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Engineering Studies
HSC Course Stage 6

Aeronautical engineering

ES/S6 HSC 41097

P0022161

Acknowledgments
This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. Board of Studies, NSW Hawker de Havilland Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd Bankstown Airport Padstow Aeroskills Centre

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Materials devlopment: Coordination: Content edit: Illustrations: DTP: Paul Soares, Harry Taylor, Ian Webster Jeff Appleby John Cook, Josephine Wilms Tom Brown, Barbara Buining Nick Loutkovsky, Carolina Barbieri

Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, 2000. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135. Revised 2001

Module contents

Subject overview ................................................................................iii Module overview................................................................................vii


Module components .................................................................vii Module outcomes ..................................................................... ix Indicative time ........................................................................... x Resource requirements............................................................. xi

Icons

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Glossary............................................................................................. xv Directive terms................................................................................. xix Part 1: Aeronautical engineering scope of the profession and engineering report....... 165 Part 2: Aeronautical engineering history of flight................................................................ 137 Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics ........................................... 173 Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials ......................................................................... 149 Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication .............................................................. 144 Bibliography.......................................................................................45 Module evaluation ............................................................................49

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Subject overview

Engineering Studies Preliminary Course


Household appliances examines common appliances found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed to identify materials and their applications. Electrical principles, researching methods and techniques to communicate technical information are introduced. The first student engineering report is completed undertaking an investigation of materials used in a household appliance. Landscape products investigates engineering principles by focusing on common products, such as lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical development of these types of products demonstrates the effect materials development and technological advancements have on the design of products. Engineering techniques of force analysis are described. Orthogonal drawing methods are explained. An engineering report is completed that analyses lawnmower components. Braking systems uses braking components and systems to describe engineering principles. The historical changes in materials and design are investigated. The relationship between internal structure of iron and steel and the resulting engineering properties of those materials is detailed. Hydraulic principles are described and examples provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing techniques are further developed. An engineering report is completed that requires an analysis of a braking system component.

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Bio-engineering both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering profession. Careers and current issues in this field are explored. Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bioengineered product and describes the related issues that the bio-engineer would need to consider before, during and after this product development. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the preliminary modules. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of is detailed. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed.

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HSC Engineering Studies modules


Civil structures examines engineering principles as they relate to civil structures, such as bridges and buildings. The historical influences of engineering, the impact of engineering innovation, and environmental implications are discussed with reference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The engineering report requires a comparison of two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material list available for the engineer. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are explained. Methods of testing materials, and modifying material properties are examined. A series of industrial manufacturing processes is described. Electrical concepts, such as power distribution, are detailed are introduced. The use of freehand technical sketches. Lifting devices investigates the social impact that devices raging from complex cranes to simple car jacks, have had on our society. The mechanical concepts are explained, including the hydraulic concepts often used in lifting apparatus. The industrial processes used to form metals and the methods used to control physical properties are explained. Electrical requirements for many devices are detailed. The technical rules for sectioned orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The engineering report is based on a comparison of two lifting devices.

Aeronautical engineering explores the scope of the aeronautical engineering profession. Career opportunities are considered, as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. Mechanical analysis includes aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. Materials and material processes concentrate on their application to aeronautics. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession, current projects and issues. Telecommunications engineering examines the history and impact on society of this field. Ethical issues and current technologies are described. The materials section concentrates on specialised testing, copper and its alloys, semiconductors and fibre optics. Electronic systems such as analogue and digital are explained and an overview of a variety of other technologies in this field is presented. Analysis, related to telecommunication products, is used to reinforce mechanical concepts. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the telecommunication profession, current projects and issues.
Figure 0.1 Modules

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Module overview

Aeronautical engineering is the first focus engineering module in the HSC course. The scope of the aeronautical engineering profession is investigated. Career opportunities are considered, as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. The mechanical analysis topics include aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. Materials, and material processes concentrate on those most associated with the aeronautical engineer. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer aided drawing are required. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession, current projects and issues.

Module components
Each module contains three components, the preliminary pages, the teaching/learning section and additional resources. The preliminary pages include: module contents subject overview module overview icons glossary directive terms.

Figure 0.2 Preliminary pages

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The teaching/learning parts may include: part contents introduction teaching/learning text and tasks exercises check list.

Figure 0.3 Teaching/learning section

The additional information may include: module appendix bibliography module evaluation.

Additional resources

Figure 0.4 Additional materials

Support materials such as audiotapes, video cassettes and computer disks will sometimes accompany a module.

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Module outcomes
At the end of this module, you should be working towards being able to: describe the scope of engineering and critically analyse current innovations (H1.1) differentiate between properties of materials and justify the selection of materials, components and processes in engineering (H1.2) analyse and synthesise engineering applications in specific fields and report on the importance of these to society (H2.2) use appropriate written, oral and presentation skills in the preparation of detailed engineering reports (H3.2) investigate the extent of technological change in engineering (H4.1) appreciate social, environmental and cultural implications of technological change in engineering and apply them to the analysis of specific problems (H4.3) select and use appropriate management and planning skills related to engineering (H5.2) demonstrate skills in analysis, synthesis and experimentation related to engineering (H6.2)

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

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Indicative time
The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC course is 120 hours (indicative time). The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should spend on this module.
Preliminary modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr

Household appliances Landscape products Braking systems Bio-engineering Elective: Irrigation systems

20% 20% 20% 20% 20%

HSC modules

Percentage of time

Approximate number of hours 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr

Civil structures Personal and public transport Lifting devices Aeronautical engineering Telecommunications engineering

20% 20% 20% 20% 20%

There are five parts in Aeronautical engineering. Each part will require about four to five hours of work. You should aim to complete the module within 20 to 25 hours.

Resource requirements
During this module you will need to access a range of resources including: technical drawing equipment drawing board, tee square, set squares (30, 60, 45), protractor, pencils (0.5 mm mechanical pencil with B lead), eraser, pair of compasses, pair of dividers

calculator rule thumb tack or pin small sheet of thin cardboard pair of scissors cotton reel.

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Icons

As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons. The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module. The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6 Engineering studies. Computer This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet. Danger This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and to proceed with care. Discuss This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or debating an issue. Examine This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or watching a video. Hands on This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or conducting experiments. Respond This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw an object. Think This icon indicates tasks such as reflecting on your experience or picturing yourself in a situation.

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Return This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your teacher when you have completed the part. (OTEN OLP students will need to refer to their Learner's Guide for instructions on which exercises to return).

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Glossary

As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that have specific meanings. The first time a term occurs in the text it will appear in bold. The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module. aerofoil aileron autogyro biplane cambered concurrent any surface such as a wing, aileron, or stabiliser, designed to help in lifting or controlling an aircraft special purpose hinged flap on the rear edge of a wing designed to control sideways balance early form of helicopter with a propeller and freely rotating horizontal vanes aeroplane with two sets of wings, one above the other arched or curved upwards in the middle passing through the same point, foe example, a number of forces are concurrent if an extension of the lines representing their directions all cross at the same point removable cover on aircraft engine the force, due to the relative airflow, exerted on an aeroplane and tending to reduce its forward motion a hinged, horizontal surface on an aeroplane, generally located at the tail end of the fuselage and used to control the forward/backward tilt information from experience or experiment, not from any scientific or theoretical deduction the condition of having experienced many cycles or repeated applications of stress that is lower than would normally be required to cause failure, but can cause failure under these conditions hinged or sliding section on the rear edge of a wing designed to control lift

cowling drag elevator

empirical data fatigue

flap

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fuselage gyro ICBM interplanetary Mach 5

body of aeroplane gyroscopic device for keeping an object, such as a rocket, in stable controlled flight missile designed to deliver a warhead from one continent to another between planets, from planet to planet A speed that is five times the speed of sound at the particular altitude (the speed of sound at sea level is approximately 380 meters per second or 1370 kmph) a force that tends to cause rotation because the object is fixed in position at one point or because the force is not applied at the centre of gravity aeroplane with one set of wings outer casing of an aeroplanes engine path of one body around another body under the influence of gravity weight being carried angle that a propeller or rotor blade makes with the air passing over it increasing the air pressure in an aircraft cabin as altitude increases and the air pressure outside is too low for breathing radio distance and ranging an instrument to allow flight when there is no visibility to incorporate new parts and changes into old models a method for joining solid sheet materials to a firm support the rotating blades on a helicopter that act as propeller and wing broad flat wooden or metal piece hinged to the rear of an aeroplane for steering a body revolving in some fixed path around another body Consists of small pellets; in shot-peening these are fired onto a surface

moment

monoplane nacelle orbit payload pitch pressurisation

radar retrofit riveting rotors rudder satellite shot

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spar

a stout pole such as those used for masts or booms etc on a boat. Also the main member of the wing frame in an aeroplane when an aircraft loses lift, usually due to loss of relative air speed, and is in danger of falling made to a shape calculated to cause the least resistance to motion a device to force air into an aeroplane engine with pressure to overcome the reduction in atmospheric pressure at high altitudes and so maintain engine power as the aircraft climbs an aeroplane with three sets of wings arranged one above the other a box or tube designed to drive a moving stream of air around an object or a scaled model of the object within it to determine the behaviour of the object in an airstream the motion of an aircraft about it's vertical axis

stall streamlined supercharger

triplane wind tunnel

yaw

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Directive terms

The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks and examination questions. account account for: state reasons for, report on; give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions identify components and the relationship between them, draw out and relate implications use, utilise, employ in a particular situation make a judgement about the value of make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information make clear or plain arrange or include in classes/categories show how things are similar or different make, build, put together items or arguments show how things are different or opposite add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation) draw conclusions state meaning and identify essential qualities show by example

analyse apply appreciate assess calculate clarify classify compare construct contrast critically (analyse/evaluate) deduce define demonstrate

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describe discuss distinguish evaluate examine explain extract extrapolate identify interpret investigate justify outline predict propose recall recommend recount summarise synthesise

provide characteristics and features identify issues and provide points for and/or against recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from; to note differences between make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of inquire into relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how choose relevant and/or appropriate details infer from what is known recognise and name draw meaning from plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about support an argument or conclusion sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of suggest what may happen based on available information put forward (for example a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action present remembered ideas, facts or experiences provide reasons in favour retell a series of events express, concisely, the relevant details putting together various elements to make a whole

Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

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Aeronautical engineering

Part 1: Aeronautical engineering scope of the profession & engineering report

Part 1 contents
Introduction..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Scope of aeronautical engineering..................................................3


Unique technologies in aeronautical engineering ....................... 10 Current projects or innovations................................................. 26 Health and safety issues ......................................................... 31 Training for the profession........................................................ 35 Careers in aeronautical engineering.......................................... 37 Relations with the community ................................................... 40 Legal and ethical issues........................................................... 45 Engineers as managers ........................................................... 46

The engineering report ....................................................................49


Structure of a focus engineering report ..................................... 49 Sample engineering report ....................................................... 51

Exercise sheet ..................................................................................61 Progress check .................................................................................63 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................65

Part 1: Aeronautical engineering scope and engineering report

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Introduction

The purpose of this part is to introduce you to the scope and nature of the aeronautical engineering profession.

What will you learn?


You will learn about: the nature and scope of the aeronautical engineering profession current projects and innovations health and safety issues training for the profession career prospects unique technologies in the profession legal and ethical implications engineers as managers relations with the community.

You will learn to: define the responsibilities of the aeronautical engineer describe the nature of work done in this profession examine projects and innovations from within the aeronautical profession analyse the training and career prospects within aeronautical engineering.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http//ww.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Aeronautical engineering

Scopeofaeronauticalengineering

Today, you would pay little attention to the sound of an over-flying aircraft, that is, if you noticed it at all. Yet less than ninety years ago everyone around you would have looked skyward and wondered in awe at the sight. The aircraft of 90 years ago was not the sophisticated unit that you may see in the sky today. They were a combination of timber, wire, fabric and a crude engine or two, flown on a wing and a prayer. The designers of these aircraft were not aeronautical engineers as such. More often than not they were scientists or enthusiastic amateurs. The little knowledge they did possess was the collected result of a variety of experiments with kites and models conducted during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Often the over enthusiastic and over confident experimenters piloted their less than airworthy designs to an early grave. Could this have been a form of natural selection? Many early workers used the empirical data collected from these many failures and a few successes to develop the first working aircraft. This was not always done with reference to pure theory and equations. Basically the cambered wing at a suitable angle of attack appeared to give good lift. Consequently many aircraft experimenters chose to concentrate on the cambered wing and other ideas that seemed to be a good idea at the time. However, scientists such as Dr Lancaster had developed and confirmed mathematical theories for phenomena such as lift generation and induced drag well before the Wright Brothers first flew an aircraft. Todays aeronautical engineers still use models. The test pilot still has to be the first person to pilot the aircraft. However, the Concord and the FA 18 Hornet, could not be designed without extensive reference to aeronautical theory and use of sophisticated calculation. The test pilot will have already flown many hours in a flight simulator which emulates the predicted in-flight characteristics of the new aircraft. This then is the domain of the aeronautical engineer.

Part 1: Aeronautical engineering scope and engineering report

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List the general areas of knowledge that you think a team of aeronautical engineers would need to possess to design and build a complete aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? aerodynamics electrical and electronic systems materials technology hydraulics fuel engines and propulsion systems structural mechanics drawing and drafting skills.

Before venturing further into the day to day complexities of being an aeronautical engineer you should take a step back to consider the aircraft as an engineered system.

Aerodynamics
An aircraft is not just a wing with a powerful jet engine strapped to it. Moreover it is the product of a combined effort by hundreds of individual designers and engineers working toward a common goal. As aircraft grow more sophisticated no one person can fully understand every detail that goes into an aircrafts design. An aircraft before all other considerations is an aerodynamic entity. It is held aloft by the lift forces generated by the camber and angle of attack of the wing. It is restrained by drag forces created by form and shape of the aircraft and induced through the process of generating lift. The everpresent pull of gravity will eventually pull all aircraft back to earth. The movement of air around an aircraft is a complex thing to understand and at times it is difficult to predict. Aerodynamic theory helps predict the movement of air and the amount of lift generated but it is only a starting point.

Aeronautical engineering

Aerodynamics is a major concern of aeronautical engineers but there are other equally important aspects to the profession.

Reel tricky
You will need: a thumb tack or pin from the sewing cabinet a small sheet of thin cardboard a drawing compass and a pair of scissors. a cotton reel from the same place that you found the pin.

Carry out the following steps: 1 2 3 draw an 80 mm diameter circle on the cardboard, then cut out the circle using the scissors push the thumb tack or pin through the center of the cardboard disc so that the pointy end goes through as far as it can go pick up the cotton reel, place the pointy end of the tack or pin into the hole on the bottom side of the cotton reel and hold the disk in place with your finger blow through the top of the cotton reel and let go of the disk while you are still blowing.

Blow

Cotton reel

Pin

Cardboard disk Figure 1.1 The disk on the cotton reel trick

Part 1: Aeronautical engineering scope and engineering report

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The disk should have remained in position until you stopped blowing. When you stopped blowing the disk should have fallen down. Explain why the disk behaved the way it did. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Air moving over the disk had velocity and therefore a dynamic pressure component. Benoullis predictions on total pressure would indicate that the static pressure above the disk in the moving air would therefore be lower than the pressure below the disk in still air, therefore the disk experiences lift. (The disk is pushed upwards by the higher pressure beneath it.)

Aeronautical engineering

Propulsion systems
An aircraft requires a propulsion system to provide thrust (or in the case of a glider, a launching system to get it into the air in the first place). An engineer will have to decide the best combination of engine and thrust device to attach to an aircraft. Identify engine types and thrust devices that are used on new or old aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Some of the engine types and thrust devices you may have identified include; internal combustion engine, jet engine, turbine, radial, propeller, fan, rotor and rocket.

You will hear more of propulsion systems in the mechanics and hydraulics part of this module.

Stress-n-Strain
Aeronautical engineers who design superbly aerodynamic aircraft that crash and burn because the wings fall off will not lead a successful career. The aeronautical engineer has to calculate and consider the forces present in all components of the aircraft. They then have to predict whether the material that the components are manufactured from will sustain that load without failure. This prediction must be for the full service life of the aircraft. If a component is predicted to fail within the service life of the aircraft, the engineer will mandate when that component must be periodically replaced. The piston engines in light aircraft usually have a minor service after 100 hours operating time and a major service every 1000 hours operating time. A major service will involve a full strip-down of the engine. Many components, for example pistons, must be replaced whether or not they appear to be in serviceable condition. Other components will be subjected to testing.

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Materials
Linked to considerations of structural forces are the consideration and selection of appropriate materials. An aeronautical engineer will need to have a good knowledge of the manufacturing and service properties of the materials used on aircraft. An aircraft operates in a harsh environment. During any flight an aircraft is subjected to constant vibration, to stresses due to turbulence, to cyclic pressurisation and depressurisation of the cabin, to moisture and to wide fluctuations of temperature. The temperature on the ground may be 36C while at 38 000 feet it may be 60C. Materials selected must first be readily formed in the shapes required and must secondly be suited to the service conditions. Predict or identify any materials based problems that might occur due to the harsh environment that the aircraft is subject to. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? brittleness at low temperature fatigue due to repeated cycles of stress crack propagation under high stresses, vibration, temperature changes corrosion due to continuous exposure to the elements failure under impact loss of strength at high temperature.

Avionics and electrical


Modern aircraft depend on many electronic systems to safely complete their flights. The flight deck instruments, navigation systems, the actuation of aerodynamic surfaces, the landing and autopilot systems are now controlled by electronics and micro-processor systems. The design and implementation of avionics is the realm of another engineer, the electrical or electronic engineer. The aeronautical engineer must however be aware of the impact of these systems when designing an aircraft.

Aeronautical engineering

Control systems and hydraulics


The control surfaces of aircraft; elevators, ailerons, rudders and flaps need to move in response to pilot inputs on the control column and rudder pedals. In light aircraft this is achieved using wires and rods. In large commercial jets this is done with hydraulic systems connected to electronic or hydraulic controllers.
Cowl Spinner Cockpit/cabin Prop

Wing tip

Aileron Flaps Fuselage

Tailplane

Trim tab

Elevator Fin and rudder

Figure 1.2 Main parts on an aeroplane

If you have access to the Internet visit <http://www.aero.usyd.edu.au/aero/aerodyn.html> this Sydney University web site is an excellent source for additional aeronautics information (accessed 30.10.01).

