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Information Gap between Santals and Non-Santals Students: Reflection on Personality Dimensions and Academic Achievement
Kanchan Kamila Senior Librarian Kulti College Kulti Subal Ch. Biswas Professor, Dept. of Library & Information Science, Banaras Hindu University
Abstract: Depicts the causes of information gap between Santal and non-Santal students, shows the comparison and relationship of personality dimensions and academic achievements and suggests some solutions to bridge the gap. 1 Information Gap: The Reality It is a long–standing tradition to characterize Santals (belong to Proto–austroloid group) as ‘primitive, undeveloped, underdeveloped, developing, poor and with a rather obscure past’. At the core of this tradition is, undoubtedly, the view that Santal community has never possessed, nor do it now possess, any knowledge, information, ideas or culture of vale that could be transferred to copied by other communities. There is undoubtedly a gap in terms of knowledge and information between the developed communities and Satal community, even if some of the explanations of its origins may be questionable. Many distinguished scholars and intellectuals have attempted to elaborate theories explaining the origin of both the myth and the reality of this sensitive issue. The explanation lies on racial differentiation based on the colour of the skin. Still others stress economic factors, geography, or the lack of innovative ideas; and there are those who even ascribe the origin of this gap to God’s creation or the biological evolution of man. As far as Satal community is concerned, the concept of the knowledge gap is indeed a myth. It is a myth in the sense that the production and transmission of information and knowledge from generation to generation a part of the Santal way of life from time immemorial. The unfortunate thing was that this knowledge and information was never organized in some permanent record and was, in consequence, scattered all over the community. British and Indian authors (some among the Santals) have the major contribution on publishing the origin, characteristics, culture, and education etc. of Santal community. Recorded version of knowledge and information of Santal community is only two and half century old. The difficulty of capturing, repackaging and organizing the information to facilitate its accessibility and retrieval has contributed to the perpetuation of the myth. Santal was and still is a thinker, a creator and disseminator of knowledge but is unfortunately, not such a good preserver of knowledge. Knowledge gap between the Santal community and non–Santal communities is widening every year, is indeed true. In short, the Santal was considered a savage
2 whose mind was stagnant and greatly undeveloped. Christian missionaries, Central and State Government help in changing the methods of generating, preserving, communicating and transferring information and knowledge. Developed communities have now managed to convince most information professionals in the Santal community that they (Santals) cannot do without their dependency on information and knowledge generated in the developed communities. 2 Hypotheses The main objective of this study was to make a comparative study of some personality dimensions and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal undergraduate students of Jhargram sub-division of West Midnapore district. Besides an effort was also made to find out the relationship, if any, between the personality dimensions and academic achievement. Therefore, the following two general hypotheses were framed: • a) Santals (experimental group) and non-Santal (control group) would differ significantly with regard to their personality dimensions and academic achievement. • b) There would be significant relationship between personality dimensions and academic achievement (Mean of the aggregate marks obtained in two consecutive examinations) of Santal and non-Santal students. More specifically the following hypotheses were framed for verification: • 1) There would be a significant difference in the mean intelligence scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 2) There would be a significant difference in the mean anxiety scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 3) There would be a significant difference in the mean extraversion scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 4) There would be a significant difference in the mean achievement motivation scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 5) There would be a significant difference in the mean self concepts scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 6) There would be a significant difference in the mean academic achievement scores of the Santal and non-Santal students • 7) There would be a significant relationship between intelligence and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 8) There would be a significant relationship between anxiety and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 9) There would be a significant relationship between extraversion and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 10) There would be a significant relationship between achievement motivation and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students. • 11) There would be a significant relationship between self-concepts and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students.
