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Challenges of Sustainable Livelihood: the Case of Fishing Communities Around Lake Chamo
July 2006 Addis Ababa
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD: THE CASE OF FISHING COMMUNITIES AROUND LAKE CHAMO
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
BY: TAREKEGN SHADO SHANO
I, the undersigned, declare that the thesis is my original work, has not been presented for a degree in any other university and that all sources of material used for the thesis have been duly acknowledged.
Declared by Name TAREKEGN SHADO __________________ Candidate
Confirmed by Name Dr. DEGEFA TOLOSSA ___________________ Advisor
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH (IDR) Challenges of sustainable Livelihood: the Case of Fishing Communities around Lake Chamo DEVELOPMENT STUDIES APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS: SIGNATURE ______________________________ FACULTY CHAIRMAN ______________________________ ADVISOR ______________________________ EXTERNAL EXAMINER ______________________________ INTERNAL EXAMINAR ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 3 .
His respectfulness. First of all my heartfelt thanks and appreciations go to my research advisor Dr. Addisu Asha. 4 . producing map of the study area and language editing respectively. Samuel Sata. I would also like to thank my friends: Abera Ogato. and to those people working in Chamo and Arbaminch Fishers’ Co-operative Associations. senior expert in fishery in Gamo Gofa zone Agriculture and Rural Development Department. He made the field work more enjoyable. Workneh Nigatu for his relentless support and advice given to me while I was trying to identify crystallized research problem. financial and material support during my study and in the course of the research work. and Wondimu Gaga for technical support they provided me in application of SPSS. encouragement. close follow up and constructive comments helped me complete the research on due time. Abera Uncha. Degefa Tolossa Whose ideas. I am also indebted to Gamo Gofa Zone and Woreda Agricultural and Rural Development Departments for the facilitation they made by providing car and boat transport service to access the camping and fishing sites of Lake Chamo. My special thanks go to fishermen Dagnachew Duma. Finally. Abebe Banjaw and his family also deserve special thanks for the assistance they gave me in recording of audio and video. I express my sincerely gratitude to my family especially to my aunt Ean'kko Shano and to my sisters Gete Tsegaye and Erbe Eltto who have been taking care of me in the course of my study and the research work. Degefa Kaftimer.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I remain indebted to a number of individuals and institutions who gave me moral. Terefe Girma. I would like to extend my thanks to Gamo Gofa Zone Capacity Building Department for sponsoring my study and to the Institute of Development Research of Addis Ababa University for funding part of the research expenses. I would like to thank data collectors who spent their vacation time sharing some challenges with me during field work in the hot weather of the study area. professional comments were quite instrumental in shaping the study. for his professional comments and provision of important materials. I am deeply grateful also to Dr. Gulelat Fanta. Engedayehu Zeleke. I acknowledge gratefully the fishermen who shared their experience and knowledge. I express my respect to Bimerew Tadesse.
1 1.1.11 3.16 3.24 3.viii CHAPTER ONE Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.26 188.8.131.52.vii Abstract --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.28 184.108.40.206 2.4.8 2. Collection Methods & Tools ------------------------------------------.1. Importance of SLA as Applied to Fisheries --------------------------------. Some Challenges of SLA------------------------------------------------------.7.4 1.3. Major Components of SLF----------------------------------------------------.2.1.v List of Figures--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2. Thoughts on CPRs Management to Sustainable Livelihoods ------------.2.30 3. The Concept of Livelihood.10 CHAPTR THREE Review of Basic Concepts and Literature -----------------------------------------------------.i Table of Contents----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.11 3.8 2.2 1.14 3. Sample Selection ------------------------------------------------------------------------. Background -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.28 3. Limitation of the Study-------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.1 1.2. The Study Area --------------------------------------------------------------------------. Data Analysis-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.ii List of Tables---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Objectives of the Study -----------------------------------------------------------------. Access and livelihoods -------------------------------------.3.4 1. Data Source. Research Questions----------------------------------------------------------------------.1.Table of Contents Page Acknowledgement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches and Framework Origin of SLA and the Concept of Poverty --------------------------------------------.1. Significance of the Study ---------------------------------------------------------------. Scope of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.1.5. Principles of SLA---------------------------------------------------------------.220.127.116.11 3. The Role of Common Pool Resources (CPRs) to Livelihoods ----------.2.12 3. Statement of the Problem---------------------------------------------------------------. Resource Degradation.1.5.6. Definition of Terms ------------------------------------------------------------. Concepts and Framework for Analyzing Livelihood of Fishing Communities -----------------------------------------------------------------------------.18.104.22.168.4.3 1.1.6 2. Contribution &Constraints of Small scale Fisheries to Food 5 . The Structure of the Thesis--------------------------------------------------------------5 CHAPTER TWO Methodology of the Study---------------------------------------------------------------------.2.vi List of Acronyms ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.11 3.6.2. Sustainability and Sustainable Livelihoods ----------------------------------------------------------------------. Resource Degradation and Livelihoods -------------------------------------.29 3.
Demographic and Social Characteristics --------------------------------------------. Resource Access and Livelihoods-----------------------------------------------------.2.1. Population Trends and Settlement ----------------------------------------------------. Organized/ Unorganized Fishers -----------------------------------------------. Geology.2. Marital Status --------------------------------------------------------.2. Increasing Fishermen and Fishing Efforts ------------------------------------.3.41 CHAPTER FIVE Socio-Economic Profile of the Fishing Communities----------------------------------------.40 4.8.2. Housing and House Condition -------------------------------------------------.22.214.171.124.47 5.5.59 126.96.36.199 6.70 6 .47 5.38 4.2.65 6. Environmental Degradation ----------------------------------------------------. Major Livelihood Activities and Diversification -------------------.33 3.Security and Poverty Alleviation --------------------------------------------.5. Sex.48 5.32 3.3. Ethnicity and Religious Composition -----------------------------------------. Stress of Natural Capital Base and Livelihoods-------------------------------------.50 CHAPTER SIX Major Livelihood Challenges of the Fishing Communities----------------------------------52 6. Major Soil Types ------------------------------------------------------------------------.45 188.8.131.52 4.1.6. Fisheries Sector in the Rural Livelihoods and Economy of Ethiopia --. Conflict over Resource and Livelihoods --------------------------------------------.38 4.40 4.1.38 4. Physical Properties of Lake Chamo --------------------------------------------------. Age.44 5. Major Causes of fishery Resource Depletion----------------------------------------. Lake Chamo and its Basin--------------------------------------------------------------.8.41 4.46 5. Location of Lake Chamo ------------------------------------------------------.61 184.108.40.206 6.1.1. Historical Development of Lake Fisheries ------------------------------------------. Spatial Distribution of the Fishermen ------------------------------------------------. Poverty and Vulnerability in Small Scale Fishing Communities --------. Social Capital of the Fishermen ------------------------------------------------. Policy and Institutional Failures with Regard to Fishery Resource Management -----------------------------------------------------------------------.1.47 5.36 CHAPTER FOUR Overview of Lake Chamo Basin ----------------------------------------------------------------.220.127.116.11.44 5.38 4.3.49 5. Natural Capita Base -----------------------------------------------------. Experience of Some Countries in Fisheries Management to Sustainable Livelihoods -------------------------------------------------------.44 5.2. Family Size -----------------------------------------------------------------------. Educational Status of the Household Head -----------------------------------. Topography and Drainage --------------------------------------------------.50 5.1. Physical Capital Base ---------------------------------------------------. Economic Characteristics---------------------------------------------------------------.46 18.104.22.168.2.5. Climate -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.22.214.171.124.2.45 5.6.34 3. Major Land Uses and Land Cover ----------------------------------------------------.44 5.1.59 6.1.1. Financial Capital Base --------------------------------------------------.2.38 4.2.46 5. Major Health Problems ----------------------------------------------------------.1.1.
101 8.6. Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1.9. Adequate Policy and Livelihoods ----------------------------------------------.6.86 CHAPTER SEVEN Household Coping and Adaptive Strategies in the Context of Food and Livelihood Insecurity-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Recommendation -----------------------------------------------------------------------. Lack of Alternative Employment Opportunities -----------------------------------.91 7.82 6.101 8.81 6. Lack of Voice ----------------------------------------------------------------------------. Low Level of Choice Diversification ------------------------------------------------.94 7.77 6. Household Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies ---------------------------------.1. Livelihood Insecurity and Adaptive Strategies -------------------------------------. Poor Saving-------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1.94 7.87 126.96.36.199. Survival Diversification ---------------------------------------------------------.3.107 Annexes -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Lack of Adequate Government Support----------------------------------------------.5.7. Distress Migration ---------------------------------------------------------------. Natural Shocks -------------------------------------------------------------------------. Technical Backup and Service Provision -------------------------------------.96 CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusion and Recommendation--------------------------------------------------------------.104 References ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.77 6.2.83 6.2.84 6. Property and Life Insecurity of Fishermen -----------------------------------. Social Capital and Food Security -----------------------------------------------------.2.112 7 .188.8.131.52.3.87 7.78 6.74 6.6.
1: Fishermen Perception of Household income Sufficiency to cover food Demand -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3: Educational Level of the Sampled Respondents -------------------------------.2: Fisherman of Lake Chamo by Ethnic Category --------------------------------.90 Table 7.51 Table 6. Fresh weight in Tons --------------------------------------------------------.5: Survey Households by Place of Residence--------------------------------------.64 Table 6.List of Tables Page Table 2.45 Table 5.2: Coping Strategies of HHs to Food Insecurity by Community ----------------.95 8 .1: Sampling Strata and Sample Size Taken from each Strata --------------------.89 Table 7.4: Response of Fishermen on Species of Fish Usually Targeted ----------------.91 Table 7.45 Table 5.43 Table 5. and 2006 -------------------.58 Table 6.1: Age structure of sampled Households -------------------------------------------.2: Yearly total Potential Yield estimates of Lake Chamo ------------------------.56 Table 6.6: Fishermen Perception towards the Application of Fishery Management Tools on Lake Chamo --------------------------------------------------------------.52 Table 6.5: Fishermen Perceptions on Trends of Fishing Efforts -------------------------.8 Table 4.60 Table 6.46 Table5.3: Trends of CPUE.90 Table 7.3: Reception of Help/Assistance from Relatives or Friends by Community----.7: Access Options of Fishermen in Lake Chamo ----------------------------------.44 Table 5.54 Table 6.8: The current Saving Condition ------------------------------------------------------.4: Sampled HHs by Family Size Category-------------------------------------------.68 Table 6. for Major Species ---------------------------------------------.1: Fishermen Responses Regarding Some Indicators of Fish Stock (N = 85) -.4: Sources of fishermen household income in 2002.1: Fish Production from varies Lakes in Ethiopia for the Period 1994 up to 2003.
79 Figure 7.71 Figure 6.23 Figure 6.6 Figure 2.1: Fishermen Moving to Resettlement Area --------------------------------------.7 Figure 3.1: A Framework for Analyzing Livelihood of the Fishing Communities ----.2: Trend of Total Fishing Nets Over Lake Chamo -------------------------------.54 Figure 6.60 Figure 6.1: Trends of Total Fish Landing from Lake Chamo.99 9 .LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 2.2: Location of Fishing Communities and their Camping Sites -----------------. 3: Focus Group Discussion Two----------------------------------------------------.1: Location of Lake Chamo ----------------------------------------------------------.4: Case Study One --------------------------------------------------------------------.5: Focus Group Discussion One-----------------------------------------------------.76 Figure 6. 1987-2004 --------------.
LIST OF ACRONYMS AFCA ARDD CCRF CFCA COMESA CPRs CPUE CRIDA DFID EMA EPA EPRDF FAO FOCA GDP GOs HDI HH IBCR IDS IFAD LFDP MARD MSY NGOs PA SFCA SL SLAs SLF SNNPR SNNPRS UNDP Arbaminch Fishers Co-operative Association Agriculture and Rural Development Department Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Chamo Fishers Co-operative Association Common Market for East and South Africa Common Pool resources Catch per Unit Effort Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture. India Department for International Development of UK Ethiopia Mapping Agency Environmental Protection Authority Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front Food and Agricultural Organization Fishermen Outside Co-operative Association Gross Domestic Product Governmental Organizations Human Development Index Household Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research Institute of Development Studies International Fund for Agricultural Development Lake Fisheries Development Project Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Maximum Sustainable Yield Non Governmental Organizations Peasant Association Sego Fishers Co-operative Association Sustainable livelihoods Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches Sustainable livelihood Frame Works Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region State United Nations Development Program 10 .
the research is undertaken with the main objective of investigating the major challenges of the fishing communities around Lake Chamo. To meet the research objectives both qualitative and quantitative methods are applied equally. Moreover. fishermen have taken various coping and adaptive strategies at household level. Arbaminch Zuria Woreda. In line with this premises. and poor saving behavior are the challenges on the sustainable livelihood of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. and organization meant for the improvement of the well-being of the community. and unsustainable livelihoods. To alleviate the problem and to maintain sustainable livelihoods adequate government support. unequal resource access. food insecurity. the livelihood strategies and the portfolio of activities pursued by the community at household level are the major ones among others. ever depleting fishery resource. distressful migration. Due to these adverse effects. sound fishery resource management system are recommended to be put in place by correcting policy and institutional failures and protecting the environmental degradation in the Basin. different policies and institutions. National. South Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State of Ethiopia. little alternative employment opportunities. It is found that the fishing communities in study area have been facing specific challenges in addition to those faced by rural and urban communities engaged in other livelihood activities. the asset base available to the community. In spite of these. Generally. 11 . the research is underpinned by the Sustainable Livelihood Approaches and the framework which is recently championed in the livelihood analysis by different International Institutions. conflict over resource.Abstract Sustainable livelihood of a given community can be enhanced or constrained by a number of multifaceted factors. International. lack of adequate government support. most fishermen in the study area have ended in undesirable livelihood outcomes like poverty. Local context. lack of participation.
90% of the total export earnings. Background Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the World.CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. the landless.1. The figure is much below as compared to Sub-Saharan African average for the same year. it is too difficult to differentiate who is the most vulnerable group. 222). 2002). According to report of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) from the total fish catch the share from the lakes is 85%. the causal workers. 2005. Degefa. and supplies about 70% of the raw materials for the country’s medium and large-scale industries (Zerihun et al. The sedentary subsistence farmers. Among these the lakes. The country’s economy is the weakest in its performance.367 for the year 2003 (UNDP. the small-scale fishermen are relatively one of those groups who are neglected and bypassed from policy and technical support in the rural development endeavourers of the country. ranked the country 170 out of 177 countries with a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0. 2004: 212). 2005: 2). the contribution of the lakes is very much significant. 1 . Different researches have indicated that 45-50% of the populations of the country live below absolute poverty (Aklilu and Dessalegn. rivers 6% and from dams and small water bodies is about 9% for the year 2001. In Ethiopian context. Domestic food production on average covered only about 90% of the aggregate food demand. 85% of the employment. In spite of this. and export. Senait. 2001: 62. The UNDP Human Development Report of 2005. pastoralists. As it is an agrarian society. Agriculture comprises of about 50% of the country’s GDP. poverty. Though Ethiopia as a landlocked country has little potential to sea fishing. 2000: 6. it has various inland water bodies with suitable agro-ecology for fishing. the traditional craftsmen. Thus. The poor who depend much on food aid in the country are not an aggregated whole. The remaining 10% of the food demand on average is often covered by foreign aid in the form of emergency or relief aid for the years 1985-2000 (FDRE. and the small-scale fisher are among them. employment. food and livelihood insecurity and famine are the usual phenomena in the country. rivers. major dams and small water bodies are mentioned. agriculture dominates the overall national economy in terms of food supply.
Moreover. shore damage. mismanagement of the resource. 1. and marketing. eutrophication and over fishing (MARD. on which the inland fishing is mainly practiced. Statement of the Problem Though fishing contributes very less to the national economy of Ethiopia. if it aspires to achieve food security and sustainable livelihood needs to manage and utilize every resource base in a sustainable way. however. the Ethiopian lakes. Among others. Nevertheless. the fishing sector of the economy has various problems. 2004). Moreover. are threatened by catchment’s deforestation. Moreover. population pressure and shortage of farmland in the nearby highlands. The root causes of these phenomena are lack of integrated participatory wetland management of the area around the lake. it is the small-scale fishery sub-sector that provides the bulk of fish production and consumption (MARD. covering household food security to the fishermen. fish products transporting.Moreover. A Poor country like Ethiopia.2. 2 . inappropriate policies and institution. in some areas like Lake Chamo its contribution is very high in terms of employment. 2004). The contribution of fishing in the overall agriculture is not relatively given due attention in general and its contribution to food security in particular. there are high numbers of people who are engaged and earn their living from fishing related activities like local boat making. supplying cheap source of protein. as the fishery resource get depleted from Lake Chamo due to different reasons the well being of specially the fishermen worsened. water pollution. the policy and institutional gap in the management of common pool resources like fishery resource is a major factor in aggravating the resource depletion and exposing the small-scale fishing communities for food insecurity and unsustainable livelihood. and rampant rural poverty and unemployment. siltation. inadequate technical and material backup to the sector and market are the major ones. Recently. absence of other alternative livelihood diversification strategies to rural-urban migrants.
economists. practice and policy. 3 . policies. needs more emphasis to human or social aspect (FAO. practices.3. institution and enforcement mechanisms to the common pool fishery resource management in the area of Lake Chamo. and politicians usually concerned first with marine biological species. Clear insight of the challenges. The situation is worsened by inappropriate policy. institutions. technologies to be employed should be evaluated from improving the livelihood of the poor fishermen. Fishery resource degradation and associated impacts on the livelihood of the fishing communities is among the least researched areas in Ethiopia. their sustainable livelihood is at stake. Moreover. 1. administrators. Demographic. The social aspect is neglected and only the biological and economic aspect is given prime focus. the coping and adaptive strategies undertaken by the fishermen will help to integrate the small-scale fishing sub-sector in the over all development endeavors of the country. lack of livelihood diversification strategies. The Rift Valley Lakes System of Ethiopia is a home of large number of human population engaged in various activities. and high unemployment rate have put serious stress on the common pool fishery resource of Lake Chamo. The writer argues that the biologist. Due to these and other related factors combined the fishing communities’ household income decreased in real terms and they are becoming vulnerable to seasonal and chronic food insecurity. It is evident from this that any fisheries development endeavor be it fisheries management tools. and the fish resource in particular on which the livelihood of the fishermen mainly depends. and next concerned with the allocation of fishery resource and maximizing the economic benefits from them. economic and socio-political changes threaten the existence and long-term sustainability of the common pool fishery resource of Lake Chamo.According to FAO (2001) in fisheries management and development usually there has been a misplaced emphasis both in theory and practice. Objectives of the Study The General objective of the study is to investigate the major livelihood challenges of the fishing communities and draw lessons and indicate implications. high demand of fish products. which are directly or indirectly related to the well being of the lake ecosystem in general. The author further notes that fisheries management science. 2001:1). The increase in population.
it is hoped that this research will fill some of the knowledge gaps in the area under study. communal forest management. Thus. Are there policy and institutional gaps to the management and sustainable use of the fish resource from the lake? 3.5. Little has been done on the appropriate use of common pool open access resources like fishery to the sustainable livelihoods of the small-scale fishing communities.Specific Objectives The study has also the following specific objectives: 1. What are the determinants of intra household vulnerability to food or livelihood insecurity among the fishing communities? 4. Research Questions The study will also try to answer the following research questions listed below: 1. To assess the coping mechanisms and adaptive strategies of the fishing communities. In line with this. and common property resources like common grazing lands. which often get research attention. Moreover. To asses the livelihood situation of the fishing communities and identify the major challenges that the communities are facing. Basically. the majority of studies and scholarly works done in relation to natural resource management in Ethiopia focused mainly on sustainable use of privately hold farm lands. What are their coping mechanisms and adaptive strategies? 1. To identify the determinants of intra household vulnerability to food and livelihood insecurity among the fishing communities. The social aspect of the small-scale fishing sector is usually neglected.4. 4 . the research work will have contribution in revealing the major livelihood challenges of the fishing communities in the study area and draw some policy lessons and indicate implication. 2. What are the major livelihood challenges of the fishing communities around Lake Chamo? 2. and soil and water conservation on communal lands and privately hold farm lands. Significance of the Study It is the biological and ecological aspects of the Inland fisheries. 1. 3. development practitioners and some implementing Government Organizations (GOs) and Non Governmental Organization (NGOs). To examine the policy and institutional environment with regard to small scale fishing sub-sector in general and the fishing communities around Lake Chamo in particular. 4. it is believed that the research findings will contribute some lessons to the policy makers. resource planners and managers.
In chapter five of the second part. statement of the problem. Similarly. the significance of the study. The study is limited to urban and rural fishing communities of Lake Chamo in Arbaminch Zuria Woreda. Moreover. and the coping and adaptive strategies undertaken by the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. 5 . South Nation Nationalities and peoples Regional State (SNNPRS). the objectives of the study.6. The Structure of the Thesis The thesis is organized in to two parts with eight chapters. Limitation of the Study Any research.8. The major livelihood challenges of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo are discussed in detail in chapter six. and literatures are reviewed in chapter three. Chapter one is the introductory part. the rural non-cooperative members who undertake fishing in part time basis are not included in the study. whereas the second part includes chapter five up to chapter eight. Among these. the research framework. Scope of the Study The study mainly focuses on the major challenges of sustainable livelihood. which deals with the background. undertaking faces certain limitations.7. 1. The fourth chapter shows the general background of the Lake Chamo Basin.1. Chapter two describes the research methodologies employed in the research. this research is not free from such limitations mainly caused by budget and time constraint. socio-economic profiles of the fishing communities who are included in the survey are described in general terms. The seventh chapter deals with the household coping and adaptive strategies of the fishing communities in the context of food and livelihood insecurity. In the last chapter conclusion and recommendations are made for sustainable livelihood of the fishing communities in the study area. 1. lack of sufficient literature on livelihood of inland fishing communities is another limitation of this research. The first part includes chapter one up to chapter four. etc. Basic concepts.
scholarly works of White (2002). Figure 2.1.1: Location of Lake Chamo. 2005:5-11). SNNPR. Source: Ethio-GIS 6 . 2.CHAPTER TWO: METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY To address the research questions and the objectives. Despite the fact that there are two competing schools of thoughts and perspectives on the importance and possibility of combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in a single research. mixed methods mainly comprising qualitative and quantitative research are employed. (2003). Lake Chamo is located at 14 km distance from Arbaminch town. poverty. The Study Area The study is conducted in and around the town of Arbaminch. Creswell et al. Howe and McKay (2004). Lake Chamo is selected because of the exposure and experience of the researcher. and food insecurity as cited in Degefa (Degefa. which is the capital town of Gamo Gofa Zone Administration. Moreover. Degefa (2005). in the area the fishing communities’ livelihood mainly depends on it. Barrette (2004). and others have revealed the appropriateness of the mixed method to analyze issues like livelihood. which is some 505 km away from Addis Ababa.