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Unique technologies in aeronautical engineering


Many of the technologies found in the aeronautical engineering profession are not unique in the sense that they are solely found and used in this discipline. The technologies used by the aeronautics industry are also found in industries that deal with similar problems and issues. For instance, if you were to design a high technology, 18 foot racing skiff, you would need to consider and use many of the technologies available in the aeronautics industry, excluding perhaps the requirement for the vessel to fly. Can you identify any technologies that you believe overlap between aeronautics and boat-building industries? Consider the major areas of emphasis in this course; history, materials, mechanics and communication. List the technologies that you believe overlap between the aircraft industry and the construction of high tech boats. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? materials such as graphite and kevlar and aluminium alloys computerised design and drawing systems wind tunnel testing of airframes and sails computerised calculation systems.

Aircraft design
Aircraft design is primarily concerned with flight and how to achieve this condition safely and efficiently. Basically an aircraft must be aerodynamically sound have lots of lift and minimal drag. The aircraft must also be as light as possible to maximize its payload and to allow it to get off the ground in the first place. The materials must be suited to the operating conditions and the environment and remain in good condition for the expected service life of the aircraft.

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Aeronautical engineering

The aircraft must also be structurally sound. The stresses in the components must not exceed the component's safe working limits. Nothing ruins a pilots day more than having the wings fold up in a tight turn! Finally, aircraft components are often sourced from manufacturers from all over the world. To ensure that it all goes together when all the parts arrive, very accurate and detailed drawings are required by each component manufacturer. These have to be drawn to internationally accepted standards. So, you ask, what has all this got to do with weekend sailors and flimsy boats?

Skiff design
A sailing skiff, aside from any other considerations, must use wind and air to drive it. A close inspection of a sail in operation will reveal that the sail is in fact a curved aerofoil not a flat sheet of sailcloth. You would notice this particularly on the sail of a windsurfer. The sail develops lift just as does the wing of an aircraft. The hull of the skiff moves through a fluid that you refer to as water. A badly designed hull generates a large amount of drag that slows the skiff down. The skipper usually comments loudly about this situation as better-designed skiffs race past on their way to the finish line. Many designers of modern racing skiffs use sophisticated fluid dynamics software to assist in designing both hull and sails. Similarly, these same designers are concerned with the two competing virtues of low weight and structural strength. In Auckland, in 1995, the Americas cup challenger One Australia broke into two reasonably large but none-the-less rapidly sinking pieces. This was a perfect example of poor strength to weight analysis. Put simply, the structural forces imposed on the hull exceeded the strength of the hull material. The designer sacrificed strength to obtain a lighter hull and paid the price. The strength and modulus of light weight materials such as marine and aircraft grade aluminium, carbon fibre composites and Kevlar are compared to complex mechanical analyses of the hull, spar and sail design. Again software solutions exist and are utilized. The skiffs final drawings and component shapes may be drawn by hand. Often the drawings are produced using common, off the shelf CAD programs or perhaps specialist lofting software designed for the marine industry.

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As you can see, the technologies in two seemingly unrelated industries are similar in nature and do overlap. However, the aeronautical engineering profession is distinct in some very significant ways: The scale of operations and the shear complexity of the calculations involved in aeronautical engineering are infinitely greater. The aircraft industry uses and often develops leading edge technology. Leading edge technology is usually very expensive. Industries such as the manufacturers of small boats tend to acquire this technology when it is more established and the cost of the new technology is more affordable.

More about aeronautical engineering technologies


You will now learn more about some of the leading edge technologies associated with the aircraft industry. The technologies tend to fall into two broad areas; those technologies used to design the aircraft, and those technologies associated with the materials manufacturing aspects of aircraft.

Aircraft design technologies


Throughout this course you have been involved in calculating forces, reactions, moments and stress in two dimensions and only on flat or uniform surfaces. At times you may have considered the calculations a little difficult. Consider then the degree of difficulty that would be involved if you now had to calculate forces and moments in three dimensions, on curved surfaces with loads that fluctuated and using calculus that Extension 2 (4 Unit) mathematics does not cover. Does this conjure up an image in your mind? Now imagine applying similarly difficult calculations to more than a thousand points across a single wing. Are you now thinking that this is getting a little difficult? A modern jet aircraft may contain over a million individual components and someone has to draw each and every one of them. Again, just to make things difficult virtually every component is curved in some special and very critical way. Imagine the most difficult drawing that you have done so far in this course, then multiply the degree of difficulty by ten. Then repeat the drawing several thousand times. Starting to get the picture yet!

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List some systems and products that exist to reduce the difficulty and complexity of designing modern jet aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? One of the most significant is computerised design and calculation software. Others include off the shelf systems for navigation, communication and cockpit management.

The bad news All aeronautical engineers have to learn and understand how to do these difficult calculations. They have to use their brain, some mathematics and a calculator. Aspiring aeronautical engineers soon encounter the complexities of computational analysis (difficult mathematics). They will see a lot more calculation before their aeronautical engineering course finally ends. The good news There are software tools available to assist the engineer in the design process. To use these software tools effectively and correctly the engineer must first understand the underlying mathematics and theory on which these programs are based. That is, you must be able to understand and do the mathematics before using the program. You will now examine four common categories of aircraft design software: structural analysis software modeling software aerodynamic calculation software CAD software.

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Structural analysis software


The structural analysis of an aircraft is a complex problem. There are not many straight lines involved, virtually every component is curved, even the ones that look straight are usually curved. The loading is not uniform, it varies from point to point. In other words, the loads and stresses will vary infinitely across the components being analysed. An infinite number of equations could take quite some time. The solution is really quite straight-forward. If an engineer intends to examine the forces, stresses and moments in an aircraft wing, the wing can be mathematically broken up into a large number of sections referred to as elements. The conditions in each element are then examined. The results from each element are combined together to produce a distribution of forces, stresses and moments across the wing. The number of elements considered in this procedure is finite. There is an upper limit to the number of elements to be analysed. This mathematical process is called finite element analysis. The industry abbreviates this to FEA. Finite element analysis is a very powerful tool but is very slow when done by hand. A very popular finite element software (FEA) package in the aircraft industry is called NASTRAN. This package falls into the category of a computer aided engineering software (CAE) tool. NASTRAN is a high end software tool for critical engineering applications. It is capable of stress, vibration, heat transfer, acoustic and aeroelastic analysis. If you have access to the Internet visit <http://www.mechsolutions.com>. Select the appropriate option from the software section of the directory to find out more about NASTRAN (accessed 06.11.01).

Modeling software
The production and testing of physical working models is a costly and time consuming activity. An activity that is closely related to finite element analysis is finite element modeling. In the aeronautical engineering industry finite element modeling is abbreviated to FEM. Using finite element modeling software, an engineer can construct models using computer aided design (CAD) parts, submit the models for simulation and observe the behavior of the model under simulation. The results can be used to modify and improve the product designs to yield better performance and to better resist loads. A high end finite element modeling program that is commonly used in the aeronautical engineering industry is PATRAN. This product is

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produced by MSC, the same company that produces the analysis package NASTRAN. Figure 1.3 was produced by the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd using the finite element modeling package PATRAN. This company is associated with the University of NSW and is currently developing a light aircraft that it hopes to put into full commercial production. You can find out more about PATRAN at <http://www.mechsolutions.com/products/index.htm>.

Figure 1.3 A PATRAN generated image of an aircraft under development Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd

Aerodynamic calculation and modeling software


Aerodynamics is concerned primarily with the flow of air and the interaction of that air with objects that it encounters. Aeronautical engineers are usually concerned with the interaction of an aircrafts outer surfaces with the air through which the aircraft moves. 'CFD' calculations can help to predict the lift and drag levels for a particular airframe as well as stall and other performance characteristics. Air is considered to be a fluid and the mathematical processes involved in predicting the behaviour of the air is called computational fluid

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dynamics or CFD for short. The mathematics involved is complex but again there is software available which can carry out these calculations. Outline a practical way in which an aeronautical engineer could visualize the flow of air around an aircraft without using software. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? The flow of air around an aircraft can be observed using a wind tunnel where wind is pushed over a model with smoke streams passing over it.

An industry standard software package commonly used by aeronautical engineers is VSAERO. This package allows an engineer to input the surface geometry of an aircraft. The surface geometry is simply the outside shape of the aircraft. The engineer can also input reference conditions such as velocity of the air, angle of attack of the wing and yaw. The package will then calculate and display the predicted behaviour of the air around the aircraft. If you have access to the Internet visit <http://www.aminc.com/ Frameset.html >. Under products there is a graphic showing an image of the C-130, the Hercules transport aircraft used by the Australian military at present. Take a close look at what is happening to the wingtips (accessed 30.10.01). If you have access to the Internet visit <http://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/C-130_Hercules.JPEG> to view a photograph of a real C-130 activating anti missile flares (accessed 30.10.01).

Computer aided design


The last type of software package that you need to learn about are the computer aided design (CAD) drawing packages. Youre probably familiar with one of the CAD packages available for use on personal computers. These include Autocad Light, Autosketch and TurboCAD. These packages vary in power and are fine for standard drawing applications such as architecture and medium scale manufacturing. The aeronautics industry uses specialist CAD packages which fit the industrys need to produce drawings of complex surface shapes and

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curved components. They also use state of the art, multiple processor workstations with large screen monitors for speed and ease of viewing. The large monitors reduce eye-strain and allow more of each drawing to be displayed. CAD software packages currently used by many aeronautical engineering companies include CATIA and CADDS 5. The CATIA package is promoted as CAD/CAM/CAE package. CATIA can be used solely for drawing and designing. However, it can also be used for CAM (computer aided manufacturing) and CAE applications. If you have Internet access visit <http://www3.ibm.com/solutions/engineering/escatia.nsf/public/catia_overview> to find out more about CATIA (accessed 30.10.01).

Figure 1.4 Image produced by the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd using CATIA software. The aircraft shown is currently under development Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd

Wind tunnels
To this point all the development tools have been based on computer software. In the aerodynamic calculation and modeling section you were asked to suggest a method of assessing the aerodynamic behaviour of an aircraft without using computers. Many successful aircraft have been developed without the aid of modern computers. In fact the computer models are not perfect. The information provided by computer analysis is usually valid but does not exactly predict the behaviour of a real aircraft.

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Why do you think this is so? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________


Did you answer? Computer output is based on computational methods that have been programmed into the computer. These computational methods are based on theoretical analyses of conditions. Variables are input to reflect real situations and conditions as much as possible but can never predict the precise conditions that exist. Input into a computer is based on precise or perfect data, the behaviour of materials, fluids and the like is not necessarily perfect. The output from a computer program is based purely on the input.

Another method of assessing an aircraft design is to construct a very accurate scale model then subject the model to wind tunnel testing. Wind tunnel testing does not exactly predict the behaviour of a real, fullsize aircraft flying in open air. However, when scale effect corrections are applied valid data can be obtained. Model boats on ponds do not behave like real ships, the forces and accelerations are all out of proportion. They bounce around like corks. Similarly model aircraft in wind tunnels do not behave like real aircraft. There are several reasons for this. It is difficult to make accurate models. The sides of the wind tunnel constrain the air-flow. Most seriously, the model is flown in full size air not model size air. This is known as the scale effect. Larger size models in larger size wind tunnels give the most meaningful data. The most sophisticated wind tunnels actually compress the air at up to 25 atmospheres to correct for scale effect. Most aircraft design is based on both CFD and wind tunnel analysis. This is because neither system gives perfect results. The following photograph shows a model under test in a wind tunnel at the University of NSW.

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Figure 1.5 A model aircraft being tested in a wind tunnel Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd

Manufacturing technologies and systems unique to the aeronautics industry


Aeronautical engineers also deal with materials and manufacturing processes that are highly specialized in their nature and could be considered unique. The materials used for aircraft manufacture need to possess very special manufacturing and service properties. List five properties which you believe are important for materials used in aircraft manufacture and construction. Give your reasons for each choice.
Property Reason why it is important

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Did you answer?

Property Low fatigue High strength to weight Corrosion resistance Ductility (before forming) Elasticity

Reason why it is important aircraft vibration can cause fatigue failures lower the overall weight resist harsh operating conditions Provide for forming of complex shapes allow the aircraft to flex

Later, in the materials section of this module you will investigate the materials commonly used in the aircraft manufacturing industry. This section is more concerned with the technologies used when dealing with these materials.

Advanced composite materials


Two commonly used materials are aluminium and carbon fibre composites. These materials are often used for very similar applications in the aircraft industry. For instance they are both used as skins on wings and aerofoil surfaces. These materials make an interesting comparison. Aluminium is relatively soft, it exhibits moderate ductility, has a relatively low Youngs modulus and is known to fatigue. Carbon fibre, also known as graphite, is relatively brittle, exhibits a relatively high Youngs modulus and cannot be plastically deformed once its binding resin has set or cured. The characteristic that both materials share is the ability to be formed easily around curved surfaces. Carbon fibre composite is a relatively new material in the aircraft industry. This material is quite different to aluminium both in its manufacturing and in its service properties. Aircraft companies do not make their own carbon fibre composites. The companies use sheets of carbon fibre that are already impregnated with epoxy or cyanate ester resin. This product is known commercially as prepreg. If you have Internet access visit <http://www.hexcelcomposites.com/products/prepregs/pr_p05.html> to find out more about prepreg products and their use (accessed 30.10.01).

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Figure1.6

A sheet of carbon-fibre prepreg formed onto a nickel mould before being cured in an autoclave. This component will be a surface for an aileron

Photograph taken with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

Autoclaves
The resin in the sheets will harden or set when subjected to heat. To prevent the resin from hardening the sheets of prepreg are refrigerated until they are needed. To manufacture a component, the prepreg is draped over a pattern or mould then pressed into shape. To cure the prepreg it is heated in an autoclave until the resin has set. You may have seen an autoclave at the dentists. It is the high temperature, pressurised oven used to sterilize the drills and surgical equipment. The autoclave at Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown can hold the wing ailerons of a 737 jet. You could also fit two dentists surgeries inside this autoclave.

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Figure 1.7 An autoclave Photograph taken with the permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

Defect detection
Carbon fibre components may contain voids and it may delaminate internally if mishandled during manufacture. These problems are internal and will not be visible. To find these potentially dangerous faults Hawker de Havilland use an ultra-sonic detection device. An ultrasonic transmitter is mounted in a water stream that is played onto the upper surface of the carbon fibre component. Directly opposite, an ultra-sonic receiver is mounted in a second stream of water that is played onto the lower surface of the component. A computer program is used to ensure that the entire surface of the component is checked. If no faults are present the ultrasonic waves will pass straight through the carbon fibre. If the transmission of waves is interrupted then a void must be present.

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Ultrasonic transducer

Continuous water stream Component with internal defect

Ultrasonic transducer

Figure 1.8 Ultrasonic waves pass through object to detect internal voids

The tendency for abrupt failure and delamination of carbon fibre composites means that maintenance personnel must be extremely careful when working on aircraft. A spanner dropped onto the carbon fibre skin of a wing may initiate an internal delamination that is not visible on the surface and not easily detected. In-flight failure could result from this defect. Aluminium on the other hand would simply form a repairable dent.

Figure 1.9 An ultrasonic test unit Photograph taken with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

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Some other technologies in brief


Shot-peening shot-peening has traditionally been used to produce a smooth, fatigue resistant surface on finished components. This process has been adapted to form sheet metal into 3D components such as wingtips. The shot is used to beat the metal into hollow shaped moulds. This results in a favourable metallurgy with relatively low set-up cost. CNC drilling if you look closely at an aircraft you will notice that the skin is attached to the underlying components with rivets or sophisticated fasteners such as Hi-Locs, not just ten or twenty rivets but thousands of them. The position of the holes in the skin material is critical. At Hawker de Havilland, a CNC drilling centre is utilized to ensure absolute accuracy, every time. A Gerber No this is not a small furry animal that eats carrots and lives in a hutch. A Gerber is a computerised system that is used in the clothing industry to optimize fabric use, mark out patterns and cut out fabric for clothing manufacture. In the aircraft industry this system has been adapted to mark out and cut the prepreg fabric prior to forming and autoclaving. This is an example of innovative use of existing technology. List five technologies encountered in the aeronautical engineering profession and briefly describe the application of each technology in the profession.
Technology Application in the profession

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Did you answer?

Technology U/S testing

Application in the profession detecting internal defects

Autoclaves

setting graphite composites and similar products

Wind tunnels

testing aerodynamic properties

FEA

analysing stress

CFD

analysing aerodynamic flow

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Current projects and innovations


Explain what you understand by the term innovation. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? A material, technique, method or design, that is new or different.

In a previous section you examined some technologies that are utilized in the aeronautics industry. In many cases the aeronautics industry was either the first major user of these processes or materials or the industry adapted an existing technology to perform a new task or process. This falls into the category of innovation. Aircraft design is influenced by a range of constraints and factors. The ideal commercial jet aircraft would be inexpensive to develop and manufacture, would be impossible for a pilot to crash, would use very little fuel, would carry very high payloads, would be constructed from material that never failed or fatigued, would have silent engines and would fly at Mach 5. Dream on!!! This is not to say that aircraft designers do not strive for these goals. Innovation by aeronautical engineers has resulted in improvement in aircraft design, manufacturing and in-service performance. You will now learn about some more current projects and innovations.

Winglets
If you look closely at the wings of many modern jet aircraft you will notice at the wing-tip, that up to three metres of the wing is turned upward at about 45. This turned up end is known as a winglet and is the current must have aerodynamic accessory. Now for a little theory. When a wing is generating lift the upper surface of the wing has a lower pressure over it compared to the pressure on the underneath surface of the wing. As well, the air under the wing tends to migrate towards the tip of the wing and spill off when it gets there. The higher pressure air under the wing tend to move rapidly around the tip of the wing to the area of low pressure on the top of the wing. At the same time this same air is trailing off the back of the wing. The effect of this is

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to form a powerful column of rapidly spiraling air behind the aircraft. This is known as wing-tip vortex or wake vortex. So what, you ask?

Any turbulence generated by the creation of lift will simultaneously increase the drag on an aircraft. Drag is the enemy of aeronautical engineers. Drag reduces the overall efficiency of the aircraft. Reduce vortex generation and you increase performance and decrease fuel usage. A light aircraft taking off can be completely flipped over and crash if it passes through the vortex left by a heavy jet which has just taken off.

Figure 1.10 Wing tip vortices

Winglets are the latest in a long line of strategies aimed at reducing vortex induced drag. Previous reduction techniques include wash out, high aspect ratio and the addition of ramps on the surface of the wing to prevent the migration of air along the wing. All these measures have had some effect in reducing wing-tip vortex. The invention of winglets suitable for modern high speed subsonic jets is credited to R.T.Whitcomb of NASA. The Gates Learjet Model 28 Longhorn was the first turbojet to be certified with winglets. In this case the tip tanks on a Model 25 were replaced with winglets and it became a Model 28. Currently there is a trend to retrofit the older jet aircraft fleet with winglets and to include them in the design of new aircraft. Boeing has developed a number of winglet kits to fit various jet aircraft. Boeing in partnership with Aviation Partners will design, develop, certify, fabricate, market, sell and install winglets on in-service Boeing aircraft. Boeing will provide technical data and marketing support, while Aviation Partners will provide existing winglet technology, winglet design and program management.