3 3 Method of Study 3.1 Sample The investigation concentrated on the Silda Chandrasekhar Mahavidyalaya, Silda; Kapgari Vidyasagar College, Kapgari; Subarnarekha Mahavidyalaya, Gopibalavpur; Jhargram Raj College, Jhargram; and Vivekananda Satabarshiki Mahavidyalaya, Manikpara of Jhargram sub-division of West Midnapore district, West Bengal. Jhargram subdivision is the highest populated Santals region of West Midnapore district. Santal and non-Santal students were both selected from the above five colleges of Jhargram sub-division. Customs, superstitions, norms, rituals and behavioural pattern of the Santals are traceable in this region. Hence, Jhargram sub-division was made the venue of the present study. The college students are supposed to be the enlightened generation the up and coming elite of their community and hence are considered to be the worthy representatives of the mores, beliefs, values and different other behavioural patterns of their community. 50 Santal and 50 non-Santal (taking 10 Santal and 10 non-Santal students from each college) undergraduate students were sampled out employing the ‘technique of randomization’ from the above five colleges of Jhargram sub-division as per the criterion fixed for the present study. The age of the students ranged from 18 to 22 years. They were all males and their family income ranged in between Rs. 1500/- and Rs. 3000/- per month. Education and occupational status of their parents are incomparable but the present society has been enlightened the Santal students and they are now gradually improved them. Though education and occupational status of parents are the bearing on any one’s personality and academic achievement but various developmental programmes of Central and State Government were minimised the gap between the Santals and non-Santals and established the Santals in a respectable position. The newly born Jharkhand state will play as a catalytic agent in the near future. 3.2 Tests Used The selection of scales was based on some scientific and practical considerations. Besides being reliable and valid, they had to be such that could be conveniently administered and scored. The battery of psychological tests, selected for use in this study, consisted of the following: • 1) Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale (WAIS); • 2) Sinha W.A. Self Analysis Form (anxiety Scale); • 3) Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI); • 4) Batia’s Achievement Motivation Test; • 5) Self-Concept Inventory; and • 6) Criterion of Academic Achievement. All these were standardized psychological tests which had been frequently used in psychological researches. Besides these, a Personal Data Sheet was prepared to obtain information regarding sex, age, education, economic status
4 etc. of the subjects (i.e., students). Brief descriptions of the tests used in this study are given below: 3.2.1 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Intelligence of the subjects was measured with the help of Picture Completion (PC), Picture Arrangement (PA), and Object Assembly (OA) subscales taken from an Indian Adaptation (Ramalingaswamy, 1974) of the WAIS (Performance Scale). The reliability coefficients of the total test and various subtests incorporated in the Indian adaptation were good and closer to those obtained by Wechsler (1944). 3.2.2 Sinha W.A. Self Analysis Form Sinha (1968) W.A. Self-Analysis Form (Anxiety Scale) was designed to measure anxiety level in the subjects. The Test consisted of 100 statements in Bengali dealing with different areas of anxiety. Against each statement ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ were printed. The subject was to encircle either of them to indicate his response. Each item which was checked as ‘yes’ was awarded the score of one. The score of every individual would be the total number of items checked positively. Thus the total scores which one individual could obtain range 0 and 100. Higher score was indicative of greater amount of anxiety in the subjects (i.e., students) and vice-versa. 3.2.3 Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Extraversion was measured with the help of a Bengali version of Eysenck (1964) Personality Inventory (EPI) Form A consisting of 57 items. Of these, 24 questions are related each to the Extraversion – Introversion (E) and Neuroticism-Stability (N) dimensions and the rest of the nine questions form the Lie-Scale (L). The subjects’ proneness to “desirability response set” is identified through L-Scale. Each question in the inventory has a forced-choice response alternative of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The subject’s task was to encircle either of them to indicate his response. For every positive item related to either E, N, or L dimensions, a ‘Yes’ response was given a score of 1 and similarly for a negative item the ‘No’ response was scored as 1. Responses given otherwise were scored zero. High scores on either E or N scale showed greater extraversion and neuroticism respectively in the subjects. Similarly, high scores on the L-scale indicated that the “faked good” is likely to have occurred. A score of 4 or 5 on the L-scale has been considered to be the cutting point where the Inventory answers ceased to be acceptable. 3.2.4 Bhatia’s Achievement Motivation Test Bhatia’s (1974) Achievement Motivation Test was used to measure achievement motivation of the subjects. The test considered of 32 items with forced choice response alternatives of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The subject’s task was to encircle either of them to indicate his response. Each item checked ‘Yes’ was given a score of 1 and ‘No’ response was scored as zero. Thus total scores which one individual could obtain ranged between 0 to 32. Higher scores on the scale were indicative
