node ready to transmit listens (carrier sense) until no traffic is detected • The node then transmits its message • The node listens during and immediately after its transmission and if a collision is detected.

error detection data. requests retransmission if necessary (when receiving packets) Network Layer Forwards messages to their correct destinations Those within central node interact with one another to exchange routing information and update internal tables . 802. 802.11b. packet sequencing data) Gives packets to Network layer for delivery Examines packets for errors.11n standards • Serve as: • Central points to carry out the central management functions of wireless protocols • A switch connecting two different physical networks OSI Network Layers • Open System Interconnection (OSI) model • ISO conceptual model that divides network architecture into seven layers • Each layer uses services of layer below and is unaware of other layer’s internal functions • Uses: • General model of networks • Framework for comparing networks • Architectural roadmap that enhances interoperability among network architectures and products • • • • • • • • • • • • • Application Layer Includes communication protocols used by programs that make and respond to highlevel requests for network services • End-user network utilities • Network services embedded in the OS • Network service providers Presentation Layer Converts and formats data Ensures correct interpretation of transmitted data Other layered network models usually collapse Presentation-layer functions into the Application layer Session Layer Establishes and manages communication sessions Negotiates protocol parameters Monitors communication to detect and deal with problems Transport Layer Formats messages into packets suitable for transmission over the network Places messages within a packet data area and adds header/trailer information (network addresses. or 802.11g.11a.• Constantly scan it to monitor traffic patterns and network node changes Wireless Access Points • Connects a wireless network to a wired network • Wireless networks follow the IEEE 802.

status of ongoing data transfers) Uses positive acknowledgment protocol to ensure data delivery Establishes connections through a port and an socket UDP Voice over IP (VoIP) Technologies/standards that carry voice messages and data over single packetswitched network Lower cost than traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) Complex and competing standards Transmission quality problems (packet loss. verifying data integrity. explicitly establishes connection with intended recipient before transmitting messages Performs connection management functions (verifying receipt. securing message content) TCP (continued) Sender and recipient TCP layers maintain information about one another (message routes. jitter) Network Interface Layer • • • • • • • • • . or routers 32-bit or 128-bit address IPv6 TCP Provides a framework to check for lost messages.Data Link Layer • Interface between network software and hardware • Device drivers perform functions such as media access control and conversion of messages and addresses from one format to another Physical Layer • Where communication between devices actually takes place • Includes hardware devices that encode and decode bit streams and the transmission lines that transport them Internet Architecture • ARPANET evolved into the Internet • TCP/IP • Core protocols of the Internet • FTP • E-mail distribution via SMTP • Access to Web pages via HTTP • TCP/IP model layers • • • Internet Protocol Accepts messages called datagrams from Transport-layer protocols and forwards them to their destination Gateways • Nodes connecting two or more networks • Network segments that might be implemented physically as workstations. latency. errors encountered. transmission delays. servers. controlling message flow.

and academia Ethernet standard (802. and protocols • Help ensure compatibility among products from competing vendors • Developed by committees whose membership is drawn from industry.Physical Network Standards • IEEE 802 standards • Describe network hardware. transmission media. government.3): very successful • . transmission methods.