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Boeing claims that the winglets technology has the potential to reduce aerodynamic drag, increase cruise performance, improve fuel burn, extend range and allow heavier payloads for winglet-equipped airplanes. The parking bays at major airports impose a maximum wing-span when designing an aircraft. Winglets can assist here by reducing the wing-span slightly but maintaining the overall lift. The current requirement is for the aircraft to fit in an 80 metre square if it is to manoeuver in a standard parking bay.

Figure 1.11 Wingtip winglets on a business jet at Bankstown airport

Advanced Machining Centre


An Advanced Machining Centre is a computer controlled machine and is also known as a CNC machining centre. This machine may have up to several hundred different cutting tools available to automatically select from. The machine uses the cutters to carry out the operations usually performed by lathes, drills and milling machines. The shapes that the machine finally produces can be down-loaded from the CAD programs that the items were originally designed with. The machine can also be programmed directly from an operator panel. The operator will often need to do fine adjustments to the machining cycle to achieve optimum performance. This interaction of CAD program with a computer controlled machine is sometimes called CAD-CAM. To produce a component a solid block of metal or a partially finished item is clamped into the machine. The machining center cuts away excess metal until the final shape is produced. The machining shown in figure 1.11 is set up to machine flat blocks of aluminum into wings spars for aircraft. The flat aluminium is held down onto another clamping block using a vacuum rather than some mechanical vice or chuck. You can see the vacuum clamps in the foreground of the photograph of the machining center. The machining centres can produce components of a complex shape at a high rate and to very fine tolerance. They are usually fully enclosed for

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sound attenuation and to protect the operator from flying swarf (fragments of metal) and coolants. This is a response to OH&S issues. The machining centre is not an innovation in itself. Its application to machine spars and components which were previously fabricated represents innovative use of existing technology.

Figure 1.12 a Aluminium blocks before machining b An advanced machining center c Winglet spars produced from solid aluminium Photographed with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

Has it occurred to you that there is a conflict here between your metallurgical knowledge and what is happening in this machining centre? The winglets and wingspars would obtain optimum metallurgical properties if they were forged or pressed to shape due to the grain-flow and grain refinement that results. However, these components have been machined from a solid block of quite expensive Series 7000 aircraft grade aluminium. Even fabrication appears to be a better option. This machining process generates an enormous amount of waste product.

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Outline why you think the aeronautical engineers have chosen this process instead of other alternatives. Hint: Think about how many aircraft are likely to be manufactured, the fact that a wing may have ten or more different sized spars in it and that the machine is computer controlled. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? relatively small scale production many different components very high tolerance required.

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Health and safety issues


In this section you will learn about some examples of safety issues in the aeronautics industry and how they are dealt with by the industry.

Occupational health and safety (OH&S)


All employers have an obligation to provide a safe and healthy work environment for their employees. The employer must identify and effectively deal with hazards and hazardous activities in the workplace. One common regime for controlling and dealing with hazards, comprises four control measures: 1 Eliminate the hazard This is the most effective way of making the workplace safer. In the wet, confined environment of an underground mine, electric powered tools would result in regular electrocutions. Solution: use tools powered by compressed air. 2 Change equipment or materials Most painters now prefer to use water paints to reduce the risks that are involved in painting with organic solvent based paints. 3 Change work practices In an office environment this may involve training staff to use stable step ladders to reach high objects rather that standing on unstable swivel chairs. 4 Use Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) This is the least desirable control measure. In a noisy factory with a lot of metal grinding going on all the workers would need to wear hearing and eye protection all the time.

OH&S issues in the aeronautics industry


In the aeronautics industry, in the design, the manufacturing and the maintenance areas, the work environment is usually well lit, clean and well organized. In the aeronautics industry cleanliness and attention to detail are high priorities. You will now examine some examples of safety issues in the aeronautics industry. Fibre dusts Cured carbon fibre and glass-fibre components need trimming to size with routers and grinders. This generates a large quantity of fine dust which can penetrate deeply into the lungs of workers causing discomfort

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and can also cause skin irritation. It is known that fine mineral fibres such as asbestos and silica can cause fatal lung conditions. The (Material Specification Data Sheet) MSDS sheets for carbon fibre or glass fibre products indicate that at present these products are not suspected of causing fatal conditions but they strongly suggest that these dusts should not be breathed in. At Hawker de Havilland the trimming of carbon fibre and glass fibre products is carried out in a booth where the dust is sucked out of the factory using powerful fans. The workers in the booth wear fully enclosed body suits with fresh filtered breathing air pumped into the suit.

Figure 1.12 Trimming of cured carbon fibre components in a dust control booth Photograph taken with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

Outline the control measures being used for carbon fibre dusts. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Reduction of hazardous materials via extraction and PPE where a full face shield protects the operator.

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Noise Noise presents problems in the manufacture, maintenance and operation of aircraft. Workers can easily be exposed to noise levels above 100 decibels (dB) when in the vicinity of operating jet engines or riveting processes in factories. Relatively short exposure to high levels of noise can lead to permanent hearing damage. The NSW Work Cover Authority recommends the following maximum exposure times for noise.
Noise level dB 85 88 91 94 97 100 Maximum Exposure 8Hrs 4 hrs 2hrs 1 hr 30 min 15 min

The noise output of a jet engine averages 103 decibels. Extrapolating from the table above, what is the maximum exposure time that you would recommend for a worker without suitable hearing protection. Maximum exposure time: _____________________________________

Did you answer? 7.5 min. Every increase of 3dB in noise level corresponds to a reduction of exposure by half.

Control measures for noise vary depending on the situation. For ground control personnel working near operating jet aircraft the noise cannot be eliminated. The personnel must wear earmuffs. For maintenance crews testing jet engines at the QANTAS jet base, an engine can be run up to operating power in a noise proof jet test cell. This isolates the harmful noise to areas where there are no test personnel. The traditional riveting process used in producing aircraft is very noisy. Recent developments in rivet technology have significantly reduced the noise levels in some specialised riveting processes. Several companies produce a range of rivets which are designed to expand and then shear when driven with special tools. This leads to much reduced levels of noise. Hawker de Havilland use rivets produced by Hi-loc on some

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projects. This is an engineered solution which reduces noise and reduces or eliminates the need for hearing protection. Chemical hazards Many organic solvents are linked to, or are suspected of being linked to cancer and other degenerative conditions in humans. Where possible these substances are being eliminated in industrial processes. Many aeronautics companies are now substituting water-based paint for solvent based paints and lacquers. Water based paints do not give off flammable vapours, do not contain large quantities of organic solvents and are considered to be more environmentally friendly. Water-based paints are therefore safer for workers to use.

Summing up
These are just a few examples of the OH&S issues that confront the aeronautical engineering industry. Many of the processes involved in aircraft production and maintenance have the potential to cause injury or loss of health. High levels of training, a strong commitment to safety and open, well thought-out factory layouts are typical of this industry.

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Training for the profession


In this topic you will learn about the aeronautical engineering training available in NSW. List five skills or areas of knowledge that would help an engineer win a job. State why the skill is important in the aviation and aeronautics industry.
Skill Importance in aeronautics industry

Did you answer?

Skill 1 Team

Importance in aeronautics industry to work effectively with others

Drafting

To convey designs efficiently to others

Testing/provin g Calculation

to test models

to assess designs

Analytical

to design to legislative requirements

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To become an aeronautical engineer you must complete a Bachelor of Engineering in Aeronautical Engineering at university level. Aeronautical engineers require skills that are very similar to those of mechanical engineers. Often there is a great deal of overlap between courses for aeronautical engineers and the courses for mechanical engineers. In fact, many engineers involved in aircraft design are mechanical engineers who have specialised in this field. The University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales (UNSW) both offer four year undergraduate courses in aeronautical engineering. The University of NSW offers aeronautical engineering at its Kensington campus in Sydney and at the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) campus in Canberra. The courses at these institutions cover basic engineering in Year 1 and 2. The courses only become strongly focused on aeronautical engineering in Years 3 and 4. At the University of Sydney, introductory aerodynamics, introductory aeronautics and flight performance are studied in Years 1 and 2. At the UNSW students follow a common mechanical engineering course with no aeronautical subjects. At both institutions students in the third and fourth years specialize in aeronautical subjects. The fourth year involves a major project which integrates the various skills learned during the course. The subjects studied in Year 1 and Year 2 at UNSW include: Mathematics, Design and the Engineering Profession, Engineering Mechanics, Mechanics of Solids, Computing, Engineering Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Machine Design and Chemistry. In the final two years the subjects studied include: Aerospace Design, Flight Dynamics and Systems, Analysis of Aerospace Structures, Advanced Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Professional Responsibilities, Linear Systems Analysis, Principles of Control, Management for Engineers, Vibration Analysis, Programming and Numerical Methods, Computing Applications in Mechanical Systems and Communications for Professional Engineers. The University of Western Sydney and the University of Newcastle offer courses in aviation studies. These courses however are aimed at students who wish to become commercial or air transport pilots. These courses do not lead to engineering qualifications.

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Careers in aeronautical engineering


Aeronautical engineering as a profession offers graduates a wide range of opportunities both in Australia and internationally. The 1998 Sydney University Graduate Program booklet indicates that almost all aeronautical engineering graduates are in full time employment within four months of graduating. Similar statistics are suggested by the University of NSW. So what do graduates end up doing?

Identify some jobs or general areas of work that aeronautical engineers might be involved in after graduating. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? aircraft design engineer aircraft maintenance engineer aircraft accident investigation. aircraft repair

Graduates may follow a number of career paths. The most obvious field is that involving the design, development and manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components. This field most closely matches the skills that a graduate develops during their undergraduate training. In Australia companies such as Boeing Australia, British Aerospace and Hawker de Havilland employ aeronautical engineers to carry out design, development and manufacturing tasks. Aircraft in service require regular maintenance. Engineers with an understanding of aircraft design and construction are needed to supervise and manage the maintenance of sophisticated aircraft. Companies such as Qantas and Ansett employ aeronautical engineers to carry out such tasks. Government authorities such as CASA, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, employ engineers to monitor maintenance and modification of aircraft in the civil register. BASI, the Bureau of Air Safety Investigation

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are a division of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau and are involved in investigating incidents and accidents involving aircraft in Australian airspace. Engineers in consultation with other specialists will be required to investigate the underlying causes of air crashes. BASI publishes a journal that summarises the reports from accident investigations. The journal is also reproduced on the BASI web site. You might like to try to find the BASI site on the Internet. The Australian defense forces train and employ aeronautical engineers. The airforce is the main employer. Air Force Engineers monitor the failure of aircraft components, evaluate proposed modifications and repair schemes for aircraft and supervise and evaluate equipment trials. Engineer Officers perform a wide range of engineering, maintenance, quality assurance and resource management tasks. The work of these engineers provide the Air Force with airworthy, mission capable aircraft and ground support equipment.

A closer look at careers in design and manufacturing


The following section will focus on the career options of aeronautical engineers in aircraft design and manufacturing. The Dornier company develops regional aircraft and manufactures aircraft components. Recently the company has begun development of a new jet passenger aircraft. To assist in the design and development of the aircraft, the company advertised internationally in a number of trade magazines for graduate engineers in the area of aviation and aerospace. The introductory comments in the companies recruitment material indicated that they required graduates with highly developed communications skills, who took on responsibility, were flexible and worked effectively in teams. Other general criteria included fluency in conversational and technical English, familiarity with Microsoft Office and high motivation. Explain why you believe the company includes works effectively in teams and well developed communications skills as job criteria. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? There are many skills required in the design of aircraft that are not usually able to be covered by one person. Usually several skilled people are required to work together on every component of the project. Therefore, the ability to work

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well with other people and be able to communicate effectively with them is particularly important.

The recruitment information went on to list the development groups in which graduates could be employed. They were: Pre design and loft Aerodynamics Weights Aeroelastic/loads Structural design Flight mechanics Systems development Completions and options.

Each of the development groups required members with specialised experience and or skills. The groups represent the engineering considerations required when undertaking the design of an aircraft. Finance, marketing and other considerations are taken care of by other similarly specialized groups.

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Relations with the community


The relationship and impact of any organization on the wider community is often difficult to define and is not always obvious. The design, construction, maintenance and operation of aircraft impact on the community in both positive and negative ways. Excessive noise, pollution of the air, water and land, sustainability, waste disposal and recycling are all issues that can impact on the community, both locally and globally. You may recall that the construction of the third runway at Sydneys Kingsford Smith Airport caused a great deal of controversy and political manoeuvering. Explain why you think the third runway proposal was so unpopular. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? The third runway increased both the number of landings and take-offs and it widened the zone over which aircraft fly. In simple terms more people were exposed to more noise not very good politically.

The development of pressurised, high capacity, jet aircraft has revolutionized long distance travel and trade. In the 1950s only the very well off were able to fly to London from Australia. This was achieved not in a single hop but in several stages with overnight stop-overs. The aircraft would most likely have been a QANTAS Super Constellation with four huge propellers. Now almost anyone can afford at some time in their life to fly non-stop to London in 22 hours. This has been a positive effect of aeronautical engineering on the community. Increased trade, increased tourism and increased employment have been positive results. The aeronautical engineering industry has the potential to impact negatively on the community. (Hopefully not an unplanned descent into terrain type impact). Aircraft safety, excessive noise, environmental pollution, sustainability and recycling are issues that affect the community. As with other industries the negative impacts rather than positive impacts are more likely to end up on the front page of the morning newspaper. Aircraft operations are the most public manifestation of an aeronautical engineers work. Any resident whose house lies under a flight path will

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tell you that a Boeing 747 at full take off power just 200 metres above your family home is fairly noisy. If that resident had lived at that same address 30 years ago the noise from a Boeing 707 would have been absolutely deafening. Several strategies have been adopted to reduce the noise effect of aircraft over residential areas. Government imposed restrictions such as curfews restricting the operating hours of airports and noise abatement procedures such as reduced take-off power reduce the impact of aircraft noise on residents. The locating of new airports away from residential areas also helps. Aeronautical engineers have contributed through the design and development of quieter jet engines for new aircraft and hush kits for older, noisy aircraft. The development and use of high bypass jet engines has considerably reduced the noise generated by aircraft. The BAE 146 is an aircraft designed to operate into and out of airports with strict curfew noise limitations. It is marketed by BA as the Quiet Trader and uses four relatively quiet small engines to generate relatively low noise levels on take-off. Approximately 30 of these aircraft are registered and operate in Australia. Unfortunately there is an occupational health and safety issue that is associated with these aircraft. There is often a strong smell of engine fumes in the passenger cabin of the aircraft. Many of the aircrew have complained of long term ill effects from these fumes. This issue became the subject of an Australian Senate report in October 2000. The report concluded that the maintenance of seals and aircraft air filtering systems was to blame. Does this sound like engineering problems?

The manufacture and maintenance of aircraft can have consequences for the community and the environment. Most aviation companies are aware of these issues and make a genuine effort to deal with them. Bauxite, the ore from which aluminium is extracted, is very common and is easily mined yet aluminium is quite expensive to purchase. Explain why this might be the case. Think about the manufacturing process. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Did you answer? The refining process for aluminium uses very large amounts of electricity which is very expensive. If the electricity is produced by the burning of coal, then it is also environmentally undesirable. Hydroelectric power is also environmentally damaging.

Here are a few examples from Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown: prepreg waste When cutting the component shapes from prepreg sheet an amount of unusable waste is generated. Prepreg waste contains uncured epoxy resins that could leach into the environment and do damage if disposed of in land fill. Cured epoxy is very stable and not a problem so the company simply cures the waste in the autoclave before disposing of it. dust pollution control You may recall from the OH&S section that when prepreg was machined a fine dust was generated. This dust was extracted from the work area by powerful fans. Where did it go? Well it didnt just get pushed out into the outside air ready to drift across Bankstown. It was in fact pumped into a concentrating device called a cyclone bin that uses centrifugal forces to separate dust from air. Figure 1.13 shows one of the dust concentration systems at Hawker de Havilland.

Figure 1.14 Dust concentrator bins prevent escape of hazardous dust to the environment Photographed with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

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aluminium recycling You were asked previously to explain why aluminium is relatively expensive. The process of refining uses very large amounts of electricity which costs large amounts of money and generates large amounts of carbon-based greenhouse gases, unless it is generated by hydroelectric power which requires the damming of wild rivers. Hawker de Havilland generates a large amount of Series 7000 aircraft grade aluminium waste in the CNC machining centre. This high zinc alloy is not manufactured at present in Australia and it is relatively expensive. The waste is compressed into bales in a machine that is similar to a hay-baler and shipped back to the United States for recycling. See the photograph of the compressed alloy blocks in figure 1.15.

Figure 1.15 Blocks of compressed series7000 aluminiun alloy waste ready for shipping to US Photographed with permission of Hawker de Havilland, Bankstown

paints Hawker de Havilland have made changes toward more environmentally friendly paints. Firstly there is an increased use of water-based paints. This reduces the need for solvent-based paints and lacquers. Secondly the anti-corrosion paints and sealants that Hawker de Havilland now use contain far lower levels of zinc chromate or use alternative chemicals such as the salts of rare-earth elements such as cerium. These are more environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors.

Aeronautical engineers must also be aware of health and safety issues when designing aircraft. Poorly designed cockpit layouts where ergonomics are not fully considered can lead to pilot fatigue. Situations where the layout of the controls of the aircraft are altered can lead to

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accidents. A number of years ago a new model of a light aircraft was manufactured with the position of the wing-flap control and the undercarriage control reversed. It is common practice for pilots to return the flaps to the up position just after landing. Quite a number of pilots returned the wheels to the up position just after landing because of the controls being reversed. While the wheels do not usually retract due to the weight of the aircraft, they will if the aircraft hits a bump or is lifted by a gust of wind. The case of engine fumes in the BAE146 Quiet Trader also highlights the need to address OH&S in the initial design of an aircraft and its maintenance schedule.