2: Location of Fishing Communities and their Camping Sites 7 . Figure 2.Source: From Ethio-GIS and Field Data.
their social ties and networks. So. the level of communities' participation in 8 . access to resource. the coping mechanisms and adaptive strategies. Moreover.1: Sampling Strata and Sample Size Taken from each Strata Fishing communities Arbaminch Fishers co-operative association (AFCA) Chamo Fishers Co-operative Association (CFCA) Sego Fishers Co-operative Association (SFCA) Fishermen Outside Co-operative Association (FOCA) Total Total population 125 34 50 * * Sample size 26(20.4%) 12(24%) 37(*) 85 % 30.5 100 Note: * Exact number is not known 2. source of livelihood. care is taken to make the sample size representative from each stratum. Sampled households are selected purposively from each stratum. Samples are also taken from the fishermen living in nearby peasant associations like Shelemela. especially stratified non-probability sampling is employed. Moreover. household assets. Table2.8%) 10(29. focus group discussion.2. Sample Selection Eighty five households are selected by non-probability sampling technique. Survey Survey employing pre-tested structured questionnaire on the samples selected households is the main method to generate primary data on household demography. Data Source.2. the study population seems to be found in a certain strata.1 43. and non-members of rural and urban fishermen who operate privately.3. This is mainly because. secondary data is used as supplementary. Collection Methods & Tools In order to achieve the objectives of the study primary data is generated from household survey. there are fulltime fishermen whose livelihood is mainly depending on fishing and there are also part time fishermen who practice fishing as additional activity to farming and petty trade.6 11.8 14. For example urban and rural organized fishing co-operatives members. case studies and key informant interview. food security /insecurity situation.
household expenditure. care is taken to include cases from different social status and both from organized and unorganized fishermen. which use the lake resource for different purposes. experience in fishing. Moreover. Checklist is used to facilitate the discussion and to guide the focus of the research (see Annex-II). the major challenges of the household and the coping and adaptive strategies are raised. its social. Case Studies Case studies on ten households are conducted.resource use and management. 9 . The first focus group is composed of 23 household heads most of whom are non-member of co-operative and currently shifting their livelihood strategies from fishing to farming being involved in the government resettlement program. other livelihood strategies if any. Key Informant Interview Key informant interview is another method employed to collect first hand data. eleven persons who have expertise knowledge. financial capital base. and their income trend (see Annex-I). The third group is mixed of both member and non-member of co-operatives and they are eleven household heads. The fourth focus group contains fishermen and heads of the Chamo Fishers’ Co-operative Association. Focus Group Discussion Focus group discussions are conducted with the major stakeholders. Moreover. The second focus group is consists of eight household heads who are non-member of fishers’ co-operative but full time fishermen. Here. or who have life experience in the topic under study were interviewed in depth. their perception towards the common pool resource use. contribution of fishing to the livelihood of the family. Here. It included eight male and two female household heads. in-depth investigation is conducted to generate data regarding demographic profile. Checklist was used to facilitate the data collection process. People who have been working in the Woreda and Zonal Administration who have deep knowledge about fishery and fishing communities under the study were selected carefully (see Annex -II).
and other related offices and Departments. perception of the income and livelihood situation and their views regarding government policies and support to fishing sub. systematic content analysis and description are among the quantitative data analysis techniques applied. Journals. Secondary data on the trend of fish catch. fishing technology. Zonal Agricultural and Rural Development Department (ARDD) and from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). and fishermen engaged in full time and part time fishing. the technologies employed for fishing and transporting the products which directly or indirectly contribute to the resource depletion is collected. 2. and fish price are analyzed using quantitative methods. The trend and temporal variation of fishermen. Internet websites is explored so as to collect up-date information about the subject area of the study. Moreover. Books. and the fishing effort. statistical abstracts. the information obtained from focus group discussion and field observation is described in a qualitative manner. Moreover. Data Analysis Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis techniques are employed. the urban population and the population of the Woreda and Zonal Administration.sector and fishermen is analyzed using qualitative techniques. fishing effort. it enabled to feel some of the challenges the fishermen face working on water bodies and realize the absence of basic social services. Attempts have been made to use Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for survey data entry and analysis. Secondary Source The secondary data collected from the Woreda. the number of fishing firms.Field Observation Field observation is conducted to record the real events happening in the field and understand the fishing communities closely . from different libraries are assessed.It enabled to experience the remoteness. All the data obtained from the primary sources is tabulated in a various forms of data presentation. Similarly. Efforts have been made to review the existing literature and documents. The level of data analysis is both household and community 10 .4. Moreover. Triangulation. Mesh size. the wilderness of the shore where they conduct fishing. and then data is analyzed and interpreted. fish catch. documented information related to the study is reviewed. Mesh size.
each user is capable of subtracting from the benefits that others drive from a common pool resource. Common pool resource has two main characteristics. 1. unlike others. Here. property right is a set of rules specifying the use of scarce resource and goods (Fouroboth and Pejorich cited in Yohannes.1. State property right regime: rights are vested exclusively in government. Common pool resources: are open access resources that are not owned by any body but constitutionally owned by the government and to which every body can have access.CHAPTR THREE: REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS AND LITERATURE 3. 1996). communal property and open access property rights (Feeny et al cited in Yohannes. the state has coercive power of enforcement (Feeny et al cited in Yohannes) 11 . Resource management for sustainable use under private property regime is not relatively problematic. Definition of Terms Fishing communities: are both rural and urban who fish full time and part time to sustain their livelihood from the Lake Chamo fishery. it is subtractable i. Second. (1992). (1992) distinguish four regimes of property rights: private property. According to Feeny et al. Concepts and Framework for Analyzing Livelihood of Fishing Communities 3.1. the general public has equal access and use right. Private property ownership: the right to exclusively use a resource and to regulate its use is vested in an individual or a group of individuals like a corporation. 1996).e.1. state property. which in turn makes decision concerning access to the resource and the level and nature of exploitation. Property right: According to Fouroboth and Pejorich (1972). 2. First. it is difficult to exclusion. Feeny et al.
1996:180). 1998:2). (1992) in Yohannes (1996) define open access as the absence of well defined property right (yohannes. permission. Based on this definition. Dales (1992) defined as unowned except in a purely formal. food security. claims and access) and activities required for a means of living (cited in Ellis.represents de-facto no ownership for it grants the right to every body to use a given property without charge. which defined livelihood as follows: “A livelihood comprises the capabilities. 4. In the above definitions the capability is taken as a component of livelihood. different scholars have tried to adopt and define the concept. 1997) and refers to the ability of individuals to realize their potential as human beings in the sense of being (i. However. and activities. assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living (Scoones. Open access Property Right.1. or hindrance for any purpose at any time.3. Ellis. free of illness and so on) and doing 12 . assets.” In both of these definitions the three building blocks of livelihood are capabilities. 1998:2. constitutional sense and available to all (Dales cited in Yohannes. 2000:7. 2005:72). 1996:80). Degefa. to be adequately nourished. natural resource management and development mainly associated with rural development. the assets are divided into material and social while in Chamber and Conway definition claims and access are also taken as assets. it is not free to all. 2000:7). The Concept of Livelihood. assets (stores. Among others. Communal property ownership. It is Chambers and Conway who are usually cited as the first scholars to define the concept of livelihoods (Scoones. Resource management for sustainable development is most difficult under open access property right. Feeny et al. According to Chamber and Conway (1992) in Ellis (2000) livelihood comprise the capabilities.e. The capability concept is derived from Sen (1993. in IDS definition.Here. An identifiable community with communal arrangements for exclusion of non-community member and regulation for use of the resource among the users is its characteristics.2. unlike open access resource. 3. the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) team is one. Sustainability and Sustainable Livelihoods The livelihood concept is relatively recent in the discourse of poverty. resources.
it seems to be included in what he calls human capital. In the evolution of the concept of livelihood. the activities. develop skills and experience. but in its application to human needs. on the contrary. different terminologies and concepts were borrowed and used from alternative structures of ideas. 1987) provided a wider definitional scope for the livelihoods concept (Scoones. the issue of capability is not explicitly put as in the others’. the concept of sustainability is vague in spite of its wide use in issues associated with environment. Similarly. However. physical. Similarly. 2000:125). Frank Ellis adopted the concept and modified the definition given by Chamber and Conway. the use of the capability concept (Sen 1984. participate socially and so on) (cited in Ellis. 2000:17). human. In an ecosystem context. and social capital).e. According to Ellis the use of capabilities as a component in the definition of livelihood is potentially confusing since its meaning overlaps assets and activities (Ellis. Moreover. (Ellis. and development. According to Scoones. A good example as mentioned earlier is the use of the Amartya Sen’s concept of ‘capability’ in the definition of livelihoods by Chambers and Conway (1992) and in the modified version of Scoones (1998) as cited by Ellis (2000:17). in Ellis definition the assets of livelihood are clarified more and the issue of access is given much weight. According to him: A livelihood comprises the assets (natural. livelihood. Sustainability shows the capacity of a system to replenish itself or expand over time. exercise choices. 2000:9) In Ellis definition. it means sustaining outputs available for human consumption. and therefore the capacity of a resource or system to keep up the same or increase its contribution to human welfare and well-being (Ellis. it refers to biomass and species diversity. financial. Because of this and different definitions being given the meaning of livelihood is elusive. and the access to these (modified by institutions and social relations) that together determine the living gained by the individual or household. 13 .(i. 1998:3). 2000:7).
but also to achieve goals of participating in the life of the community and influencing decision-making. (Farrington et al. while not undermining the natural capital (Scoones. Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches. Sustainable livelihoods (SL) approaches draw on this improved understanding of poverty. As income /consumption model was found to be ineffective in the analysis of poverty. 1999:2). a person is poor only if his/her income level is below a certain poverty line. According to Scoones. 1998:4). On the basis of this criteria. which the poor themselves highlight when they are asked what poverty means to them. 2000:7). maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets. bringing together relevant concepts to allow poverty to be understood more holistically (Farrington et al.3. 3. Its Framework. 2001:87. unpredictable disturbance with immediate impacts (Scoones. In relation to sustainability of a system the terms like stresses and shocks are frequently used. or if consumption falls below a stipulated minimum (Farrington et al. income is only one of a range of aspects. but also on other streams of analysis. a stress is small. 1992:2). however. predictable disturbance with cumulative effect on the system whereas a shock is a large. 1992:2). access to assets. poverty has been defined in terms of the absence of basic capabilities to meet these physical needs. etc. livelihood is said to be sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks. Origin of SLAs and the Concept of Poverty The sustainable livelihood approach is a new approach to poverty alleviation. and farming systems. gender. Swift and Hamilton. a sense of insecurity or vulnerability.1. level of health. 1992:7 Cited in Ellis. 1998:3. regular. Others include. According to Chambers (1987). infrequent. 14 . The analysis of poverty conventionally takes into account mainly income and consumption as criteria.Thus. More recently. Chambers & Conway. literacy. the basic needs perspective was developed as alternative approach as it views poverty beyond income and include the need for basic health and education. clean water and other services which assumed to prevent people from falling into poverty (Farrington et al. 1999:2). education. relating for instance to households. lack of a sense of voice. governance.
These are the context. However. Department for International Development (DFID) of UK consulted widely in order to increase its understanding of the nature of poverty and how it might be addressed. In most of the presentations of the framework. (Farrington. 1998:2. The framework is an analytical device for improved understanding of livelihood and poverty. Ellis. Degefa. 2000:31. The sustainable livelihood framework is first designed to analyze and improve rural livelihoods. the major five components are usually recognized with different terminology and sequence. it is also being used in urban areas with certain modification (Dessalegn. DFID. which attempts to widen our insight of how people use the resource at their disposal to construct their livelihood (Swift and Hamilton. institutions. However. productive activities. 2005:85). Ellis (2000:30).Sustainable Livelihoods Framework /SLF/ As a measure to reduce the number of poor people living in extreme poverty by half by 2015. However.Swift and Hamilton. 1999. Degefa. 2000:31. the sustainable livelihood framework is dynamic that different scholars based on Scoones have modified and attempted to put it in basically similar but with a slight different form to suit their analysis. 2005:89). livelihood strategies. One of the outcomes of this consultation was the sustainable livelihoods (SL) framework. et al. 1998:2. Swift and Hamilton. and livelihood outcomes (Scoones. livelihood resources. 2001:82. Ellis. Degefa. some scholars like Scoones (1998:2). access modifiers. The IFAD team criticized the original sustainable livelihood 15 . 2001:82. 2005:89). 2001. resources. Swift and Hamilton. 2001:82). according to Swift and Hamilton. As livelihoods itself. 2001:82. In most of the works of the scholars the sustainable livelihood framework is presented in sequential twodimensional view (Scoones. coping and adaptive strategies and outcomes. and Degefa (2005:89) differentiated and disaggregated the livelihood activities and the adaptive and coping strategies and made the major components of the sustainable livelihood framework into six as context. recently International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed an alternative livelihood framework. 1992:2) Similarly. the sustainable livelihood framework is analytical framework.
Moreover. IFAD’s SL Framework is less sequential and it is circular and puts the poor at the center and rearranged all important linkages among different elements in the framework. and social differentiation. The shocks include natural and man made catastrophes like drought. In his adopted SL Framework. ideological shifts. Moreover.4. alternative SL Framework incorporated additional group of livelihood assets-‘personal’ assets to the five contained in the original SL Framework. 2002:2). and broader contexts (which include government changes. floods. 2002:3). technological change. Similarly. Major Components of SLF Contexts/Settings The contexts or the settings are the most important aspects of the sustainable livelihood framework in the analysis of rural poverty. livelihood is constructed in a context of trends and shocks. Degefa (2005:89) in his part adopted the SL Framework from Scoones (1998) Carney (1998). and civil wars. agro-ecology. According to IFAD team the poor themselves tend to be easily lost within the livelihood framework previously designed by DFID and modified by others (Hamilton J. 3. 2000:37). the IFAD. relative price. Ellis (2000) and Devereux (2003) and categorized the context in to three – namely shocks. pests. Ellis similarly based on Scoones (1998) and Carney (1998) adopted the framework and acknowledged the importance of context in livelihood analysis. the trends include population migration. inappropriate rural 16 .1. economic trends. which comprises many of the same factors listed under context by Scoones (Carney cited in Ellis. The rearrangement has given greater salience and the relations among different elements have become more immediately apparent (Hamilton.framework developed by DFID and others for not actually placing the poor in the center of the framework. climate. and world economic trends. diseases. demography. macro-policy. politics. the “horizontal” arrangement of the sustainable livelihood framework of DFID and others is criticized for it encourages a “left to right” reading. According to Ellis. Carney (1998) named it as ‘vulnerability context’. trends. national economic trends. According to Scoones (1998) the contexts are the conditions and the trends which include history.
policies, land reallocation, and marketing situation) while analyzing rural poverty and food insecurity in Ethiopia.
The emphasis given to context in almost all analysis of sustainable livelihood is with the belief that development and change are path dependant that present livelihood options are affected to certain degree by the previous events (Swift and Hamilton, 2001:84). Moreover, development efforts at community or micro level could be affected by socio-economic, political, and policy environments at national or global level.
In sustainable livelihood analysis of the small scale fishing communities in the study area, the contexts could be the overall national economic development trends, especially rural development trends, the overall political and socio-economic condition of the country, ineffective and exclusive rural development policies which give less attention to fishery sub-sector and fishermen, trends of population pressure, trends of rural to urban migration, market, up-stream deforestation and siltation.
The other basic components of the SL Framework are the assets. The assets could be those which are owned, controlled, claimed or in some other means accessed. They are the capital base upon which households are able to undertake production, engage in labor markets, and participate in reciprocal exchanges with other households.
According to Scoones assets are the basic material and social, tangibles and intangibles upon which the ability of a household depends to pursue different livelihood strategies (Scoones, 1998:5). Similarly, Ellis describes assets as stocks of capital that can be utilized directly, or indirectly, to generate the means of survival of the household or to sustain its material well-being at different levels above survival (Ellis, 2000:31).
In the analysis of SL, different researchers have identified and grouped assets into various categories. Among others, Swift (1989) grouped assets into three broad categories namely – investments, stores and claims. According to the same writer investments include human,
individual and collective assets; stores include food stores, items of value such as gold, and money in the bank; and claims include reciprocal claims on other households, and claims on patrons (chiefs, etc), government, and even on the international community. On the other hand, Maxwell and Smith (1992) in a food security context, grouped assets into productive capital, nonproductive capital, human capital, income and claims(Maxwell and Smith cited in Ellis, 2000:32).
Similarly, Reardon and Vosti (1998) classified assets into natural resource assets, human resource assets, on-farm physical and financial resources, off-farm physical and financial resources (Reardon and Vosti cited in Ellis, 2000:32). Moser (1998) on his part categorized assets of a household into labor, human capital, productive assets, household relations, and social capital (Moser cited in Ellis, 2000:32).
Recent literatures on the analysis of SL by DFID, Scoones (1998:5), Swift and Hamilton (2001:83), Ellis (2000:32) categorized the assets into five groups namely natural capital, physical capital, human capital, financial capital, and social capital. However, very recently, the IFAD team came up with a new alternative sustainable livelihood framework as indicated earlier and it incorporated a new asset. The IFAD team calls it ‘personal’ assets. According to the IFAD team the ‘personal’ assets are those factors which may affect the choices of individuals and households regarding their livelihoods. The personal assets include people’s internal motivations, their will to act and promote change, their drive to assert their right, and their spiritual side of their lives (Hamilton et al. 2002:4).
From this it is evident that as sustainable livelihood itself is dynamic, the framework used to analyze it is also changing with new concepts and ideas. Thus, it is too difficult to list exhaustively all the assets of sustainable livelihood and categorize them into distinct groups. The categorizations used in most of the scholarly works by (Scoones; 1998, Ellis: 2000, Swift and Hamilton, 2001) have been reviewed in brief in the following section. Natural Capital: include the land, water, and biological resources which people use to generate means of survival. Sometimes natural capitals are termed as environmental resources and are thought of jointly as comprising the environment (Ellis, 2000:32). In fishing livelihoods the most important natural capital is the fisheries resource with its ecosystem. 18
Physical Capital: are physical assets that are created by economic production process. In economic terms, it is defined as producer goods as it is purchased in order to create a flow of output in the future (Ellis, 2000: 33). It includes buildings, irrigation canals, roads, tools, machines, and soon. Infrastructural assets like roads, power lines, and water supplies are also important physical assets that facilitate livelihood diversification. (Ellis, 2000:33) Human Capital: According to Carney (1998), human capital refers to the labor available to the household: its education, skills, and health (Carney cited in Ellis, 2000:33). Investment in education and training and the skills acquired through pursuing one or more occupations improve the human capital of a household. Similarly, better health condition of a household improves the efficiency and effectiveness of labor as an asset (Ellis, 2000:34). Financial Capital: refers to stock of money to which the household has access. It comprises savings, access to credit in the form of loans. According to Frank Ellis, the absence of financial markets or distrust of such financial institutions in many societies, result in savings being held in other forms. In rural Sub-Saharan Africa, the keeping of livestock often plays an important role as store of wealth and as security to bad times (Ellis, 2000:34). Similarly, according to Swift (1989) gold, jewelry, and food stocks are put as alternative means of holding for varying periods (Swift cited in Ellis, 2000:34). Social Capital: Moser (1998) defined social capital as reciprocity within communities and between households based on trust deriving from social ties’ (Moser cited in Ellis, 2000:36). According to Frank Ellis, however, the definition given by Moser puts the emphasis on localized reciprocity. Ellis in his part broadens the definition of social capital as community and wider level social claims in which individuals and households can draw by virtue of their belonging to social groups of varying degrees of inclusiveness in society at large (Ellis, 2000:36).
In the analysis of sustainable livelihood mediating processes are the basic components of the framework. Mediating processes are those elements, which can promote or influence the access of various assets by a household or by a group of people in pursuing different portfolios of livelihood strategies (Ellis, 2000:31). 19
the ways market work in practice (North cited in Ellis. Social relations Refer to social position of individuals and households within a society. class. on their part. 2001:86). 2005:89). Similarly. 20 . The writer further argues that understanding of institutions and organization is the basis to designing interventions which improve sustainable livelihoods (Scoones. organization and social relations (Degefa. policies. conventions and informal codes of behavior that comprises constraints on human interaction. According to Scoones. consider mediating processes as institutions and organization (Swift and Hamilton. For example. The writer further argues that common property regimes may work successfully under condition of abundance and equality. but rapidly fail if demand for the resource out strips supply. ethnicity and religion (Ellis. the mediating processes include institutions. Why institutions are important in the analysis of the SL? According to Scoones. land or water tenure arrangements. in DFID’s SL Framework it is termed as transforming structures (levels of government. 1999:3). The author argues that institutional sustainability may be put into question when significant change occurs in contextual setting.Different scholars in analyzing SL used the concept of mediating processes with slightly different term and scales. institutions) (Farrington et al. 1998:11). private sector) and processes (laws. culture. It comprises such factors as gender. Institutional sustainability doesn’t negate their dynamic nature. Swift and Hamilton. According to Johnson (1997) institutional sustainability is important. 2000:38). include laws. or if distribution power in the community become imbalance (Cited in Swift and Hamilton. caste. 2001:83). 2000:38). age. Example of institution. Institutions According to North (1990) institutions are the formal rules. In rural areas such factors are very influential in determining access to resources. understanding institutional process allows the identification of restrictions/barriers and opportunities (or ‘gate ways’) to sustainable livelihoods. in Degefa’s adapted livelihood framework.
2000:38). food cultivation. individuals and groups to construct their own strategies of resource access can manipulate institutions and organization. by function. services. These are: • Agricultural intensification or extensification 21 . remittance. Ashley and Carney (1999) grouped activities on the basis of whether activities use natural resources as input or not. thatching. wage versus self employment and by space. 2001:41. 2003:119). rather than fixed ‘objects’ or ‘bounded social systems’ (Scoones. and other transfers (Ellis. 2001:85). The activities carried out by rural households can be categorized in different ways. Activities and Livelihood Strategies Livelihood strategies are composed of activities that generate the means of household survival. fishing. manufacturing. They are part of a process of social negotiations. with respect to which different configurations of assets – mediating process – activities apply. Different institutional arrangements frame access to and use of resources differently for different groups (Swift and Hamilton. weaving. 2003:119). non-food cultivation. 2003:119). Barrett and Reardon (2000) as cited in Tesfaye (2003) classified livelihood activities by sector as farm versus non-farm. local versus migratory (Tesfaye. so on. Administrative bodies. continually being shaped and reshaped over time.institutions are dynamic. Associations and Private companies are examples of organization. On the other hand. According to Scoones there are three strategy types. Non-natural resource based activities include: trade. Ashley and Carney cited in Tesfaye. Government Agencies. NGOs. pastoralism. 1998:10). collections of item such as fuel wood and fruit. Organization According to North (1990) organization are groups of individuals bound by some common purpose to achieve objectives (North cited in Ellis. natural resource based activities include. As power relations are embedded within institutional forms. livestock keeping. According to Barrett and Reardon (2000) cited in Tesfaye (2003) activities are the particular uses to which productive assets are put (Tesfaye.
2001:86). 2000:55). Livelihood diversification: refers to a livelihood strategy of a household where their economic activities are diversified from reliance on farming (livestock or cropping) to seeking a wider range of on. capital. 1998:7).• • Livelihood diversification and Migration Agricultural intensification: refers to the increase of output per hectare of land or animal by application of more labor. In the case of fishing it could be increase of fish catch per hectare of water body by applying more labor or improved fishing technologies without actually passing the maximum sustainable yield. Extensive Agriculture: refers to a strategy of livelihood where more land. Swift and Hamilton. or technology (Swift and Hamilton. Necessity or survival diversification is a strategy of livelihood which aims at coping with temporary adversity or more permanent adaptation of livelihood activities. 22 . when other options failing to provide a livelihood. and seek a living in another livelihood system. cited in Ellis. 2001:86) Diversification as a livelihood strategy is either carried out by necessity or choice. Davies (1996) considers diversification either survival or choice whereas Hart (1994) looks diversification as survival or accumulation (Davies. attention is directed towards the institutions and organizations that facilitate technical change in agriculture (Ellis. People move from their initial source of livelihood. 2001:86). The causes of migration could be voluntary or involuntary. or animal. Swift and Hamilton. 2000:41. Hart 1994.and off-farm sources of income (Ellis. choice diversification is voluntary action for the purpose of accumulation (Scoones. 1996. capital or technology. On the contrary. or water body (in the case of fishing) is brought into production process at the same levels of labor. 2000:41. The key assets here are land and water body for agricultural intensification. Migration is another livelihoods strategy adopted by households.
Degefa (2005) 23 . Zonal Woreda ARDD • Cooperative Desk • Fishers cooperative association Source: Adapted from Scoones (1998).1: A Framework for Analyzing Livelihood of the Fishing Communities Context/settin g Assets/ Capitals Mediating process Activities and Livelihood adaptive Social relations • Membership of a community • Membership to Ider • Membership to Iqub • Kinship Desired Outcome • Resilient • Food secured Livelihood Outcomes • Fishing • Farming • Petty trade • Choice diversification • social transfer • reduce consumption • family splitting • sale of assets • • distress migration International Context • Structural adjustment program National Context • • • National development trends Rural development policies Population pressure • Natural capital • Physical capital • Human capital • Financial capital Local Context • • • • • Reduced land holding size Rural-urban migration Little job opportunity Poor wet land management Ever depleting fishery resource Natural disasters • Social capital Institutions • Fisheries development and utilization proclamation • Poorly managed CPRs regime • Assistant' to a cooperative member Undesired outcome Fragile • Food insecure • Poverty • Unsustainable resource utilization • Unsustainable livelihood Organization • Regional. zonal Woreda Administration • Regional.Figure 3. Ellis (2000). Swift and Hamilton (2001).
Show how informal institutions often fit situations better than formal ones and hence are preferred by the main actors. 1997:4) Holism SL approaches allow the identification of livelihood related opportunities and constraints regardless of where these occur. and so on. This means. Focus on the impacts of different policy and institutional arrangements on people’s livelihoods. Fully involve people and support them in achieving their own livelihoods. practical application of SL concepts: Start with an analysis of people’s livelihoods and how these have been changing over time.1.3. Seek to influence institutional and policy arrangements so as to promote the agenda of the poor. Principles of SLA SL approaches are strategies for alleviation of rural poverty and bringing sustainable rural development.5.. and integrated development approach. SL approaches are: • Non-sectoral and applicable across social groups. 24 . basic needs approach. (Farrington et al. like sector (project) approach. This is mainly because of the fundamental principles on which they are based: The core principles of SL approaches are as follows: A Focus on People Sustainable livelihood approaches (SLAs) put people at the center of development. They have strengths over other conventional rural development approaches.
