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D E C I S I O N

CARPIO MORALES,

The Court of Appeals having affirmed the dismissal by Branch 20 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Cavite at Ìmus, for
lack of cause of action, Civil Case No. 2079-00, the complaint filed by herein petitioner Victoria J. Ìlano
for Revocation/Cancellation of Promissory Notes and Bills of Exchange (Checks) with Damages and Prayer for Preliminary
Ìnjunction or Temporary Restraining Order (TRO), against herein respondents 15 named defendants (and several John Does), a
recital of the pertinent allegations in the complaint, quoted verbatim as follows, is in order:

x x x

3. That defendant AMELÌA O. ALONZO, is a trusted employee of [petitioner]. She has been with them for
several years already, and through the years, defendant ALONZO was able to gain the trust and
confidence of [petitioner] and her family;

4. That due to these trust and confidence reposed upon defendant ALONZO by [petitioner], there were
occasions when defendant ALONZO was entrusted with [petitioner's] METROBANK Check Book
containing either signed or unsigned blank checks, especially in those times when [petitioner] left for the
United States for medical check-up;

5. Sometime during the second week of December 1999, or thereabouts, defendant ALONZO by means
of /eceit an/ abuse of confi/ence succee/e/ in procuring Promissory Notes an/ signe/ bIank
checks from [petitioner] who was then recuperating from iIIness;

6. That as stated, aside from the said blank checks, /efen/ant ALONZO Iikewise succee/e/
in in/ucing [petitioner] to sign the Promissory Notes ante/ate/ June 8, 1999 in the amount of
PESOS: ONE MÌLLÌON FOUR HUNDRED TWENTY EÌGHT THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED SEVENTY
TWO (Php 1,428,272.00) payable to defendants EDÌTH CALÌLAP and DANÌLO CALÌLAP, an/ another
Promissory Note/ /ate/ March 1999 in the amount of PESOS ONE MILLION (Php
1,000,000.00) payable to the same defendants EDÌTH CALÌLAP and DANÌLO CALÌLAP, copies of said
Promissory Notes are hereto attached as Annexes "A¨ and "A-1¨ hereof;

7. That another Promissory Note ante/ate/ October 1, 1999 thru the machination of /efen/ant
ALONZO, was signe/ by [petitioner] in the amount of PESOS: THREE MÌLLÌON FORTY SÌX
THOUSAND FOUR HUNDRED ONE (Php 3,046,401.00) excluding interest, in favor of her co-defendants
ESTELA CAMACLANG, ALLAN CAMACLANG, LENÌZA REYES, EDWÌN REYES, JANE BACAREL and
CHERRY CAMACLANG, a copy of said Promissory Note is hereto attached as Annex "B¨ hereof;

8. That the Promissory Notes an/ bIank checks were procure/ thru frau/ an/ /eceit. The consent of
the [petitioner] in the issuance of the two (2) aforementione/ Promissory Notes was
vitiate/. Furthermore, the same were issued for want of consideration, hence, the same should be
cancelled, revoked or declared null and void;

9. That as clearly shown heretofore, defendant ALONZO in collusion with her co-defendants, ESTELA
CAMACLANG, ALLAN CAMACLANG and ESTELÌTA LEGASPÌ likewise was abIe to in/uce pIaintiff to
sign severaI un/ate/ bIank checks, among which are:

· Metrobank Check No. 0111544
· Metrobank Check No. 0111545
· Metrobank Check No. 0111546
· Metrobank Check No. 0111547
· Metrobank Check No. 0111515

all in the total amount of Php 3,031,600.00, copies of said checks are hereto attached as Annexes "C¨, "C-
1¨, "C-2¨, "C-3¨ and "C-4¨, respectively;