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Legal and ethical issues


The design, construction, maintenance and operation of aircraft is tightly regulated by a range of legislation and international conventions. Aeronautics companies may also be sued for errors in design and manufacturing of an aircraft, this is known as product liability. On December 7, 1944 the Convention on Civil Aviation was agreed to and signed by 52 member states. This convention is usually called the Chicago Convention after the city where it was signed. This convention recognized that aviation was an international industry that required consistent rules that applied in all member nations. The International Civil Aviation Organisation commonly known as ICAO oversees the implementation of policy and standards associated with the Chicago Convention. Australia is a signatory to the Chicago Convention and Australias Civil Aviation Act is aligned to the convention. This Act and the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs) that are made under it directly affect the aeronautical engineering profession. The regulations in particular address such things as the airworthiness standards and granting of airworthiness certificates, maintenance requirements, flight rules, noise standards and aircrew qualifications. To gain an airworthiness certificate an aircraft must be designed and maintained to comply with strict structural and in-flight performance standards. Aeronautical engineers must ensure that this is achieved during design, manufacturing and maintenance of aircraft under their supervision. For example, all spare parts that are installed in an aircraft must be accompanied by paperwork that proves that the part is genuine. This paperwork must be retained for the life of the component. Put simply, a bodgey part is likely to fail, probably in flight and you cant just pull up by the side of the road to fix it. Engineers have an ethical responsibility to ensure that aircraft they design and or maintain are airworthy and safe. This responsibility has been further underlined in recent years by an increase in civil litigation. Every component an aeronautical engineer designs or modifies may be found at some later stage to be the direct or indirect cause of an air disaster. If this happens there will be a paper trail that runs right back to the engineers desk. The aeronautical engineer who approves a component for production or signs off on a modification to an existing aircraft takes responsibility for that decision. Companies such as Boeing may give engineers in sub-contracting delegated authority to sign off on design and process changes. Delegated authority would only be given to an engineer who was known to be ethical and competent.

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Engineers as managers
Engineers seldom work in isolation. On the contrary, they almost always work in teams and almost always have to supervise the work of others. Engineers often begin their careers using the professional skills acquired during their training, but they usually rise to the higher ranks of management as their careers progress. Their increased and broader knowledge, and the contacts and links that they have made in the industry allow them to be more valuable as managers than as pure engineers. To this end it is important for engineers to have good human relations skills. Team building skills, problem solving skills and communications skills are important when working on complex multi-disciplinary projects. The design and construction of an aircraft requires the co-ordination and management of a large range of personnel. No single engineer can do this task. The various aspects of design and manufacturing have to be broken into tasks that are within the ability and skills of various work groups to achieve. Hawker de Havilland, for instance, constructs aircraft components for international companies such as Boeing, Airbus Industries, Bombardier and Lockheed for aircraft that are manufactured overseas. Hawker de Havilland contract to manufacture individual components on either build to print or design and manufacture. Where an aircraft company has already carried out the aerodynamic, structural and materials design of a component and then supplies a full set of working plans to the manufacturer it is called build to plan. The aircraft company has already used an aerodynamics team, structural design team and a materials team to get the design to this point. The subcontracting company only manufactures the component. The other method of subcontracting, design and manufacture requires the subcontracting company to fully design and manufacture a particular component. The design and manufacture method would require the subcontracting company to form individual teams to initially assess the project, structurally design the component, design a manufacturing system and finally produce the component. Each team would require a manager or leader to oversee and guide the work. There would also be a manager to co-ordinate each of the teams. Hawker de Havilland is currently manufacturing the tail-cone for the Bombardier BD100 business jet on a design and manufacture basis. They must design and manufacture the tail-cone to enclose an auxiliary power unit designed by another company, to accurately attach to the aircraft that is manufactured overseas. As well, they must comply with the strength and weight

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requirements of the aircraft company. This is a complex task requiring thorough management. Companies involved in the manufacture of sophisticated equipment usually have to comply with international standards. The standards may be associated with the end product or more likely the manufacturing process and the way in which the organization organizes and monitors its work routines. A company which is not certified to the required standards will not receive any work. An example of a standard is the ISO series of standards. The ISO 9000 family of standards is often implemented in the aeronautical engineering industry. ISO 9000 is a generic standard that is primarily concerned with quality management in manufacturing and production industries. Quality management refers to what an organization does to ensure that its products conform to the requirements of their customers. The standard is concerned with the way in which an organization goes about its work rather than directly with the final product it produces. It is common in quality management systems to have direct input and feedback from workers to rapidly correct problems and to have standard methods of carrying out all tasks. These standard methods are sometimes called work orders. Work orders are documented and all staff are required to be trained in them and to follow them. Work orders are designed to ensure consistency in process and final product. As managers, the aeronautical engineers are required to co-ordinate the design and to supervise the implementation of quality management standards in the workplace. If you have access to the Internet <www.iso.ch/iso/en/iso900014000/iso9000/iso9000index.html> to find out more about ISO 9000 (accessed 30.10.01).

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Theengineeringreport

In the engineering profession an engineering report: outlines the area under investigation analyses available data draws conclusions and/or proposes recommendations acknowledges contributions from individuals or groups documents sources of information includes any additional support material.

In this module, you are going to write a report on an innovation or project in the aeronautical industry. However, in addition to presenting the usual material such as that listed above you will look at the role/s of the engineer/s involved in the chosen project area. In this Part, you have seen that the aeronautical profession involves a very broad area of skills and knowledge. Therefore, a closer look at the specific training and career path for an engineer who works on the chosen project will be included in your report. The following section outlines the structure that your report is to take.

Structure of the engineering report


The engineering report will include the following sections. Title The title page gives the title of the report, identifies its author/s and gives the date when the report was completed. The abstract The abstract is a concise summary of the report. The purpose of the abstract is to allow a reader to decide if the report contains information

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that is relevant to their needs. The abstract should be no more than two or three paragraphs, and shorter if possible. The introduction The introduction states the subject, purpose and scope of the report. It may contain background information regarding the topic. It should outline the main sections of the report. Scope of the profession This section contains a description of one sector of the aeronautical engineering industry. It outlines the typical tasks carried out by an aeronautical engineer engaged in this sector of the industry. Training for the profession This section outlines a possible career path for an engineer involved in the chosen sector of the aeronautical engineering profession. This section then defines and examines the skills required to develop the innovation or project that has been selected. Current project or innovation This section examines in detail a current innovation in the sector of the aeronautical engineering industry that you have chosen. This is a major section of the report. It describes the situation or imperatives that led to the development of the innovation or project. The development and realization of the innovation or project are then outlined. Health and safety issues This section critically examines the health and safety issues associated with the design, development manufacture and implementation of the innovation, product or process that has been selected. This section should then explain how these issues have been dealt with by the industry. Relations with the community Defines and critically analyses the possible impact of the innovation or project on the community. The innovation may have both positive and negative effects on the community.

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Conclusion This section draws to conclusion the elements outlined and developed in the preceding sections. It should summarise any major points or issues that have been detailed in the preceding sections. Acknowledgements The acknowledgement section provides the opportunity to credit the work or assistance of other people who contribute to the report. Bibliography To demonstrate that the report is well researched this section should include all references. The Harvard standard referencing system should be used. See below: Higgins, R.A. 1977, Properties of Engineering Materials, Edward Arnold, Sydney Appendices Contains information separated from the main body of the report. The information may include drawings, diagrams, photographs and tables that may enhance the information presented in the main body of the report.

Aeronautical engineering report outline


You are to select a sector or specialisation within the aeronautical engineering profession. You might consider areas such as airline maintenance, air crash investigation, aircraft design and development, academic research and education or government authorities such as CASA or BASI. Aeronautical engineers are employed in all these sectors. Your focus engineering report will document the role of the engineer in the chosen sector and the training and career path for an engineer employed in this sector. You should investigate and report on a recent innovation or project in this sector. So far you have only dealt in detail with two innovations in the aeronautical engineering industry. You will need to select a recent innovation or project to examine and report on. Possible innovations and projects include 'fly by wire' technology, environmentally friendly rust inhibitors, advances in black box technology, the Hawk Lead-in jet trainer project, satellite navigation

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systems for aircraft, noise reduction for jet engines, the Airvan project, the development and construction of ultra-light aircraft in Australia, aircraft landing systems, glass cockpit and avionics developments and super-sonic passenger transport. The websites of Boeing Australia, Hawker de Havilland Australia, BAE Systems Australia, Qantas, Ansett and the websites of any aerospace companies will no doubt contain more information on current projects and innovations. Finally, you need to examine health, safety and community relations issues associated with this sector and with the innovation or project in particular. The sample report that follows is not a complete report. Contents of each section indicate the nature and depth of the text required but are incomplete. The innovation selected is a recent problem with an operational aircraft.

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Sample engineering report


Title Page
You need to provide details such as the report title, author, date and possibly a graphic for presentation purposes. Title: Academics in the aeronautical engineering profession

Module: Aeronautical engineering Author: Date: G. Force October 2000

Abstract
You should concisely state the contents of the report, stating the type of engineer being profiled.
Abstract This report initially focuses on the role and career paths of academics involved in aeronautical engineering. The report then examines the development of pressurized aircraft and the need for effective depressurisation warning systems. The report outlines the involvement of academics in research and crash investigation. The report also examines the effect on society and the environment as well as the health and safety issues associated with the development of pressurised aircraft.

Introduction
You need to expand on the abstract and summarise main parts of the report.
Introduction Broadly speaking, academics are the people employed by universities to lecture students and to carry out research. Universities often have a commercial division that carries out investigations or research for government or the private sector. Sometimes this is done as a partnership and at other times it is straight contract work. This report examines the role of academics in the aeronautical engineering profession and focuses on the current investigation of two incidents of depressurisation in aircraft in Australian airspace.

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Nature and scope of the profession


You should examine and describe the role of the engineer in the sector that you have selected. You need to outline the day-to-day tasks in which the engineer may be involved.
Nature and scope of the profession An aeronautical engineer employed as an academic would most likely be involved in research and teaching in a university. Their working time would be divided between ongoing research and development and lecturing & tutoring students. The tasks undertaken by an academic engineer might include designing courses, coordinating the assessment of students, organizing work-placement for students in industry and liaising with industry about current research tasks being undertaken by students and staff. An academic may also be involved in high-level contract work with industry such as participating in the design of aircraft or analyzing and investigating failures in aircraft components. Further tasks may include .

Training for the profession


You should describe the training and career path that an engineer might follow to work in this sector. In addition, the personnel associated with the project or innovation that you have selected will need professional aeronautical engineering skills. You will identify and justify the professional skills that you believe will be required to develop this innovation or project and the career opportunities it will provide.
Training for the profession An engineer who practices as an academic has usually completed an undergraduate degree in aeronautical engineering or mechanical engineering. They have then worked in a range of industry sectors to gain a broad industry knowledge. The engineer would then have completed post graduate qualifications. Most often they would possess a masters degree in engineering and have completed or be working toward a doctorate (PhD) in a specialized research project.

Recent project or innovation


You should select and describe a recent innovation or project that is associated with the aeronautical engineering specialization or sector that you have chosen. You will then to outline the situation or imperatives that led to this innovation or project being developed or undertaken. You need to describe the project or innovation in detail. This description should be in terms of the engineering and technical aspects of the project or innovation: materials, mechanics and communication. The description may include the design constraints, recent technical developments, manufacturing processes/problems and operational details. The topic chosen here relates to a current investigation by the Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI).
Depressurisation warning systems Background: The need for faster aircraft that could fly above the weather led to the development of pressurized aircraft. The low partial pressure of oxygen above 3000 metres can lead to poor pilot performance due to hypoxia (low blood oxygen levels). Above 6000 metres hypoxia can cause unconsciousness and death. Pressurisation of the aircraft cabin increases the partial pressure of oxygen to a safe level for aircrew and passengers. The development of the jet engine during the 1940s combined with the more ready availability of exotic metals such as aluminium and titanium after World War II allowed the development of pressurized jet airliners. One area in the early development of pressurized aircraft where academics and researchers became involved was crash investigation. The Comet, the first commercial pressurized aircraft began falling out of the sky after flying quite safely for many thousands of hours. Academics assisted crash investigators by supplying independent advice and analyzing the causes and prevention of fatigue. The cause was eventually isolated to metal fatigue due to vibration and cyclic pressurization. The components involved had sharp corners and stress concentration points that initiated fatigue cracks and eventually failed in flight causing massive structural failure and catastrophic depressurisation. Academics are still today involved in ongoing research into fatigue prediction and prevention.

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Pressurization is maintained by sealing the aircraft and maintaining a cabin pressure equating to around 1000 to 2000 metres (3000 to 6000 feet in pilot language). Modern pressurised aircraft occasionally develop leaks in the seals or skin of the aircraft. If a seal or critical component fails and a relatively rapid depressurisation occurs, the pilot is usually very aware of the problem. There is a lot of noise in the cabin. The pilot will put on an oxygen mask and place the aircraft in a rapid descent to below 3000metres. When the depressurisation is catastrophically rapid the pilot may not have time to save the aircraft. If the depressurisation is slow the pilot may not be aware of the problem. This last case, a slow depressurisation, is the focus of a current investigation. The pilot is often unaware when a slow leak occurs. The symptoms that the pilot develops as the aircraft climbs include: Impaired judgment Diminished visual acuity Increased reaction time Erratic behaviour Reduction of auditory acuity (but this is the last sense to be affected)

The pilot being unaware of the situation continues to climb the aircraft, increasing the severity of the symptoms. To prevent this situation developing to a dangerous level most pressurised aircraft have a number of systems on board. When the cabin pressure falls to a dangerous level, oxygen masks fall from lockers in the cabin ceiling and a warning system is activated. The warning system is usually a visual system but may be combined with an aural signal (noisemaking). Current investigation: In June 1999 the pilot of Beech King Air 200 began to act unusually and rapidly lost consciousness. A passenger who was also a pilot, realized that the cabin was not correctly pressurised and put the aircraft into a rapid descent to a safer altitude. The pilot recovered and was able to resume control. Two problems emerged. Firstly, the oxygen system was incorrectly installed, consequently it did not deploy at the set altitude of 12500 feet (approx 4000 mtres). Secondly, the Beech King Air only uses visual warning systems. A pilot losing visual acuity may not notice visual warning signals. The Australian Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI) issued an

interim report (No IR19990150) which canvassed several issues including the possible inclusion of aural warning systems in Beech King Air aircraft. In September 2000 another King Air was on climb out of Perth. The aircraft continued to climb beyond its assigned flight level. The pilot appears to have lost consciousness and the aircraft flew on for another five hours before crashing in Queensland. BASI have issued a preliminary report commenting only on the factual evidence ( PAR 2000003771). The pilot appears to have been unaware of the seriousness of his situation and did not report anything untoward to air traffic control. It appears that the King Air suffered a depressurisation but the cause of the crash has not been established at the time of writing. In these two occurrences the pilots seem to have been unaware of the seriousness of the situation until it was too late. A number of aviation academics specialise in cockpit design and human perception. These academics often have postgraduate qualifications in occupational psychology. In this instance academics and academic research may be utilized by investigators to critically analyse the effectiveness of visual and aural warning systems at diminished levels of perception and consciousness. A pilot is alerted by an aural signal no matter where the speaker is placed in the cockpit whereas the pilot must look at the visual signal to see it. Also a loud noise can convey a greater sense of urgency that an illuminated signal may not. The ongoing occurrence of this problem indicates that more research and development is needed in the area of warning systems. At the time of writing BASI has not produced a final report on either of these accidents. The reader might consult the BASI website to ascertain the current status of either report.

Health and safety issues


You should investigate and describe the issues that are associated with this innovation and project.
Health and Safety In the context of this report, the Heath and Safety issues operate at two levels. In examining the role of an academic the Health and Safety of students and teaching staff must be taken into account. When considering the history of pressurised aircraft and the current investigation into aircraft depressurisation warning systems in particular, the health and safety of aircrew and passengers is pushed to the fore.

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Any instructor or teacher of students must ensure a safe working and learning environment. In NSW that means that all work-places and the equipment used in them must comply with the provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Students who need to use equipment or chemicals must have training and instruction in the safe use of that process. At universities students may make models, operate wind tunnels and do work placements that involve unfamiliar equipment. It is the responsibility of the instructors to ensure that students participate in appropriate training and induction procedures to ensure that they work safely. Regarding the investigation into the warning systems in aircraft, the safety implications are more dramatic and obvious. Passengers and aircrew on modern aircraft expect a high level of safety in a strongly regulated industry. The investigation and subsequent research may indicate that aural warning systems would not have prevented this tragedy. However, if the aural systems are recommended, then all operators of these aircraft may be required to fit such a system to reduce the likelihood of further tragedy.

Relations with the community


You should identify and discuss the impact on the community and the environment of the development of this innovation or project.
Relations with the community Three areas of community impact that are associated with the issues in this report are: Institutions and the academics they employ, provide training for persons who wish to enter the aeronautical engineering profession. As well, the institutions carry out research that furthers our knowledge and improves the efficiency and safety of air transport. High speed, pressurized aircraft made air travel more accessible to the general public and lead to greater tourism. The early jet aircraft made an incredible amount of noise and used large quantities of fuel. The longer runways required for these aircraft have lead to landfill in many harbours and consequently the altering or destruction of marine habitats for example, the third runway in Botany Bay. The conclusions of the BASI report should increase the safety of air travel and increase the publics confidence in air transport.

Conclusion
Academics play an important role in investigating issues of public importance. They are employed by a public institution and are likely to be impartial when conducting research, reviewing evidence and making recommendations. In the instance examined in this report BASI will review the evidence collected and with reference to academic research and practical experience make recommendations that may cover altered maintenance procedures, changes to pilot training and modification to aircraft systems such as warning devices.

Acknowledgements
You need to credit the work or assistance of other people who contributed to the report. See the example below:
Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Al Timeter from Pacific Planes and Di Hedral from the UNSW for their assistance in preparing this report.

Bibliography
You need to demonstrate that the report is well researched. You should include a reference section indicating all references consulted. The Harvard standard referencing system should be used. See the example below:
References: Higgins, R.A. 1977, Properties of Engineering Materials, Edward Arnold, Sydney Kermode, A.C. 1987, Mechanics of Flight, Longman, Essex Australian Transport Safety Bureau Interim Report: IR199990150 Australian Transport Safety Bureau Preliminary Aviation Report: PAR 200003771

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Appendix
Appendices: Contain information separated from the main body of the report. The information may include drawings, diagrams, photographs and tables that may enhance the information presented in the main body of the report. You may hand write or word process your engineering report.

Exercise

Exercise 1.1 a b c d e f g Select one sector of the aeronautical engineering industry. Report on the role of an engineer in that sector of engineering and describe a typical career path. Describe and sketch one recent engineering project or engineering innovation in that sector of the industry. Explain the health and safety issues that an engineer working in the sector would need to be aware of. Discuss the relationship between the engineer and the community. Summarise major points and issues detailed in the report. List contributors under acknowledgements and references in the bibliography.

Present your report following the structure of the sample engineering report.

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Progress check
In this part you investigated the scope of aeronautical engineering and several technologies related to the design and manufacture of aircraft and examined the broader implications of advancements in aeronautics. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.
Agree well done Disagree revise your work Uncertain contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree

I have learnt about the nature and scope of the aeronautical engineering profession current projects and innovations health and safety issues training for the profession career prospects unique technologies in the profession legal and ethical implications engineers as managers relations with the community.