2005:5). Community Based Organizations. • Provide complex picture. they give a truer impression of rural life and poverty. so on). • Recognize multiple actors (private sector. meso. Government bodies. and macro levels.. and seek to understand the relationships between these influences. NGOs. (Farrington et al. by showing that strategies such as diversification and migration are rational livelihood strategies. for instance. Sustainability SL approaches final target is ensuring sustainable livelihoods. 2000:23).• Recognize multiple influences on people. 2000:91). Are optimistic. SL approaches seek sustainability in four levels: 25 . rather than substitute for’ block or undermine them (Ellis. Communities. • Seek to achieve multiple livelihood outcomes. View current situation as outcomes of past changes (Swift et al. and ensure learning and information sharing at all levels (Toner and Franks. to be determined and negotiated by people themselves. rather than new and disparate phenomena.. rather than looking at a ‘snapshot’ of a situation at a single moment in time. As indicated by Moser (1998) SL Approaches seek ‘to identify what the poor have rather than what they do not have’ and ‘to strengthen people’s own incentive solutions. Dynamism and Optimism SL Approaches:Place current events in their dynamic context. 1997:4) Macro-Micro Links SL approaches attempt to link the micro.
and complements the local cultural context (Toner and Frank. can help administrators understand that fishing communities have needs problems. enhance policy makers’ understanding of human and social capital for developing antipoverty strategies. and opportunities outside the sector. focuses on vulnerability to make analysis dynamic and flexible(FAO. Institutional sustainability – to what extent the newly introduced institutions to alleviate poverty fit or integrate with the existing institutions. 26 . supplements money-metric assessments of poverty.2002:5).1. 3. 2005:5).Financial sustainability – where the system is sustainable without outside funding. Importance of SLA as Applied to Fisheries The SLA as applied to fisheries can assist to understand the nature of poverty and entry points to alleviate it. can help to identify opportunities for diversification to help with overexploitation of inland water bodies and marine fisheries. and helps to explain the causality of poverty. helps to understand the synergy between stakeholders at all level.6. Social sustainability – minimizes social exclusion. helps with recognition that fisheries support more people than if only consider production. Environmental sustainability – to maximize the sustainable use of natural resources with minimized waste and pollution. This is because the approach: looks at more than just catch or production levels.
Carney asserts that as over 850 million people in the world are undernourished. 2006:1). which is not incorporated in the SLAs (Ellis. 2000:91) The relative importance of the various asset types in the asset Pentagon of SL approaches is known little (FAO. Some Challenges of SLA In spite of the strengths mentioned earlier. The writer argues that African agriculture is no longer viable and there is a need for policy shift outside agriculture. (Ellis. In the next section. despite an implicit concern for the poorest. Ellis has identified some: Livelihood security. according to Bryceson (1999). which is in large part about perceptions. the SLAs should give due focus to agricultural productivity and that they help increase the poor people’s access to food (Carney. SL approaches. attempts are made to review related literatures and some research findings. though they are good at finding problems. On the contrary to this view. 27 . 2000:92). the SLA doesn’t consider a bigger development perspective outside agriculture. but which derive behaviors and practice. they are less good at finding solutions.7. In the foregoing section of this chapter the basic concepts and the framework for analyzing the livelihood of fishing communities is discussed. 2002:5) Similarly.1. According to the same author.3. the SL approaches narrow the focus on household welfare and agriculture. are difficult to measure. SL approaches give little attention to distributional issues. the SLAs are not free of weakness in analyzing rural poverty.
and environmental awareness and institution by countries at the same level of per capita income (World Bank. Rural poverty. as poverty depletes natural resource. and institutional factors and market failure are considered as important 28 . 1999 cited in Alemu . for some resource degradation problems. correlation does not imply causation (Barbier. At the national level studies indicate that there are different patterns of relationship between economic growth (per capita income) and resource degradation (World Bank: 1992. 2003: 10). studies also indicate that the extent of relationship is different for different countries depending on the level of knowledge. When people's survival is at stake they are forced to farm marginal lands. and costal waters (Indriss.3.2003: 11). 1992: 305). to overstock fragile rangelands and to over fish rivers.2.However. Resource Degradation. 1987. 2002. 1992 cited in Alemu Mekonen (2003: 10). environmental policies pursued. as incomes (per capita) rise resource quality worsens until a certain level of income. food insecurity and resource change. malnutrition. it could have indirect role in affecting the designing of appropriate policies (Alemu..2. cultural. However. poverty. The mainstream view is that poverty is a major cause of resource degradation (WCED. which in turn aggravates the suffering of the rural poor. According to Alemu.1. Resource Degradation and Livelihoods Various researches at macro level have indicated that natural resource degradation and depletion has the most immediate impact on rural poverty. while poverty and resource degradation may be positively correlated. after which the resource quality improves. Demographic. to reduce fallow periods. 2002 cited in Alemu 2003: 10). World Bank. food insecurity. The interplay of natural resource degradation. lakes. to cut vital forests in their search for arable land or fuel. At the household level there are various views concerning the link between resource degradation and poverty. food insecurity is so complex that one reinforces the other. Alemu further stated that even if poverty is not the direct 'cause' of resource degradation. He argues that a more complex set of variables comes into play when looking at the links between poverty. et al. 2003: 10). and under-nutrition are closely linked to the degradation of environment. Access and livelihoods 3. The nexus could be looked both at national level and at household level. This has led to what is known as grow now and clean up later approach. cited in Alemu.
fruits of trees from CPRs are collected and pounded into flour that is used to prepare different kinds of food. the products obtained from CPRs have been critical elements in the livelihood and survival of many rural communities. Bernus (1988) suggests that in Sahel region where annual rainfall is low and its distribution erratic. most of the researchers agree that the poor are victims of resource degradation. in terms of income generation and food supply. 3. especially to small and marginal farmers. in dry years when the millet crop fails. Moreover. 1988).variables in the poverty resource degradation nexus (Alemu 2003: 11). and served as a safety net for people in drought years. conducting a field study on common pool resources and poverty in India. Similarly. Judha. However. The Role of Common Pool Resources (CPRs) to Livelihoods Accesses to common pool resources (CPRs) have substantial contribution to livelihoods of the rural poor. the CPRs have widened the range of income generating activities available to people in rural areas.org). in his part measured the resource and incomes provided by various types of commons and have made a convincing case that the rural poor are disproportionately dependant on the low pay off options offered by common pool resources (Judha cited in Johonson. provide input to agriculture. Beck and Nesmith have estimated that CPRs contribute significant portion to the income of poor rural households (Nesmith cited in Johnson. It is exacerbated when there are external factors that degrade ecological balance of the resource and where there are diverse users of the resource. As indicated by Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA) India. inefficient management due to inappropriate policies and institution aggravates the situation. 2004: 417).nri. fishermen and landless laborers.2. 2004: 416). The resource depletion and degradation becomes worse when it is an open access common pool resource with high demand. 29 . CRIDA further asserted that CPRs have played a major role in peoples coping strategies in drought years and the events of other contingencies in most of semi arid India (www. In line with this. The writer further continues that in Nigeria.2. particularly in times of drought (Bernus cited in Williams.
the access to CPRs. 1954. Scotl.2004: 408). 2001: 1). common pool resources. As a consequence. such as fishery is especially important to maintain household well being in the face of shocks and crises as livelihood strategies and coping mechanisms. the sales of products like stimulant leaves. 2006:6). which compete in the literature of common pool resource management for sustainable livelihoods. scholars have long questioned the incentive for efficient and sustainable use of common pool resources (Gordon. 2001. Thoughts on CPRs Management to Sustainable Livelihoods There are schools of thoughts. The second one is influenced by notions of moral economy such as Scott (1976). 30 . the resource will become degraded and its productivity will suffer and hence the peoples who depended on CPRs would be vulnerable to temporal or chronic food insecurity and poverty (Williams. fodder. Mosse.2. Fishing can play an important role as a safety valve when agricultural production or livelihood strategies in non-fishing communities are under threat due to vulnerability to land degradation adjacent to inland water bodies (FAO. Thompson (1971). Jodha. 1997 cited in Craig Johonson . Nevertheless. 1994. like inland fisheries on which the livelihoods of the poor fishermen depend might be depleted and degraded due to poor management practices and inappropriate policies and institution. 1955. 3.Similarly. and firewood collected from CPRs provide an important contribution to household income. which is primarily concerned with the problem of achieving collective action to conserve natural resources that are both depleted and unregulated. One is responding to Hardian's tragedy of the unmanaged commons. 1968) and solutions have been proposed.3. 1964 as cited in Adhikari. The resource base of open access fisheries might be ruined due to other factors like rural poverty and ecological degradation due to lack of integrated wet land management practices. fruits. 1998). Where pressure on a common pool resource is very high due to different factors. Hardin. According to research conducted by FAO. and entitlement Sen (1981) deals with the problem of creating and sustaining resource access for poor and vulnerable groups in society (Beck. such as state control and management or privatization of the commons (Demsetz.
the greater the chance of successful commons property management. Second.Ostrom (1990) and others. Ostrom. advocate that decentralized collective management of CPRs by their users could be an appropriate system for overrating the tragedy of the unmanaged commons (Berkes. He argued that there are many cases where private property rights have been allocated but management has not been supported because local stakeholders' interests have not been considered. However.2003) Under this formulation according to Wade (1988). 1967. the technology of enforcement. First. It also makes the contention that private property right will spontaneously emerge in reality to increase efficiency (Demsetz. 1990. the features of the user groups. 2001). the better defined the user group. Fourth. 2003: 198). 1994) as cited in Adhikari (2001). the greater the demand for the output and high reliance on the resource within a livelihood system. 31 . He argues that success has been the result of a comply interaction of the resource. the relationship between resources and user groups. the greater chance of success. He further stated that congruence between appropriation and provision rules and local conditions is a critical prerequisite for successful management. Taylor (1988) Supporting this idea argues that community is the most important (Taylor cited in Adger. and the relationship between users and the state and legal system(Adeger. Enforcement and other transaction costs are weighted against the benefits from the resource. however. Similarly Adger agrees on the importance of collective management of resources but poses conditions under which it is successful. Adger argues that allocating property right has not always led to successful management of common pool resources. 2003). 1989. The more clearly defined the greater the chance of successful common pool resource management. the likelihood of successful management is affected by a number of factors. An increasing number of scholars. According to him other institutional arrangements such as comanagement or collective action may lead to more supportive management. Third. cited in Adhikari.The property rights school argues that private property is the most efficient way to internalize the externalities that arise from CPRs use. He further noted that the top-down allocation of property rights alone is not adequate to prevent resource degradation of common pool resources (Adger. the boundaries of the physical resource should be defined. if the users are residents in the location of the resource then this increase chance of success through reducing enforcement cost.
FAO members as of October 1995 adopted the CCRF. management. Small-scale marine and inland fisheries play great role in food security through the preservation and processing of fish for trade to inland markets. 2006:6) Understanding the major constraints of the small-scale fisheries. FAO has come up with Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) to achieve food security and alleviate poverty. constraints in the form of governance and policy issues over access to and control over aquatic environments and the distribution of benefits accruing from these resources is probably the most important (FAO. However. CCRF is coherent set of principles. and development of fisheries on sustainable basis (FAO. include inadequate institutional and 32 . 2002). and lack of appropriate technology. 2006:5).3. fish retailing and those who are preparing fish food for local consumption According to FAO. providing 15-16 percent of animal protein intake.2. and standards that should be considered by nations. and regional fishery organizations and arrangements. NGOs. limited alternative employment opportunities. it has faced constraints to implement. and industries as well as other stakeholders of the fishery sector in relation to the conservation. the ability of small-scale fisheries to contribute to food security and poverty alleviation can be constrained due to stock depletion. lake and floodplain areas is very much grater than this global average (FAO. ethics. The FAO. lack of access to capital.In Ethiopian context. marketing and processing provide an important means of income generation for many of the poor and food insecure and who are not officially categorized as small scale fisheries .4. Inland fisheries may contribute more to national and local food security because of the subsistence nature of much of the fishing activity. fish transporting by human labor. The importance of fish products in many coastal. rules. Contribution &Constraints of Small scale Fisheries to Food Security and Poverty Alleviation Fish has historically played an important role in food security in many countries and contributes to do so in globally. this is especially true to those who are engaged in fish filleting at landing beach. small scale fishing. Although. The major constraints identified by FAO. Moreover.
In Mauritania they are considered a lower social caste. on their part conducting a research on socio-economic condition of inland fisheries have identified that the richest fishers are those with ownership and access rights (Adger et al. A study carried out in the Hobyo fishing village in Somalia revealed that nearly all the households were found to be living below the poverty line established for the study.5. 1994). According DFID sustainable Fisheries livelihoods program (2001) in a study conducted in Ghana. inadequate funding. Studies also indicated that fishing communities in Ghana. 23-25). extent and causes of poverty in fishing communities. inappropriate legislative framework.2. cited in Bene et al. Poverty and Vulnerability in Small Scale Fishing Communities Unlike farming. lack of information. 2002:8) 3. Bene et al. and over-reliance on one type of asset and lack of options. natural disasters like storms. increasing competition on open access resources. remote locations and poor services. Moreover. (2000) conducting a research on livelihood strategies of fishermen in northern Cameroon and have identified that the level of livelihoods diversification is the most important factor in determining the well-being categories in fishing communities. 2000: 1). and socio-economic implication of reducing fishing efforts (FAO. low literacy and innumeracy. Adger et al. Mauritania and Sierra Leone are also unable to attain minimum level of subsistence. and urban poverty there are limited studies of the nature. 33 . livestock rearing. The same study warned that the suffering endured by the poor fishing communities would increase as their fishing grounds are increasingly exploited by modern fishing fleets (FAO. inequitable use of resources. the constraints and vulnerability of fisheries communities are mainly due to resource depletion.. 2000: 5). 2001. lack of government support..technical Capacity. The writers mentioned that the poorest rely in a larger proportion on fishing (Bene et al. and weak organization capacity are other factors that expose fishing communities to poverty (DFID.
2003: 195). protecting from industrial vessels. The same report shows that for reducing poverty in small-scale fisheries control of over access by a certain group or individual.According to FAO report (2002). 2002: 5). policy factors affecting the right of small-scale fishers. not only geographically. some countries have implemented private property rights. according to Adger. 2003: 4). White (1994) on his part demonstrates a range of co-management 34 . leading to poverty and reduced food security due to climatic and other events like seasonal or yearly fluctuations in stock abundance. culturally and politically. research and support for the sector relative to the many people involved. whereby each local ancestral shrine in villages laid down the rules for fishing. Experience of Some Countries in Fisheries Management to Sustainable Livelihoods In fisheries management. reduce power of the middle men. As a result. 2003: 197). profit sharing and dispute conciliation (Ruddle cited in Adger.6. and occupational factors such as the dangers of working at sea or lake. bad weather. and alternative employment opportunities perhaps are important and widely supported (FAO. environmental degradation from natural or human-induced causes further increases vulnerability (FAO. Another similar study conducted by FAO on strategies for sustainable contribution of small scale fisheries to food security and poverty alleviation states that many small scale fishing communities are isolated from land based society. economic factors such as market price fluctuations and variable access to market. Moreover.2. sustainable exploitation. this is demonstrated by the often disproportional low investment in management. the small scale fishing communities are vulnerable. poverty in small-scale fishing communities is multidimensional phenomena and cannot be exclusively attributed to endogenous factors within the fisheries sector such as over fishing or excess fishing capacity (FAO. poor catches. According to the study. including acceptable technologies. while others have seen the necessary evolution of the local management in the absence of the state (Adger. Ruddle (1998) and others have demonstrated the historical persistence of the Van Chai village fisheries system in Vietnam. but also socioeconomically. 3. 2002: 5).
however. political and enforcement steps necessary to redistribute the resource (Ben-Yami and Anderson. and sometimes for less reward above all his courage and tenacity of purpose deserve our full respect. agree on the importance of appropriate institution for management of common pool resources. cited in Adger. agencies of governments. 1984). or are forced to compete with larger. Maarten asserts that the state is not the only party involved in regulation of resource use and management. 2003: 198). In such situation management on regulation of fisheries. Let us remember. 35 . that fishermen families in many parts of the developing world live in remote areas. In countries like Chile. New Zealand an individual transferable quota system has replaced state regulation of fisheries to promote sustainable harvesting (Hughey et.al. Why fishery management and sustainable use of the resource? The answer recalls among others an address speech made in 1984 by Saouma on FAO world conference on fisheries management. 1985: 2). the sharing of rights with local user can. is often highly political issue which can be solved for the benefit of the small-scale fishermen only if the government is prepared to take the legal. Pena. and 2003: 197). Governments. Jorres. and are among the poorest of the poor (FAO. or private resource owners do not easily give up their vested interests and power bases (Adger. Adger argues that neither co-management nor the emergence of collective action is ever simply spontaneous phenomena. in many areas small-scale fishermen compete with each other for limited and declining resources. in this case fisher resource. Behind the abstract terminology of fisheries management and development. Similarly. Most of them. 1999. commercial or industrial scale operators.solutions to coral reef management where the state has been ineffective in preventing overuse. lies the real world of the fisherman. lead to more sustainable management outcomes (White cited in Adger 2003: 197). and create organizational structures to put them in to practices (Maarten. He argues users of the natural resources also have strong ideas about rights and duties. 2003: 634). According to Ben-Yami and Anderson (1985). however. It is a world in which he leads an often difficult and frustrating existence. 2000. too. in particular circumstances. Finally. facing dangers greater than those that attend upon the farmer.
increased cost of meeting basic needs.2. the local level and household level importance of the sub-sector is very great.000 (MARD. income generation.. including certain lake-sides with basic infrastructure e. recently fishing is playing the most important role in the rural economy in terms of employment..7. Unpublished document). and nutrition especially in areas near Rift Valley Lakes. marketing. and net and local boat making the number of people who are engaged as source of livelihoods is much higher around those major fishing lakes and rivers of Ethiopia. high rate of unemployment. 1991:14). 2004:29). The main reason is people neither fished for sale. In fishing related activities like fish gutting.3. Fisheries Sector in the Rural Livelihoods and Economy of Ethiopia Lake fisheries have in the past played a very negligible role in the household income of the rural people and the national economy. the drastic growth of population during the last four decades has led to land degradation..g. Similarly research conducted by COMESA has revealed that fishery sub sector in Ethiopia contributes about US$10 million to the economy (COMESA. roads. Fishing from inland water bodies in the country is carried out as a main source of livelihoods for people who are engaged in full time and as a coping mechanism to seasonal and part time fishers. arable land for settled agriculture and pastureland for cattle rearing were abundant (Bossche et al. A recent report by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has estimated that the number of people engaged in fishing to be about 15. Moreover. shortage of agricultural land and depletion of natural forests from the rain fed highlands. privatization of fish trade and increased producers price. land-based resources including forests.1991:14) Hence. However.Though this amount is small proportion almost less than 1 percent of the GDP. and higher earnings than certain other agricultural sectors (Bossche et al. transporting. 1991:12) 36 . This has caused occupational migration of highland people to the low lands. neither barter nor even use for home consumption as most of the lakes are located in areas where malarial mosquitoes are widely spread. flitting. The major factors causing increased engagement in fisheries are the free access to the resource. and medical facilities which are gradually eradicating malaria (Bossech et al.
2000:36) To alleviate the problem. poverty and lack of alternative means of livelihoods. mainly covering utilization.In spite of the contribution of small-scale fisheries to the livelihood of considerable number of poor people in Ethiopia. access. SLF and its components in relation with smallscale fishing communities and related literatures on livelihoods of small-scale fishers. and Erratic rain fall as threats common to all lakes in Ethiopia (IBCR. 37 . Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research (IBCR) of Ethiopia have identified that weak institution for fish management and proper use. Hence. dependence of local communities on natural forest as source of energy. it is quite difficult to put in place the specific fish resource management tools for sustainable livelihoods of the fishermen.315/2003). Following this some Regional States like Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) have issued their respective fishery resources management and development proclamation (Proclamation number 78/2004). human and livestock pressure. and environmental aspects (Proclamationno. the resource base of the lakes on which the lion share of fish production of the country depends is recently under threat. discontinuity of research on wet land. low awareness. In the coming chapter efforts are made to highlight the study area. the Federal Government of Ethiopia came up with a fisheries development and utilization proclamation in 2003. The fisheries management and development proclamation of the Federal and Regional States is not yet supplemented by specific rules and regulation. In this chapter we have discussed the SlAs.
Astronomically Lake Chamo is located between 50 41' 40" North up to 50 58' North latitude and 370 27' East up to37040' East longitude (EMA. and Konso Special Woredas of South Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State (SNNPRS) (EMA. a mean and maximum depth of 6 and 13 meter respectively (EPA.3.1. It has a surface area of 350 km2. and Amaro Special Woredas of SNNPR fall within Lake Chamo Basin.” The Rift Valley floor near Lake Chamo is filled with alluvial sediments (EPA.1. 2005: 50). Arbaminch Zuria Woreda. 63km2 (Seleshi. Physical Properties of Lake Chamo Lake Chamo has an average altitude of 1108 m.1. Geology. 4. including that of Lake Chamo.2. 4. However. ignimbrites. percolates. Lake Chamo and its Basin 4. the surface area of Lake Chamo has shown significant decline since 1960s. and lacustrine sediments overlie the ancient basement rocks. due to different reasons. Konso. the lake is also bounded by different Woredas like Amaro. a.CHAPTER FOUR: OVERVIEW OF LAKE CHAMO BASIN 4. Unpublished Document). Location of Lake Chamo Lake Chamo is one of the southern Rift Valley lakes wholly situated in Ethiopia.573km2 (EPA. l. According to Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) the drainage area of Lake Chamo is 18. parts of Dita Woreda. As a result. in Arbaminch Zuria Woreda. 38 . basalts. Chencha Woreda from Gamo Gofa Zone and Dherashe. 1988). Unpublished Document). Though its most part is found in Gamo Gofa Zone. 2001: 20). An empirical study conducted by Seleshi (2001) has shown that the surface area of Lake Chamo is about 328. Bonke Woreda. Topography and Drainage Geology The Tertiary uplift and formation of the rift was followed by the extrusion of large masses of basaltic magma through fishers. Dheresh. s. 1988) (see page 6 and 7). Quaternary basalt flows are found near Arbaminch town and the hill that separates the two lakes called “the Bridge of Heven. in the Rift Valley Lakes basin.
Recently there is no out flow from Lake Chamo. near the lake shore to as high as 4200 m. ignimbrite.l. River Kulfo is the only perennial river that flows from the Gamo Highlands to Lake Chamo. and the PH is less than 5. Fluvisols In the shore lines of southern and western part of the lake is mainly covered by fluvisols. 1988: 7). Topographically.s.Unpublished Document). These soils are intensively used soils for agricultural practices. volcanic ash. Orthic Acrisols Orthic Acrisols are mainly found on sloppy terrain. which is part of the eastern escarpment.a. especially. in the lakes basin (NAE. the two escarpments. There are small intermittent streams like Sile and Elgo that drain in to Lake Chamo from west direction. riverine and lacustrine alluvium (Markin et. in the Ethiopian Rift Valley system. Major Soil Types Soil types of Lake Chamo basin is directly related to parent materials: basalt.al. 39 .a. in the Chains of mount Gughe (EMA. 4. there was out flow to Segen River through what is commonly known as Segen Metenfesha (EMA. However. As a result. Unpublished document). the contents of weatherable minerals are generally low. lava. Drainage Lake Chamo basin falls mainly in the Inland drainage basin. genesis.5. water logging in some place is a major problem. which are very fertile and developed from river and lacustrine deposits (NAE. and pumice.. Chamo basin varies from 1108 m.l. On the Western and Southern side Lake Chamo is surrounded by the Gamo-Konso massifs and in the eastern side by the Amaro Mountains.s.4. 1988: 9). EPA. These soils are chemically poor. 1988). 1975 cited in EPA . However.Topography As Lake Chamo is found within the lakes sub-region. known as eastern and the western escarpments rim it in both sides. 1988.
and scattered trees. Cotton. In the basin. These types of soils covered the mountainous areas to the west of Lake Chamo (NAE. 1988. and different land uses are practiced. 1988: 12). maize. State farms like Elgo and Sile are examples of intensive farming in the plain land adjacent to the lake (EMA. sedges. Climate In the Chamo basin the type of climate varies farm semi-arid to Afro-Alpine. 4. Major Land Uses and Land Cover Chamo basin is covered by different natural vegetation. 40 . NAE. 4. They are found on almost flat to sloping terrain in high rainfall areas. they have good potentials for agriculture. 1988: 8). Luvisols The Eastern side of Lake Chamo is mainly covered by luvisols. Dystric Nitosols Dystric Nitosols are deep. stable strictures. 1988: 8). This strip of plain land is densely populated and intensive agriculture is practiced. These parts of the Chamo Basin are densely settled and the soils are highly eroded. Some areas in the North Western part and southern part of Lake Chamo are covered by Dystric Nitosols in the basin (NAE. rainfall varies form average annual rainfall of 400mm in the southern part of the Lake up to 2400mm in the North Western highlands of mount Gughe Chain in the basin (NAE.they have limited potential for agriculture. As they have good physical properties like uniform profile. and moisture storage capacity. The mean annual temperature of the highest part of the North Western mountains in Bonke and Chencha Woredas is below 150c where as it is up to 250c in the southern part of the Lake within the basin (NAE. 1988:7). 1988: 12). These soils have good agricultural potential (NAE. 1988). clayey red soils with an argillic B horizon. and currently banana is planted.6. Savannah The shoreline in the western and southern part of the lake under the escarpment is covered by grasses. deep rooting volume.5.