5 of higher levels of achievement tendency in the subjects. Bhatia (1974) has presented a better 5 category classification to distinguish the subjects on the basis of the obtained scores on the scale. In Table 1 the classification of the subjects on the basis of their obtained scores has been presented. Table 1 Achievement Classification Categories A B C D E 3.2.5 Self-Concept Inventory Self- Concept Inventory developed by Singh (1971) was administered to measure “private” and “social” self concepts of the subjects. The 15 items inventory consisted of 5 desirable personality traits, 5 undesirable personality traits and 5 social traits. The inventory consisted of two separate forms-one form measured “private self-concept” i.e., the most accurate estimate of the subject as he himself believed it to be, the other form measured the ‘social self concepts’ i.e., the most accurate estimate of the subject as he himself believed other people in the group estimated him. 4 Criterion of Academic Achievement In the present investigation the examination marks were used as indicative of academic achievement. However, the essay type of examination which is in practice in this country has been bitterly criticised. It is true that this type of examination suffers from many limitations and is thus less reliable than the objective test. Yet in many cases it has been found to be quite reliable. Mohsin (1960) reported evidence in support of satisfactory reliability of examination marks. Singh (1976) has also suggested that examination arks may easily be captioned as a reliable measure of academic achievement. Similar is the view stated by Narang (1981). Hence, academic achievement of the subjects, in the present study, was measured with the help of the mean of two aggregate marks (% of the marks) called the achievement score obtained by them in two consecutive examinations, at least one conducted by the Board or University authority. 5 Procedures The students at the very outset were requested to participate sincerely and honestly in the investigation that was expected to reveal a lot of important facts Description Very High High Average Low Very Low Score Range 30 and above 24 to 29 17 to 23 11 to 16 Below 10
6 concerning their personality and academic achievement. An effort was made to impress upon them that co-operation and honesty on their part were essential to make the investigation really worthwhile. Furthermore, it was emphasised that there were no good or bad answers. The answers given by them would be held in strict confidence. Thus, a good rapport was established with the subjects before the administration of the tests started. The testing programme consisted of 5 sessions for each subject. Only one test was administered in each session. Results and Discussion The present study was mainly undertaken to make a comparative study of some personality dimensions and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal undergraduate students studying in the above colleges of Jhargram sub-division of West Midnapore district, West Bengal. It was also planned to examine the relationship, if any, between the personality dimensions and academic achievement of both groups. To meet the two objectives,’t’ test and Pearson’s ‘r’ were computed respectively. The dimensions selected for study were intelligence, anxiety, extraversion, achievement motivation, self concepts and academic achievement. Thus, in all, there were 6 sets of scores for each individual as given below: • 1. Intelligence score; • 2. Anxiety score; • 3. Extraversion score; • 4. Achievement score; • 5. Self-Concepts score; and • 6. Academic Achievement score. The results obtained and discussions are given below: 6.1 Intelligence: Santals and Non-Santals It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the mean intelligence scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. The distribution of the mean intelligence scores in both the groups is presented in Table 2. Table 2 Comparison of Intelligence Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students Group N Mean SD t p-value (df=98) Santal 50 90.99 10.46 9.17 <.01 Non-Santal 50 99.21 10.29 df = degree of freedom; t = students t test; p-value = sample proportion value; mean = sample mean; n = total number of observation (i.e., sample population).
7 The results embodied in Table 2 indicate that the Santal students fairly possess lower level of intelligence as compared to their non-Santal counterpart. The present finding les strong support to the previous findings (Chatterji, 1975; Singh, 1976-77; Singh & Sinha, 1983) which have clearly delineated that Santals (tribals) are inferior to the non- Santals (non-tribals) in their intelligence. Low intelligence and academic achievement of children have been shown to be related with poor qualities of childcare, neighbourhood moral and schooling (Wiseman, 1964). In addition Radin (1972) has shown that parental warmth and parent-child interaction influence mental abilities including intelligence. The paucity and impoverishment of mother-child interaction may be responsible for low academic and intellectual performance of socially disadvantaged children has also been emphasized by Hess and Shipman (1965). Prakash & Prakash (1976-77) have rightly observed that the tribals are still living in the old fashioned impoverished surroundings and distinctly poor learning conditions. Similar leaving and learning conditions are also true to the Santal community. Regardless of greater socio-economic and technological changes, Santals still retain the essential core of their social and cultural traditions (Kochar, 1964; Mukherjee, 1960; Singh & Sinha, 1982). Even after the impact of Hinduism, Christianity and other Philanthropist missionaries as well as introduction of new techniques in present educational system, traditional educational system prevalent in Santal society has not been given the complete go-by. Santal children even now generally sit around their elders and learn from their narrations of folktales and riddles about many traditional values involving superstitions in the Santal’s life. Further, it may be seen that the sandals still practice those modes of traditional child-rearing as adopted by their ancestors. Because of sandals, blind faith in religion, they have not able to accept the new (psychological) methods of rearing practices. In fact, their religious convictions and beliefs shape their lives from birth to death. Sohan Lal (1948) is of the opinion that the intelligence of dominant social and cultural groups tends to be high value that of the weaker sections tend to be low due to educational and cultural shortcomings and lack of motivational opportunities. Similarly, Delemos & Anselmo (1969) and Mumbauer & Miller (1970) have observed that culturally disadvantaged pre-school children are less intelligent and curious. Santals are one of the weaker sections of our society. They are socially handicapped and still have to face a variety of sociopsychological problems (Singh & Sinha, 1981). 