I have learnt to define the responsibilities of the aeronautical engineer describe the nature and range of work done in this profession examine projects and innovations from within the aeronautical profession analyse the training and career prospects within aeronautical engineering.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will trace the development of aeronautics.

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Exercisecoversheet

Exercise 1.1

Name: _______________________________

Check!
Have you have completed the following exercise? Exercise 1.1 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner's Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

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Part 2: Aeronautical engineering history of flight

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Part 2 contents

Introduction ..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?...................................................................2

History of flight.....................................................................................3
The myth of flight .......................................................................5 Early designs.............................................................................6 Balloons and airships .................................................................7 Gliders to aeroplanes...............................................................10 Helicopters ..............................................................................16 Space flight .............................................................................20 Societal influences................................................................... 24

Exercises............................................................................................29 Progress check .................................................................................35 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................37

Part 2: Aeronautical engineering history of flight

Introduction

People have wanted to fly ever since they first noticed the freedom of a bird soaring high in the sky. We will trace the first attempts to copy the flight of birds through to the realisation that people would need a machine in order to be able to join birds in flight. We will see how developments in mathematics and improved materials technology first brought people to a full realisation of the problems involved in controlled flight and then enabled them to develop solutions to those problems. As you investigate the development of flight and flying machines you should keep in mind the following questions: Did a change in materials lead to a change in design? Was a new and innovative design developed using existing materials? What was the influence of new construction methods? In what ways did developments in related technologies influence change in aircraft? How have these changes impacted on society and the environment?

What will you learn?


You will learn about: historical developments in aeronautical engineering the effects of aeronautical innovation on peoples lives and living standards environmental implications of flight.

You will learn to: research the history of flight in Australia and understand the way it has impacted on peoples lives examine safety issues related to flight and flying.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

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History of flight
The most common types of powered aircraft in general use today are: 1 fixed wing helicopters ultra light. Large fixed wing aircraft are now almost exclusively jet powered. Smaller fixed wing aircraft are commonly propeller driven or jet powered. State and briefly explain the reasons that determine the propulsion system used on aircraft today. You should consider private and commercial flight. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2 Fixed wing jet powered military aircraft are quite different in shape and appearance to private and commercial aircraft. State and briefly explain the reasons for the different shape of these military aircraft. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Helicopters are used in private and commercial aviation. They are used by services such as health, law enforcement and emergency services. State and briefly explain the special features of helicopters that make them particularly suitable for the work that they do. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Ultra light aircraft are used extensively for recreation. State and briefly explain the special features of ultra light aircraft that make them particularly suitable for recreational flight. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Did you answer? 1 Powerful jet engines allow relatively short take off distances for large aircraft with heavy pay loads, hence their importance to large commercial aircraft. Travel times are minimised on any aircraft with jet engines. Purchase price and maintenance costs limit the use of jet engines on smaller aircraft, especially in private use. Commercial aircraft are designed to achieve maximum fuel efficiency and smooth operation with easy pilot control. Military aircraft are designed for maximum manoeuvrability and high lift from small wings travelling at high speed. Helicopters do not require large runways to take off and land, and are capable of holding a fixed position in flight. Consequently helicopters can travel directly to locations that can not be reached by

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any other form of transport. Once at its location the helicopter can be used as a platform for rescue or observation. 4 Ultra light aircraft are relatively inexpensive to build and maintain. They are easy to control and can be dismantled for easy transportation to and from the place they are to be flown. They have very short take off and landing distances and so do not require airport facilities. They contain conventional technology and can be safely operated with due care by most people.

Now it is time to find out how aeroplanes developed to their present form.

The myth of flight


The desire to fly, and the general awareness that advances in flight would be linked to advances in technology, has been documented since ancient greek times. Daedalus, in Greek mythology, was a skilled Athenian craftsman and inventor who was imprisoned with his son Icarus. To escape, Daedalus built two pairs of wings with feathers, wax and thread. Unfortunately, during their escape, Icarus flew too close to the sun, the wax in his wings melted, and he fell to his death in the sea.

Figure 2.1 Icarus flies too close to the sun

The details contained in the text of this myth tell us much about the concept of manned flight held by people for at least two thousand years.

Part 2: Aeronautical engineering history of flight

Flight was somehow connected to unknown mystical powers in bird feathers and wings and could only be imagined in terms of flapping some kind of wing-inspired design. Also, there was a clear understanding that the limitations of materials in turn created limitations in the designs that could be created to assist manned flight. Why was it believed that wax wings would melt in the sky? What does this tell us about the understanding of the sky and the atmosphere in ancient Greek times.

Early designs
Between 400 and 300 BC a Greek scholar named Archytas built a wooden pigeon that moved through the air and the Chinese perfected the first working kite models. Around 200 BC Archimedes, the Greek mathematician and inventor, observed the fact that some solids could float in liquids and then developed the basic principles governing floating and buoyancy. By 1290 an English monk, Roger Bacon, extended Archimedes concept of buoyancy to include solid objects in air. Leonardo da Vinci designed ornithopters around 1500 AD, structures intended to carry people into the air and support them with flapping motions. Through centuries of thought the concepts that the first successful flying machines may not look like birds, may not have feathers or flapping wings, were beginning to be explored.

Figure 2.2 An ornithopter design by Leonardo da Vinci

In 1680, almost 200 years after da Vinci drew his ornithopter, an Italian mathematician, Giovanni A. Borelli, showed that people could not fly by flapping wings. Using mathematics that would become an essential tool

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in the research and development of many technological innovations that we now take for granted, he showed that peoples muscles are too weak to flap the large surfaces that would be needed to support their weight in the air.

Balloons and airships


Power and the properties of materials were enemies of progress in successful manned flight in the past and remain so today. These issues were overcome in 1783 by Joseph and Etienne Mongolfier. These French brothers, paper makers by trade, used their current paper technology to line large sheets of linen and thus produce a fabric that was air tight at low pressures. A large balloon was made from this material and then filled with hot air over an open fire of wool and paper. This balloon had a volume of 1062 m3 and was 17.4 m high. In a process similar to developments in space flight, some 200 years later, the first passengers in a balloon flight were animals a sheep, a chicken and a duck while in the second lift the balloon remained connected to a tethered rope as an adventurer, Piltre de Rozier, was briefly lifted into the air. Finally, two months after the flight of the animals, an even bigger Montgolfier balloon carried de Rozier and the Marquis dArlandes on a flight lasting some 8 kilometres across Paris. What technologies enabled balloon flights in 1783 and prevented heavier than air flight for another 120 years? These successes stimulated other inventors and before long hydrogen, a gas much lighter than air, was being used to create the buoyancy and lift needed to allow a balloon and its basket to rise in air. The development from hot air to hydrogen as the source of the much needed buoyancy and lift removed the need for the dangerous fire required to heat the air, but the large volume of hydrogen created a much greater potential danger. Because they are totally controlled by existing wind conditions balloons are not very useful as a means of transport. Today they are used mainly for recreation purposes and, with the development of clean, safe, easily controlled propane burners, have returned to hot air to provide their buoyancy and lift.

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Figure 2.3 An artists impression of the first balloon flight

The airship, a development of the balloon, attempted to overcome the lack of directional control in balloon flight. To achieve lift, the airship required a lighter than air gas and the ability to contain that gas. For thrust and directional control some form of power and steering was needed. In 1852 Henri Giffard tested the first man made vehicle able to navigate in the air. By using a steam driven propeller and a rudder it was possible to change speed and direction during flight. Giffards airship consisted of a motorised platform and a rudder suspended below a long balloon with pointed ends. These ends were the first concession to aerodynamics in flight design and a clear indication of the tendency for large balloons to be forced off course by the moving mass of air around them. The steam powered Gifford airship could fly at 8 km/h. Thirty-two years later, in 1884, an electric motor was used in powered flight to drive an airship at 22 km/h. The large balloon needed to provide lift for an airship would continue to make the airship unstable in changing wind conditions and this, combined with the use of highly explosive hydrogen gas for balloon buoyancy, resulted in one of the most spectacular aircraft accidents in the United States in 1937 as the airship Hindenburg exploded and burnt while mooring in Lakehurst New Jersey after a flight from Germany.

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Figure 2.4 Henri Giffards airship 1852

As their design developed from the early 1900s three basic types of airship evolved: semirigid airships that had metal keels (backbones) and metal cones at each end for stiffness and support. While the length of these airships was controlled by the metal supports the flying shape of the balloon was maintained by the gas pressure within it. rigid airships that maintained their shape and size with a metal framework that also supported gas balloons held within it. There may be several balloons, or ballonets, within a rigid airship. nonrigid airships or blimps that have a streamlined gas tight rubberised skin covering the hull. There is no framework for support and gas pressure inside the hull causes the skin to maintain its shape. The first rigid airship was built by the Austrian engineer David Schwarz in 1897. Two sugar refiners, Paul and Pierre Lebaudy, built several successful semirigid airships from 1902. The most famous rigid airships were built by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, a retired German Army officer, from 1900. Zeppelins designs were developments of the airship pioneered by Schwarz . Zeppelin used lightweight aluminium girders to construct a frame, which was then covered with an outer layer of linen. Zeppelin airships were powered by petrol engines. Various airships were used by the Germans for scouting, observation and supply work during the First World War. More than 50 bombing raids were carried out over England during this time. The biggest airships developed by the late 1930s were capable of carrying around 50 people at speeds up to 100 km/h.

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Although airships provided the first commercial airline, DELAG in 1909, and were used by the military, they continued to be plagued by problems associated with instability in wind gusts and the explosive properties of the hydrogen gas within them. Ultimately, these issues ended the era of rigid and semirigid airships. American airship design was largely influenced by the American Army and Navy. The development of the technology needed to separate and then routinely purify helium gas allowed American designers to develop safer airships. Helium provides only 90% of the lifting power of an equivalent volume of hydrogen. However, it does not burn as hydrogen does and, likewise, it does not combine with other elements to corrode metal or fabric. After the start of the Second World War American airship construction was concentrated on nonrigid airships or blimps. These blimps were very effectively used as escorts for ships and were able to prevent submarine attack. The United States Navy retired its last active airships in 1961. The airships seen today are helium filled blimps but, due to limited speed and carrying capacity and instability in strong and gusting wind conditions, are used almost exclusively for advertising, promotion and recreational activities such as eye in the sky camera work at sporting fixtures. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 2.1.

Glider to aeroplane
While some inventors and engineers developed the airship concept others proceeded to work with kites and gliders. Airship designers recognised that lift and propulsion could be separate, but work together to create controlled flight. Think of as many reasons as you can for the great amount of research and development that was done for airship design. Early aircraft design, ornithopters with flapping wings, failed to use this concept. Sir George Cayley, an Englishman, designed an aerodyne (heavier than air flying machine) in 1799 that included a propeller on the nose for propulsion, a fixed wing in the middle for lift, and a tail at the back for control. It is probable that this was the greatest single design development in aviation as we know it today. Cayley began to develop his design with extensive glider research. In 1853, one year after

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Giffards airship flew over Paris, Cayleys coachman was able to fly a Cayley designed glider across a valley. Unfortunately, it was beyond Cayley to develop a powered aeroplane because no engine could be made light enough for the lift available in glider design in 1853. It was not until the end of the nineteenth century that the development of the internal combustion engine would make it possible to consider building such an aeroplane. What two key features of modern aircraft design did Cayley recognize in 1853? Glider development continued and a German, Otto Lilienthal, made a succession of monoplane gliders and some biplanes with a pair of superimposed wings. Lilienthals designs consisted of peeled willow (timber) stems with waxed cloth stretched over this lightweight framework to provide lift from the surrounding air. He shifted his bodyweight during flights to provide control. He was killed in a glider accident in 1896. Nevertheless, he had clearly demonstrated that significant lift force could be created from a wing and that some in-flight control mechanism would need to be developed for the first powered aircraft. In 1899 an Englishman, Percy Pilcher, had almost completed a powered aircraft that he would be able to control and fly. He too lost his life before he was able to realise his ambition of powered flight. At this same time two bicycle makers in Ohio, Orville and Wilbur Wright, flew their first glider after as much research as could be completed at this time. The Wright brothers, well ahead of their time, included wind tunnel testing in their preparation. Their observations made it clear to them that the ability to control a machine in flight was essential to the safety and success of the flight. They obtained the services of a mechanic, Charlie Taylor, to design and build a lightweight petrol engine. The fame of completing the first powered flight in a fully controllable aeroplane became a contest between Samuel P Langley and the Wright brothers. After years spent developing a control system and a simple four-cylinder engine Orville made a successful flight on December 17, 1903 in an aeroplane called the flyer.

Figure 2.5 Glider 1902

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Figure 2.6 First flight 1903

Both the Wright and Langley machines were biplanes. In 1903 two wings were needed to produce the lift required from the motor power that was available then. The Wright brothers aeroplane design allowed the wings to be flexible in torsion, thus permitting different amounts of lift on opposite sides of the aeroplane. Examine the pictures of the Wright brothers glider and aeroplane and note the similarities and differences in the two designs. If you have access to the Internet you can visit <www.aeroweb.org/history/wright/attempt.html> for clearer images of the Wright brothers glider (accessed 30.10.01). This form of control, essential to successful flight, is now achieved with ailerons (separate hinged surfaces) near the wing tips. The Wright brothers plane also included twin rudders at the back. Very few designs had rudders in 1903 and would have been impossible to steer had they left the ground. Power was supplied from a 9 kW petrol engine that provided enough propulsion to achieve about 50 km/h over a 37 m flight. Later that same day Wilbur made a flight of 260 m in 59 seconds. The Flyer had wooden frame wings covered with cotton cloth. The engine turned two wooden propellers attached behind the wings. By 1905 the Wright brothers had built a plane that could fly for more than half an hour at a time and in 1908 they made their first official flights in France. At this time further aeroplane development required the production of engines with increased power and reduced weight. Until this could be achieved aeroplanes would remain an amusing curiosity to most people. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 2.2.

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The preferred aeroplane design became monoplane (single wing) since this design had the least drag and produced the fastest aeroplanes for the engine power available. In 1909 the Gnome engine was produced. This engine had its cylinders arranged radially around a crankshaft that was fixed to the aeroplane. The engine rotated with the propeller and, though expensive, was much lighter than any other engine then available. Louis Blriot who made the first international flight over water in 1909 when he flew from France to England used this engine. Aviation was now to be taken seriously.

Figure 2.7 Louis Blriot in the plane used to cross the English Channel in 1909

During the First World War aeroplanes and airships developed rapidly. Engines, which tended to be unreliable at first, developed no more than 75 kW in 1914 yet, by 1918, were reliable and producing around 300 kW. Rotary engines could not produce the power demanded by aircraft designers and so by 1918 engine design had changed to water cooled inline and V formations driving a single crankshaft as seen in cars. These engines were heavy but, for their time, very powerful. With this increase in power came a change in aircraft design. By the end of the First World War the preferred aircraft design was biplane (two wings) and even triplane (three wings). Struts and wires to form a structure that was both strong and torsionally stiff to resist twisting in powered flight could brace the superimposed wings. This design had a very high strength to weight ratio but, unfortunately, higher drag than monoplane designs. Multiwinged aircraft gave greater lift that allowed an increase in aircraft payload (carrying capacity) and, it was thought, greater manoeuvrability. Development continued along these lines until the late 1920s, aircraft increasing in size, speed and payload as engine power increased. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 2.3.

The next significant change in aircraft design was achieved in the early 1930s with the development of stressed skin construction. Light alloys of aluminium with copper and other alloying elements were used to

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fabricate both the underlying structure of the aircraft and the thin skin that covered this structure. Riveting methods were developed to enhance this construction method in which the thin covering attached to the airframe contributed significant strength to the overall structure.

Figure 2.8 Douglas DC 1, first flown in 1933

As a result of this new construction method aircraft design became much more streamlined, reducing drag, and the weight supported by the wings (wing loading) increased from 39 kg/m2 in the late 1920s to 195 kg/m2 by 1940. At the end of World War 2 in 1946 wing loading had increased to 420 kg/m2. These advances revolutionised aircraft speed, range and payload and returned aircraft to monoplane design. Aircraft took on an entirely new appearance. Compared with fabric-covered biplanes, the metal monoplane had wings of much smaller total area. How did stressed skin construction result in much greater wing loading? What were the benefits of the greater wing loading achieved? As aircraft flew higher and faster, and they increased in size and payload, several related engineering systems were adapted to support aircraft development. With greater flight speed it became necessary to retract landing gear (wheels and struts) into the fuselage (body), wings or engine nacelles (outer cover) of the aircraft during flight. To allow slow take off and landing speeds but high cruising speeds from the same stressed skin structured wing a variety of flap systems were developed. Variable pitch propellers were designed for maximum engine efficiency at any load or air speed. Hydraulic systems were needed to operate landing gear and flaps, replacing the cable systems used when aircraft were smaller and lighter. Electric systems were developed to operate dials and gauges, and pump fuel between long-range tanks to keep the weight of the aircraft evenly distributed. Radio systems, radar, compressed air brakes, heating systems to de-ice the wings and tail were

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all part of aircraft development from the 1930s to the end of the Second World War in 1945. Engines were fitted into special cowlings, which assisted the flight of the aircraft, they had negative drag, and cooling systems were developed to protect engines. To overcome the drop in engine power due to air thinning as aircraft flew higher, compressor units called superchargers were fitted to push as much air into the engine as was needed as the aircraft climbed into the sky. Consider the engineering developments applied to aircraft between 1930 and 1946 and determine the significance of each development to aircraft performance. Apart from engineering advances, other changes were happening to aircraft. By 1939 rows of comfortable seats were being fitted into commercial airlines where, only a few years previously, a few loose wicker chairs had been provided for passenger comfort. Commercial and private aircraft relied on conventional piston engines and propellers until the 1950s. This limited the maximum power available to aircraft designers for improvements in speed, cruising altitude and payload. In fact Frank Whittle, an RAF test pilot, had first published the patent for the gas turbine engine in 1930. This patent was allowed to lapse in 1935 and in 1939 the German Heinkel, He 178 became the first jet-powered aircraft to fly. The Second World War provided excellent reason to develop the jet engine and by 1945 jet engines were common on military aircraft. The turbo fan, a much more quiet but less powerful version of the jet engine, is used on most modern commercial aircraft and some private aircraft. Frank Whittle first suggested the turbo fan in 1936. Perhaps the final major development leading to commercial aircraft as we know them today was the full cabin pressurisation system. This system is essential with highflying aircraft and is responsible for the round body shape of all modern passenger jet liners. A floor braces the cabin mid way down from the top. Passengers are seated above this floor and luggage and flight systems below it. The first commercial jet liner to be fitted with turbo fan engines, the Comet in 1949, suffered several early crashes. It was discovered that metal fatigue, generated by high engine power and exhaust gas emissions, had caused square windows on the airliner to fail, resulting in sudden and catastrophic failure of the depressurising aircraft. The mechanics of metal fatigue were not fully understood at this time and the stress raising effect of square window corners set into the stressed skin construction of the aircraft body had been underestimated. More recent developments in aircraft design have concentrated on appropriate wing shapes for super sonic cruising speeds. As well, the use of computer control systems to maximise performance from the design of

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the aircraft and integrate the large number of electronic flying support systems has been essential in both the development of jet liners built to carry hundreds of passengers and also highly manoeuvrable fighter jets. While military aircraft require instability for high manoeuvrability, commercial jet aircraft are designed to be stable in air, reducing drag and fuel consumption. Appropriate aircraft design and computer software ensure that each design objective can be satisfied. The wind tunnel, used in the late 1890s by the Wright brothers, is now more essential than ever in the design of aircraft. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercises 2.4 and 2.5.