Bushland and Shrub Land In the Lake Chamo Basin the intermediate zone between the humid highlands and semi arid low lands are covered by Bushland and Scrublands. This type of vegetation covered the Southern and Northern part of the lake.
In the humid transitional zone warm crops like maize, Teff, and Sorgum are widely grown. Moreover, in some areas coffee and chat are also grown as cash crops.
Deciduous Vegetation In the Chamo basin, scattered forests and deciduous woodlands cover the highlands. Bambo is a common forest in the western highlands. In the highlands of the basin, mixed peasant agriculture is widely practiced. The common crops grown are barely, and wheat among the cereals and potato from the root crops. Enset is also commonly grown.
Ground Water Forest Very dense ground water forest of its kind covered the shoreline in the northern part of the Lake. It was a source of wood for Arbaminch town. Recently, however, this forest is strictly controlled by the park administration.
4.7. Population Trends and Settlement
Chamo basin is one of the densely populated wetlands of the country. The population of Lake Chamo Basin is estimated to be around a million taking in to account the estimated population of those Woredas which fall within the basin (SNNPRS, Population Bureau report, 2004). The highlands of the basin have been settled for long times in history. It is the lowlands adjacent to the lake that is densely settled in recent times mainly by the people who came from highlands due to population pressure and people who settled by the government resettlement program during the Imperial Regime.
4.8. Historical Development of Lake Fisheries
Lake fishing in the Rift Valley Lakes began in the mid 1950s and early 1960s when demand for fish developed in the capital among the foreign community and some upper class urban41
based Ethiopians. Fishing was first started in Lake Ziway, Awassa, and Koka by providing fishing concessions to a single entrepreneur for an entire lake (MOA, Unpublished document,).
According to elderly fishermen, fishing in Lake Chamo began in 1960s using traditional hook and lines mainly for home consumption and local market in Arbaminch town. At that time there were about 20 to 30 fishermen engaged in fishing individually. In 1975, later on, these people were organized and set up the first fishers’ cooperative known as Arbaminch Fishers Co-operative Association (AFCA) with technical assistance of the government.
In the 1960s and 1970s the people residing near Lake Chamo were not much accustomed to fishing and consuming fish products. Land based activities like cattle rearing and food production for subsistence was their source of livelihoods. At that time, fishing had a very negligible role to play in the household economy of the people around Lake Chamo in terms of employment, income generation and nutrition. However, this situation has been changed over time (Bossche et al., 1991:15).
The Major Fish Species of Lake Chamo
The fish fauna in Lake Chamo and Abaya is much richer than that of other Rift Valley lakes. As both lakes are situated in the same closed basin, they have the same fish fauna and were connected intermittently via the Kulfo River. Accordingly, there are about 2o species of fish in Lake Chamo. Among these species, which have major economic importance, are the Nile Perch, Tilapia, Labeo, Catfish, Barbus, and, Bagrus. However, Nile Perch, Tilapia and Labeo species are more demanded and are accustomed by the local people and the far distant market (MOA, Unpublished document).
Relative Productivity of Lake Chamo
Fish productivity of a Lake depends on a number of factors. Algal biomass, fish stock, favorable coastal lines, area of the water body etc are mentioned among others (IBCR, Unpublished document).
Lake Chamo, in spite of its area, was relatively much more productive than any other lake in the country. Available data for the years 1994 up to 2003 indicate that on average fish catch from Chamo is about 33.6% of the total fish catch from all major lakes (seeTable 4.1.).
Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Average
Table 4. 1: Fish Production from various Lakes in Ethiopia for the Period 1994 up to 2003,Fresh weight in Tons Abaya Awassa Koka Langano Tana Ziway 477 890 347 333 339 477 655 583 358 538 499.7 936 466 500 575 696 794 790 489 326 660 623.2 417 411 686 739 725 596 867 710 791 625 656.7 280 200 248 491 558 355 301 356 931 1100 482 789 976 1103 1470 1252 1183 935 702 853 1454 1072 2183 2070 2234 3180 3011 2536 2450 2151 2454 2236 2451
Chamo 1039 1528 3465 5258 7055 3884 3893 3353 3446 2712 2928
Grand Total 6121 6541 8583 12046 13636 9825 9891 8344 9159 9325 8712.6
% Chamo 17 23 40 43.6 51.7 39.5 39.3 43 37.6 29 33.6
Source: COMESA, 2004:24, Gamo Gofa Zone ARDD, Unpublished document
In the preceding discussions, efforts are made to introduce the study area in particular and the Lake Chamo Basin in general. The next chapter gives an overview of the socio-economic profile of the respondent households of the survey.
Ethnicity and Religious Composition The survey result shows that the fishing activity from Lake Chamo is Carried out by different ethnic groups mainly living around the lake.4 28. respectively.4 100 Source: Own survey result (2006) Regarding marital status. The maximum and minimum age of the respondents is 52 and 20 years. 49% of the respondents are in the age category of 21-30.2 12.1. This is because fishing in the study area is practiced by males.9 2. Age. the Gamo ethnic group comprises about 75% and followed by Gofa ethnic group which is about 10. Marital Status The survey result reveals that all of the household heads included in the survey are males.1 49.1. Sex. 5.1.CHAPTER FIVE: SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE FISHING COMMUNITIES 5.1: Age structure of sampled Households (HHs) Age category Less than or equal to 20 21-30 31-40 41-50 Above 50 total No.6% of all the respondents.2. In terms of age structure. Demographic and Social Characteristics The fishing communities of Lake Chamo fisheries can be grouped into different demographic and social features.1. 44 . Table 5. 89% of all the respondents are married while 8% of them are single and the remaining 3% are widowed and divorced. of HHs 6 42 24 11 2 85 Percent 7. 5. However.
1.6% are illiterate whereas 7% are only able to read and write. Family Size The average household size of the respondents is 5.0 100 Source: Own survey result (2006) In terms of religious composition.3: Educational Level of the Sampled Respondents Educational level Illiterate Read and write Primary Secondary Total No.6 7 62.00). Table 5.4 20 100 Source: Own survey result (2006) 5. 64% of the survey households are followers of Orthodox Christianity.1.7 (CSA.4 2. Household size of the respondents ranges between one and ten members.3. Of the remaining. Educational Status of the Household Head The majority of the sampled household heads are within primary education level whereas 20% are in the secondary level of education. which is 4.6 2.31 (sd. 1994).Table 5.4 2. 5. 45 .4. 2. and the proportion of Protestants and Muslims is 35% and 1% respectively.2: Fisherman of Lake Chamo by Ethnic Category Ethnic group Gamo Gofa Zayse Amhara Konso Others Total No. Fishermen 64 9 2 2 2 6 85 % 75. of fishermen 9 6 53 17 85 % 10.2 10. 10.4 7. which is slightly greater than the regional average.
93% of the respondents replied that waterborn diseases like Jardia are the common health problems of the fishermen. HHs 30 44 11 % 35.1.6. Organized/ Unorganized Fishers Fishermen whose livelihoods mainly depend from Lake Chamo differed from one another in terms of either organized or not in fishers co-operative. typhoid/ typhus.Table 5. The type of house in which families live could imply the status of the household in a certain community. At community level too. Malaria is one of the first health hazards of the fishing communities. The majority (79%) live in corrugated iron sheet houses. Major Health Problems Most of the respondents reported that Malaria.7 13. largely urban fishermen live in rented houses.1. 5.3 51.1. Of all the respondent fishermen 44% are not a member of any fishers cooperative. Accordingly. from the total respondents. As learnt from the field observation.4: Sampled HHs by Family Size Category Family size category 1-4 5-7 8-10 No. as they don't get clean water for consumption while their long stay in the lakeshore.5. 5. Similarly. What is more important is the overall material from which the house is constructed. However. Housing and House Condition From the sample respondents about 73% have their own private house of different status.7. The remaining 27% of the households. most of the houses either owned or rented by the fishermen are not even plastered by mud and are simply covered by locally made low cost materials such as qartha (wall cover made of bamboo). Source: Own survey result (2006) 5. 21% live in grass thatched houses. 46 . The majority of the fishermen are not members of fishers co-operative. living in a corrugated iron sheet house doesn't necessarily imply better standard of living. and malnutrition are the major health problems of the households.
5. 5. Natural Capita Base The fishery resource base with its ecosystem is the most important natural capital of the fishing livelihoods. Among others. mutual social supports are critical components.1. As found from focus group discussion and the case studies. enhance their capacity of assets accumulation (Yared. most of the respondent fishermen (96%) participate in local social gatherings like Ider. However. the reciprocity among the members of a community helps the members of that community livelihood to meet resource deficits. and the overall land use management of the wetland ecosystem in the basin. Social Capital of the Fishermen In Rural livelihood security. The security of fishermen's livelihoods depends on the sustainable use of resource base which in turn depends on a number of factors. the reciprocity with relatives is very important in the livelihoods of the fishermen of Lake Chamo in time of livelihood stress and shocks. 2000: 36).2. 2002: 33). It is social claim among households.Among the organized fishers co-operatives two are urban based and one is rural based. the trend of fish catch with respect to fish stock. Sego is rural based fishers' cooperative which is found in Shelemela Peasant Association. or wider level in which individuals and households can drow by virtue of their belonging to social groups (Ellis.2. or at community. especially during bad times. According to Yared. 47 . They emphasize the importance of participating in such social gatherings to their livelihoods.8. church and neighboring coffee ceremonies. Economic Characteristics 5. which force them not to be engaged in every day life of the society. It is also recently set up (2001) fishers' co-operative. To secure their livelihoods in one way or the other. the social cohesion of the fishing communities with other counterparts is not as such strong as most of them pass their time in remote areas.1. respectively. Arbaminch fishers’ cooperative and Chamo fisher co-operative are urban-based fishers’ cooperatives that are set-up in 1976 and 2001.
hook lines and loglines. Knife of different kinds. 48 . These fishermen usually employ assistant fishers who are not a member of fishers cooperative.The survey result and information from the focus groups indicated that the fishery resource base of Lake Chamo has been under stress causing an adverse effect on the livelihoods of the fishing communities. urban or rural residing replied that the fishery resource depletion has adverse effect on household income. from focus group discussions held with different groups. hook lines. Forty percent of the survey respondent fishermen have felt the effect since 2004. Moreover. and different locally made fish gutting and flitting equipments e. Physical Capital Base In fishing livelihoods physical capitals are those that are owned by individual fishermen to carryout fishing and other producer goods owned by a group as being a member of fishing cooperative. boot making and services like clean water. However. All of the respondents. it is found that some relatively rich fishermen belonging to co-operatives have more than 50 fishing nets of different kinds. small work shops for gutting/flitting of fish. local boat) that a fisherman owns and employs. The number of fishing efforts that a fisherman owns and employs for fishing determines the level of income of the fisherman.2. About 29% of the survey respondents have felt the resource depletion effect since 2002.2. fish transporting.g. It was found difficult from the survey to get the number of fishing efforts (like gillnets. those infrastructures or services which could enhance fishing like well prepared landing sites. The survey respondents replied that all of them have basic fishing equipments like local boat made of 'Sokke' tree. different types of fishing gillnets. All of the survey respondents replied that the fish stock condition of Lake Chamo has decreased significantly over time. and basic health are considered as physical capital. 5. irrespective of organization status.
5. and workshop for boat making. The survey result reveals that in 2002 about 49% of the households got a monthly income of more than 1000 Birr. Moreover. Thus. The rural fishermen have landholding and livestock of different size. Finally. the survey result shows that the income fishermen get from fishing has seriously been reduced as explained by the resource depletion and access denial to some fishermen. and basic health to the fisherman along the lakeshore or nearby. it is found that there is no service of clean water. the rest get a monthly income less than this amount. land holding and livestock are the most important financial capital for 14% of the fishermen who are included in the survey. and the rest 14% of the household earn additional income from farming and livestock ownership. It includes flows as well as stocks namely the availability of cash or equivalent.Regarding fisheries infrastructure of lake Chamo. However. shade or services for fish gutting and flitting. it is found from the survey result that there is not as such prepared fish landing site.3. Arbaminch fishers co-operative have about eight motorized boats of different capacity to be used for transporting of fish and fish products from landing sites to common terminal and necessary fishing equipments and consumer goods back to fishermen. 49 . 86% of the households derive livelihoods mainly from fishing. this organization has its own freezer plant to store fish. most of the fisherman camping sites are not accessible by land routes. However. Thus. Regarding the income trend of the households. especially to unorganized groups.2. fish and fish products transporting services from the landing sites are very poor. Moreover. Of all the survey respondents. Financial Capital Base Financial capital refers the financial resources that people use to achieve their livelihood objectives. in 2006 only 6% of all respondents got a monthly income between 300-500 birr. This co-operative has also its own fish-transporting car for transporting fish and fish products from the common terminal to market sites in Arbaminch. Urban fishermen put their financial assets in the form of household goods.
19% from relatives and the rest 5% from Idirs and Iqubes. Major Livelihood Activities and Diversification About 86% of the households included in the survey replied that they are mainly engaged in fishing.4. Recently. Zaysse. 5. The urban residing fishermen are mainly living in different Kebeles of Secha and Sikela sub-cities of Arbaminch town. However. however. 27% receive from non-relatives. 5. Almost all of the respondents who are engaged in fishing and mixed farming are the rural fishermen from Shelemela Peasant Association. 27% currently save some amount of money in local saving institutions like Iqub. 44% of the respondents replied that they borrow money. non-relatives. Elgo. 49% of the households get credit from fishers'cooperative. Concerning credit reception and credit source of the fishermen. the rural fishermen are those practicing fishing in addition to farming in different peasant Associations like Shelemele. According to the survey result. The rest 14% of the respondents are engaged in fishing and mixed farming. Ganta Kanchame. Ludda. 50 . relatives and local institutions like Ider and Iqubes. The great majority of the respondents (73%) replied that currently they are not saving for future. fishermen tend to be engaged in petty trade and wage labor at household level.Of all the respondents.3. The major sources of credit to these fishermen are fishers’ cooperative associations. This seems to be carried out as coping strategy to the adverse effects of resource trend condition of Lake Chamo. etc.2. Spatial Distribution of the Fishermen The fishermen of Lake Chamo are both urban and rural based.
2 3.5 8.5 18.5 14. 19% and 17% of the fishermen live in kebeles 09. 08 of Sikela sub-city and 01 kebele of Shecha sub city of Arbaminch.The urban fishermen of Lake Chamo are mainly residing in kebele 09.4 5. and 01 of Arbaminch Town.4 3. respectively. HHs 14 2 3 7 3 16 19 5 1 3 12 85 % 16.5: Surveyed Households by Place of Residence Kebele/PA 01 02 03 04 06 08 09 10 11 12 Shelemela Total No.8 22. Table5.1 100 Source: Own survey result (2006) 51 .5 2.2 3.9 1. Of all the respondents about 22. 08.
They reported that fish weight and height.8) Much decreased 69 (81.2) Source: Own survey result.e.1.1. case studies and secondary sources reveal that there has been serious fishery resource degradation from Lake Chamo.1) 10(11. and overall sustainability of the fishermen livelihood. The result of survey. 86% of the respondent fishermen livelihood is based on fishing with no access to farmland and other source of livelihood options. Thus. Note :( figures in brackets are percentages) 52 . the fishing communities of Lake Chamo derive their livelihoods from natural capital and its sustainability is by far important in their livelihoods. Similarly. As the survey result indicates. the natural capital base tends to be more crucial for poor people as whose livelihood overwhelmingly depends on land. Although it is difficult to measure which asset would be more important in one's livelihoods of the asset categories.CHAPTER SIX: MAJOR CHALLENGES OF THE FISHING COMMUNITIES 6. 2006. Table 6. both at household level and community level. attempts have been made to describe the personal and household characteristics of the survey respondents. forest and water resources. considerable resource degradation could have impact on household income. All of the fishermen included in the survey complained and reported the depletion of the fish resource from the lake over time.9) 75(88. an overview of the assets of the fishing communities has been made. fishery resource depletion is one among others. focus group discussions. food security.1: Fishermen Responses Regarding Some Indicators of Fish Stock Some Indicators of fish stock Fish weight and height Catch per unit effort (CUPE) Condition of fish stock Changes of Fish Stock Indicators Over Time (N=85) Decreased 16 (18. Fishing communities of Lake Chamo are vulnerable to different challenges in their livelihood processes.). This chapter tries to show the major challenges and determinants to vulnerability of the fishing communities. their catch per unit effort and condition of fish stock has declined seriously over time (Table 6. Moreover.2) 79(92. The stress of natural capital base i. Stress of Natural Capital Base and Livelihoods In the foregoing chapter.8) 6(7.
the issue has not been given due attention by respective government bodies. Tilapia. In analysis of the resource condition of a given fishery over time. Similarly. it is possible to evaluate the condition of natural resource base of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo using both objective and subjective indicators. it requires comparing the actual status of fishery with the 'optimal' level. Thus. 1998: 40). COMESA. In spite of such early warnings of the stress on the resource base of Lake Chamo. A recent study conducted by Mekonnen. however. Studies have indicated the over fishing of Lake Chamo and the threat of some species like Nile perch. has revealed that the then rate of exploitation for major species like Nile perch. In spite of this. The report further warned that the fish stock would be at risk as early as 1998 (LFDP. 2005: 55). The same report warns that stock productivity could also vary from year to year due to external factors like climate. 1998). Indicators of Stress on Resource Base According to Scoones. IBCR. It is the highest yield (in terms of biomass or weight) that may be taken from a fishery without endangering its sustainability (LFDP. measuring natural resources sustainability is too difficult (Scoones. 2005: 57. In fishery. The Nile perch species was over fished before 1998 by applying a new fishing net locally called Gancho net.The survey result is in line with the report of the Zonal and Woreda Rural and Agricultural Development Offices of Gamo Gofa Zone. 1994: 2). expert of Animal and Fishery Development of Gamo Gofa Zone Agricultural and Rural Development Department (ARDD) explains the resource status of Lake Chamo as one which is on the verge of collapse due to a long time intense fishing pressure (Mekonnen. a final report of Lake Fisheries Development Project (LFDP). which is not a recommended net (EPA. the estimates of MSY should be understood as long term average (LFDP. phase II (1998). 53 . have felt the adverse effects of the resource stress and are disparate of the sustainability of the natural resource base on which their livelihoods depend. Fishermen of Lake Chamo. 2000: 37). Labeo were not sustainable and that catches would soon drop significantly from the lake. the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) is probably the most widely used concept to define this 'optimal' level. 1994: 2). 2004: 31.
1998 LFDP. final Report.2 Figure 6. conductivity.2: Yearly total Potential Yield Estimates of Lake Chamo Model Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average Estimated potential yield in tone per year 3000 1800 1000 1100 600 5600 3500 2400 Estimated productivity per hectare per year (in tones) 87 52 29 32 18 159 101 Source: LFDP. Working Paper No 10. mean depth. Accordingly. 1994: 2). Unpublished document 54 . The basic data used for the estimation were area of the lake. mean temperature. applying seven different empirical models. Table 6.1: Trends of Total Fish Landing from Lake Chamo in Tones (From 1987-2004) Trend of Yearly Total Fish Landing 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 Yearly Total Fish Landing Source: For the years 1987. Phase II. For the Years 1999 -2004 Gamo Gofa Zone ARDD. made some efforts to estimate the MSY of various lakes of Ethiopia. The empirical models are mathematical formulas derived by fishery economists. mortality rate. shore length. p. stock biomass. lakes fisheries development project in phase II. Phase II. it was found that the MSY for Lake Chamo ranges from 600 up to 5600 tones per year and the average being 2400 tones (see Table 6:2). (LFDP.Based on the above premises. etc.
the total estimated yearly catch from the lake was beyond its safe level production. between 1987 up to 1995. The third period is the period. In the first period. 55 .e. phase II (Since 1992). the period between 1996 up to 1998. As a result. businessmen and fishermen earning from fish was very high. Moreover. the total estimated catch of fish tends to be resource constrained and production has declined over time. if we look the second period i. the yearly catches were below the MSY potential of the lake.. new fishing technologies like gillnets of different kinds were introduced. reached peak in 1998 with total catch of 7055 tons. During this period. which begins from 1999 up to now. more people were attracted to the fishing activities from Lake Chamo. the total catch trend increased very fast. Moreover. and similar projects by GTZ and World Vision Ethiopia (IBCR. During this period.From the Figure 6. the fishing technologies and efforts applied were very low. However. i. the demand of fish and fish products increased locally and far distant towns and cities. land based natural resources were relatively abundant and the opportunity cost for fishing was lower than other sectors (Bossche et al. Thus.e. it is found that the total yearly estimated catch was gently increasing from year to year. However. As a result of this. during this period fishery resource was not a constraint in fishermen's livelihoods. Moyale and Addis Ababa.1 of total yearly fish catch trend of Lake Chamo. preserving and transporting technologies were introduced to Arbaminch fishers Co-Operative Association (AFCA) mainly by Lakes Fisheries Development Project. especially to those who are organized under fishers co-operative.1991:14). three distinct periods of fish resource exploitation could be identified. This has increased the market territory of fish and fish products from Arbaminch up to Jimma. and then after the total catch has been declining (see Figure 6. In the second period. Based on the MSY concept it is possible to say that the fish resource base of Lake Chamo has been over fished during this period. in spite of high demand for fish products. South Lakes Fishery Development Project.1). 2000: 19). high number of fishermen and fishing efforts. different trainings were given to the fishermen. fish processing. which is funded by Dutch NGO. During this period the demand for fish was relatively low.
6Kg and nil.4Kg and nil per net per day for the same species (see Table 6.1). As total catch is the function of catch per unit effort (CPUE). which indicates that biological over fishing or significant resource depletion has happened in the previous period. 56 .More recently. for Major Species in Kg Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Tilepa Net (TN) 47 24. From these secondary sources. Another indicator of stress of fishery resource is the trend of catch of fish species in a given time period usually within 24 hours in a standard fishing net. and 51.4 0 0 0 0 2. it is possible to infer that the natural resource base of Lake Chamo has been in continuous stress over time.3 it is evident that catch on average for a standard net of Tilapia. in 2002 it was reduced to a level of 10.3). respectively.5 10. Nile perch and Labeo were 47.8 22.5 12. 1. the total estimated catch from the lake is even below the MSY. recently the CPUE for nile perch also has declined significantly. Table 6.9 26. However.9 Kg respectively per standard net per day in 1998.2 kg.3Kg in 2003. starting 2003/04. In 2003 for Tilapia and Labeo species the CPUE is reduced to 4.4. the primary source obtained from the fishermen during the fieldwork has also revealed clearly the level of stress on natural resource base and its adverse effect on sustainable livelihoods of the fishing communities.6 Labeo Net (LN) 51.2 4. In addition to secondary sources. 10.1 13. the CPUE has also been seriously declined from Lake Chamo for major species (see Table 6.3 and Figure 6. After four consecutive years of little catches the Nile Perch seems to recover on the Lake and the CPUE reached 2.0 Nile Perch Net (NPN) 1.3: Trends of CPUE.4 20.3 Source: Gamo Gofa Zone ARDD From the Table 6.8 10.4 0. which would have adverse effect on the livelihood of fishermen.However.
Having fishing assets. and have fishing assets we are unable to catch sufficient fish. A fisherman from AFCA Focus Group 3. some of the fishermen still prefer to stay near the lake.3. Moreover. and hide here in the desert than staying in the town and being teethed by others who were jealous while our income was better. “If we buy Wogollo (local boat) by 130 birr and start fishing. (2006) The above response implies that the sustainable natural capital is the most important in fishermen livelihood of Lake Chamo.2006 The response suggests that the reasons some fishermen stay along the lake shore in depleted resource condition is to reduce household food expenditure by covering self food demand from the low catch of fish. 2006. and being a member of co-operative doesn’t necessarily guarantee for sustainable resource exploitation in a degraded natural resource scenario.Voice of the Poor Fishermen Regarding Natural Capital Base We are in a problem due to the resource depletion. Rather. the return we get from fishing these days does not cover the cost of Wogollo and other expenses” Focus Group. 57 . I came simply to cover my own stomach. the fishing ground is taken as a place to be away from some provoking actions of others who know that some of the fishermen were not good while their income was better. Feb. The response suggests that the fishermen’s income recently is getting so low that it doesn’t cover even expenses they incur to fishing due to the reduction of catches which is in turn the function of resource status. Even if we are a member of fishers co-operative. Even if the catches are so low and income of fishing is not in a position to cover the household food needs. I am here in the shore of the lake not hoping to feed my families as catches are reduced significantly due to resource depletion. No one would believe me if I leave fishing after 32 years of experience and start daily labor. Informal talk with a fisherman.