10. That aside from the checks mentioned heretofore, defendant ALONZO, confe/erate/ an/ conspire/ with
the following co-defendants, FLORA CABRERA, NEMÌA CASTRO, EDÌTH CALÌLAP, DANÌLO CALÌLAP,
GLORÌA DOMÌNGUEZ, CARMENCÌTA GONZALES and ANNÌLYN C. SABALE an/ took a/vantage of
the signature of [petitioner] in sai/ bIank checks which were later on completed by them indicated
opposite their respective names and the respective amount thereof, as follows:

NAME AMOUNT METROBANK
Check No.
Flora Cabrera Php 337,584.58 0111460
Flora Cabrera 98,000.00 0111514
Nemia Castro 100,000.00 0111542
Nemia Castro 150,000.00 0084078
Edith Calilap/Danilo Calilap 490,000.00 0111513
Edith Calilap/Danilo Calilap 790,272.00 0111512
Edith Calilap/Danilo Calilap 1,220,000.00 0111462
Gloria Dominguez/
Carmencita Gonzales
1,046,040.00 0111543
Annilyn C. Sable 150,000.00 0085134
Annilyn C. Sable 250,000.00 0085149
Annilyn C. Sable 186,000.00 0085112

Copy attached as Annexes "D¨, "D-1¨, "D-2¨, "D-3¨, "D-4¨, "D-5¨, "D-6¨, "D-7¨, "D-8¨, "D-9¨ and "D-10¨,
respectively;

Furthermore, defendant ALONZO coIIu/e/ an/ conspire/ with /efen/ant NEMIA CASTO in
procuring the signature of [petitioner] in /ocuments /enominate/ as "MaIayang SaIaysay" /ate/ JuIy
22, 1999 in the amount of PESOS: ONE HUNDRED FÌFTY THOUSAND (Php 150,000.00) an/ another
"MaIayang SaIaysay" /ate/ November 22, 1999 in the amount of PESOS: ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND
(Php 100,000.00) Annexes "D-11¨ and "D-12¨ hereof;

11. That said defendants took un/ue a/vantage of the signature of [petitioner] in the sai/ bIank checks
an/ furthermore forge/ an/ or faIsifie/ the signature of [petitioner] in other unsigne/ checks an/
as it was ma/e to appear that sai/ [petitioner] is un/er the obIigation to pay them severaI amounts
of money, when in truth an/ in fact, sai/ [petitioner] /oes not owe any of sai/ /efen/ant any singIe
amount;

12. That the issuance of the aforementione/ checks or Promissory Notes or the aforementione/
"MaIayang SaIaysay" to herein /efen/ants were tainte/ with frau/ an/ /eceit, an/ /efen/ants
conspire/ with one another to /efrau/ herein [petitioner] as the aforementione/ /ocuments were
issue/ for want of consi/eration;

13. That the aforesaid defendants conspiring an/ confe/erating together an/ heIping one another
committe/ acts of faIsification an/ /efrau/ation which they shouI/ be heI/ accountabIe un/er Iaw;

14. The foregoing acts, an/ transactions, perpetrate/ by herein /efen/ants in aII ba/ faith an/ maIice,
with maIevoIence an/ seIfish intent are causing anxiety, tension, sIeepIess nights, woun/e/
feeIings, an/ embarrassment to [petitioner] entitling her to moral damages of at least in the amount of
PESOS: FÌVE HUNDRED THOUSAND (Php 500,000.00);

15. That to avoid repetition of similar acts and as a correction for the public good, the defendants should be
held liable to [petitioner] for exemplary damages in the sum of not less than the amount of PESOS: TWO
HUNDRED THOUSAND (Php 200,000.00);

16. That to protect the rights and interest of the [petitioner] in the illegal actuations of the defendants, she was
forced to engage the services of counsel for which she was obliged to pay the sum of PESOS: ONE
HUNDRED THOUSAND (Php 100,000.00) by way of Attorney's fees plus the amount of PESOS: THREE
THOUSAND (Php 3,000.00) per appearance in court;

x x x (Emphasis and underscoring supplied)