Helicopters
A helicopter is an aircraft that obtains a lifting force from one or two whirling rotors. The rotor, that may at first appear to be a horizontal propeller, is actually a rotating wing. Helicopter design varies from fixed wing aircraft in that both lift and propulsion are obtained from a helicopter rotor, while in a fixed wing aircraft the wings provide aircraft lift and propulsion comes directly from a propeller or a jet engine. A pilot can vary the lift force in a helicopter by changing the pitch (angle) of the rotor blades as they spin above the helicopter. In fact, the pitch of the rotors must have some automatic adjustment with each rotation since the forward movement of a rotor blade on one side of the helicopter produces much more lift than the backward movement of the rotor blade on the opposite side of the helicopter without this adjustment.

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Rotor blade rotation

B NOT TO SCALE Direction of flight Air flow


B

Air flow
A

Cross-section of advancing rotor blade (A)


Figure 2.9 Varying lift from a helicopter rotor blade

Cross-section of retreating rotor blade (B)

By varying the pitch of the rotors as they rotate from one side of the helicopter to the other the lift on each side of the helicopter is kept the same. If this pitch change did not occur, the helicopter would roll sideways due to the unequal lift on each side. The system of pivoted links and bearing surfaces required to create the pitch change mechanism demanded the development of high duty materials and finely controlled manufacturing processes.

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Tandem-rotor craft Paul Cornu (1907, France)

Helicopter sketch Leonardo da Vinci (1483, Italy)

Two-rotor craft Henrich Focke (1936, germany) Figure 2.10 Early helicopter designs

The first recorded use of rotor-powered flight appears to be a Chinese toy that was developed around AD 320. Feather rotors held the rotating toy in the air. A similar principle was used by Leonardo da Vinci to produce a drawing for a spiral shaped flying machine that had a large screw like wing covered with starched linen. In 1784 Launoy and Bienvenu, two Frenchmen, used feathers to build a larger version of the Chinese toy. They demonstrated that this machine could fly. As with fixed wing aircraft, further development of the helicopter would have to wait until a suitable lightweight motor delivering useful power could be built. Helicopter design continued to be through model aircraft until 1907 when the first manned flight took place. Louis Brguet, a French inventor, built a four-rotor helicopter that carried his assistant 600 mm into the air and held him there for one minute. In the same year Paul Cornu, a French mechanic, made the first free flight to a height of 1.8 m for 20 seconds.

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Figure 2.11 The autogyro

To overcome the tendency for fixed wing aircraft to stall and crash when their forward speed became too low Spaniard Juan de la Cierva made several flying machines with horizontal spinning wings above the aircraft. These machines, built around 1923, had a separate propeller at the front that supplied the necessary propulsion. As the aircraft moved forwards the air moving past the wings caused them to rotate, which in turn produced the necessary lift for flight. These aircraft, called autogyros, differed from helicopters in that the swirling rotors above the autogyro were not powered, but rather depended on the forward motion of the aircraft for their rotation. Autogyros need only a short run for take off and landing, but are not practical for larger machines. Can you think why autogyros are not suitable for larger machines?

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Main rotor

Tail rotor

Single-rotor helicopter Main rotors

Main rotors Tandem-rotor helicopter

Coaxial-rotor helicopter Figure 2.12 Basic helicopter types

The first helicopters to realise their design brief of controlled vertical flight with little or no take off distance did not appear until 1935. These machines had twin oppositely rotating rotors to cancel the reaction moment tending to spin the helicopter body rather than the main rotor. In 1939 the first flight of a single rotor helicopter, with a smaller rotor in the tail to cancel the reaction moment effect to the main rotor, took place in the United States of America. A Russian engineer, Igor Sikorsky, designed this machine and then continued to produce helicopter designs that led to the helicopter as we know it today. The use of gas turbine engines in helicopters commenced in the 1950s and provided the next major boost to their development. These engines allowed helicopters to fly faster and higher and to carry heavier loads. Also materials development such as the replacement of wooden or metal rotor blades with reinforced polymer blades made helicopters lighter, safer and stronger. There has been some experimentation with supplementary air jets in helicopter design to assist steering and counteract body rotation, separate jet and propeller systems have been used to increase helicopter speed, but most helicopters remain true to the design principles of the late 1950s. Why must helicopters have at least two rotors?

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Today helicopters are used for private, commercial and military aviation but it is in community services that they have had the most impact on peoples lives. Medical and disaster evacuation has saved many lives, while people who live in isolated locations difficult to reach by conventional transport have had their quality of life greatly enhanced by helicopters. Helicopters are noisy, their rotors are dangerous and they cannot glide if they lose power. For these reasons helicopter landing pads must be thoughtfully located.

Spaceflight
Spaceflight from Earth is possible only if an object is able to accelerate beyond the pull of Earths gravity. An object must reach a velocity of at least 28,000 km/h to achieve orbit, and 40,000 km/h to totally escape Earths gravity for travel to the Moon and beyond. Clearly the greatest limiting factor to space flight was the availability of a power source that could be used to achieve these velocities. From the earliest times people realised that space travel would require some special form of energy. Early writings included waterspouts and giant cannons as the energy source needed to commence a trip through space. The Chinese developed the first known rockets around 1200 AD.

Figure 2.13 A Chinese warrior fires a rocket about 1200 AD

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European armies were using rockets similar to these, powered by gunpowder, in the mid 1800s. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky published a scientific paper in 1903 that examined the rocket technology of the time. This paper recognised that travel through space would require the reactive force produced by rockets. With no air in space, propeller and jet engines could not supply a driving force. Further, he recognised that the solid propellent of the day, gunpowder, would not produce enough energy to allow space flight. In fact, he went one step further and suggested the use of liquid propellents such as hydrogen and oxygen would be required to launch a vehicle from the Earth into space. These are the propellents currently used to power rockets. In 1926 Robert H Goddard, a university lecturer in Massachusetts USA, designed and launched the first rocket powered by liquid propellents. He used gasoline and liquid oxygen. By 1937 his rockets had achieved 1100 km/h and an altitude of 2.7 km.

Figure 2.14 Robert H Goddard, left, with a rocket in 1940

What is the difference between the reactive force supplied by a rocket and the propulsion provided by propellers and jet engines. At about the same time Wernher von Braun, a German scientist, was developing rockets for military use in Germany. His first successful firing was in 1942. By 1944 this rocket had developed into the V2, a device used to deliver a high explosive warhead from Germany to England. The V2 had a cruising speed of 4000 km/h. It used ethanol and liquid oxygen as propellents and contained a gyro platform for guidance. It was the first rocket capable of being developed for space flight. In 1949, just 5 years after the V2 was first used against England, von Braun and his V2 were part of the worlds first multi stage rocket launch in the United States. The amount of fuel needed to launch a powerful rocket into space requires a large heavy fuel container and very large rocket motors. Keeping this large mass as part of the rocket at very high

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altitudes is wasteful of energy. Rocket designers realised the worth of breaking a rocket into stages. As the first stage finishes firing it drops away from the remainder of the rocket, leaving a smaller mass to be accelerated into space. The V2 was used by von Braun as the first of two stages in a rocket called Bumper. Similar events were occurring in Russia at the same time. By 1957 the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, was launched in Russia. Called the SS6, this rocket could deliver a warhead to a site 8000 km away. Just two months after the launch of the ICBM the space age began when the same rocket was used to launch the worlds first artificial satellite into space. Called Sputnik 1, this satellite was a small aluminium sphere. One month later a dog named Laika became the first living creature launched into space in Sputnik 2. Sputnik 2 had a mass of nearly 0.5 tonnes. Early in 1958 the USA launched its first satellite, Explorer 1. Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space in 1961. Development for the next decade, the 1960s, concentrated on manned space flight and the creation of a satellite communications network around the Earth. This communications network is now as essential to business, commerce and peoples everyday lives as much as it is to the military. Manned space flight was a matter of prestige to the USA and Russia who were locked together in a cold war at this time. Following several manned moon landings by the USA between 1969 and 1972 public opinion made it difficult for Governments to continue to commit the billions of dollars needed to achieve these feats. The largest most powerful rocket developed for this programme, the Saturn V, was first launched in 1967 and remains the most powerful launch vehicle available. It has a mass of 2900 tonnes, develops 3.4 million kilograms of lift-off thrust, and has a total height of 111 m. Developments in space flight since 1972 have included the design and construction of orbiting space stations and reusable launch vehicles or space shuttles. These developments are intended to be the basis for interplanetary flight, and are also intended to reduce the cost of placing satellites into space. A vast range of scientific research is conducted in near space and the science of astronomy has greatly benefited from observations made outside the Earths atmosphere. These developments have required less money than manned space flight away from the Earth, and have been seen to be more economically and scientifically justifiable than manned space exploration. Unmanned space exploration has continued, with satellite probes travelling to nearby planets, and beyond the Solar System. The development of reusable launch vehicles and space stations is also expected to begin the first use of space for non-military and nonscientific purposes as rocket and near space flights become available to the general public. The commercialisation of space, beyond existing communications networks, is most likely an inevitable forerunner to the

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return of distant manned exploration. The world community needs to have its interest aroused, just as it was in 1909 when Blriot made it obvious that there was a place in aviation for the wider community. Think of as many reasons as you can for the change from manned space exploration to the development of space stations and reusable space vehicles.

Figure 2.15 Saturn V leaves the assembly NASA Scan by J. L Pickering/Kipp Teague

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Societal influences
The ability to fly has been envied, and even worshipped, by people since their earliest writings, and probably before that. Feathers have been seen as possessing magical powers and as recently as the nineteenth century birds known to have travelled large distances around the Earth were the subject of legends and awe. Not surprisingly then, the first machines designed to assist people to fly aroused great interest and technical debate at their time, as well as suspicion and doubt. The solutions to the problems created by these machines were so far removed from the everyday lives of most people that very little public interest was stimulated. We now take so much for granted in education and information technology that community perceptions and beliefs in past generations are difficult for us to understand and interpret. The sketches created by Leonardo da Vinci 500 years ago are now more familiar to a far greater cross section of the community than they were in their own time. The first successful sustained flights in balloons created much public interest. Large crowds gathered to watch and wonder as first animals, and then people, drifted upwards in France in the mid nineteenth century. The interest was more carnival than technological. These flying devices had no means of control and could carry two or three people at most. Consequently the flights were seen as events rather than the beginnings of a transport revolution by the general public of the time. The military significance of these first flying devices, being used for observation and intelligence as early as the American Civil War, provided the greatest stimulation to their continued development. Lack of flight control meant that balloons were restricted to pleasure flying for the wealthy. It would be another sixty years before profit from serving the community would be a significant factor in aircraft development. Interest in the development of flying machines remained with mechanics, engineers, university lecturers, mathematicians, inventors and the technologically minded wealthy for the remainder of the nineteenth century. Very early in the twentieth century 'dirigibles', literally airships based on the principle of balloon buoyancy that could be steered in flight, were shown to be manoeuvrable. Public interest gradually shifted as people began to realise that controlled flight might be of some use to them. Airships were kept in the mind of the community as altitude and distance records were first set and then repeatedly broken during the first decade of the twentieth century. Then in 1909, when Blriot flew from France to England, many people finally realised that travel through the air was possible and it was fast compared to other forms of transport. Public interest and eagerness to be associated with this new technology led to the creation of the worlds first commercial airline DELAG in 1909, which used airships for flights within Germany. International flights

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within Europe commenced in 1912. People wanted to travel by air and, at this time, the dirigible was the most effective solution to this want. In 1911 early monoplanes carried letters and light freight for the first time in Europe and the United States of America. As aeroplanes were now useful in creating improved communication and commerce they gained credibility and people began to realise and anticipate some of the potential in the aircraft concept. The first scheduled passenger flights in heavier than air machines occurred in 1914 by which time as many as eight passengers could be carried at once and a toilet was first placed in an aeroplane. The First World War brought an end to passenger flight as aeroplanes and airships were put into war service. By the end of the war in 1918 technological advances meant that the first trans Atlantic flight could be achieved, and it was in 1919. This year also saw the operation of the first British airport, Hounslow, to offer Customs. Civil aviation was temporarily delayed after the First World War as legislation caught up with technology and air navigation regulations were introduced to control the flight industry. From this time it could be said that the age of civil aviation had truly begun. Airmail freight services, pleasure and business flying all satisfied growing needs in the community. Can you think of some other examples of technology moving ahead of Government legislation? The benefits of this new technology stimulated complete public acceptance of aircraft and flight and people eagerly awaited and accepted design developments as they occurred. Qantas, now the oldest airline in the English-speaking world, was established in 1920 in outback Queensland. Providing joy flights and a taxi service at first, its first scheduled flights were in 1922 between Charleville and Cloncurry. By 1934 the Brisbane-Singapore leg of the air service from Australia to England was being serviced by Qantas. Less than ten years after Qantas started operations, in 1928, the Royal Flying Doctor Service in Australia was using aircraft to cover the vast distances between remote inland homesteads and offer medical care. The capability of aircraft to travel great distances in a relatively short time revolutionised remote services in Australia, brought people together, and further strengthened the acceptance of this new technology. In fact, this new technology developed so rapidly that, at first, there were insufficient airfields to satisfy the needs of larger long distance aircraft. Flying boats were developed to take advantage of large bodies of water in rivers, lakes and bays for take off and landing. Despite the widespread community acceptance of aircraft the cost of flight meant that few flew regularly. For this reason there was insufficient public money to construct airfields as they were desired until the Second World War when the strategic importance of aeroplanes was quickly realised and

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long runways were constructed around the world. These runways helped revolutionise the type of aircraft that were being built. Between the two World Wars flying boats had been popular. Very few flying boats were built after the Second World War by which time an infrastructure of large airports with long runways had been developed. As well, much larger planes could now be built. With the development of the jet liner from the 1950s, travel times continued to reduce and passenger numbers increased as flying became a necessity of modern living for business, commerce and pleasure. With increased air traffic and city spread, the acceptance of aircraft technology has become conditional. The constant jet engine noise around a modern airport has become a concern for the community, as has the fall out of aviation gasoline under aircraft flight paths. The possibility of air disasters over populated areas also worries many residents around airports. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercises 2.6 to 2.8.

To help overcome these issues jet engines have been redesigned to operate more quietly and more efficiently, airport runways have been built on reclaimed land into swamps and waterways and airports have been relocated out of cities. Take off and landing times at many airports have been restricted between certain hours to provide quiet evenings. Jumbo jets, wide bodied aircraft capable of seating 500 people, were developed and first flew in 1969. These aircraft required special turbo fan jet engines and were an inevitable response to the huge increase in passenger numbers after the introduction of the first narrow bodied jet airliners provided great reductions in travel times on long distance routes. Jumbo jets reduced airport traffic by carrying twice as many people in each flight than could be carried in narrow-bodied jet airliners. Inevitably they have resulted in cheaper airfares, more people flying, and a renewal of the problem of increased passenger numbers that they were designed to solve. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 2.9.

In 1976 the need for some people to travel as fast as possible over long distances, notably the business route between Europe and North America, led to the introduction of supersonic passenger flights. The massive expense involved in developing supersonic technology for passenger aircraft resulted in an American design being stopped due to fears about its likely commercial success on flights within North America. Great Britain and France shared their knowledge and expenses and together produced the Concorde, designed to carry business people and the wealthy at supersonic speeds across the Atlantic Ocean. This

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project proceeded because it had a clear market. Noise problems and environmental concerns for the upper atmosphere from regular scheduled supersonic flight caused some problems at first but were ultimately overcome by government legislation. The high cost of supersonic flight has to this point in time restricted its use for most travellers. Ultimately people must decide the price they are willing to pay for the economic and social benefits of air travel. The balance of these benefits with quality of life, and their contribution to quality of life, continue to be two of the more difficult and divisive issues facing governments and the community. Helicopters, too, provide the community with services that have become indispensable, but in doing so create some difficulties. Helicopters save lives on a daily basis, they catch criminals, patrol roadways and monitor crowds. They provide rapid newsgathering in difficult locations and transport people where aeroplanes, trains and cars are unable to travel. They are noisy and produce large gusts of wind below their rotors. Helicopters have become far too valuable a resource in the community to be discarded yet government legislation is needed to control their use. Nowhere has the effect of public opinion been more noticeable than in the development of rocket engines and the manned exploration of space. Prior to 1970, community attitudes allowed huge sums of public money in the United States of America to be spent through the 1960s on manned space flight research. After 1969, when man walked on the Moon for the first time, the community became more aware of quality of life issues that had been under funded by government due to the immense concentration of public sector spending on the space programme. The community could no longer see sufficient benefit in the space programme to justify its budget, and consequently that budget was reduced and development in space technology slowed. The continued development of aeroplanes has mostly been by private industry. It has continued because people have wanted the product provided by the aircraft industry, and have benefited from it. As long as this acceptance remains, aircraft will continue to expand their capabilities and influence on our lifestyle. The most exciting thing about the aircraft industry is that it can continue to develop. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 2.10 to 2.12.

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Exercises
Exercise 2.1 Explain why airships are no longer used for passenger flight. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.2 Explain why airships could be used to carry passengers before fixed wing aircraft could be used for this purpose. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.3 Explain why biplanes were the preferred aircraft design during the 1920s. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2.4 Identify the important physical property of metals that must be considered in aircraft design but was misunderstood in the early 1950s. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.5 Explain why the fuselage on most modern aircraft is round but early aircraft seldom had a round fuselage. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.6 Explain why very few flying boats were built after the Second World War. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.7 List three problems created by airports and describe a solution to each problem. a b c _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Exercise 2.8 Explain why Australia was very quick to use aircraft technology. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.9 Explain why the jet engine led to a great increase in passenger numbers on international flights. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.10 Suggest two likely future developments in aviation and support your ideas with current social trends and technological advancements. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 2.11 State one new material development that led directly to a design development. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2.12 Select the alternative a, b, c, or d that best completes the statement. Circle the letter. 1 The speed of aircraft was greatly increased during the 1930s. This was primarily due to the development of: a b c d 2 retractable landing gear flap systems for wings hydraulic control systems stressed skin construction.