6.2 Anxiety: Santals and Non-Santals It was contended that there would be a significant difference in the mean anxiety scores of the Santals and the non-Santal students. The mean anxiety scores of the two groups were calculated and t test was applied to examine if the group means differed significantly. Table 3 presents summary of the result. Table 3 Comparison of Anxiety Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students
Group Santal Non-Santal
N 50 50
Mean 39.69 36.43
8 p-value (df=98) <.05
From Table 3 it appears that the Santal students are more anxious than nonSantal students. This finding supports earlier findings obtained by Sharaf & Singh (1977) and Singh (1980) who have recorded that the tribals are more anxious than non-tribals. Social isolation is one important source of variance in anxiety. Schachter (1959) states that social isolation produces anxiety producing situation is a heightened tendency to seek affiliation relationships. Even after the impact of many forces the Santals are still socially isolated and facing a variety of socio-psychological problems. However, one may not deny the reality that the Santals are gradually abandoning their primitivity and are coming in contact with the people outside their community. No doubt, education and political awareness are giving them a sense of identity with their fellow countrymen are helping them in breaking their isolation. They still, however, feel themselves socially isolated which may be considered as one of the casual factors of higher anxiety level in them than in the non-Santals. Moreover, deficits in culture may also be one of the reasons in the development of anxiety in Santals. The Santals still adhere to the traditional culture. The Santal culture may be considered as an underdeveloped culture. Traditional beliefs, norms and values have not yet been swept off and these guide the life of Santals to a greater extent. The Santals have numerous taboos and superstitions. For example, the Santals believe that spirits or bongas must be appeased and propitiated otherwise they may cause harm (Kochar, 1966). Most of their activities are centred around the achievement of this end and keep them anxious. 6.3 Extraversion: Santals and Non-Santals Another hypothesis framed for verification was that there would be a significant difference in the mean extraversion scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. The distribution of the extraversion scores of scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. The distribution of the extraversion scores of the Santal and non-Santal students are presented in Table 4. A perusal of Table 4 reveals that Santals and non-Santals do not differ significantly between themselves in terms of extraversion dimension of their personality. In comprehending the result it may be argued that neuroticism or extraversion is an attitude towards life situations or ways of life. On the hand, it is of interest to note that in the studies of Jha (1968), Majumdar (1956) and Sinha (1957) it has been pointed out that all aspects of Santal life have been deeply Table 4 Comparison of Extraversion Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students
Group Santal Non-Santal
N 50 50
Mean 11.53 11.52
9 p-value (df=98) NS
affected by Hindu culture and modes of Hindu social life. Consequently Santals and non-Santals have come to share similar viewpoints or attitudes towards life situations or ways of life. And this high congruence in attitude between both the groups obviously explains why insignificant difference in extraversion dimension of personality has been obtained between them. 6.4 Achievement Motivation: Santals and Non-Santals Significant difference in the mean achievement motivation scores of the Santal and non-Santal students was expected. The following Table 5 presents the findings. Table 5 Comparison of Achievement Motivation Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 Mean 23.87 25.26 SD 5.25 3.43 4.36 <.01 t p-value (df=98)
The findings indicate that the Santal students are significantly lower in achievement motivation in comparison to the non-Santal students. In the previous investigations (Bhatia, 1974; Banerjee & Parek, 1974; Pandey & Singh, 1971; Rath, 1972; Sinha, 1957) the obtained result showing significantly the lower level of achievement motivation in Santals as against the non-Santals. McClelland (191), studying difference societies of the world, has found that progressive societies have high need for achievement (nAch) as compared to the backward societies. He has further reported that orthodox and fatalistic outlook results in low nAch. The Santal society may not be considered as a progressive one. Traditional beliefs, superstitions, strong religious attitude, rituals, typical rural norms and customs guide their life to a large extent (Singh & Sinha, 1982). Some significant aspects of parent-child relationship have also implications for the development of achievement motivation. Achievement motivation tends to be higher in those children whose parents have high intellectual achievement aspirations both for themselves (katkovsky et. al., 1964) and for their off spring (Rosen & D’Andrade, 1959). They live a life totally based on the principle of ‘eat, drink and be marry and care naught for the morrow’. Finally, in explaining the result we may follow the argument by Atkinson (1964) who is of the opinion that the need for achievement is influenced by a capacity for taking pride in accomplishment, which is socially learnt. The socially
10 disadvantaged, group does not develop this capacity and is therefore unable to judge his performance by internalised standards of excellence.