The named defendants-herein respondents filed their respective Answers invoking, among other grounds for
dismissal, lack of cause of action, for while the checks subject of the complaint had been issued on account and for value, some
had been dishonored due to "ACCOUNT CLOSED;¨ and the allegations in the complaint are bare and general.
By Order dated October 12, 2000, the trial court dismissed petitioner's complaint for failure "to allege the ultimate facts¨-
bases of petitioners claim that her right was violated and that she suffered damages thereby.
On appeal to the Court of Appeals, petitioner contended that the trial court:

A. . . . FAÌLED TO STATE CLEARLY AND DÌSTÌNCTLY THE FACTS AND LAW ON WHÌCH
THE APPEALED ORDER WAS BASED, THEREBY RENDERÌNG SAÌD ORDER NULL AND VOÌD.

B. . . . ERRED ÌN HOLDÌNG THAT THE COMPLAÌNT FAÌLED TO ALLEGE ULTÌMATE
FACTS ON WHÌCH [PETÌTÌONER] RELÌES ON HER CLAÌM THEREBY DÌSMÌSSÌNG THE CASE FOR LACK
OF CAUSE OF ACTÌON.

C. . . . ERRED ÌN GÌVÌNG DUE COURSE TO THE MOTÌON TO DÌSMÌSS THAT CONTAÌNED
A FAULTY NOTÌCE OF HEARÌNG AS THE SAME ÌS MERELY ADDRESSED TO THE BRANCH CLERK OF
COURT.

Ìn its Decision of March 21, 2003 affirming the dismissal order of the trial court, the appellate court held
that the elements of a cause of action are absent in the case:
x x x
Such allegations in the complaint are only general averments of fraud, deceit and bad faith.
There were no allegations of facts showing that the acts complained of were done in the manner alleged. The
complaint did not clearly ascribe the extent of the liability of each of [respondents]. Neither did it state any
right or cause of action on the part of [petitioner] to show that she is indeed entitled to the relief prayed for. Ìn
the first place, the record shows that subject checks which she sought to cancel or revoke had already been
dishonored and stamped "ACCOUNT CLOSED.¨ Ìn fact, there were already criminal charges for violation of
Batas Pambansa Blg. 22 filed against [petitioner] previous to the filing of the civil case for
revocation/cancellation. Such being the case, there was actually nothing more to cancel or revoke. The
subject checks could no longer be negotiated. Thus, [petitioner's] allegation that the [respondents] were
secretly negotiating with third persons for their delivery and/or assignment, is untenable.

Ìn the second place, we find nothing on the face of the complaint to show that [petitioner]
denied the genuineness or authenticity of her signature on the subject promissory notes and the allegedly
signed blank checks. She merely alleged abuse of trust and confidence on the part of [Alonzo]. Even
assuming arguendo that such allegations were true, then [petitioner] cannot be held totally blameless for her
predicament as it was by her own negligence that subject instruments/signed blank checks fell into the hands
of third persons. Contrary to [petitioner's] allegations, the promissory notes show that some of the
[respondents] were actually creditors of [petitioner] and who were issued the subject checks as securities for
the loan/obligation incurred. Having taken the instrument in good faith and for value, the [respondents] are
therefore considered holders thereof in due course and entitled to payment.
Hence, the present petition for review on certiorari, petitioner faulting the appellate court:

1. . . . in sustaining the dismissal of the complaint upon the ground of failure to state a cause of action when
there are other several causes of action which ventilate such causes of action in the complaint;

2. . . . in finding that a requirement that a Decision which should express therein clearly and distinctly the
facts and the law on which it is based does not include cases which had not reached pre-trial or trial
stage;

3. . . . in not finding that a notice of hearing which was addressed to the Clerk of Court is totally defective
and that subsequent action of the court did not cure the flaw.