The species of Labeo and Barbus are currently not targeted as their number is seriously depleted. and other assets like Jewelry. respectively. Very recently. The main reasons as reported by the survey respondents were the relative abundance of the two species and the market value of the two species.5) 85(100) 85(100) 66(77. I become hopeless and I don’t expect to feed and educate my children from fishing income. thereafter I can feed my families. (2006) In the literature it is repeatedly warned the overexploitation of the Nile perch species and they are not well informed about the tragedy of the natural resource base and the recent threat of some more species of fish from the lake (see Table 6.4) 82(96. I abandoned fishing and went to farm the land that I inherited from my father. however. I have been engaged in fishing. Bagrus. sometimes I came back home empty handed.4).6) 3(3. 58 . Even if I stay for a month or two on the water. I prepared to engage in farming rather than dying of starvation. with 25 years experience in fishing. currently. We are now living by selling livestock like goat. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nile perch Tilapia Labeo Barbus Cat fish Bagrus Type of fish Yes 70(82.Some fishermen are in distress condition and even leaving their fishing work mainly due to the stress on the resource base. due to very low income from fishing. Sharmo Georges. sheep.6) 50 (59%) Usually target No Source: Own survey result. I used to get 1000 to 1500 birr per month from fishing while the stock condition was good. From the total respondents 82% and 70% target Tilapia and Nile perch.4: Response of Fishermen on Species of Fish usually targeted Se. Case study 2. breadwinner for his six family members is a good example: Since 1980. Sharfo Shanka . is the third most important fish species targeted by fishermen. I came to have clearance and collect the money given to a member when she/he leaves the co-operative association according to the by-law of the association. Currently.5) 0 0 19(22.4 the two species currently targeted from Lake Chamo are Tilapia and Nile perch. 43 years old.4) 35 (41%) 15(17. Terefe Girma. 2006 As can be seen from the Table 6. It will not be problem for more than one year till I adapt farming. Table: 6. I came after two months stay there. A young fisherman.
” Similarly. Increasing Fishermen and Fishing Efforts As indicated earlier. 6.2% of the respondent fishermen are originally migrants who have come from the nearby highlands in search of job. and some of the adverse effects of the resource stress on the livelihood of the fishermen. including fishery resource. another fisherman expressed his view regarding the same species depletion as follows: “If the whole population of Arbaminch town were ‘sent’ to Lake Chamo for catching Labeo. none of them would catch the given species.2. the numbers of fishing gears also have increased on average over time.” The same fishermen said that some seven years before.2. in Chamo Basin the trend of population number and density has increased rapidly in the last four decades and it has its own effect on the resource exploitation of the wetland. no one can do so as the species is near extinction. 59 . It is found from the survey result that 61. I will try to show the major causes of the stress of the natural resource base of Lake Chamo. The overall population pressure and the resultant reduction of per-head land hold size in the surrounding highlands forced high rate of rural-urban migration. As the number of fishermen increase. 6.expressed the situation as follows: “If a handful gift is promised for fishermen to catch the Labeo species from Lake Chamo. Major Causes of fishery Resource Depletion We have seen in the previous section the trend of resource exploitation. In the next section. The near extinction of some fish species like Labeo and Barbus calls immediate action to reverse the tragedy. The situation accompanied by low employment opportunity in Arbaminch town has resulted in high unemployment rate and forced many people to engage in fishing as a means of livelihoods. this species was abundant in the Lake. the current status of the natural resource base of Lake Chamo.1.
2.5). landless farmers.8) Much increased 61(71.8) 67 (78. Without studying the fish stock condition of the lake. all of the survey respondents replied that over time the number of fisherman and fishing gears have increased (Table 6.7) 16(18.Figure 6.5: Fishermen Perceptions on Trends of Fishing Efforts Se.8) Source: Own survey result (2006) A fisherman in one of the discussions with focus groups expressed the increasing number of fishermen and fishing nets as follows: The current situation would not have happened if fishing had been practiced wisely. Table 6. The Government hasn’t managed the resource. a lot of fishermen and fishing nets are allowed. As a result many students who didn’t succeed in their academic performance. Similarly. Unpublished document.2: Trend of Total Fishing Nets Over Lake Chamo Trend of Total Fishing Effort 2500 Yearly Fishing Efforts 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year Trend of total fishing effort Estimated standared Source: Gamo Gofa Zone ARDD. and urban unemployed all entered to the lake and they looted the resource. (2006) 60 . the total fishing net employed on Lake Chamo has increased from the period between 1988 up to 2003. Member of AFCA Focus Group 3. As can be seen from the Figure 6. No 1 2 Trend of fishing efforts Number of fishermen Number of fishing nets Increased 21 (24.
and unmanaged fishing activity has put unprecedented pressure on Lake Awassa basin since the beginning of 1950s. whereas the number of fishermen and fishing gears increased the fishery resource has become so scarce and the common pool fishery resource which is the source of livelihood to the fishing communities become at risk. the fishing communities of Lake Chamo seem to be constrained due to lack of appropriate policy and Institutional support with regard to management of their fishery resource base. expansion of subsistence agriculture. According to report of FAO (2006) in such a condition constraints to have appropriate policies and institutions could lead small-scale fishers to vulnerability and insecurity of livelihoods (FAO. Policy and Institutional Failures with Regard to Fishery Resource Management Generally. The situation in the study area supports this argument.The author further noted that due to unsustainable resource utilization the lake and its surrounding has been changed to a threatened unit which as he mentioned calls for immediate rehabilitation (Amare. Similarly. Thus. 1998: 11). This becomes evident especially with regard to management of CPRs like fishery resources for sustainable livelihoods.2. new entrants from different walks of life joined the lake with high number of fishing gears beyond the stock capacity of the lack. 2006: 6). Fishery management is the pursuit of certain objectives through direct or indirect control of effective fishing efforts or some of its components. Similarly. expansion of manufacturing plants. a study conducted by Amare (2001) has pointed out that the population growth.2. in the analysis of sustainable livelihoods. Johonson (2004) argues that a common pool resource regime is successful only when there is abundant resources and when equity is maintained. understanding the success or failures of policy and institution is very important to identify restrictions/barriers and opportunities to sustainable livelihoods (Scoones. 2001: 6). Generally. 6. the control 61 . large scale state farm. The author further argues that CPRs fails if demand is higher than supply. or if there is inequity of resource distribution.The above response shows that due to weak resource management practice of the government the fishery resource of Lake Chamo though owned constitutionally by the government turned to be common pool resource where every body can have access.
the SNNPRS also issued its respective fisheries development proclamation with similar objective in August. 1994: 1). Unfortunately. 2003 (Proclamation No 315/2003). control of overexploitation of fishery resource. All these are not currently done on Lake Chamo. the local government of the then Semen Omo Administration attempted to have its own fishery resource management mechanism in 1998.aspect of management is thought to be appropriate for fishery resources that are ‘over exploited’ while the development is thought to be appropriate for fishery resources that are underexploited (FAO. When some body was found doing against these rules and regulations. Some of these are conducting stock analysis for economically important fish species. the Federal Government of Ethiopia has issued fisheries development and utilization proclamation with he objective of conserving fish biodiversity. decided the number of fishing nets that each fisherman could have and the standard fishing nets to be used on the lake. From the discussions from fishery development experts at zonal and Woreda level it is evident that there are even pre-conditions to prepare specific fishery rules and regulations. and determining the number of fishing gears for each fish species. the charge was not considered and the so-called “illegal” fishermen were sent free due to absence of fishery proclamation and supportive rules and regulation. 1982. As a result. Moreover. By having seen the resource trend. After long years of delay. The local government bodies have made efforts to license the fishermen. the local government bodies brought the case to court. inventory of the current fishing communities and the fishing gears employed should be done. it is not yet supported by specific rules and regulations. Rules and regulations made at 62 . Though the proclamation is one step in the endeavor of the fishery resource management. it is not possible to put in place the regional fishery resource management. prior to the Federal and Regional Fisheries Development and Utilization Proclamation. cited in LFDP. 78/ 2004). development and control proclamation. ensuring sustainable contribution by fisheries towards food security and expand aquaculture development in February. except the preliminary stock and gear estimate done by LFDP in 1990s (LFDP: 1994: 8). Following the Federal Proclamation. 2004 (Proclamation No. either working in cooperative or individually.
This net has a lead base or other heavy material like gravels to touch the ground in shallow belt of the lake. The method continues until the fishermen get sufficient catches. Similarly. currently to compensate the resource depletion. Thus. Using this net the fishermen drug everything entered in the net. according to these experts relatively low attention is given in terms of budget and research to the section. fishing at the mouth of rivers where some fish species like Lebeo and Barbus use it as spawning ground is common in Lake Chamo and responsible for fish resource depletion in addition to over fishing in context of inadequate policy. inappropriate fishing methods like chase and trap. 63 . inappropriate fishing gears and methods. fishermen have begun to use a new fishing net called lead-base net targeting Tilapia. Thus.local government levels (Zonal or Woreda) do not have acceptance before the law as it is the mandate and Authority of Regional and Federal states. the efforts of the local government to manage the fishery resource failed and they abandoned giving the license. the new entrants. Moreover. spear fishing. By so doing the method disturbs the ecology and increase the frequency of using fishing net to catch fish which in turn has caused resource depletion. in a scenario where there is no supportive rules and regulations to the proclamation. fishing in shallow belts and river mouths usually targets females which came to those places for spawning. Since then the local government is limited to “protecting” inappropriate gears and methods simply by group patrolling once or twice a year. shallow belt fishing. Moreover. The chase and trap method of fishing is unethical method where fishermen after laying their net hit the water with stick and force the fish to be trapped. Regarding Organizational Capacity of the Woreda and Zonal fisheries development section in ARDD to put the proclamation in to practice. spear fishing. the experts at local level complain about the narrow structure which only invite one personnel each at Woreda and zonal level. the number of fishing gears. They named it as “Jimela Cherash” literarily means non-selective fishing method. Currently. it is not possible to protect or limit the number of fishermen.
only community alone control and leasing for an Investor or a Fisheries Co-operative are opposed by majority of the survey respondents (Table 6.) Table6. 2006 Because of the absence of fishery rules and regulation the fishermen who depended on the resource are affected.1%) No 8(9. most fishermen of the survey respondents (79%) reported that they prefer co-management where Communities and State together take responsibility of fishery resource management.9%) 84(98. Among the fishery management tool options presented. Similarly.4) 85(100%) 82(96. However. The greater number of the survey respondents agree on application of different fishery resource management tools. fish filleting and transporting by human labor and those people who are engaged in fish food preparation are affected.4%) 9(10.9%) 75(88. Moreover.2%) 79(92.6: Fishermen Perception towards the Application of Fishery Management Tools on Lake Chamo Fishery management tools Quota allocation Area and seasonal closure Mesh size control Limiting the fishing effort Taxation based on fishing effort Licensing Control of inappropriate fishing gear traders Community alone control Leasing for Investor/Co-operative Yes 77(90.These all imply that there is a clear policy and institutional gap with regard to fishery resource management in Lake Chamo. The fishery resource depletion is aggravated by lack of appropriate policies and institution to put he proclamation in to effect.6.6%) 0(0%) 3(3.6%) 76(89. 64 .1%) 1(1.8%) 80(94.5%) 6(7.8%) 6(7. those people who live in low income and use fish meat as cheap source of protein are all affected.1%) 10(11. those people who are engaged in fish related activities like fish gutting.9%) Source: Own survey result.2%) 5(5.5%) 79(92.
every body is responsible for the depletion be it a member of cooperative or not. upstream deforestation are the majors. However. At that time we were very few. The fish stock condition was very good. I do not have assets to recover from the current problem I faced. From the various discussions and field observation it was found that the shore of the lake which is the most important place for spawning of some fish species like Tilapia. The government did nothing. Its number was more than Tilapia. those organized since 1976 like me do not know where to go. overgrazing and deforestation. First.Box 6. the local farmers and even some fishermen are using the nearby wetland resource of Lake Chamo. Environmental Degradation Various natural and human activities have caused directly or indirectly environmental damage on the lake biodiversity in general. By now let alone the unorganized fishermen. My immediate problem is the depletion of the resource and unable to catch sufficient fish. and fishery resource in particular. The nearby wetland is converted into farming of banana for commercial purposes. We have informed the case to the local government bodies many times to protect the illegal fishermen and inappropriate gears used for fishing. and 65 . unless all the fishermen leave the lake for a certain period of time. Rather. It seems hopeless to expect the fish stock to replenish under the present condition. The government did nothing to reverse the situation. I have more than 30 years experience in fishing. By now the fish stock is depleted and we are in problem.1: Use of Inappropriate Gears and Weak Protection I am a member of Arbaminch Fishers Cooperative Association since its foundation in 1976. Source: A participant in a Focus Group 3. Among human activities lakeside farming and overgrazing. (2006) Member of AFCA 6.2.3. it is threatened by human activities like farming. Labeo fish has been depleted from the lake. because we all prepare and use the fishing nets which are below the recommended mesh size. diversion of rivers for irrigation. where as erratic rainfall. high evapotranspiration due to climatic variations are among the natural phenomena related with the water volume and the fishery resource of Lake Chamo. Due to over increasing rural population and resultant reduction of farm land size. is not well protected. We caught fish from the two lakes. Actually.
clear the natural forest for construction and for fuel. small streams like Kulfo. and Sile that flow to Lake Chamo are diverted to irrigate banana. This in turn has reduced the water carrying capacity of the lake whereby creating disabling condition for fishery resource base. high rate of siltation. The investigation result from Seleshi (2001) on water resource of Lake Abaya and Chamo is in line with their response.He argues that the decrease in rainfall and runoff increase in evapotranspiration associated with climatic change. The government enacted the first comprehensive environmental 66 . This situation has caused the reduction of the water balance of the lake. the water volume of Lake Chamo couldn't be regenerated to levels in 1960s and 1970s. All of the survey respondents and key informants agreed that they have observed significant decline of the water level of Lake Chamo. Moreover. They use the land for settlement. This is because these species of fish migrate upstream during breeding period and uses the river mouth as spawning ground. Generally. As these streams are used for irrigation. The situation has exposed the basin for high rate of soil erosion and resultant sediment deposition in the lake. These all have adverse effect on fishery resource base of Lake Chamo. maize. They associated the causes to consumptive use of the inflowing rivers and the reduction of rainfall over time. their flow towards the lake is limited which indirectly caused resource depletion. Finally. and consumptive use of water have been responsible for significant decline of the water balance of Lake Chamo (Seleshi. etc. which are meant to protect the environment. It disturbed the life cycle of some species of fish like Labeo and Barbus by destroying the ecosystem. The other environmental damage seen on Lake Chamo in relation to fishery resource is the fast reduction of the overall water volume. According to the same author. the fundamental cause of all the degradation discussed above is in one way or the other associated with failure of the environmental policy and institution. and cotton. 2001: 156).maize and other crops of subsistence. population pressures combined with rural poverty have caused clearing of upstream forest and natural vegetation cover of the Chamo Basin for farming. for purposes of fuel and constriction materials.
increased pollution and pressure of the growing population. a fisherman is considered as "illegal" and is not given permanent fishing and camping site.policy in April 1997. Those who have full access right are those who are member of Fishers’ Co-operative Association. 67 . erosion. Regarding fishery resource and biodiversity loss the writer recommended that there is an urgent need for fisheries regulations restricting fishing near river mouths and upstream on spawning ground during the breading period to prevent extinction of unique large Barbus (Eshete. Protection of the interface between water bodies and land such as lake shores. 2004: 26). In the policy document. including fishermen. Similarly. In spite of the policy provisions. Resource Access and Livelihoods As discussed earlier access to common pool resource contributes much to livelihoods of the rural poor. relatively rich fishermen are those who have ownership and access right (Neil et al. unequal resource access can have adverse effect on the well-being of those who don't have equal access right.economic condition of inland fisheries have come up with the result that ownership and access right have high effect on well-being of the fishermen. development and management of water resources. competing use of water resources. 2000: 5). Fishermen in the study area don't have equal access right to the fishery resource in spite of its importance to their livelihoods. The condition in my study area also supports this. conducting a research on socio. Neil et al. 40% replied that they have resource access problem.3. Eshete Dejen in his part conducting a research on Lake Tana Biodiversity potentials and threats informed that the lake ecosystem and the water resources as a whole are in danger due to deforestation. cited in Been et al. sedimentation. so far little efforts have been done to reverse the everincreasing environmental degradation in the basin. water resource is one component. Similarly. water level reduction. river banks. 2001: 32-25). and wet lands (FDRE. 6. 1997: 11). inequitable use of resource is a constraint and fishing communities became vulnerable in Ghana (DFID. On the contrary. Of the total respondents. Unless and otherwise. and thus the important policy provisions in relation to fishery resource are: Integrate upstream forest and wet land protection and rehabilitation activities in to the conservation. According to their research. erratic rainfall. flooding of the wet lands.
the Woreda Co-operative Desk reports the resource depletion as factor for not allowing new fishing co-operative to be set. among the unorganized fishermen. their request is not given due attention by local government bodies like Woreda Co-operative Desk. etc that it built in its thirty years of history.existing Fishers’ Cooperative Associations. they are not usually willing to take new members with the expectation that the new comer is going to share the scare resource.7: Access Options of Fishermen in Lake Chamo Access options Member of fishers co-operative Assistant to co-operative member Non. hotel. cars. Table 6. they want them to serve as their ‘assistant’ fishermen for long times. 84% respondents replied that they have made efforts to be a member of the existing fishers’ co-operative association or setup new one.To have full access right to be a member of Fishers Co-operative is taken as a pre-condition.member of co-operatives or (FACA) No (percent) 48 (56. (Proclamation number 147/91) the request of unorganized fishermen is not addressed. Cognizant of the importance of being a member of fishers co-operative.5%) 3 (3. Similarly. motorized boat.5%) 34 (40%) Access condition Full and secured Limited Limited 68 . Though the co-operative proclamation of Ethiopia and principles of co-operative says membership is open and on volunteer bases to all. Thus. being a member of Fishers’ Co-operative is equated as license to fishing. Woreda ARDD and the pre. The other reason especially the AFCA not willing to allow new membership is because of its ownership of fixed assets like office.7). In other words. The pre-existing fishers’ co-operative associations have their own bylaws which are prepared based on the Co-operative proclamation and principles of co-operative. Moreover. However. However. those who are not a member of fishers co-operative are not given permanent fishing sites and are forced to conduct fishing either as ‘assistant’ to those who are members or as ‘contrabandist’ as they sometimes call themselves (see Table 6. Fishermen who served as ‘assistant’ fishermen for more than ten years in Arbaminch Fishers Co-operative Association (AFCA) are complaining of not being a member.
He said it is such a long time labor abuse that is responsible for his current ill-being. He worked as ‘assistant’ to fishermen who are member of co-operative. Fishermen work as assistant to those who are member of fishing co-operative due to different reasons. He has a wife and one child. the cooperative members would search his dead body because they have motor boat and provide to his family. only 5 birr is given to him by the master fisherman who is usually not engaged in fishing. A master fisherman can have 8-10 ‘assistants’. Fishing is the only source of his family’s livelihoods. To have resource access is one among others. He told that when a kg of fish meat is 20 birr. These people do not have formally given camping and fishing sites and they conduct fishing wherever they 69 . He has 8 years experience in fishing. His other reason was his lack of sufficient money to purchase fishing nets and other necessary materials. The case of Terefe Girma is a good example. Terefe says if his catch is 40 Kg for a month period only 10 kg belongs to him. He told that he worked as assistant because of different reasons. They collect what we caught and report as if it is their catch. He is 25 years old. The other groups of fishermen are those who conduct fishing as ‘contrabandist’. His other reasons were that if he is in case drown in the lake while fishing.7. they are mistreated and the money they worked is not given properly and above all they associated their current ill-being as free access denial and working as assistant being abused for long times. If he complains no one will listen his voice and even the master fisherman can remove his assistants from any access to the resource. Terefe Girma is a young fisherman.From the Table 6. it is clear that 43% of the survey respondents do not have full and secured resource access right. The case of Terefe clearly shows how unequal resource access could lead to difference of livelihoods. relative security of life and property. Some of his reasons were to have resource access. and expectation to be a member of the existing co-operative association. The livelihoods of fishermen of Lake Chamo clearly depict the resource access status. The rest 3/4 belongs to the master fisherman who is a member of fishers co-operative. Those fishermen who work as assistant for long years complained that they are labor abused.
Even if catches are reduced. 70 . fishermen and farmers. Even if the fish stock is depleted. Dereje Dana Case 5.could have access. they could get some money to buy maize. why others who are co-operative members leave the fishery resource as the government forced us to leave. etc. The fishermen complained of their displacement because they stayed there fore long time and the area is fertile fishing ground. A displaced fisherman expressed inequality of resource access as problem to his household food security. For long time the park administration was not in a position to convince them or forcefully displace from these sites. However. If I had full access right. If resource is a constraint. one can get by his chance laying his net especially when there is rainfall and wind. fishermen and park administration. Most of those who were included in my study had their camping sites in Kulfo Ayne. very recently in 2005 African Parks took over the administration of Nech Sar National Park from the Government of Ethiopia and in 2006 forcefully displaced the fishermen in co-operation with local government bodies. 6. competition over fishing ground. etc. The main problem of my family is access denial to the resource. I would get even catfish to purchase maize to my children. organized and un organized fishermen. Conflict over Resource and Livelihoods Conflict over scarce resource of Lake Chamo is a day-to-day phenomenon. As a result they stayed there for more than 15 years. Those who are member to co-operative associations don't have the same problem like me. These are areas considered as within park boundary. The major causes of conflict as expressed by respondents from different sources are attempt of fishing in protected areas. Mahal Desete. The major conflicting bodies are individual fishermen themselves.4. (2006) These show the existence of resource access inequality in Lake Chamo and the relative wellbeing difference among the fishing communities associated with resource access difference. because of their full and secured access right. and full time fishermen and part time fishermen. Wodeb. looting of one's fishing nets.
2004: 22 and 108). To day I will go again and even tomorrow.According to Hillman (1993). though Nechisar National Park was proposed including some parts of Lake Abaya and Chamo in 1996 and have demarcated boundary since 1974." Focus Group Two (2006) Figure 6. If I want to feed my families and live. 30-km2 area of Lake Chamo was said to be proposed and demarcated with in the park boundary. A scout of the park caught me and beat me hard. I want to die there. Accordingly. 3: Focus Group Discussion Two (2006) From the above response it is clear that there is intense and deep-rooted conflict over resource among different stakeholders of Lake Chamo. The magnitude of conflict is high especially between unorganized fishermen attempting to intrude and maintain access in the proposed park boundary. 71 . it is not yet gazetted (Bezabeh. I have to conduct fishing until the government gives me alternative livelihood options. "I went for fishing in what they call protected area to day.
the government gave me 4000. according to various sources the number of fishermen who were displaced from the water body of the park boundary was much higher than those involved in the program and they seem to be one of the potential threats. usually do not let those fishermen who do not have permanent fishing and camping sites to camp and conduct fishing on their holding claming that the lake and the resource adjacent to their PAs belong to them. who is not a member of that particular PA. etc. on the eastern side of the lake there are Guji Oromo. When I returned from war front. However.00 Birr to rehabilitate myself. Shelemela. I rented a corrugated iron sheet house. In these programs. Look the story of Abebe below: I was a soldier. Last time I went to Wazeka to conduct fishing there. I returned back as I am not the member of that particular community. the African Parks have designed a strategy to mitigate conflicts through its community development fund program. Abebe Ayssa Case 10. A person. Similarly. We sent one of my young children to my mother. They consider it as communal property of the members of the PAs only.000 Birr. Regarding the fishermen who were dislocated from park boundary. 72 . who are mainly pastoralists.Understanding the magnitude and the overall effects of the resource dependence of the poor whose livelihoods is mainly based on the park resource and their potential threats to the park. Wezeka. Now I rented a hut to live in with my wife and one child. is not allowed of access. 68 fishermen were involved. 2001: 22). It coasted African parks not less than 75. (2006) Similarly. Any attempt ends up in intense conflict. now we are living by selling the household properties. I had ten armchairs in my home before. Now I am dislocated from my fishing ground considering it as park boundary. They didn't allow me to fish on their site. in my study area farmers who/ whose household member/ conduct fishing in PAs adjacent to the lake like Gantta Kanchama. who also claim ownership of the resource in their jurisdiction. I had very good household properties. Ellgo. African parks in co-operation with local government bodies have done some efforts to rehabilitate by integrating them to Chamo fishers co-operative association. As a study in Ghana shows that fishing communities have tried and unilaterally declared their own fishing territories and try to exclude others (DFID. I sold five of them.