6.5 Self-Concept: Santals and Non-Santals It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference between the mean self-concept scores of Santal and non-Santal students. Table 6 depicts the summary of statistical comparison between Santals and non-Santals in terms of the distribution of private and social self-concept scores in them. Table 6 Comparison of Private and Social Self-Concept Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students
Mean for Santal(N=50 ) 51.58 50.02 SD for Santal(N=50) 6.35 6.17 Mean for Non Santal (N=50) 50.79 49.75 SD for Non Santal (N=50) 6.02 5.94 t 1.45 .52 p-value (df=98) NS NS
Private Self-Concept Social Self-Concept
From the inspection of Table 6 it appears that both Santals and non-Santals have high private and social self-concept scores with signs of insignificant difference between them in terms of thee dimensions. Pani and Waraich (1971) have reported that higher education leads to the development high self-concept in individuals. Since both the groups (Santals and non-Santals) were college students, the findings of the present study seem to be consistent with the views of the aforementioned investigators. Obviously, education is the common factor, a dominant one, in the two groups because of which they have shown insignificant differences between them in terms of their private as well as social concepts. As per “reflected appraisals” and “social comparison” principles whenever we think over high self-concepts in college students we find that in the light of low literacy rate in India the educated people are not only always held in high esteem by others but they also feel elevated and think high of themselves, leading to the presence of high private and social self-concepts in them. Thus, high private and social self-concepts in both Santal and non-Santal college students with the mark of insignificant difference between themselves may be understood in the light of the above arguments. 6.6 Academic Achievement: Santals and Non-Santals It was hypothesized that there would be significant difference in the mean academic achievement scores of the Santal and non-Santal students. The results obtained are given in Table 7.
Table 7 Comparison of Academic Achievement Scores of Santal and Non-Santal Students Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 Mean 42.56 50.07 SD 5.56 12.74 7.35 <.01 t p-value (df=98)
From Table 7 it is apparent that the Santal students have significantly lower academic achievement as compared to the non-Santal students. The results are in complete accord with the findings of Singh (1976, 1977), Singh (1980) and Varma (1977) which have revealed that the tribals have low academic achievement as compared to the non- tribals. Several reasons may be adduced to account for low academic in the Santal group. In the study of Lovell & Woolsey 9194) it has been reported that social deprivation has a downward pulling effect on school performance. Sandals, due to their continuous and prolonged social isolation are considered as socially disadvantaged in the Indian society. Interestingly, it may be seen that even after six decades of independence the disease of social isolation in them could not be effectively controlled. Some schemes adopted by the Government in this regard, due to some or other reasons, have not proved fruitful, however, they have extremely widened the gap between the tribal and non-tribal section of the society. For example, separate arrangements of hostels and institutions for only the tribal students have undoubtedly generated the feeling of social isolation i.e., social deprivation in them which may be more or less considered as the crucial factor of low academic achievement in Santal students. Furthermore, it is also pertinent to note that the Santal students devote less time and energy to their studies. It may be generally observed that their attendance in schools and colleges only increase on the day on which they are to draw their scholarships. They are not regular in attending their classes. This results in poor academic achievement. Another important fact that is needed to be taken care of is that the Santal students are assured of job regardless of their poor academic career. This is so because of the reservation provided for them in the Government services. As stated earlier another purpose of this study was to verify the relationship, if any, between the personality dimensions (viz., intelligence, anxiety, extraversion, achievement, motivation, and self-concepts) and academic achievement of the Santal and non-Santal students. With this aim in view Product Moment Correlation was computed. The results and the discussion of the findings are as follow.