Biplane design was the preferred aircraft shape from the First World War through the 1920s. This design: a b c d gave greater lift to the aircraft provided greater stiffness and strength to the aircraft created greater drag forces than monoplane design all of the above.

The worlds first successful powered flight in an aeroplane by the Wright brothers was achieved because they: a b c d designed the lightest aircraft of the time had the most powerful motor of the time had developed a useful system for controlling flight used a biplane design.

Airships continue to be used for recreation and observation. This is because : a b c d they provide a quiet and stable platform in the sky they are inexpensive to build and operate they are easy to control in the sky people like to travel slowly.

Flying boats, aeroplanes with floats that could operate from water, were common in the 1930s. This was because: a b c d noise pollution prevented the aircraft from operating on land airports with long runways had not been developed in many places water provided a gentler landing people were used to travelling on water.

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Helicopters have been developed to satisfy the need for aircraft that can provide: a b c d greater manoeuvrability greater lift force greater speed greater safety in flight.

Balloons and airships could be developed before aeroplanes because: a b c d people did not trust aeroplanes aeroplanes were too noisy lift is not created from motor power in balloons and airships the fabric used for balloons was not suitable for aeroplanes.

Timber was extensively used in the construction of early gliders and biplanes. This was because it: a b c d has a good strength to weight ratio is easy to shape has good stiffness all of the above.

The development of engines to produce greater amounts of power contributed to: a b c d the change from biplane to monoplane design from around 1930 improved helicopter performance from around 1960 the use of aluminium alloys in aircraft construction a and b above.

10 The design of rocket motors: a b c d has greatly changed the design of modern aeroplanes has allowed the large velocities needed to escape Earths gravity required the technology of the last fifty years is limited by the lack of thrust control.

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Progress check

In this part you have learned about the history of flight and aeronautical engineering and how developments in aeronautical engineering have affected our society. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.
Agree well done Disagree revise your work Uncertain contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree

I have learnt about historical developments in aeronautical engineering the effects of aeronautical innovation on peoples lives and living standards environmental implications of flight.

I have learnt to research the history of flight in Australia and understand the way it has impacted on peoples lives examine safety issues related to flight and flying.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will learn about the mechanics and hydraulics of flight how it all works!

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Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 2.1 to 2.12

Name: ______________________________

Have you have completed the following exercises? Exercise 2.1 Exercise 2.2 Exercise 2.3 Exercise 2.4 Exercise 2.5 Exercise 2.6 Exercise 2.7 Exercise 2.8 Exercise 2.9 Exercise 2.10 Exercise 2.11 Exercise 2.12 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

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Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics

Part 3 contents

Introduction..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Aeronautics..........................................................................................3
Forces ...................................................................................... 3 Bernoullis Principle ..................................................................13 Drag ........................................................................................24 Relationship between lift and drag .............................................29 Controlling flight .......................................................................36 Bending stress airframes........................................................40 Propulsion................................................................................51 Fluid mechanics .......................................................................53

Exercises ...........................................................................................61 Progress check .................................................................................71 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................73

Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics

Introduction

Aeronautical engineers perform and supervise work concerned with the design, testing, research and development, manufacture and quality control, specifications, marketing and operations of aircraft. An aeronautical engineer must have good analytical ability, initiative and creativity for design work as well as a sound understanding of the mechanics involved in flight and in the design of aircraft. In this part you will be introduced to the mechanics involved in areonautics.

What will you learn?


You will learn about: engineering mechanics and hydraulics: forces lift, drag, weight, thrust basic aerodynamics Bernoullis principle bending stress airframes propulsion systems (jet, turboprop) fluid mechanics hydrostatic and dynamic pressure, applications to aircraft components, application to aircraft instruments.

You will learn to: apply mathematical and graphical methods to solve flight-related problems outline Bernoullis principle as applied to flight investigate the nature and effect of bending stresses, applying appropriate mathematical methods apply mathematical methods to solve hydraulics-related problems.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

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Aeronautics

The science of flight through air is called aerodynamics dynamics or motion in air. Balloons travel with the air and dont move through it. This science is known as aerostatics. Aeronautics encompasses both of these sciences. The path of the aircraft is called its flight path. Its speed through the air is called its true airspeed. The direction and speed of the air whizzing past the aircraft is called the relative airspeed (airflow relative to the aircraft or wing). It is a result of the aircraft moving through the air and so is exactly equal to the flight path. The path and speed of the aircraft over the ground are different as they also take into account the effect of the wind.

Forces
An aircraft flying straight and level is being acted upon by four forces. Its weight acts downwards and is balanced by an upward force known as lift. The engines provide forward thrust, which balances the drag, the resistance caused as the aircraft forces its way through the air.
Pitching moment due to elevator Lift (L)

Drag (D) Pitching moment due to tailplane Weight (W)

Pitching moment due to thrust and drag Thrust (T)

Figure 3.1 Forces and moments on a plane

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Weight (W) the force of gravity pulling the aircraft towards the centre of the earth. Lift (L) the upward force on the wing to overcome the weight Drag (D) the resistance of the air Thrust (T) necessary to overcome the drag and to maintain or increase speed.

Moments
If the four forces exerted on the airplane are not concurrent, then the plane will experience various moments.

Pitching moment
The twisting force trying to raise or lower the nose. This can be caused by the balance of the freight, passengers or fuel, the airflow over the tailplane and the force from the elevators or trim tabs.

Pitching moment Figure 3.2 Pitching moment

Rolling moment
The twisting force trying to roll the aircraft. This can be caused by the ailerons, uneven lift from the wings due to slipstream from the propeller, uneven consumption of fuel from the wing tanks and uneven weight of cargo in the wing lockers.

Rolling moment Figure 3.3 Rolling moment

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Yawing moment
The twisting force trying to yaw the aircraft. This can be caused by the deflection of the rudder.

Yawing moment Figure 3.4 Yawing moment

Thrust
What is thrust? Think of stepping off a skateboard. As you go forward you will find the skateboard rolls backward. Hold on to garden hose and ask someone to turn it full on. When the whoosh of water suddenly bursts out, the hose almost jumps out of your hand. As the hose goes one way, you go the other way. This force can be so big on a firefighters hose, that they are sometimes pushed over by this backward force. These are two examples of Newtons Third Law: To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The hot gases in a jet engine expand and rush out of the back of the engine at great speed, in the same way as the water rushes out of the hose. Many people believe that the gases push against the air to propel the plane forward, but this is not true. As the gases shoot out backward, so the jet goes forward. This obeys Newtons Third law.

Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics

Rocket and jet engines


The thrust of a rocket or jet engine depends on the rate of change of momentum imparted on the gases consumed and expelled by the engine. Momentum is defined as the product of the mass and the velocity. momentum = mass x velocity M = mv Unit of momentum = kg m / s The force created by the engine required to propel the rocket, or plane, is also known as the thrust. Thrust is calculated as the change in momentum per second. This can be expressed as: Thrust = Change in momentum per second F = (mv mu) / t m( v u ) t Ft = m(v u) = Note that the symbols v and u are both used for velocities; v is used for the final velocity, u for the initial velocity. The gases consumed by the engine are referred to as the propellant and are usually a mixture of fuel and oxygen. The composition of the propellant is unimportant, as the calculation depends upon the mass consumed and the relative velocities before and after combustion in the engine. The gas expelled by the engine is commonly called the exhaust gas. Three facts must be determined prior to thrust calculations: velocities of gases on intake, relative to the engine, in m/s velocity of exhaust gas, relative to the engine, in m/s quantities (or mass) of gases consumed by the engine in a given time, usually one second, in kg.

Calculations involving rocket engines are generally simpler as the initial velocity of the gases consumed relative to the rocket engine is always zero.

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Worked Example 1 The rocket engine of a missile ejects 200 kg of exhaust gases per second at the speed of 900 m/s relative to the engine. Calculate the thrust of the rocket engine. Solution Since all the fuel load is aboard the rocket, the initial velocity of the propellant relative to the engine is zero. The final velocity of the exhaust gas is 900 m/s. Change in momentum = = = mv mu (200 x 900) (200 x 0) 180000 kg m / s

Thrust = For 1 second Thrust = =

Change in momentum per second 180 x 103 kg m / s2 180 kN

This example shows the basic relationship between fuel (propellant) consumed per second, the change in velocity, and the thrust. Units used are: Thrust newton (N) Mass discharged (kg / s) Change in velocity of propellant (m / s)

Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.1.

Worked Example 2 The engine of a jet fighter plane traveling at 720 km/h is consuming fuel at the rate of 1.5 kg per second and air at the rate of 100 kg per second. Calculate the thrust of the engine if the velocity of the exhaust gas is 900 m/s relative to the aircraft.

Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics

Solution This example needs to be analysed in two parts: thrust provided by the air thrust provided by the fuel.

Also the velocity of 720 km/h must be converted to m/s. This is done by multiplying by 1 000 (converts km to m) and then dividing by 3 600 (converts hours to seconds), or simply dividing by 3.6. Thus 720 km/h is equivalent to 200 m/s. Thrust due to discharge of air, F1 = Mass discharged per second x change in velocity (100) x (900 200) = 70 x 103 N = 70 kN = Thrust due to discharge of exhaust = gas, F2 Mass discharged per second x change in velocity (1.5) x (900 0) 1.35 x 103 N 1.35 kN Total thrust of the jet is F1 + F2 = 71.35 kN. Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.2.

Creating lift
All aerial vehicles depressurise (suck) the air above and compress (squash or squeeze) the air below. This pressure differential builds the cushion on which they are supported. About two thirds of the lift comes from sucking and one third from squashing. A hovercraft sucks air from above, squashes it and squeezes it out underneath. Thus it floats on a cushion of air.

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Figure 3.5 Hovercraft

A helicopter sucks air from above, squashes it and squeezes it out below. If the ground surface is removed, the squash is reduced but there is still enough to fly. The helicopter just has to work harder.
Suction (stretch)

Compression (squash)

Figure 3.6 Helicopter

A wing also sucks air from above, squashes it and squeezes it downwards in a unique way. As the wing moves through the air, it compresses the air molecules in front and below and creates an area of suction, or partial vacuum, above and behind.
Suction

Flightpath

Compression Figure 3.7 Wing

Part 3: Aeronautical engineering mechanics and hydraulics

Put your hand horizontally out of the window of a moving car. Beware of other cars, trees or other fixtures near the edge of the road. Twist your hand to cause an angle of attack to the airflow. The reaction of the lift and the drag forces will cause the hand to be pushed upwards and rearwards.
Upward force (lift)

Rearward force (drag)

Airflow

Flightpath Figure 3.8 Hand in an airflow

The wing is no different. It is pushed up and back. Because it is more efficient, it will generate a much greater upward force and a smaller rearward force. It is actually possible to measure in a wind tunnel what is happening to the wing and to the surrounding air.

Total reaction

Upward force (Lift)

Stretched (suction)
Rearward force (drag) Flightpath

Squashed (compression)
Figure 3.9 Effects on a wing in a wind tunnel

If measurements were taken in the tunnel, we would find the following:

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reduced pressure and increased rush of air over the top surface of the wing, (the back of hand in your activity should feel cold due to temperature and pressure drop) compression and forward push of the air under the surface of the wing disturbance to the smooth flow of the air around the rear part of the wings surface downwash or downward deflection of the air behind the wing as a result of the passage of the wing.

This pressure difference and downwash causes lift. The amount of lift (the upward push) and drag (the backward push) is dependent on three things: the speed of the wing through the air the shape and size of the wing the angle of the wing to the air (the angle of attack).

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Worked Example 3 A helicopter, of mass 3 tonne, is subjected to the forces as illustrated. Determine the resultant force that would be acting on the helicopter.

Thrust 40 kN

60 30 Drag 20 kN

W Figure 3.10 Forces acting on helicopter

Solution From the illustration, you will notice that three of the four forces acting are shown. These are the weight force (W) which always acts vertically downwards, the thrust force (T) shown as acting at 60 to the horizontal, and the drag force (D) which is acting horizontally. Since the forces acting are at different angles, the easiest solution is to use the graphical method for adding vectors. The vectors are drawn to scale and are drawn tip-to-tail in any order. You will remember that when using a force polygon, the graphical solution when the force polygon does not close means there will be a resultant force acting. Selecting a scale of 10 mm = 5 kN, construct a force polygon to this scale. Start by drawing the thrust vector at 60 to the horizontal. Then draw weight vector vertically downwards. Remember you must convert the mass of 3 tonnes to a weight force. This is done by first converting tonnes to kilograms that is, 3t = 3000 kg. This is then multiplied by gravitational acceleration, g. Using g as 10 ms-2, the weight is now converted to newtons by using W = mg, i.e. the weight will equal 3000 x 10 N, or 30 kN.

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Scale: 10 mm = 5 kN

Weight = mg = 30 kN

Thrust = 40 kN

40 mm = 20 kN

Lift = 4.5 kN (resultant)

Figure 3.11 Force diagram of forces acting on helicopter

The resultant force will be the one that starts from where you first started, and ends where your last vector ended. It is the result of what you have done. The sense, or direction, of the resultant vector will be towards the end of the last force you drew on the force polygon. The direction of the helicopters flightpath will be determined by measuring the angle between the resultant vector and the horizontal, in this case 90, that is, vertically upwards. Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.3.

Bernoullis principle
The production of the lift force by an aerofoil is explained by Bernoullis principle. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82) was a Swiss scientist who discovered that the total pressure in a fluid remained constant. This total pressure consists of: static pressure (the weight of the molecules) dynamic pressure (due to motion)

If air was accelerated through a shaped tube called a venturi, then at the narrowest point, where the speed of the flow was fastest, the static pressure was least. The relationship between the velocity and pressure exerted by a moving fluid is described by Bernoullis principle: as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases.

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Low

High

Low

High

Low

High

Slow

Fast

Slow

Figure 3.12 Airflow through a venturi

Airflow around an aeroplane


The pattern of the airflow past an aeroplane depends on the shape of the aeroplane and its attitude relative to the free-stream airflow. It is the relative velocity of the aeroplane to the airflow that is important. It doesnt matter whether it is the aeroplane moving through the air or the air flowing past the plane. Both will give the same result. The most important parts of the aeroplane are the aerofoils. The main aerofoils are the wings and airflow past the wings will generate the lift force that allows the aeroplane to fly. The airflow around an aerofoil is similar to the airflow through a venturi.

Figure 3.13 Airflow through a venturi and around an aerofoil

Streamline flow / Laminar flow


Streamlining occurs when succeeding molecules follow the same path in a flow. There is only flow along and between the stream lines, with no flow across the stream lines. Streamline flow represents the least air disturbance. Because of the least air disturbance, streamlined flow is also called laminar flow and it offers the least amount of drag.

Figure 3.14 Streamlined flow

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Turbulent flow An object moving through the air will eventually cause some turbulence. This occurs when succeeding molecules no longer follow a streamline flow pattern. This turbulent flow is also known as unsteady flow, or eddying. The point on the surface where the layer of air next to the wing (called the boundary layer) becomes turbulent is called the transition point. This will occur during normal flight.
Thin laminar- Transition Slightly thicker, flow boundary point turbulent boundary layer

Figure 3.15 Transition point

Depending on the shape of the object, the airflow will subsequently be unable to follow the contours. When this happens the airflow separates causing a wake of disturbed air. The point where this happens is called the separation point. This will occur when the plane is about to stall.
Transition point Separation point

Turbulent flow

Figure 3.16 Separation point

Angle of attack
If a thin plate is introduced into an airflow such that it was parallel to the air flow, it causes virtually no alteration to the airflow. As there is no deviation of the airflow, there is no force placed on the plate, and thus no reaction.

Figure 3.17 Plate aligned parallel with airflow

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If the plate is now inclined at an angle to the airflow (it is said to have an angle of attack), it will experience a reaction force on it. This reaction tends to lift it as well as drag it back.
Total reaction Upwash

Angle of attack Figure 3.18 Angle of attack

Downwash

Due to the angle of attack, the straight-line streamline flow will be altered. The air below the plate will be compressed by the lower surface of the plate, whereas the air above the plate experiences a reduced pressure. The static pressure above the plate is now lower than the static pressure below the plate. This causes a net upwards reaction. After passing the plate, there is a downwash of the air stream.
Total reaction

Disturbed flow

Figure 3.19 Disturbed flow (turbulence)

If the angle of attack is too steep, then the airflow will experience more disturbed air behind the plate (or hand), and less lift will be evident. You can experience this when you hold your hand out of the window of a moving car. Change the angle of attack and your hand will experience different lift and drag reactions. These will depend on the speed of the car (or airflow) and the angle of your hand to the airflow (angle of attack).
Reduced static pressure

Increased static pressure Figure 3.20 Change of pressure about an inclined plate.

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The total reaction on the plate caused by altering the airflow pattern has two components: lift at right angles to the relative airflow drag parallel to the relative airflow, and opposing the relative motion.

You will recall earlier work that involved friction. The reaction forces are very similar to the reaction forces involved with friction problems. The normal reaction occurred perpendicular to the surface (analogous with lift) and the friction force occurred along the surface and opposing impending motion (analogous with drag). Streamlining involves reducing the turbulence that results when a fluid flows. In streamlined (laminar) flow, the fluid behaves as if it consisted of thin sheets of fluid. The interchange of fluid between the sheets is minimal in streamlined flow. When turbulent flow occurs, whirlpools and eddies form. Turbulence results in extra drag on objects moving through a fluid. The study of forces and pressures that change the motion of fluids is called hydrodynamics. The study of streamlining objects in air is called aerodynamics. An incompressible fluid which moves into a region having a different cross-sectional area (for example from A1 to A2) undergoes a change in speed (v1 to v2). The product A x v remains constant. A1v1 = A2v2 This equation is called the equation of continuity. For the speed to undergo change, there must be a change in force. A change in force results in a change in pressure. As mentioned earlier, the total pressure in a fluid remains constant. The total pressure is made up of three components, two that relate to the static pressure and a third, the dynamic pressure. This concept can be expressed in equation form as follows: P + 1 rv 2 2
pressure due to the speed of the fluid (dynamic pressure)

rgh
additional pressure due to the weight of the fluid (static)

constant

pressure exerted by the particles in the fluid

Where

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P = pressure in Pa

r = density in kg / m 3 v = velocity in m / s
g = 9.8 m / s2 h = depth or elevation in m This is called Bernoullis equation. It can be simplified in some situations. For example, if there is no change in depth, then the rgh term does not change and you have: P + 1 2 rv 2 = constant

In a static fluid, v = 0, so P + rgh = constant. Worked example 4 A horizontal venturi tube with a throat diameter of 50 mm is inserted into a 75 mm diameter pipe. Water flows in the pipe with a velocity of 4 m/s and the upstream pressure is 45 kPa. Determine the velocity and pressure at the throat. The density of water is 103 kg/m3 Solution Applying the continuity equation, Av = constant A1v1 = A 2 v 2

p (75) 4 p (50) v = 4 4 2 4(75) v= (50)2


=9m/s Since the pipe is horizontal, h1 = h2 P/r + 1 2 v = constant 2

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P/r+

1 2 1 v = P / r + v2 2 2

(45 10

1 2 1 2 / 10 3 ) + ( 4) = ( P2 / 10 3 ) + (9) 2 2 3 P2 / 10 = 45 + 8 40.5 = 12.5 P2 = 12.5 10 3 Pa = 12.5 kPa

Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.4.