AFCA have very long shoreline and wide fishing ground. Gebere Gaga is a full time unorganized fisherman who is a breadwinner to his household with six members. CFCA members were first conducting fishing on Segene Metenfesha. A good example is the conflict between Arbaminch Fishers Co-operative Association (AFCA) and Chamo Fishers Cooperative Association (CFCA) over a newly allocated camping and fishing site given to CFCA. They have seven camping sites starting from Teshale Camp up to Mitimita camp with a total shore length of nearly 15 kms. after four months delay. However. distance for a member of about 34 individuals. after discussion with local government bodies. CFCA is able to maintain the holding of 700m-shore length fishing ground for about 34 members. The story of Gebere is a good example. There is also conflict some times over fishing ground between different fishing co-operatives and even fishing co-operatives and park administration. However. He had fishing license given to him to have access in 1998. Among the survey respondents 39% replied that the conflict resolution doesn't take in to account the need and right of every party and usually tend to maintain the right and interest of organized fishermen and park administration. The institution usually take part in resource conflict mitigation are formal governmental institutions.The other conflict type is the one. considering it as within proposed park boundary. Then. which is seen among organized and unorganized fishermen. As already mentioned organized fishermen have secured fishing ground and camping sites. while the unorganized conduct fishing here and there and end up in conflict with others who have access right. He has 20 years of experience in fishing. when CFCA were given a new camping and fishing ground with a length of 700 m. He is 38 years old. He says when they conducted fishing with his colleague their fishing nets were taken by park administration or by agricultural development departments. they responded that they 73 . the fairness of these institutions to all parties seems to be in question in some cases. the AFCA opposed and attempted to include the new site and expand its fishing territory. African park scouts and local police force without ultimatum burned their Camps. When they brought the case to local administration. However.
McIntire et al. When Gebere and his colleagues asked their properties to be given back. Bryceson (1996. When they again requested them to be legal. it forces shift of labor from one sector to the other. the park. 2005: 34). Generally. 6. 2005:234). 2002). The proponents of the negative effects of diversification like Lipton (1997).e. (2001) as cited in Degefa (2005) argue on the importance and need of livelihood diversification to alleviate rural poverty and food insecurity (Degefa. Dercon and Krishnan (1996). According to 74 . there are different reasons that force households to engage in livelihood diversification. the Park and Agricultural Development Department collect his fishing properties from the water body i. However. Yared (2002) on North Shewa. and Degefa (2005)on Erenssa and Garbi communities have shown the need and importance of diversification for household survival and secured livelihood. Reardon (1997). empirical research conducted by Bryceson (1996) on Sub-Saharan Africa as cited in Degefa(2005). no body listened to their case. Low Level of Choice Diversification Literature shows that there are two competing schools of thoughts on the importance and need of diversification. with what he saved he has bought nets and whom he calls 'his enemies'.5. scholars classified these reasons into two. scholars like Shipton (1990). Barretti et al. Ellis (1998). This is how his family ended up in poverty. the local government bodies told them that it had been burnt. These all show that the unequal resource access among the different communities in the study area is a root cause for conflict. and diverts resources specially from agriculture to other non-agricultural sectors and by so doing reduces the performance of the agricultural sectors (Degefa. This implies that there is a need for proper resource management where equity and access to resource is maintained and where conflicts mitigation takes into account the needs and rights of all parties. Ethiopia. On the contrary. (1992). and Berry (1989) as cited in Degefa (2005) argue that diversification weakness specialization. He says.were 'illegals'. According to available literature.
unequal resource access right and exclusion. Choice. in Lake Chamo fishing communities’ lack of education and skill training. or accumulation diversification according to Ellis (2005) are carried out voluntarily by households for proactive reasons (Ellis. A case in 75 . lack of enough time to peruse diversification strategies. choice diversification for the reason of accumulation or well-being was not common among the different members of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. another important factor behind the choice diversification is the saving behavior of the household (which will be discussed in detail later).. in the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. There were different constraints behind the low level of choice diversification of the fishing communities. if I knew some other skill other than fishing.” Focus Group (2006) On the other hand. and deprivation of the right to be organized as a co-operative member are among the major constraining factors for most fishermen not to accumulate asset and carry out choice diversification prior to the fishery resource stress. where as Bigsten(1996) labled it in to push and pull as cited in Ellis (2000: 55).al. Of the survey respondents. I wouldn't be in such a problem.. Among these constraints. According to Hussein et al. Hart (1994) on his part grouped into survival and accumulation. Those households with good saving behavior and put their saving on productive assets are able to survive even without being engaged in survival diversification.Davies (1996) they are named as survival and choice diversification. (1988) researches conducted in different less developed contries reveal that limited availability of education and skill training. exclusion of certain groups from CPRs for the use of diversification. 80% are in the primary level and below this level of education. and unavailability of credit are the major constraints taken to choice diversification (Hussein et. 2005:55) However. and hence do not have skill training which would enable them to conduct choice diversification.1998: 20). A fisherman puts his lack of skill other than fishing as a constraint for diversification as: “I wish if I were broken when I first went to the Lake for fishing.
At that time. From the money I saved. Case (2006) Figure 6. if a fisherman gets 100 birr monthly income.0 to 1. Now. who has 35 years fishing experience on Lake Chamo. I save money in my co-operative association. At that time I had few children. it is good. there was sufficient stock in the fishery.5 tones in a month period using hook and line. I have built service rooms in my compound during good days with what I saved.point is Addisu Asha. a 60 years old fisherman. I took 15. Addisu Asha.000 Birr and built my house in 1980. if a household is not able to engage in either case due to different constraining factors his/her household is vulnerable to another option usually distress migration. Thanks God.4: Case Study One (2006) From the discussion it is clear that in a context of household livelihood stress either choice diversification (carried out prior expecting risk or for the purpose of accumulation) or survival diversification is important to household survival. His short story goes as follows: Understanding the importance of saving. We are conducting fishing because we don't have any place to go. This is another livelihood strategy taken by 76 . I escaped while life was good. Otherwise. it is not possible to catch using gillnet. These days. A person could catch 1. I live better life with the income I get from these rooms after paying tax to the government.
Fishery development policy regarding small-scale fisheries sub-sector need to deal with conservation. economic and social equity objectives. service provision. Adequate Policy and Livelihoods FAO (2002) argues that over access by a certain group or individuals reduce power of middlemen.6. it implies the need for adequate policy. in my study area government support in terms of resource planning. 2001: 23-25). 2002: 5). Similarly. 6.6. Similarly. As a result. and providing alternative employment opportunity seem to be weak and have exposed the fishing communities around Lake Chamo to poverty. Lack of Adequate Government Support According to DFID study in Ghana. 2006: 6). fishing is 77 . poor services. and capable institutions for overall development of fisheries. most inland fish producer suffer from the absence or inadequacy of policies and institutional support (FAO. However. Hence. protecting security of life and property. and with large family size are vulnerable to distress migration like Kaltha Kara. 6. fishing communities in the study area are affected due to inadequate policy as discussed earlier in relation to resource management. supportive directives.e. Those who do not have alternative income source. fishing communities are exposed to poverty due to poor government support. in many countries. sustainable exploitation and alternative employment opportunities are important and widely supported to poverty reduction in small-scale Fishery (FAO. There are many statements in the Federal Government's Rural Development Policies. policy makers are not aware of the importance of inland fish production for food supply and income generation. relatives. Most of these are problems seen within the fishing communities around Lake Chamo. Strategies and Instruments (RDPSI) referring to the agricultural sector as the backbone and engine to the national economy. listening the voice of the poor fishermen.considerable number of fishermen in the study area some of who are even members of fishers co-operative. one of the sub sectors of agriculture i. However.1. A case in point is Kaltha Kara (see page-98). remote location. low literacy and innumeracy and weak organizational capacity (DFID.
2001). The role of the federal government seems to be by passed. the assignment to develop the sector is given to Regional States to be considered in their respective regional food security strategy programs (FDRE. in the study site the respondents revealed that it is very poor. As poverty is multi-dimensional by its nature. Technical Backup and Service Provision The technical backup and provision of different services to a given sector of an economy is in most cases a reflection of the policy and strategies designed to the improvement of the sector and the capacity level of various institutions to put the polices and strategies in to effect. DFID (2001) argues that sustainable poverty reduction in fisheries can not be achieved through work of either micro. maintain equity in resource use.2. As indicated earlier.not mentioned at all in the policy document (RDPSI. meso. It is found from the survey respondents that only 14% have taken any sort of training either from government bodies or from their co-operative associations. etc. 6. Similarly.6. but all the three levels need to be addressed. though the federal government and some regional states like SNNPR. and in particular the linkage among different levels be strengthened (DFID: 200: 1). Regarding technical back up in terms of training. 2002: 12).Though the potential for fishery sector to reduce food insecurity is mentioned in the Federal Food Security Strategy (FSS) paper. came up with their respective fisheries development and utilization proclamation since 2003 and 2004. extension services. The majority (86%) of the survey respondents replied that they haven't taken any form of training or technical assistance. all of them are not yet supported by detailed directive so as to put the proclamation in to effect. when the survey respondents were asked to compare the overall technical backup and extension services provided to the sub-sector with other sub-sectors like crop production and 78 . This shows that there is weak linkage between the Macro and Meso level policies and strategies regarding fisheries sub-sector. In such an inadequate policy environment it is not possible to determine users group. provide credit and technical support to the poorest of the poor fishermen. reducing poverty in fishing communities requires policy supported technical backup and service provision to the poor fishermen. or macro level alone. conduct continues monitoring and surveillance.
It is we who are really doing the fishing work as ‘assistant’ to the master fishermen who are member of co-operative. there are a lot to be done on this lake. is mainly to crop production and livestock sub-sectors. A key informant who is head one of the fishers’ cooperative association puts it as follows: The EPRDF’s overall development policy gives focus to Agriculture.5: Focus Group Discussion One (2006) 79 . Key Informant (2006) The response of unorganized fishermen is even bitter than those organized regarding government technical backup and service provision. we are not known by the government. however. The focus. etc on credit bases. Members of cooperative are given fishing nets. Biruk Worku Focus group. Pertinent professionals and their bosses usually run to those sub. The view of a key informant supports this idea. What they usually request us is report of the monthly catch.livestock. Government supports are given to those who are co-operative members. However. However. net making thread.sectors to give support in our area.1 (2006) Figure 6. 99% responded that the technical backup and service provision to crop production and livestock sub-sectors is by much better than the fishery sub-sector. nothing more than that. Regarding the fishery sub-sector adequate technical support and backup is not provided usually.
80 . In fishing communities of Lake Chamo. He tried to compare the technical backup and assistance of the fishery subsector with others as follows: For peasants the government has been trying to assign three technical assistants who have knowledge in livestock rearing. fish gutting and filleting is done simply on the ground because of absence of processing shops. basic services. gutting. This has in turn its effect on household income.Biruk’s narrative suggests that unorganized fishermen are all-in-all out of any technical and material support of the government as compared to the co-operative members." The senior fishery expert of Gamo Gofa Zone Agricultural Development Desk shares the Voice of the poor fishermen. which has reduced the quality of fish meat and income fishermen could get. Most of the fishermen complained of diseases like Jardia. perhaps those kebeles that produce fruits (banana). Fishermen of Lake Chamo did not have well prepared fish landing sites and small-scale fish processing. If we compare the number of people who are engaged or base their livelihoods from Lake Chamo with any other kebele population of the whole Woreda of Arbaminch Zuria. In the same way a 38 years old Gebere Gaga. and crop production at each PA level. Key informant (2006) Moreover. Along the shore of Lake Chamo. Moreover. in the shore of Lake Chamo. one of the non-members of co-operative fisherman puts his worst case as follows: "As unorganized fisherman. and workshop of making local boat. basic health and water services are not available for fishermen in their lakeshore. are not available. the fishermen are not seen equally as other farmers in terms of assigning technicians. I got nothing from the government except polio vaccination to my children. natural resource management.requisite to have any government technical and material support if any. being member of fishers co-operative is a pre. In spite of all these. which would enhance fishery development. If we look in terms of economic and social importance still it is in a better position than other kebeles. It pollutes the lake as the fishermen do the activity near the lake water and the waste products enter the water of the lake. filleting shops. which have caused the breadwinners of the household to be out of work for some days of the month. it is by much higher. and malaria.
Such conflicts sometimes cost life.3. the fishing communities around Chamo are different groups and have unequal resource access. easily using both motorized boat and car of its own. and other un-organized fishermen have a problem in transporting their catches.6. One of my case studies. They use usually human labor to transport fish catches from landing sites up to all-weather roads or even to market centers. case studies and focus group discussions have revealed that the fishing nets and even life of the fishermen is in secured as they conduct fishing in remote location. 6. Dessalegn Wolka puts his experience as follows: 81 . the inequalities become source of conflict and such conflicts go some times to an extent that they threaten the life of fishermen. and economic status. government support. Thus. Property and Life Insecurity of Fishermen Poverty is a complex phenomena and insecurity of property and life is one of the indicators of ill being. Conflicts regarding looting of fishing nets are common among the unorganized fishermen. All sources.2%) use human labor as means of transporting their catches from landing sites up to market center or main transport line where they can get car service. Co-operative members of Chamo. The fishermen under co-operative association also complain of their fishing nets usually being stolen by other fishermen. The causes of insecurity is mainly internal that arise from the various fishing communities themselves.Finally. Only AFCA is able to transport its members' Catch from landing sites up to marketing center. AFCA even complains about the high overhead cost incurred to transport fish where catches are too low. Of all the survey respondents. The other source of conflict and threat to the life security of fishermen is from the nearby peasants and pastoralists due to resource claims. Such conflicts some times end up in killing of one by the other. Recently. As already discussed. There are no as such informal institutions within this section of the fishing communities to maintain security of property and life. which is Arbaminch town. the great majority (68. including survey respondents. fish-transporting service is very poor.
which in turn affect their livelihoods. et al.There are no services of public security. their demands are taken for granted by the government bodies and the poor fishers become voiceless. The above response suggests that the poorest of the poor fishermen first claim/demand/ resource access where as those who have that secured access try to protect that right and require additional income sources like farm land. Of all the survey respondents. they go when their per-diem and boat service is ready. fishing communities of Lake Chamo have demands which they usually raise to be answered by government bodies. and request machine guns for self-defense.7. Lack of Voice According to Farrington et al. Last time three fishermen were shot in their camping sites by local pastoralists at night. However. They were alive till 10.00 in the morning. In the same way. the unorganized fishermen usually demand to be ‘legal’ and to be organized as fishers co-operative and have secured resource access right. The government police force usually does not go soon to study the case. the great majority (88%) has presented their claims either alone or in group to local government bodies in different times. (1992) lack of participation in decisions affecting one's life in a community and lack of sense of voice is among the indicators of poverty (Farrington. 6. Fishermen under different co-operatives claim the government bodies to protect the "illegal" fishermen from the resource. 1992: 2). Most fishermen replied that local government bodies do not usually consider most of their claims and demands. their demands also vary accordingly. Due to lack of transport and communication it was not possible to rescue them. After a lot of delays. Dessalegn Wolka Case 7(2006) This shows how the fishing communities’ life is insecure due to remote location where the government is not in a position to provide security service like other services to the communities. as the fishing communities of Lake Chamo are varied. The experience of a non-member cooperatives fisherman describes the situation more: 82 . However. However. request credit. and manage the resource from depletion. request farmland.
As mentioned before. As it is found from various sources. to protect the proposed park boundary the African parks administrators in co-operation with the local police force without any negotiation and discussion put fire on camping sites of these fishermen and took all the fishing nets of these fishermen." Focus Group 2 (2006) This is a voice of non-member of co-operative fisherman who was conducting fishing for long years in the ‘protected’ area within the proposed park boundary. which have exacerbated the poor well-being of fishing communities. as we are poor and weak. The government made shelter. they throw us away without any negotiation. Gebere Gaga. participation in matters affecting their livelihood is one of the factors. a study conducted by DFID (2001) in Ghana has shown that over reliance on one type of asset and lack of options are among the major constraints of livelihood of small-scale fishermen. In my study community too.What the government is doing is not centering the poor. one of my case study household head puts the limited employment opportunities in the town as follows: 83 . While the resource is a public property. Lack of Alternative Employment Opportunities Studies by FAO (2006) indicate that limited alternative employment opportunities as constraint to the small-scale fisheries to contribute to food security and alleviate poverty. This is one of the indicators of lack of other alternative employment options in Arbaminch town and the nearby rural PAs. Even if the income obtained from fishing these days decreased significantly due to resource constraint. Similarly. health post centers. and schools to kores before they leave the park. 6.8. Chamo fishery resource is a common pool weakly regulated resource in which option less people are engaged as last resort. From the above discussion it is clear that lack of voice. for rural-urban migrants and the urban unemployed has caused overdependence on ever depleting fishery resource of Chamo. lack of alternative employment opportunities for the fishermen. The Kores and the Gujis are in the middle of the park. 86% of respondent fishermen replied that they wouldn't abandon fishing. we are thrown on street. rather it is biased towards the better off. However.
Is there any factory in the town? Is there any employment opportunity in the town? It is not even available for those who are educated. and focus group members revealed that their livelihood was generally better some four/five years before than the present condition. and me. This shows how some of them spent their income in unproductive activates like alcohol.4%) were getting a monthly income above 1000 Birr in the year 2002. my children. The government rather than ordering to create job. if you saw a person whose face was shining. This amount of income is by any standard an income of middle class in and around Arbaminch in that year. the present livelihood situation of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo is to some extent the reflection of how they were using their income and how their saving condition was in what they call good days. Gebere Gaga Case.. In the same way. However. Currently. Some fishermen even if they got handful money from fishing.3(2006) 6. 84 . The current ill-being/wellbeing situation of a household is in most cases the outcome of the past (Swift et al.I am as you are observing my house. Poor Saving As discussed earlier. without doubt he was a fisherman. the SLA places the current events in their dynamic context rather than looking at a 'snapshot' of a situation at a single moment in time. "Ye wuha genzeb be wuha yalqal" literally mean money which is obtained from water is spent on water. There was a common saying among the fishermen during those days. most fishermen agree that their saving trend was not good in those good days. they spent extravagantly. it would have been better if it had created job opportunities. if you see a disappointed person in the town most probably he is a fisherman. One of my key informants who had close relation for more than 15 years with fishermen beautifully put the condition as follows: Some years before.9. however. 2001: 91). key informants. of the survey respondents nearly half (49. As shown before. when fishery resource was good. who was enjoying extravagantly in the town wearing his modern clothes. All of the survey respondents.
If I had had experience of saving. about twenty fishermen of our cooperative members have left the association and migrated to other areas in search of alternative income source. Addisu has long years of good saving trend. the experience of Addisu Asha is the other side of the story. He told how he managed to escape from the current problem associated with resource depletion by his saving behavior during good days (see page -76). The doctor examined her and found that the case is typhoid and malaria.8: The current Saving Condition Fishing communities AFCA CFCA SFCA FOCA Total Current saving condition Yes No 6 (23%) 6(77%) 3(30%) 7(70%) 5(41. However.The experience of Tadesse Assefa is another example of poor saving behavior: My wife got sick last time and I took her to local clinic. I paid 38 birr for the medicine of malaria and returned home without buying the medicine for typhoid as I didn't have any more. Those who saved something back to bad days are still struggling with fishing. etc are the first victims of the resource depletion. I wouldn't have been exposed at all to such problems.6%) 7(58%) 9(24%) 28(76%) 23(27%) 62(73%) Source: Own survey result (2006) 85 . Those who didn't save and put in to some productive assets like construction of service houses to rent. He ordered me to buy the medicines. Key informant (2006) On the other hand. No one of my colleagues has ever risen about the importance of saving. the great majority (73%) of the survey respondents do not save for the reason that their income is not covering the household food demand (see Table 6.8). Concerning the current saving condition. Tadesse Assefa Case.4 (2006) Similarly a key informant who has a day-to-day relation with the fishermen has put his observation as follows: Currently. Table 6.
conflicts over resource due to inequitable resource access. and other risks related to working on water bodies like lake or sea which may lead the families of fishermen to poverty (FAO. Moreover.00 p. When other fishermen were asked to help me in carrying. policy and institutional failures and environmental degradation due to poor wetland management in Lake Chamo Basin are among the major challenges of the fishing communities. A lot of blood flew out of my body in both cases.As illustrated in Table 6.m. among the fishing communities. like peoples internal motives to accumulate or avert risk through saving is one of the explaining factor of the present well-being or ill-being. after 24.m. My friends rescued me and put me on Wogello (local boat) and after transporting for five hours they brought me to camping sites. i.e. Fishermen in Lake Chamo also face a lot of dangers related to their occupation. A lot of blood was flowing out of my body.4 (2006) The foregoing discussions have shown that the stress on the fishery resource. In the lake the number of crocodiles and hippopotamus are very high and usually cause damage to fishing net and life of the fishermen. relatively the rural fishing communities most of who have access to agricultural land are in better position in saving than others. which are treated as different category by IFAD team. and little alternative employment opportunities and poor saving trend and natural disasters associated with working on water bodies exposed majority of the fishermen of Lake Chamo to poverty at household level 86 . lack of adequate government support. low level of choice diversification.00 p. 6.00 minutes travel on foot. Generally. from the case stories and discussions it is clear that the personal assets. He narrates: I am very weak now. 2001: 23). The crocodile bit my leg and broke my one leg. and they brought me to Arbaminch Hospital at 2. I spent the night in the camping site without any further treatment.M. The most difficult danger is the one caused by wild animals in the lake.8. After all they performed their duties and ate their lunch they begun transporting me at 1. Two of my friends were beside me. Natural Shocks Fishermen are vulnerable to natural disasters like storm. weak voice.00 hours of the danger and finally my life was rescued" Tadesse Assefa Case.00 P. In the morning my friends were unable to carry me alone up to the main road which is 45. because twice crocodile attacked me. A story of a young fisherman Tadesse Assefa depicts the challenges of work on Lake Chamo clearly. they replied that they wanted first look whether there was catch in their nets. DFID.10. 2003: 4. The first was on a daytime at around 2.
fao. Household Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies Scholars like Chambers (1988). “Food security is a situation that exists when all people at all times have physical. various scholars have defined food security in different ways. social and economic access to sufficient. Maxwell and Smith (1992) Davies (1993). poor saving trend of the fishermen. the livelihoods of fishermen of Lake Chamo is challenged due to adverse trends in their fishery resource base. Similarly. Recently (2001) the World Food Summit refined its 1996 definition as follows. 2001: www. weak government support. 2003: 47).htm) 87 . 2001: 17-20) Accordingly. 7. Combination of constraints has exposed most of the fishing communities to food and livelihood insecurity. Frankenberger and Coyle (1993) as cited in Maxwell (1996) have shown that food security is one of the elements of livelihood security (Maxwell. 1996: 293). and natural shocks. The fishermen of Lake Chamo have undertaken various forms of coping and adaptive strategies to the challenges they are exposed. conflicts and associated shocks. Tesfaye argues that ensuring food security at household level is the primary goal of livelihood strategies to rural households (Tesfaye. unequal resource access.1.”(FAO.CHAPTER SEVEN: HOUSEHOLD COPING AND ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF FOOD AND LIVELIHOOD INSECURITY As it has been discussed in the previous chapters.According to Maxwell (2001) the major paradigm shifts are: • • • From Global and national to the household and the individual From food first perspective to livelihood perspective From objective indicators to subjective perceptions (Maxwell. The thinking of food security has evolved through time since 1960s.org/docrep. safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. This chapter mainly discusses the coping and adaptive strategies undertaken at household level. limited choice diversification.
from objective measurement to subjective perception. or farm implements and finally the sale or abandonment of fixed asses such as land. 200:44). typical coping strategies may take a sequence: pursue of new source of income. altering household composition. Food security/insecurity is measured using economic measurements. cattle. and distress migration are taken as direct indicators of food insecurity (Maxwell. 1996: 292). and nutrition measurement (assessing the food security situation of a household by undertaking 24 hour recalls of food consumption for individual members of a household) and anthropometrics measurement*. increased reliance on wild foods. As mentioned earlier. short-term alterations in crop and livestock production patterns. temporary migration. Dreze and Sen (1989) on their part argue that though coping strategies are indications of food insecurity. Different authors like Watts (1983. 1996: 249). (Maxwell.It is on the basis of these premises that I will try to look the food insecurity/security situations and coping and adaptive strategies of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. north east Ethiopia and came up with slightly different sequencing of peasant strategies. altering intrahousehold distribution of food. divestment. by comparing the production or purchase with consumption. __________________ Note:*Anthropometric measurement is one way of measuring food security /insecurity by calculating age to weight and height to weight of an individual 88 . temporary migration. 1996: 293). drawing on reciprocal obligation. etc. Various authors have revealed that the coping strategies like short time dietary change. and so on (Ellis.Dessalegn (1987) on his part conducted a research on peasant response in famine condition in Wollo. the evolution of food security thinking has also brought change in ways or approaches of measuring food security/ insecurity. mortgaging and sales of assets. Food insecurity/security could also be assessed on the basis of coping strategies that are undertaken by a household as response to temporal or chronic food insecurity (Maxwell. depletion of stores. According to the same authors. increased use of credit for consumption purposes.e. The general tendency is from quantitative measurement to qualitative. short term labor migration. The author grouped peasant survival strategies in to four namely austerity and reduced consumption. houses. 1996: 293). reducing or rationing consumption. grain stores. pledging. and crises migration. 1988) Corbett (1988) and Swift (1989) as cited in Ellis (2000) argue that households tend to follow a sequenced response when faced with a collapse in their regular source of consumption. selective sale of moveable assets like goat. the distinction between "coping" and "failure to cope" is important to note (Maxwell. i.
household equipments and fishing nets. 2000: 44).e. The disaggregated result at community level shows that 92% FOCA. Yared (1991:145) and Degefa (2005:330) have reveled that there is variation among households in the coping and adaptive strategies which they undertake during seasonal food shortages. etc (see Table 7. The main reason perhaps could be their access to farmland as most of the SFCA members are rural dwellers and have land holdings of different size. sequencing disposal of different kinds of assets during a crisis varies across households. 81% AFCA and 17% SFCA are food insecure according to their own perception. however. Table 7. So there is no generalized indicator based on asset types (Ellis.1: Fishermen Perception of Household Income Sufficiency to Cover Food Demand H.4%) Not Sufficient 21 (81%) 9 (90%) 2 (17%) 34 (92%) 66 (77.2. The major coping strategies of the fishing communities are dietary change i.According to Devereux (1993).6%) of the respondents replied that the income they get from fishing has currently declined significantly and does not cover the household food demand. Food in secured households are undertaking different coping strategies. mortgaging or sale of nondurable goods including livestock.H.). reducing or rationing consumption. Income Sufficiency to Food Demands Fishing Communities AFCA CFCA SFCA FOCA Total Sufficient 5 (19%) 1 (10%) 10 (83%) 3 (8%) 19 (22. use of credit for food consumption.1 members of SFCA fishing community are relatively in a better position in terms of household food security among the various communities. Similarly. 90% CFCA. 89 . It is clear from Table7. eat food which are less preferable.6%) Total 26 (31%) 10 (12%) 12 (14%) 37 (43%) 85 (100%) Source: Own survey result (2006) The survey result in the study area reveals that the great majority (77.