12 6A Relationship between Intelligence and Academic Achievement It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between intelligence and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal students. The values of obtained correlation between intelligence and academic achievement of both Santal and non-Santal students are presented in Table 8. Table 8 Relationship between Intelligence and Academic Achievement Scores Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 r .16 .29 p-value <.01 <.01 df 48 48
Table 8 shows the significant positive correlation between intelligence and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal students. 6B Relationship between Anxiety and Academic Achievement It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between anxiety and achievement of Santal and non-Santal students. Table 9 depicts separately the co-efficients of correlation between anxiety and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal students. Table 9 Relationship between Anxiety and Academic Achievement Scores Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 r -.02 -.26 p-value NS <.01 df 48 48
Table 9 presents the negative and insignificant correlation between anxiety and academic achievement of Santal students and negative and significant correlation between anxiety and academic achievement of non-Santal students. 6C Relationship between Extraversion and Academic Achievement It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between extraversion and academic achievement of Santal and non-Santal students. The obtained correlations between the two variables separately in case of both the Santal and non-Santal students are presented in Table 10. Table 10 Relationship between Extraversion and Academic Achievement Scores
13 Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 r -.02 .16 p-value NS <.05 df 48 48
Table 10 depicts the low negative correlation with the academic achievement of the Santal students, it has significant positive correlation (r=.16) with the academic achievement for non-Santal students. This table depicts that extraversion has either a negative or insignificant impact on academic achievement. 6D Relationship Achievement between Achievement Motivation and Academic
Further, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between achievement motivation and academic achievement of Santal and nonSantal college students. The summary of the results obtained are presented in Table 11. Table 11 Relationship between Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement Scores Group Santal Non-Santal N 50 50 r .09 .08 p-value NS NS df 48 48
From the inspection of Table 11 it appears that there exists an insignificant positive relationship between achievement motivation and academic achievement scores of both the Santal (r=.09) and non-Santal (r=.08) students. 6E Relationship between Self-Concept and Academic Achievement Finally it was contended that private and social self-concepts of the Santal and non-Santal students would be significantly related with their academic achievement. Table 12 reflects the value of correlations obtained between selfconcepts private and social) and academic achievement of the two samples. Table 12 Relationship between Self-Concept and Academic Achievement Scores Group N r privat e r socia l pvalue df
14 Santal Non-Santal 50 50 .08 .14 .08 .15 NS <.05 48 48
From the results furnished in able 12 it appears that in the case of both Santal and non-Santal students, their private and social self-concepts bear positive relationship with their academic achievement. But while the relationship of private and social self-concepts with the academic achievement of the former was found to be insignificant, it was significant in case of academic achievement. 7 Conclusions Three underlying factors have a practical bearing on how to reduce this gap. The first of these is the interdependence of the Santal and non-Santal community, especially in the production, utilization and transfer of technology and knowledge. The second factor which helps to support interdependence and reduce the gap between the Santals and non-Santals is education and training. The third key factor in reducing the gap between the Santals and the non-Santals is the need for sandals to identify its own needs and priorities. The major objectives of the strategy to reduce the gap are: • a) to encourage sharing of information locally, nationally and regionally; • b) to support information systems that address local problems; • c) to promote standards and compatibility among national and regional information systems; • d) to improve the capacity of Santals to plan and implement information and informatics policies; • e) to increase the use of local experts in information handling; • f) to ensure the sustainability of information initiatives; • g) to build human resources in information science specifically to impart skills in managing information systems, in acting as agents of change, and in soliciting and sharing knowledge produced within tribal (e.g. Santals) belt; • h) to promote participation by Santal people; • i) to improve access of local development researchers, decision makers and practitioners to relevant information. References 1. Atkinson, J.W. An introduction to motivation. Newyork, Van Nostrand, 1964. 2. Banerjee, D. and Pareek, V. nAch is children of sub-cultures. Journal Educational Research and Extension, vol. 11, 1974, p. 12-22. 3. Bhatia, D.R. Achievement motivation in relation to different social variables. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Ranchi University, Ranchi, 1974. 4. Chatterjee, N.A. Comparison of performance of trial and non-tribal boys of Tripura on five performances tests. Manas, vol. 22, 1975, p. 149-159. 5. Davidson, Basil. The African genius: An introduction to African social and
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