Ìn issue then is whether petitioner's complaint failed to state a cause of action.
A cause of action has three elements: (1) the legal right of the plaintiff, (2) the correlative obligation of the defendant, and
(3) the act or omission of the defendant in violation of said legal right. Ìn determining the presence of these elements, inquiry is
confined to the four corners of the complaint including its annexes, they being parts thereof. Ìf these elements are absent, the
complaint becomes vulnerable to a motion to dismiss on the ground of failure to state a cause of action.
As reflected in the above-quoted allegations in petitioner's complaint, petitioner is seeking twin reliefs, one for
revocation/cancellation of promissory notes and checks, and the other for damages.
Thus, petitioner alleged, among other things, that respondents, through "deceit,¨ "abuse of confidence¨ "machination,¨
"fraud,¨ "falsification,¨ "forgery,¨ "defraudation,¨ and "bad faith,¨ and "with malice, malevolence and selfish intent,¨ succeeded in
inducing her to sign antedated promissory notes and some blank checks, and "[by taking] undue advantage¨ of her signature on
some other blank checks, succeeded in procuring them, even if there was no consideration for all of these instruments on
account of which she suffered "anxiety, tension, sleepless nights, wounded feelings and embarrassment.¨
While some of the allegations may lack particulars, and are in the form of conclusions of law, the elements of a cause of
action are present. For even if some are not stated with particularity, petitioner alleged 1) her legal right not to be bound by the
instruments which were bereft of consideration and to which her consent was vitiated; 2) the correlative obligation on the part of
the defendants-respondents to respect said right; and 3) the act of the defendants-respondents in procuring her signature on the
instruments through "deceit,¨ "abuse of confidence¨ "machination,¨ "fraud,¨ "falsification,¨ "forgery,¨ "defraudation,¨ and "bad faith,¨
and "with malice, malevolence and selfish intent.¨
Where the allegations of a complaint are vague, indefinite, or in the form of conclusions, its dismissal is not proper for the
defendant may ask for more particulars.
With respect to the checks subject of the complaint, it is gathered that, except for Check No. 0084078, they were drawn all
against petitioner's Metrobank Account No. 00703-955536-7.
Annex "D-8¨ of the complaint, a photocopy of Check No. 0085134, shows that it was dishonored on January 12,
2000 due to "ACCOUNT CLOSED.¨ When petitioner then filed her complaint on March 28, 2000, all the checks subject hereof
which were drawn against the same closed account were already rendered valueless or non-negotiable, hence, petitioner had,
with respect to them, no cause of action.
With respect to above-said Check No. 0084078, however, which was drawn against another account of petitioner, albeit
the date of issue bears only the year ~ 1999, its validity and negotiable character at the time the complaint was filed on March
28, 2000 was not affected. For Section 6 of the Negotiable Ìnstruments Law provides:

Section 6. Omission; seal; particular money. ÷ The vaIi/ity an/ negotiabIe character of an
instrument are not affecte/ by the fact that -

(a) It is not /ate/; or
(b) Does not specify the value given, or that any value had been given therefor; or
(c) Does not specify the place where it is drawn or the place where it is payable; or
(d) Bears a seal; or
(e) Designates a particular kind of current money in which payment is to be made.

However, even if the holder of Check No. 0084078 would have filled up the month and day of issue thereon to be
"December¨ and "31,¨ respectively, it would have, as it did, become stale six (6) months or 180 days thereafter, following current
banking practice.
Ìt is, however, with respect to the questioned promissory notes that the present petition assumes merit. For, petitioner's
allegations in the complaint relative thereto, even if lacking particularity, does not as priorly stated call for the dismissal of the
complaint.
EREFORE, the petition is PARTLY GRANTED.
The March 21, 2003 decision of the appellate court affirming the October 12, 2000 Order of the trial court, Branch 20 of
the RTC of Ìmus, Cavite, is AFFIRMED with MODIFICATION in light of the foregoing discussions.
The trial court is DIRECTED to REINSTATE Civil Case No. 2079-00 to its docket and take further proceedings thereon
only insofar as the complaint seeks the revocation/cancellation of the subject promissory notes and damages.
Let the records of the case be then REMANDED to the trial court.

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