1. Regarding the undertaking of the above two coping strategies of food insecurity. 11. there is not much difference among the various fishing communities.Hence.4%) 11(42%) 8(80%) 5(41%) 39 (46%) Mortgaging/sales of Non durable goods 9(34. From Table 7. From the total survey respondents about 39(45.4%) Reducing/Rationing Consumption Use of credit consumption for food 23 (88%) 10 (100%) 76 (89.4% of the survey respondents have been forced to change their diet. 90 . Use of credit for food consumption is another strategy practiced by fishermen of Lake Chamo as response to household food insecurity. these households are also considered as food insecure because they undertook one or other form of coping strategies.2: Coping Strategies of HHs to Food Insecurity by Community (Multiple Responses were Possible) Application of the Strategy by Fishing Communities Coping strategies of HH food insecurity Dietary change AFCA 24 (92%) CFCA 10 (100%) SFCA 10 (83%) 9 (75%) FOCA 32 (86%) 34 (91%) 15 (40%) 16 (43%) Total 76(89.5%) households replied that they have taken credit and used it for food consumption as strategy to overcome household food insecurity. it is clear that from 22. The same amount of respondents also replied that they have reduced or rationed food consumption at household level. among the communities under study about 89.4% of the households who replied that their monthly income is sufficient to cover food demand.6%) 3(30%) 1 (8%) 29 (34%) Source: Own survey result (2006) As illustrated in Table 7.2). 41% SFCA and 40% FOCA have used credit for food consumption.5% households undertake coping strategies like dietary change and reduce or ration food consumption at household level (see Table 7. 80% CFCA. 42% AFCA.Table 7. At community level.2.
The survey result reveals that about 42% of the total respondent households have received some kind of help from their respective social ties (see Table. 34. From the survey result.2). 7. Those households that have strong social ties within or outside their kin are able to receive some amount of assistance in the form of goods or money. other household assets and fishing equipments like fishing nets. Social Capital and Food Security The social capital in the form of reciprocity is one of the most important capitals that enable households to supplement food demands and overall household security especially during times of crisis. When looking the same coping strategy at community level. it is possible to say that the level of food insecurity is relatively high among unorganized fishermen and relatively less sever within SFCA members (see Table 4.3). Table 7. it is clear that high number of fishermen outside cooperative sold some kind of their moveable household asset and thus. 7.34% of the households replied that they mortgaged or sold some kind of household goods so as to cope household food insecurity. 30% of CFCA.3: Reception of Help/Assistance from Relatives or Friends by Community Social Reciprocity Fishing Communities Practiced AFCA CFCA SFCA FOCA Total 10 (38%) 2 (20%) 2 (17%) 22 (59%) 36 (42%) Not 16 (62%) 8 (80%) 10 (83%) 15 (41%) 15 (41%) Total 26 (31%) 10 (12%) 12 (14%) 37 (43%) 85 (100%) Source: Own survey result (2006) 91 .2.6% of AFCA. 43% of FOCA.The other coping strategy pursued by food insecure fishermen of Lake Chamo is mortgaging or sale of household moveable assets like livestock. and 8% of SFCA members undertook the strategy.
and he finally went to the resettlement site. I had opposed the idea and gave a call to my father who is living in Gofa some 250 Kms from Arbaminch. Even my wife doesn't know some skills like the wives of others. he was advised to send all the children and me to Gofa for two to three months where Dad would be responsible. Dad gave him a piece of advice not to be desperate and worry much. Moreover. Gebere Gaga explains his lack of strong social ties and assets. Moreover. We have 24 pieces of corrugated iron-sheet in our home.After he left us. 20% CFCA. I collect fuel wood from the forest (which is strongly protected these days and no easy access) and sell to feed my children. a wife of a fisherman whose husband recently went to resettlement. I don't have ox. but also share ideas and to offer advice. Still my household's life is associated with nature. After my call. from the story we can see that household members like Kasech Engeda preferred to getting starved to selling their household asset considering their future livelihoods rather than immediate food demand. I don't have relative and good neighbor who could help me. I refused. which put him in desperate situation. Moreover. TV.Among the fishing communities 38% of AFCA. he came to visit us last time. While he was coming. and 59% of FOCA have received some sort of assistance from their respective social ties. Kasech Engeda. If things got worse. Results of focus group discussions and case studies also revealed that some households got assistance from their kins and were able to cover the household food demand. my children usually cried requesting what I can not provide. Once again he complained with me to sell some of the iron. narrates her family's mutual exchange as follows: My husband quarreled with me to sell some household assets to cover our food demand. are fragile because they don't have significant socialnetworks and assets to compensate for the food deficits. 92 .sheets or some of the chairs that we have. Some households. My father again sent us maize for our consumption Case 9 (2006) The story of Kasech's household implies that social ties are important not only to cover food deficits of the needy households. or any good household assets to sell and recover from the food deficit. on the contrary. He wanted to sell some of these. he brought us some maize for home consumption. 17% SFCA.
93 . 2006). I paid for the treatment of my baby who usually gets sick and the rest I spent on clothing of anther child who attends school. they don't want and usually do not get absent from participation in the Ider in terms of monthly payments or other obligations. It enabled them skipping meal. I bought equipment to prepare local areke. I will pay the Ider contribution. "Kuraz". whose husband left recently to resettlement site. Until then. and I should pay the Ider contribution. Case 9(2006) Most households are so tenacious to the Ider (social gathering mainly for burial ceremony) and even if there are problems to cover household food demand.Social ties within the community or inter-community are not limited in exchange of goods or money between households. I am having coffee at my neighbor’s house. The case of Beletech describes it more clearly. is the one who is currently taking care of her household members describes how she values the Ider as follows Even if I am in problem to feed my children. I participate (save) in females Iqub in our locality. Beletech. A fisherman in one of the focus group discussions mentioned the importance of coffee ceremonies as follows: "As you see. which they use as seed capital for petty trade to cover household food demand. Case 8 (2006) Some social activities like coffee ceremonies have been given important place as some fishermen take it as short time coping strategy. by spinning two Birr cotton and selling it. By any means. Kasech Engeda. Kasech describes how the money she got from her local Iqub helped her household to begin petty trade with the main objective to cover household food deficit. Last time it was my turn and they gave me 200 Birr. I will use the traditional light source i.e. What was left. It is when I decide to leave the area that I will stop participating in the Ider and get clearance. I don't care even to electric light. I will not stop participating in the Ider. rather institutions like Iqub and Ider are important in the household life of the fishermen. I may go to bed by what I am having here at the coffee ceremony’’ (Focus Group 2. Some households still participate in Iqub (local saving association) and receive some amount of money either as credit or as their turn.
Results from various sources in the study area support this view. 1998: 7). As illustrated by Degefa (2003a).a peasant household that sells some of its livestock to buy food crops during seasonal food shortage does a coping strategy. design alternative livelihood options. practiced due to distress reasons as necessity at household level. fishing. cycles.3. plan temporal and permanent group migration to other lakes and resettlement programs.1.3.e. Daves (1993. necessity or survival diversification is a strategy which aims at adapting with adversity (Scoones. 2005:74). Such diversification is. fishermen are undertaking different adaptive strategies to the challenges they have faced associated mainly with the depleted fishery resource base. Survival Diversification According to Ghosh et al (1992) cited in Hussein (1998) income diversification in the context of stress is a survival strategy (Hussein et al 1988: 15). it is on such coffee ceremonies that fishermen in their locality exchange ideas. 7. 94 . and trends (Ellis. Scoones (1998) argues in support of this view that when other options fail to provide livelihood. According to the writer coping strategies are short-term responses of households to unplanned crises where as adaptive strategies are responses to a long-term adverse events. share information.In my study area. 2000: 45). Livelihood Insecurity and Adaptive Strategies Rural households undertake adaptive strategies when faced with stress on their livelihood. Fishermen of Lake Chamo tend to diversify their household income associated with the stress on their resource base and resultant decline of income from the main source i.Moreover. too. 7. 1996) as cited in Ellis (2000) makes a distinction between coping strategies and adaptive strategies. a peasant who leases out or share crops some of his land due to labor shortage or engage in wage labor due to land shortage to get additional income is undertaking adaptive strategy to livelihood system (Degefa. On the other hand.
This time it is his wife who describes the previous and the current living conditions of the household and how she is forced to be engaged in drudgery works to supplement the household income. Case 5 (2006) 95 .3% and 46% of households are engaged in petty trade and wage labor at household level respectively as additional source of income as compared to 12% and 5% households in 2002. The case of Dereje’s household is a good illustration. and 2006 % Of HHs getting some amount of Income Se. Incomes Source In 2002 1 2 3 4 Fishing Farming Petty trade Wage labor 100 14 12 5 In 2006 100 14 56. when I had leisure time I used to prepare local drinks like areke. Our life was better while the fishery resource was good. I was only responsible to raise my children and manage the household with what he brought. However. and collecting and selling of fuel wood. Is it not because of lack of other options that I am coming from daily labor. The petty trading at which households of fishermen are engaged in are selling of home made drinks.4 in 2006. Even our children are adapting the problem. Actually.4: Sources of fishermen household income in 2002. These days we eat when we get. carrying stone? I didn't work such things before. I get only 5 Birr per day working all day leaving my 9-month child at home. and grasses. 56. in 2006 most households are forced to diversify their income other than fishing (see Table 7. No HH. Table 7. low cost food items. Wife of Dereje.4). I don't have money even to prepare this drink.The survey result shows that in 2002 the source of income for urban based fishermen was largely from fishing whereas for rural based fishermen it was fishing and mixed farming. These days. Information from different case studies also supports the survey result.3 46% Source: Own survey result (2006) As illustrated in Table7.
is a household head who currently took the full responsibility of her family as her husband went to resettlement area. She describes how she is forced to engage in survival diversification. one of my case study household members puts her role during the stress on household income and how her household attempted to adapt.I have been retailing Cabage.3. and a first wife of a fisherman. My responsibility was spinning of cotton.As the above case demonstrates. By the money I get from this small business. grown up children are also important and take part. I don't have rest. Case 8(2006) In survival diversification and generation of alternative income. I haven't yet sold wood. Just now I am going to bake. My family is in great problem due to the resource stress. I have diabetes case. migration is the leaving of one or more members of a household from the permanent residence for varying period with the objective of making a new and different contribution to the household welfare (Ellis. We females are now taking the responsibility of the household. Now. While my husband was here he supported me. My family is now living on the labor of children. I feed my family. and pay Ider expenses. However. rather the participation of household members. in the morning market and late afternoon market. Now I am alone to the family. 2000: 70). Focus group3 (2006) 7. pay for electric services. The author has identified four 96 . I borrowed money from someone to buy wheat for making of Ambasha (local bread) for sale. and embroidery at home. Similarly. Distress Migration According to Ellis (2000). Beletech. especially the role of women become so important in generating additional source of income. We live on the income we get from this. The small income I get from this petty trade enabled me to supplement to the household expenditure. Before they go to school they bring grass and fuel wood for selling. during stress condition in household income. What I get from my husband for the household expenditure has been reduced since 2002. Sara Mengesha a wife of Abebe. everday I go to Boshe to collect wood and prepare Ambasha. it is not only the source of income diversified. I don't have any other skill. I haven’t doen such business before. I prepare and sell Ambasha twice a day. but I bring wood from Boshe (mountain) to use as source of fuel to make Ambasha. Since 2003. 30 years old and mother of three.2. A fisherman in one of the focus group discussions put it as follows: I have stayed for 25 years as full time fisherman.
in my study area. He leaves his fishers' co-operative and goes to resettlement sites because he can not feed and educate his children from the income he gets from fishing. The settlement program itself encourages the male household head to go first and prepare condition to other household members. whom the researcher got on his departure to the resettlement area with his colleagues. If it is God's will. erosion of assets. Accordingly. Kaltha Kaara. circular. some fishermen are unable to cope and are forced to undertake distress migration mainly due to 'push' factors like depletion of fishery resource. Kaltha Kaara Focus Group1 (2006) 97 . I don't want my children die in front of me of starvation. I have nothing to give to my children. and I can't educate them. and disasters leading to livelihood collapse as 'push' factors (Ellis. risk.types of migration e. is one of them. considerable number of fishermen went to Mellokoza Woreda within Gamo Gofa Zone as permanent settlers to conduct farming leaving their other family members behind with a plan to take them later on. lack of other employment and income source. Moreover. and he was a breadwinner for his ten family members. seasonal. market failure.g. 2000: 72). permanent. He was a member of AFCA. If you go and see my home. I don't have any other alternative income source. and poor asset base. In the good days I married and bore many beautiful children. while seasonality. landlessness. I am going to resettlement area to hide my self from the problem and try other alternative. Similarly. and international which are undertaken as livelihood adaptive strategy depending on the objective reality. every child is crying. He gave short account as why he chose to undertake distress migration as follows: I am going to resettlement area not because it is my choice rather I am forced. the same writer argues that the income differentials are the major 'pull' factors. weak social networking. I will see my lovely family.
Though the current resettlement program is different from the past regimes as it is based on the willingness of the settlers and it is carried out within a regional state. strong social networks and who have large family size like Kaltha Kaara are vulnerable to distress migration especially to resettlement areas. receiving social network claims.1: Fishermen Moving to Resettlement Area (2006) As the above case demonstrates. in my study area people who do not have other options preferred taking it as an adoptive strategy in the scenarios of livelihood insecurity In the study area fishermen undertook some other livelihood options like income diversification. resource conflict. sale of assets. most scholars put serious criticism against the resettlement program as it is usually accompanied by environmental distraction. However. etc before they decide to migrate to other areas. those who don't have alternative income source. In all these coping strategies if household fails to satisfy its basic 98 . and hostility between the settlers and the host communities.Figure 7. Usually there is a debate on the effectiveness of the large-scale National Resettlement Strategy of the Government.
Now they are wearing second-hand clothes. my husband had made some efforts to diversify his income by selling plastic shoe to local rural markets. Case 9 (2006) The other form of adaptive strategy undertaken by fishermen of Lake Chamo is migration to distant Lakes like Turkana and Zewai leaving their families back at/around Arbaminch. He couldn't be profitable in the business. He didn't have skill other than fishing. Again.8 (2006) The case of Kassech Engida’s household is the same. he became hopeless and registered to go to resettlement area. After these entire attempts. who has ten family members. he had tried to work as an assistant to a mason. this time making of charcoal. A good example is the household case of Beletech. She is by now head of five families. Before he went to resettlement area. Before he went to resettlement area. Beletech Case. He told me that if things are better in the resettlement area. Maize and wheat were used as supplementary. My children wore cloths bought from Boutique/shop/. Then he sent his second wife and her three children to her father's home. Finally. He currently involved in the resettlement program and went to Mellokoza Woreda as permanent settler. expert in Arbaminch Fish Production and Marketing Enterprise and currently the representative of the Enterprise describes the situation as follows: 99 . our living also began to decline.necessities usually decides to migrate to other areas as last resort. Then he engaged in other activity. As the fishery resource got depleted. he couldn't succeed. which he couldn't. Beletech narrates her household condition comparing with the prior living situation of the family and the unsuccessful effort of her husband to engage in other income source before he went to resettlement area. He told me that he couldn't work because the work required high amount of energy. She is one of the two wives of a fisherman named Ayssa Anja. All necessary household food items were bought once for a month. At present we are as you see us. Ato Sayinesu Ayele. Her husband was 'assistant' fisherman on Lake Chamo. he will come and take us. How can I tell you the life we used to live before? It was very good life. he registered to go to resettlement area and went to Mellokoza as a permanent settler. We used to eat teff injera. Kasech explains how lack of skills other than fishing forced her husband to migrate in search of other livelihood option.
100 . We knew that most people who are engaged in daily labor in Arbaminch area were fishermen who abandoned fishing due to resource depletion. We were able to get 20 fishermen and their assistants to work on Lake Turkana. The migrants are male household heads who moved leaving their families back in and around Arbaminch. The discussion in this chapter has shown that though the type and the degree of strategies undertaken by households vary. I hope these fishermen could get better income as the production is good due to the better resource status. From the explanation of the expert. our total fish production and purchase has declined significantly. it is clear that the causes of migration of fishermen in search of other fishing ground is 'push' factor from their permanent residence associated with the stress in fishery resource base.Recently due to the resource depletion from the Lakes around Arbaminich area. Due to this and other reasons we took measures to compensate. The remittance sent monthly or in different periods is the base for the household survival of these migrant fishermen. I know that some fishermen also went to Lake Zewai to work as ''assistant” to those who have already have access right and prior control. Experts from our head office conducted a preliminary stock analysis and other necessary study on Lake Turkana and found that the fishery resource base is promising. Then our organization invited fishermen to conduct fishing and supply to our enterprise from Lake Turkana. most of the fishermen in the study area have taken one or the other form of coping and adoptive strategies as response to food and livelihood insecurity they faced.
Similarly. In this research. In SLAs. and activities and strategies are the most important component of the framework. and also in terms of organization i. mixed approach of both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were employed. 101 . as cited in Ellis (2000). the assets. For achieving the objective. and outcome of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo in holistic way. various scholars like Scoones (1998). Conclusion The study was conducted in and around Arbaminch Town on fishing communities of Lake Chamo.e.1. Conventionally. According to Toner and Frank (2005) environmental sustainability is one of the preconditions of sustainable livelihoods (Toner and Frank.e. Chambers and Conway (1992) agree that for livelihood to be sustainable it should not undermine the natural resource base (Ellis. The fishing communities are found to be varied in terms of their residence place i.CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 8. the context. Swift and Hamilton (2001). However. 2000: 7). food and livelihood insecurity. it is very recently that the SLAs are being employed to uncover the multidimensional aspect of poverty. these components were used in one way or the other in the analysis of the sustainable livelihood of the fishermen.e. which affect ones livelihood. the mediating processes. operating on individual basis. some are urban and others are rural. 2005: 3). Hence. different measures have been used to analyze poverty. However. processes. some are organized under fishers’ co-operative association while others are non-member of cooperative i. the research result revealed that the sustainability of the livelihood of fishing communities of Lake Chamo has been challenged by the stress on the fishery resource base among others. The investigation was undertaken with the main objective of learning the major livelihood challenges of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo. SLAs were applied as a framework for analyzing the livelihood trends. and related issues at household and community level.
Considerable numbers of writers suggest state control and management where as scholars like Demsetz (1967) argue in support of the private ownership as solution (cited in Adhikari. it became too difficult to limit the number of fishermen. natural phenomena such as variability of rainfall and high evapotranspiration have brought adverse effect on the water balance of the lake. Moreover. all of them agree on the need and importance of introducing some form of property right as solution to reduce the tragedy scenario. high unemployment rate and low employment opportunity in and around Arbaminch. As a result. which in turn has negative effect on the resource status. However. As discussed earlier. there are different views and schools of thoughts with regard to the management of CPRs like fisheries resource. There are various views regarding the nexus between poverty and environment in the literature. The weak resource management due to policy and institutional failures has encouraged every body that is interested to engage in the exploitation of the fishery resource. overgrazing. the finding of this study is in line with the proponent of the third group like Adger (2003) who advocates the co-management option as solution to sustainable utilization of the CPRs like fisheries. diversion of small streams. 2001:1). Furthermore. and over exploit the resource even applying inappropriate fishing methods and gears. like population pressure. inappropriate fishing gears and methods in the absence of detailed supportive rules and regulation to the Regional and Federal Fisheries Development and Utilization Proclamation. However.Both primary and secondary sources revealed that the number of fishermen and fishing efforts on Lake Chamo has increased alarmingly overtime as explained by high rate of rural-urban migration. policy and institutional failures 102 . which are among responsible factors for the resource depletion. the finding of this research suggests that there are multiple factors behind the fishery resource degradation other than poverty. upstream deforestation and resultant siltation have all caused adverse effect on the fishery ecology and fishery resource of Lake Chamo. the number of fishing gears. However. it is learnt that man induced environmental degradation generally associated with poor wet-land management: like lake side farming.
The research has revealed that the well being of these community members is relatively worse than the organized ones. except the little attempt of AFCA to engage in diversification of income through hotel service and boat service others like SFCA. 103 . In the study area being a member of fishers cooperative is equated with right to have full access to the resource. and etc claim full resource access right in their respective jurisdiction along the shore. poor financial and research support. It is found that unequal resource access among different co-operative associations. Therefore. protecting the public security and weak voice of the fishermen. and poor saving behavior are among the major constraints reported by most fishermen as disabling factor to accumulate assets and carryout choice diversification at household level. Thus. deprivation of the right to be organized as a cooperative member. among cooperative members and non-member of cooperatives. Though the fishers’ cooperative associations were set up with multiple purposes.and overall environmental degradation in Lake Chamo Basin. The difference in access right has caused a difference in well-being. the finding is inline with the argument of Alemu (2003)which says that complex set of variables come in to the play in the poverty and environment degradation nexus(Alemu. service provision. non-members of cooperative are considered as ‘illegal’. The rural part time fishermen in PAs of Gantta Kanchame. and CFCA have not yet done any effort. Wozeka. This has negative implication to non-member of cooperative both full time urban fishermen and part time rural fishermen. and trying to have camping and fishing site in what is considered as communal resource by members of farmers or pastoralists in the shores adjacent to their respective PAs become the major cause of conflict. attempt to conduct fishing in proposed park boundary. It is found that lack of policy focus to the fishery sub-sector is also reflected in poor provision of technical backup. Shelle Mela. Elgo. Generally. Lack of education and skill training. these are also among the major challenging factors that have adverse effect on the livelihood of the fishermen of Lake Chamo. looting of ones fishing net. unequal resource access right and exclusion.2003:11) The fishing communities of Lake Chamo vary in access to resource.
Alternative employment opportunities for fishermen. most of them are unable to maintain or enhance their assets and capabilities.2. Recommendation Based on the conclusion made and lessons drawn to mitigate the major challenges of the fishing communities and hence achieve sustainable livelihoods the following key remarks are recommended. etc. As a result of these. and other lakes where the fishery resource is relatively abundant. This forced those who don’t have other options to be engaged in ever depleting resource base of Lake Chamo. 104 . Moreover. Of all the survey respondents. As the research revealed. and urban unemployed are found to be very little in and around Arbaminch. Of the households included in survey 39 (46%) have used credit for food consumption and 29(34%) sold or mortgaged some of their household assets like livestock. most fishermen are not in a position to recover from the livelihood stress and shocks. Furthermore.4%) are unable to cover household food demand and they are food insecure despite the attempts made to engage in survival diversification and receive social capital in the form of transfers. The policy and institutional gap of the Federal and Regional Fisheries Development and Utilization Proclamations should be filled by designing and enacting detailed rules and regulation through the full participation of various fishing communities. so to reverse the tragedy all-inclusive action has to be taken: 1. 8. those who are unable to cope by undertaking multiple coping strategies are forced to distressful migration towards resettlement places.4%) have taken coping strategies like dietary change and reducing or rationing food consumption at household level. The research revealed that significant numbers of fishermen (89. 76(89. considerable numbers of fishermen of Lake Chamo have undertaken various coping and adaptive strategies to the challenges they have faced. As the major limiting factor of the fishing communities of Lake Chamo is found to be ever depleting fishery resource base. to cover household food deficit. rural-urban migrants. and even fishing nets. chairs.
Currently there is a need to restock the fishery resource of Lake Chamo through the same species from other lakes or fishery laboratories of the country. 9. Thus. Strengthening the capacity of government and community organizations that would be responsible to put the rules and regulations into effect through training. The government organization. 105 . personnel and financial support. It is found that there is less policy focus and weak integration among different levels of government to the overall development of the fishery sector. 6. monitored. 5. To put the above points in to effect it needs further research. particularly the fishery section should be strengthened by professionals to collect necessary data on production. So far the government alone management of the common pool fishery resource is seen to be ineffective and thus co-management of both government and fishing communities seem to be more important. at regional and local level its importance is very high in terms of supporting the livelihood of a considerable number of people. there is a need for comprehensive well cascaded macro. public security. closed area. and workshops to prepare wooden boats along the shore. and interpreted continuously for sustainable resource utilization. 3. gear restriction. etc) for the particular Lake should be identified and defined through the participation of the fishing communities. each party should be given a clearly defined right and responsibility in the management and utilization of the resource. Thus. water service. Creation of public awareness and sensitization of the rules. the voice of the fishermen should be heard and they should participate in matters that affect their livelihood. fish gutting shops. meso. and even generating revenue to local government. and on the number and variety of active fishing efforts on the Lake which should be registered. catch quota. 7. closed season. and other infrastructures like road development towards the landing sites. Though the contribution of the sub-sector is low to national GDP. 8. preparation of landing sites. as supplying cheap source of protein to local and national food demand. the importance of wet land management and conservation of Bio-diversity for sustainable livelihood. appropriate fishery management tools (like mesh size regulation. and micro level fisheries development strategy for promotion of sustainable fisher livelihood. the proclamation. Lack of voice of the fishermen in the study area exacerbated the poor well-being of the fishermen. stock condition. licensing. regulations.2. The fishermen in their remote working place should be provided with necessary social services like primary health care. 4. In this regard.
and protecting soil erosion by applying different soil erosion protection measures. Creation of employment opportunities in Arbaminch and Woreda towns for urban unemployed and rural urban migrants to reduce the potential pressure to the fishery resource. or NGOs should create favorable condition for diversifying their income sources through designing projects to enable them engage in other related business like poultry development. especially to fishers co-operative members the pertinent government bodies. 14. So. over grazing and human settlement. program. processed fish meal and other meal marketing. 15. 13. The local government bodies should promote credit and saving within fishers co-operative and outside co-operative association through the PAs or Urban Kebeles so as to enable some fishermen to have the culture of saving. and the fishermen in the overall development endeavor of the country through policy focus. Fishermen have needs and rights outside the fishing sub-sector. the fishery resource.10. the fishing communities in the study area face specific challenges in addition to those faced by other communities like farmers and at present this is not widely recognized in either national or local planning. there is also a need to practice integrated upstream wetland management to reduce the siltation through reducing deforestation. Moreover. Regional and Local governments to incorporate the fishery sub-sector. etc. it calls urgent application of integrated wet-land management thereby protecting the Lake side from farming. projects. and planning for sustainable fishermen livelihood. lake side tourism. As the wetland management of Lake Chamo Basin is poor and has adverse effect on the fishery resource. Generally. bee hives. 11. 12. At community level. Thus. the local and regional government bodies should plan to integrate the sub-sector with other sectors and invest on issues of diversification and create alternative livelihood options to fishermen and to other unemployed who would be potential fishermen. 106 . it is time to take action by the Federal. At household level the necessary education and training should be given to fishermen to enable his households to diversify and engage in other related activities.
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Questionnaire For household Survey of the Lake Chamo Fishing Communities Part One, 1. Personal, Family and occupation information of the Fisherman
Relation to head
Education level for age above 7 years
Main occupation ____________ 1 2 3
1 2 3 4 5 code
1.Gamo 2.Gofa 3.Zeyse 4.Derashe 5.Amara 6.Konso 7.Basketo 8.Others
1.Orthodox 2.Protestant 3.Islam 4.Cultural 5. Others
1.wife 2.son/doughter 3.Father 4.mother 5.sister 6.brother 7.relative
1.unmarried 2.married 3.divorced 4.widowed 5.divorced 6.polygamy
1.illitrate 2.litrate 3.primary (1-8 th . grade) 4secondary(9-12 th..grade) 5.above secondary
private 2.No Present value Economic life 4. Time spent on fishing and Experience of fishing for fishing operators both mobile and stationary N o. Ownership of other Assets No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Item House Land for housing Land for farming Farm tools Cow Ox Sheep Goat poultry Bee hive 1. Fishing ground Name Usual fishing ground /shore Distance from shore km Hrs Distance from Home km Hrs Time spent in fishing Hrs/day Day/month Month/year Experience in fishing years 1 2 Part Two 3.2. Household Assets No.2 .Yes.Fishing Assets/ Physical Capital/ No 1 2 3 4 5 Type Boat local /Soke/ Boat modern Gillnet Hook Others specify Ownership 1. Privately own 2.V. Fishing ground.Rented 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type of household asset Pipe water supply Electric service Radio Tape recorder T.rental 4.No 113 .communal 3. Telephone service Sofa chair Refrigerator Other specify 1.
Private 2. Food Clothing Drinking and leisure Education and Health of family members Social obligations Idir.non.malnutrition 3. Fishers Cooperative Association 3. Rental 14. Other sources of Income.In Non-fishing activities ___________ 12.1. Corrugated iron sheet 2. Monthly saving Birr _________ 12. What are the Major health problems of the fishing communities? 1. Pension per month 3. Percent expenditure 11. No 9.Part Three 6: Monthly income of household by occupation in 2002 and 2006 / Financial Capital/ No. Household Saving 12. Housing condition? 1.______ 2_________ 114 .2. Yes 2. 7 yes. / Financial Capital/ 1.Informal borrowing from non-relatives 5.3 Yearly saving Birr__________ 13. Household Investment 11.if other specify__________________________ 15. The house in which you are living is? 1. Household Expenditure and Saving 10. 1 2 3 4.2. If response to question No. Hollow Block 4. From NGOs 2.Relative’s 4. Credit and Saving Units 2. Income source of HHs Fishing Farming Petty trade Wage labor 2002 2006 7. What are the major health problems of the HH.Grass thatched 3. In fishing ________11. what is your major source of financial credit? 1.Community Association Part Four 10.IV/AIDS 4. Malaria 2.1. Your family’s 3.1. Informal borrowing from relatives 4.typhoid/typhus 16. Whether the respondent borrows money. 1. Household Expenditure of Incomes No 1 2 3 4 5 Item Domestic consumption goods. Remittance per month 8. Weekly saving Birr __________ 12.H.(multiple responses are possible) 1.
of years staying in this area Residence Reason for in migration (1) Income per month 1. No Service 3. _____________2____________ Part Five 18.government 2.No Do you want to out migrate Why? (2) Place of previous residence And Employment Employment 1.17. Decreased 3.Private 3self employed Occupation HH Code Reasons: 1. Some indicators of fish resource depletion.Increased 5.Very good 19.No change 4.Much Increased 115 . From your experience over time No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Indicators of fishery resource depletion Change of fish weigh and height Mesh size of nets used for fishing CPUE. No No. Public utilities /social services around the lake No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type Security Landing sites Transporting of fish products Fish processing place Boat making workshops Net making work shops Water supply Basic health Others specify 1. Migration in and out of the HH head. KG /Net/ Day Fish stock Thickness of thread used for net making Number of fishing nets Number of fishermen Availability of fish meat to local market Water volume of the lake Chang of Soke Tree 1 Very much decreased 2.Satisfactory 2 Poor 4.Yes 2.
If yes. what is the name of your Co-operative Association? 1. 1. What is the importance of being a member of fishers co-operative? _______________ 30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 HH participation in local social services Ider Iqub Marriage ceremonies Church/Mosque/ services Coffee ceremonies Others specify 1Yes 2.23 is no.No 33. Whether the HH Participate in local social services? No. Lack of awareness of the importance of being organized 2. 32 is no. Sego Fishers Co-operative Association 4. Chamo Fishers Co-operative Association 3. If your response to question no.operative Member) 25.32 is yes. What advantages have you ever get by being member to the fishing cooperate?____________ 31. give possible reasons? 1.32 up to 35 is only to non-member of Fishers Co-operative) 32.25 up to31 is to Co.Lack of organizing body 3. give possible reasons. Arbaminch Fishers Co-operative Association 2. Whether the fishing activity and the fishermen respected by local people. Whether the fisherman has ever attempted to join a co-operative or setup new? Yes 2.No 24.20. How the fisherman became a member to fishers co-operative? _________________ 29. If other specifay _________________________ 27. What have you missed for not being a member of a cooperative?______________ 116 . If your answer is yes to most of the items in question No. how do they contribute to your life?________________ 22. Yes 2. If your response to question No.No 26.____________ (Question no. When did you become a member the Co-operative?_______________________ 28. what are your reasons? 1____________2___________ 23.No 21. If your replay is No to question 21. 20. Yes 2. If response to question No. ______________________________________ 34.What are some of the major shortcomings of your co-operative that according to your opinion needs improvement?_______ (Question No. why it is not possible? 35. Are you a member of a fisherman co-operative? 1. If other specify.
If your answer is No. If your answer to question no. how do you get access to the fishery resource? _________________ 39. Diversifying income sources 2.Environmentally concerned people 5. and 3 above 40.organized which conduct fishing full time 3. Yes 2. Depleting 3. 4.management between the state and the fishing communities 3.Yes 2. No change 42. which you have observed of resource depletion?_____________ 47.______ 46. The government 3. The fishing community 2. Management and control by fishing communities alone. State control and management 2.Other specify. How is the trend of your catch per unit effort over time? 1. ________________ 117 . how due you express these effects?__________ 50. 2. Whether the HH is resilient to resource depletion? 1 .Part Six (Access to Natural capital) 36. Whether the resource depletion has caused negative effect on HH income and livelihoods? 1. Do you have problems to access the fishery resource? 1. What are the signs.Others specify__________________ 52.Reducing consumption 3.41. what could be the probable reasons? 1. If your response is depleting. If your response to question No. What do you suggest as solution? 1. All organized and non. No 48. what the problems not to access the resource? _________ 38.______2. what are the probable reasons?1____2___ 43.Al 56 . what are the reasons? _______________ 53.5o is no.50 is yes.Trying to fish long hours than before 4. What do you think to be the solution to ameliorate the problem? ______________ 54. Decreased 3. Seasonal and Part time Fisherman only 4. Since when did this happen? Year______________ 49. If your replay is No.2 for question no. Who is the most responsible for the resource depletion? ____________________ 55. How is the stock of fish resource trend? 1. 1. Yes 2. If your answer is yes to question No. What are the major problems with regard to access the fishery resource? 1____2____ 41. The people at large 4. Improving 2. 47.What are its shortcomings /weakness /of the existing fishery resource management over Lake Chamo? __________ 57.36.No 51. No 37. how your HH become resilient? 1. According to your view who should have access to the fishery resource of Lake Chamo? 1. If your replay is yes to question no. Co. Increased 2.______ 45. No much change 44. So. What could be the possible reasons? 1__________2. Control and Management by fisher's cooperatives 5. All 1. Cooperative member only 2. Who should take the initiative for proper resource utilization? (Multiple responses is possible) 1.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of Fish targeted Nile perch Tilapia Labeo Barbus Cat fish Bagrus Other. By car. Fixed price 69. How is the fish catch transported from landing site? 1. To which Institution or marketing body do you supply your catch usually? 1. Private consumers 6. What is your reason for targeting selective spices of fish? _______________________ 61. Fish Production and Marketing Enterprise 5. by Human labour 2. 3. at landing site 2. How do you perform the fishing activity? 1. 66. 69. What is the gill net size or mesh size you are now using? 1. Species of fish usually targeted No. Restaurants 68. For others specify. Fishers Cooperative Association 3.No 60. for Labeo___________________4. for Nile perch________________2 for Tilapia __________________ 3. what would be the probable reasons/____________ 118 . Private merchants 2. Where do you sale your fish catch? 1. Do you think that you get fair price for the fish products you supply? 1. Free market 2.______ hours travel distance. No 70. If your response is no to question no. How long is the fish market from landing site? In Km ___________or.Other specify 65. Market 3. Others specify______________ 67. Which of the following fishery management tools do you prefer to sustainable resource use and to your sustainable livelihood? No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fishery management tools Allocation of Catch Quota Area and season closure Mash size regulation Gear restriction Limit on the number of boats and gears Taxes based on effort or catch Licensing Leasing to an individual /a cooperative Giving to Community alone Control of Traders 1Yes 2.58.No 59. Why you usually target that species?__________________ 63. Yes 2. spacifay 1.Suppling to Hotels 4. Brokers 4.Yes 2.____________ 62. In crew 64. How is the fish marketing system? 1. Alone 2.
If your response is no to question no. Breakfast_______________ 2.Worsening 3. If things continue in this way. No 84. what is your hope of life in the future? 1. 82. No 74. If your response to question no. How do you compare the extension system given to farmers and fishermen by the woreda agricultural and rural development office? ________________ 83. If your response to question number 83 is No. Improving 2.No 76. How do you express your living situation over time in general terms? 1. Mortgaging and sale of assets 77. Diversification 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Coping and adaptive strategies Short time dietary change Reducing or rationing consumption Use of credit for consumption Mortgaging or sale of household assets Searching for other income sources Sale of durable assets Distressful migration Expecting support from relatives /friends 1. Yes 2.77 is worsening. Once 2. what things need to be improved?__________ 79. Is the government a friend of the fishermen? 1.threetimes 4. What are the Major problems construing of your HH livelihoods? 1______2______3______ Part Eight (POLCY) 80. when or in which months of the year is your income from fishing decreases seriously? 75. No much change 119 . Number of meals taken by majority of the HHs per day? 1. Yes 2. It will be worsening 3. Is your household income sufficient to feed the household members? 1.__________________ 2_____________________ 85. Coping strategies of the HH during food insecurity? No. What things need to be done to improve your livelihood by pertinent government bodies your? 81. Yes 2.73.Yes 2.lunch _____________ 3. Type of meal usually eaten at your household level? 1. Seasonal migration. what are your possible reasons? Reasons: 1.twowice 3.four times 72. It will be the same as today 78. Have you ever got training or assistance from the government rural development department? 1.Part Seven (Food security situation) 71. 3. Long term adaptation strategies of the HH? 1.Dinere________________ 73. It will improve 2.
No 87. If your response to question No. If your answer to question No 93 is No. Yes 2. 93 is yes. If your response to question number 91 is No.Part Nine (Resource conflict) 86. If your response is yes to question No. among whom do conflicts arise? 1. 86.97 is No. Yes 2. Among co-operative members and non member to cooperatives 5. Yes 2. If your response to question No. What are the usual causes of conflict? _______________ 89. what are some of your demands or questions? 95. No 94. is it because your needs are fulfilled? 1. Which of your questions are not yet given sufficient response? 97. what are the issues which are not taken in to account? 93.No 98. Informal Institutions within the fishing communities 91. Among fishing individuals 2. Between fishermen and local peasants/pastoralists 6. what are the reasons? 120 . Do conflicts arise among the fishing communities? 1. Have you ever claimed your rights to be considered by the government bodies? 1. How such conflicts are usually solved? 90. No 92. Which of these demands were given due response by the pertinent government bodies? 96. Does conflict resolution take to account the needs and rights of every party? 1. Which institutions play the major role in solving such conflicts? 1. Yes 2. Formal governmental Institutions 2. Others specify __________ 88.
Rural development policies & members to fishers cooperative. of members • Male. General Profile of the Cooperative • Year of establishment • No. How is the response of the respective government bodies? 7. What are the major challenges of the Cooperative and its members? 5. In what kind of other activities do they participate? 10. Female • Work division of members • Office workers • Marketing personnel • Fishermen 2.Annex II Interview Guide for Officials of Arbaminch &Chamo Fishers’ Cooperative Association Name___________________ Age____________________ Qualification________________ Position_____________________ 1. What are the major problems you observe in the fishery resource management? Fish stock condition Causes for depletion Who is responsible? How can the problem be mitigated? Who do you think should have right to access the resource? Which group is the most affected? 11. What are the questions often rose by the cooperative to be fulfilled by government bodies? 6. Do the members of the Cooperative try to diversify their source of income? 9. How do you evaluate the income of your cooperative members over time? 8. the material support given? • The woreda Cooperative Bureau in assisting the cooperative? • How do you perceive the rural development polices in improving the livelihood of the fishing Cooperative members? 121 . Are there new membership request? How do such issues addressed? 4. How do you see the technical support. Resource conflict • Conflicting Bodies • Causes of conflict • Usual Conflict resolution ways • Suggest ways to resolve conflicts in the future 12. Membership criteria of the cooperative 3.
How such conflicts do usually resolve? 10. Does the regional government promulgated its respective fisheries development and management plan? 5. Are there defined criteria? 10. How many such requests come monthly? Yearly? 7. Who usually takes the initiative in organizing a certain group of people in to cooperative? 3. Are there rules and regulation of fishery management on Lake Chamo? 4. Fishers) 3. Interview Guide for Experts and Respective Local Government Bodies in Woreda /Zonal/ Agricultural and Rural Development Department Name. Who are the most affected due to the absence of proclamation and respective institutions? (Organized. and Experience 1. Do the existing rules and regulations allows a new comer to be member of an existing cooperative? 4. What were the efforts being done by the local government and pertinent departments with regard to the fishery resource management? 6. Qualification. What are the effects of not having fisheries development and management proclamation and respective Institutions at regional level? 7. Do requests come to your office from non-member of cooperative fishermen either to be organized as a new fisher’s cooperative or to be member of in the existing Cooperative Association? 6. Pastoralists. Did you observe conflicts of resource among the Non-members to co-operative & organized fishermen? 9.Interview Guide for Experts and Respective Local Government Body in woreda Cooperative Desk Name __________________________ Age____________________________ Qualification______________________ Position_______________________________ 1. Give your comments on the livelihood situation of the organized and un organized fishermen. Who have ever taken this permission? 122 . How many of these get responses? 8. Position. What are your Organization’s main responsibilities? 2. What are the major responsibilities of your department? 2. Age. Unorganized/ Non member to cooperative/ Part time fisherman. What is the importance of being organized as a fishers Cooperative? 5. Who are your direct beneficiaries or stakeholders to whom the department is setup? (Farmers. What are the weaknesses you have observed in the existing cooperative association? 11. Do your organizations give some sort of fishing license or permission? 9. the consumers) 8.
If not what are the major reasons? 14. What are the claims usually rose from the fishing communities? 21. Household health situation and the common health problems. Which fishermen are your priorities to take services if any? 19. Place of Birth. Experience in fishing. Saving condition of the family Household assets condition Condition of house Land holding size if any and type of crops grown Part Three -Social capital • Participation in social gathering and social expenditure • How do you value social gatherings and social networks for household livelihood • The social value of fishing and fishermen in society • Public services around the Lake 123 . how he began fishing. What do you suggest to alleviate the problem? 15. clothing. Are there resource conflicts among the major resource users? 16. How often do you give such services? 20. How do you control and manage the fish resource exploitation? What are your management tools? 12. Demographic profile for household heads and household members • Name. How do you compare the living situation of the non-member fishermen and that Organized? Checklist for Case Study Fishermen Part One I. Contribution of fishing to household income of the family. marriage condition • Educational background of the household head and his family members • Labour mobility pattern Part Two • • • • • History of the family head. Does your organization give technical and material back up to the fishermen? 18. purpose of fishing and time spent in fishing. Do you think that the resource management is effective and efficient? 13. age . Overview of household Expenditure Domestic consumption • • • • • Food. schooling and health services .family size . How the resource conflicts usually resolved? 17. Other livelihood strategies carried by the head of the household and its members Species of fish usually targeted.11.
Part Four .Financial Capital • • Source of credit Saving condition Part Five What are the major challenges to the household? • • • • Access to fishery Need to be organized as fishermen co-operative Fishing assets Market Part SixHow is the household food security /livelihood trend • Improving • Getting worse • No change What are the signs /expressions/ of improving or getting worse or no change? What are the reasons? Part Seven-Rural Development policies and the fishermen • • • • Perceptions towards the rural development policies and institutions. Are they supportive to the fishermen Perception on the dependability of fishing as source of income to the household? What are coping mechanisms and adoptive strategies of the household? 124 .
• Do they send they children to school? • Do their families usually get health treatment when face health problems? • What are the major health problems of the family members? 3. Household Income • Fishing • Non. What are the household coping and adaptive strategies? 13. Fishing assets status 6.Check List for Focus Group Discussion 1. Demographic profile of the focus group • Name • Age • Household size of each member of the focus group 2. Response of the government 15. Perception to rural development policies and institutions 125 . Household expenditure 9. church ceremonies • How do they value them? • The importance of these to their life • Usual source of credit 4. Food and livelihood security/ insecurity situation 10. equb. General educational and health status of the household members of the group. Resource conflicts and claims 14. Major challenges of the focus group o Access to fishery resource o Fishing asset o Credit o Market o Resource depletion o Weak government support 12. Fishing • Full time. Social gathering • Participation in Inder. part time or seasonal fishermen • Purpose and time spent in fishing • Contribution of fishing to livelihood of the household • Other livelihood strategies 5. Non.fishing • Improving /getting worse/No much change 8.fishing assets status • Land holding • House • Durable household goods • Livestock 7.
Major flora and Fauna Current status of the Park 2. Resource management plan of the park. Boundary. • • Is it participatory? Does it take in to account the resource dependence of the fishing communities? 6. Comment on the sustainable livelihood of the fishing communities 126 . Policy and institutional problems to protect the park boundary that is demarcated as park boundary 7. Conflict of resource o Major conflicting bodies o Cause o History of conflict o Magnitude of conflict o Ways of resolving conflicts o Future plans to resolve conflict 5. General profile of the Park • • It’s Area.Checklist for discussion with Nech Sar National Parks Representative Name _______________________________ Age_________________________________ Qualification__________________________ Position______________________________ 1. Part and Area of the lake demarcated as part of the park 3. Relation of the Park Administration with • • the local government organs local communities 4.
Sc. in fishery science Position and place of work Expert in Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Department of Arbaminch Zuria Woreda Head of the Co-operative and Input Disk of Arbaminch Zuria Woreda Expert in small.Sc.Annex III General Profile of Key Informants No 1 Name Abera Kassa Qualification M.Sc. (socio economist) 12 grade complete B. in Marine Biology MSC in fisheries B. Ecologist and systematic zoologist Diploma 7 8 9 Mesfin Teklay Samuel Sata Saynesu Ayele M. in Animal Science 10 11 Sofoniyase Desta Terefe Guche Diploma Diploma 127 . Head of Nech Sar National Park Head of the Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Department in Arbaminch Zuria Woreda of ARDD Community coordinator of African Parks Head of the Board of trust of the AFCA Head of the technical section of the Arbaminch Branch of the Fishery Production and Marketing Enterprise and Representative of the Enterprise Representative of the Arbaminch Town Transitional Administration Expert in Livestock and Fisheries Resource Development Department in Arbaminch Zuria Woreda ARDD.Sc.Sc. 2 3 Alemayehu Gezahegn Asmelash Siyum Diploma Diploma 4 5 6 Bimerew Tadesse Girma Timer Kanko Katama B.scall Business Promotion Department of Arbaminch Town Transitional Administration Head of the Agricultural Desk within the ARDD of the Gamo Gofa Zone.
Annex IV General Profile of Case Households Case No Number of Household head Sex Age Kebele Ethnicity Family size Educational level Me member ship to Fishers cooperative Member (AFCA) (AFCA) was member and currently leaving Nonmember Nonmember Nonmember Member (CFCA) Member (AFCA) Major occupation Place of Birth 1 2 Addisu Asha Sharafo Shanka M M 60 43 01 08 Gofa Gofa 8 6 Read and write Read and write 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gebere Gaga Tadesse Assefa Dereje Dana Firew Taye Dessalegn Wolka Beletech Lo’a Kassech Engida Abyot M M M M M F 38 25 35 28 57 30 01 10 04 08 12 08 Gamo Oromo Gamo 6 3 7 6 2 10 5th grade 8th grade 11th grade 8th grade 4th grade Read and write 7th grade 4th grade Full time fishermen Was full time fisherman now shifting to farming Full time fisherman " " " " House wife of a fisherman " Full time fisherman Mellokoza Mellokoza Bonke Geresse Kemba Bonke Geresse Arbaminch town Bonke Geresse Shelle Amara Gamo Wolayta Gofa 9 10 F M 26 30 09 01 6 4 Nonmember Gofa Bonke Geresse Gamo 128 .
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