The aerofoil
A flat plate is not the ideal shape because it breaks up the streamline flow. This causes turbulence or eddying and greatly increases the drag. The air also has difficulty in negotiating the sharp leading edge.

Figure 3.21 Turbulence behind an inclined plate in an airflow

A curved aerofoil surface was developed. This increased the lift and also reduced the drag considerably. It was also stronger than the thin, flat plate. The arched or curved shape is called a camber.

Figure 3.22 Curved aerofoil surface

A shaped, fatter wing was then developed. This allowed more strength, eliminated the sharp nose and also created space to store fuel.

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Total aerodynamic force Lift Drag Wing Figure 3.23 Shaped fatter wing

It may still be cambered, since the mid-points between the upper and lower surfaces follow a curved line. This is called the mean camber line.
Maximum Location of maximum thickness camber Mean camber line Trailing edge

Upper sur face


Maximum thickness

Lower surface

Leading edge radius Leading edge Location of maximum camber Chord

Figure 3.24 Profile of a shaped wing

Wings with a large camber produce greater lift, making them suitable for low-speed flight. The position of the greatest camber is usually about 30% of the chord back from the leading edge. The chord line is the straight line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge of the aerofoil. Aerofoils can have many cross-sectional shapes. This is determined by the designer to achieve certain specific aerodynamic characteristics.
Leading edge Trailing edge

Figure 3.25 Well cambered aerofoil typical high lift, slow speed wing.

Leading edge

Trailing edge

Figure 3.26 Slender aerofoil typical high speed wing

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Leading edge

Trailing edge

Figure 3.27 Symmetrical aerofoil typical horizontal stabilizer

Figure 3.28 Laminar flow aerofoil

A low-speed wing
In normal flight, the wing will have a small positive angle of attack. The static pressure over the upper surface of the aerofoil is slightly reduced when compared with the normal static pressure of the free airstream well away from the aerofoil. The static pressure below the lower surface of the aerofoil is slightly greater than that of the free air. This pressure difference is the origin of the total reaction force exerted on the aerofoil. The greatest contribution (about 70%) is from the upper surface. The total of all the aerodynamic forces can be resolved into one resultant force. This is called the total reaction force. This reaction acts through a neutral point called the centre of pressure (CP).
Negative Aerofoil Total reaction

CP Positive Pressure distribution Centre of pressure (CP)

Figure 3.29 Pressure distribution and total reaction acting through centre of pressure

The total aerodynamic reaction force has two components: Lift component of aerodynamic force perpendicular (90) to the relative airflow or flightpath. Drag component of aerodynamic force aligned to the relative airflow and opposite to the direction of motion or flightpath.

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Total reaction
Chor d line

Lift

Angle of attack

Drag Relative airflow

Figure 3.30 Lift and drag components of the total reaction

The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line of an aerofoil and the undisturbed, relative airflow. The angle of attack is given the symbol alpha (a). The relative airflow refers to the direction and speed between the aircraft and the remote airflow. It is exactly equal and opposite to the flightpath of the aeroplane. The remote airflow is the airflow sufficiently far away from the body so as not to be disturbed by it.

Lift from a typical wing


The lifting ability of a wing increases as the angle of attack is increased. The lifting ability is also called its coefficient of lift (CL). The change of lift with the angle of attack is called the C L/a curve. Maximum lifting ability occurs at the critical angle which is also called its stalling angle (about 16). Also the centre of pressure (CP) moves forward as the angle of attack is increasesd. The relationship between the lifting ability (CL) and the angle of attack (a) can be plotted on a graph.

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Aeronautical engineering

Fast

Slow

Usual angles of flight (016) Aerofoil cross-section lift coefficient (CL) 1.2 Maximum lift 1.0 Critical or stall angle 0 4 8 12 Angle of attack ( ) (aproximately 16) 20 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 4

16

Figure 3.31 CL/a graph

Once the angle of attack exceeds a critical angle, the streamline airflow over most of the wing breaks down, becomes turbulent and separates. The lifting ability of the wing is then greatly and suddenly reduced. When this happens the wing is said to have stalled. A cambered aerofoil gives higher values of CL for each angle of attack. Lowering the flaps in the wings increases the camber of the wing and has the same effect of increasing the lift coefficient.
Aerofoil cross-section lift coefficient (CL)

cambered

symmetric

4 8 12 Angle of attack ( )

16

20

Figure 3.32 CL/a graph for cambered and symmetric aerofoils

In straight and level flight, the lift equals the weight.

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Drag
Drag is the aeronautical term for the air resistance experienced by the aeroplane as it moves through the air. Drag acts in the opposite direction to the motion through the air. It opposes the motion and acts parallel to the relative airflow. You will recall that this is very similar to the friction force (opposing motion and acting along the contacting surface). The lift is analogous with the normal reaction (acts perpendicular to the motion). Drag is very detrimental to high-speed flight. In an attempt to reduce the drag force, engineers design streamlined shapes, polished surfaces and flush fitting rivets as well as many other design features. The main function of the engines is to produce thrust to overcome the drag. The lower the drag force, the less thrust that is required. This has advantages in that smaller engines can be used, even fewer engines on the larger aircraft, lower fuel use, less strain on the engines and also the associated structures, and overall lower operating costs.

Total drag
The total drag is the term given to the sum total of the various drag forces acting on an aeroplane. The types of drag present can be classified as: induced drag this is the total drag force associated with the production of lift. It is manifested as vortices at the trailing edge of the wing, and especially at the wingtips. parasite drag this is the total drag force not directly associated with the development of lift. This includes form drag due to shape, skin friction and interference drag due to the mixing of various airflows at the junction of different surfaces.

Consider the forces acting on your hand when placed out of the window of a moving car. When the hand is held parallel with the airflow, the angle of attack will be zero, there will be zero lift and hence zero induced drag. There will be a low parasite drag due to the rough surface and skin friction of the hand.
Zero lift Zero angle of attack Airflow Zero lift Figure 3.33 Zero angle of attack, zero lift, zero induced drag

Low parasite drag

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Aeronautical engineering

As the hand is angled to the airflow, this creates an angle of attack. This will cause lift and also induced drag.

Lift

Induced drag Airflow Angle of attack parasite drag

Figure 3.34 Angle of attack, lift and induced drag

As the angle is increased, the lift is also increased, but so too is the induced drag and the parasite drag.

Lift

Increased induced drag and increased parasite drag Airflow Increased angle of attack

parasite drag

Figure 3.35

Increased angle of attack, increased lift, induced drag and parasite drag

When the hand is turned perpendicular to the airflow (angle of attack = 90, there is no lift and hence no induced drag. There will be however a very high parasite drag.

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No lift Airflow Very high parasite drag Zero induced drag (zero lift)

Figure 3.36

Angle of attack perpendicular, no induced drag, very high parasite drag

Induced drag
Induced drag is a by-product of the production of lift, and is directly related to the angle of attack. Induced drag is greatest at low speeds. It is unavoidable.
Upward force (lift)

Rearward force (drag)

Airflow

Flightpath Figure 3.37 Induced drag

To produce positive lift, the static pressure on the wing upper surface must be less than that underneath the wing. As the air flows rearwards, some airflow will leak or spill around the wingtip from the high static pressure area under the wing to the low static pressure area above the wing. This causes a spanwise flow component of air outward away from the fuselage on the lower surface and an inward component towards the fuselage on the upper surface. At the trailing edge of the wing these upper and lower flows meet both moving rearward but having opposite lateral components. A sheet of vortices is formed.

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Aeronautical engineering

Figure 3.38 Sheet of vortices formed created by leaking air

At the wingtips, where the spanwise flow is the greatest, the strongest vortices are formed. A vortex is a whirling or twisting flow of air (or fluid).

Figure 3.39 Wingtip vortex

In straight and level flight at a given weight, the lift must remain constant as the speed changes. The lift must counteract the weight. As the airspeed reduces, the pilot increases the angle of attack to achieve the same lift. High angles of attack are associated with low airspeeds and increased induced drag. The slower passage of air rearward over the wing allows the spanwise flow of air to spill up over the wingtips. This forms greater wingtip vortices and greater downwash behind the trailing edge of the wing.

Parasite drag
Parasite drag, as the name suggests, comes from hangers-on to the wing that do not contribute to lift. Parasite drag is proportional to the speed through the air although some objects also become bigger when the angle of attack is increased, thus increasing drag even more. Parasite drag consists of: skin friction depends on the surface area and smoothness (or roughness) of the object

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form drag due to the frontal size and shape of the object interference drag caused by the effect of one part on another. This is one of the reasons why the wings are often blended into the fuselage of high performance aircraft.

Blending or fairing to reduce interference drag Figure 3.40 Blending and fairing reduce interference drag

At zero airspeed there is no relative speed between the aeroplane and the air. This means there will be no drag. As the airspeed increases, the skin friction, form drag and interference drag all increase. Airspeed has a very powerful effect on parasite drag. The parasite drag is proportional to the square of the airspeed (V2). That is, doubling the airspeed increases the parasite drag by four times (2 2); tripling the airspeed would give 9 times the parasite drag. (32). For an aeroplane traveling as slowly as possible (just above stalling speed) parasite drag may only be about a quarter of the total drag. Most of the drag would be due to the induced drag. At a very high speed the total drag is due almost entirely to parasite drag. Because of this, an aeroplane must have clean aerodynamics to obtain high-speed performance. The wings on some aeroplanes can contribute about half of parasite drag, so any reduction in skin friction, form drag or interference drag can have a significant effect in reducing the overall parasite drag.
Slow
high angle-of-attack

Fast
low angle-of-attack

Long-range cruise

High-speed cruise

Parasite drag 0

Airspeed

Figure 3.41 Relationship between airspeed and parasite drag

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Aeronautical engineering

Relationship between lift and drag


Total drag is the sum total of all the drag forces acting on the aeroplane. Total drag has two components: induced drag parasite drag.

Consider an aircraft in level flight as it increases its speed. The amount of lift has to remain the same to balance the weight. An increase in speed would also increase the lift so the pilot has to reduce the angle of attack as the aircraft accelerates. Therefore the drag due to the angle of attack (induced drag) decreases but the increased airspeed will increase the parasite drag. The total drag then is a balance of the two.
Slow
high angle-of-attack

Fast
low angle-of-attack

Total drag

tal To
Pa

s ra

g dra ag dr ite

Induced

drag

Airspeed

Figure 3.42 Relationship between airspeed and total drag

If the two graphs are combined as each of these drags vary with airspeed, another graph can be plotted to show the total drag with airspeed for a particular aeroplane in level flight at a particular weight, configuration and altitude. This curve is an extremely important relationship. Obviously, there is a speed where the drag is least. This is called the minimum drag speed and abbreviated as VIMD (velocity = airspeed, indicated, minimum drag). The total drag is a minimum at a medium speed. This airspeed corresponds to an angle of attack of about 4. To improve the lift and to minimize the drag the designer must keep the airflow smooth. This is called streamlined or laminar flow.

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Laminar flow Transition point

Turbulent flow Separation point

Figure 3.43 Separation of flow around an object

If the air has to travel around a blunt object, sharp corners or large areas, then the flow becomes twisted or turbulent. Eventually the air cannot flow around the corners and separates. This causes a large increase in drag as well as a large loss of lift. This is what happens when an aeroplane stalls.

Efficiency and airflow


The design of a wing is critical to achieve the best efficiency. That is, it must produce the most lift for the least induced drag. The ratio of the lift versus the drag at any particular angle of attack is called the lift/drag ratio (L/D). It is dependent on the design of the wing section. If the ratio of lift to drag is plotted against the angle of attack, there is an obvious point where the greatest benefit is gained. This is the angle of attack where the wing is most efficient, or has the best lift drag ratio or best L/D. A typical aerofoil achieves its best L/D at an angle of attack of about 4 and loses most of its lifting ability after about 16. This is the point at which an aeroplane stalls.

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Aeronautical engineering

Fast

Slow

In-flight angle-of-attack range 12 10 CL CD Lift/drag or 8 6 4 2 0 4

Most efficient angle-of-attack

4 8 12 Angle of attack ( )

stall angle 16

20

Figure 3.44 L/D ratio versus angle of attack

Because the wing is most efficient at this angle, it is usual to set the wing on the fuselage at an angle of 4 so that at cruising speed, the wing will be at 4 and the fuselage is in the most streamlined position. The angle at which the wing is set to the fuselage is called the Riggers angle of incidence.
Angle of incidence Chord line of wing

Longitudinal axis of aeroplane Figure 3.45 Riggers angle of incidence

There is a pressure difference between the upper and lower surface of the wing. There is a loss of this differential by air leaking around the wingtips. The vortex formed at the wingtip causes a large increase in the induced drag. The shape of the wing and the wingtip is significant. In order to make high aspect ratio wings very efficient at low speeds and high altitudes, winglets are added to the ends of tapered wings. Elliptical wings are also very efficient as there is very little tip loss.

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Plain wing

Winglet

Modified wingtip

Wing fence

Wingtip tank

Figure 3.46 Winglets

Another influence on the lift/drag ratio is the shape of the wing (known as the planform of the wing) and the spanwise loading (the spread of weight over the span). The proportion of the span of the wing to the depth of the chord is known as the aspect ratio. High aspect ratio means a long, narrow planform and low aspect ratio means short, deeper chord wings.

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Aeronautical engineering

Chord

Low aspect ratio wings High aspect ratio wings Figure 3.47 Aspect ratios

The shape can be rectangular, tapered, curved, elliptical or triangular. Most domestic and commercial planes, including the jumbo jets have high aspect ratio wings. Military fighter aircraft need to reduce the parasite drag created by high aspect ratio wings, so they use low aspect ratio wings. This reduces the size, and increases the strength and manoeuvrability of the aircraft. A typical training aircraft has an aspect ratio of about 8 and a best lift/drag ratio of about 12:1. Once the wing is built, there are only two factors that can change the lift to drag ratio. These are: angle of attack extension of flaps.

Worked Example 5 An aeroplane of mass 50 tonnes is subjected to the following forces during a steep climb. Determine the resultant force that is propelling the plane.
Drag = 100 kN

Span

Lift = 430 kN Weight = 50 x 10 kN

Thrust = 400 kN 20

Figure 3.48 Aeroplane during a steep climb

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The mass of 50 tonnes is equivalent to 50 000 kg. This must be converted to a weight force. W = mg = 50 000 x 10 N = 500 kN The four forces; thrust, weight, lift and drag are then added together using a force polygon. Because these forces are vectors, they must be drawn tip-to-tail. Figure 3.49 shows the forces. The weight force has been drawn first. When all the forces have been drawn, head to tail, the resultant is the vector that is drawn from where you started to where you finished.
D = 100 kN 7.5 Resultant = 130 kN

L=

430

kN

W = 500 kN

T=

400

kN
Scale 10mm = 100 kN

Figure 3.49 Force polygon

The resultant force acting on the aeroplane is 130 kN acting at an angle of 7.5 to the horizontal. Worked example 6 An aeroplane is maintaining level flight. If the plane has a mass of 32 tonnes, and a lift to drag ratio of 8:1, determine the thrust necessary to maintain a constant velocity. Solution The weight of the aeroplane equals mass x gravity, that is, the weight will equal 32 000 x 10 N, or 320 kN. The lift must balance the weight force to maintain level flight, therefore the lift, L, will also equal 320 kN.

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Aeronautical engineering

If the lift to drag ratio is 8:1, then the drag will equal 320/8, or 40 kN. To maintain constant velocity, there can be no acceleration, so the horizontal forces must be balanced, that is, there is no resultant force. Therefore the thrust will equal the drag, or 40 kN. Worked example 7 An aircraft is making a controlled descent under power at 8 to the horizontal, with an acceleration of 2.5 m/s 2 in the direction of travel. The mass of the aircraft is 3.5 tonnes and the thrust is 77 kN. i ii Calculate the drag force. (Use g = 10 m/s2) Calculate the lift to drag ratio.

Firstly, determine the weight force, W = = = mg 3.5 x 1000 x 10 N 35 kN

As the plane is moving with an acceleration, there must be a resultant force. This can be found using the following formula: F = = = = ma 3.5 x 1000 x 2.5 8750 N 8.75 kN

The thrust is in the direction of travel, that is, down at 8 to the horizontal. The lift force must balance the weight, and is perpendicular to the airflow. The drag opposes the motion in the direction of the airflow. From this information, you can construct the force polygon as shown in figure 3.50. (This is analogous to the normal reaction and the friction force in friction problems).

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F = 8.75 kN D = 73.1 kN

W = 35 kN L = 34.7 kN

T = 77 kN
Figure 3.50 Force diagram

From the diagram, the drag force is scaled off at 73.1 kN. The lift force is scaled off at 34.7 kN Therefore, the L/D ratio is 34.7 / 73.1 = 0.47

Controlling flight
The wings have to produce the same lift, irrespective of the airspeed, to support the weight of the aircraft. To manoeuvre the plane, it is necessary to change the amount of lift produced. This is done by changing the angle of attack, or the angle at which the wing is relative to the airflow. This is also necessary when maintaining level flight at different airspeeds. The pilot reduces the angle of attack as the speed increases, and increases it as the aircraft slows down. The wing has a minimum speed that it must maintain in order to keep the plane balanced. This is similar to riding a bicycle, it is hard to keep a balance of the bicycle when the speed is too slow. If an aircraft is flown too slowly, it also becomes hard to control and loses its balance. This is called stalling the aircraft. Aircraft are designed to cruise at a given airspeed, maybe 300 kph. This aircraft may have a stalling angle at a speed of about half this, say 150 kph. The designer has to consider this when the aircraft is landing, or taking off. The use of flaps allows the stalling speed to be reduced by increasing the lift at low speeds. This allows for shorter runways to be used. A further advantage of flaps is that they increase the steepness of the approach path. This allows the pilot to gain a better view by lowering the nose of the aircraft as well as reducing the approach and landing speeds.

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Aeronautical engineering

Flaps
There are various designs for flaps. Each has different advantages.

Simple flap Airflow through slot

Split flap Moves back and down

Slotted flap Figure 3.51 Flaps

Fowler flap

As mentioned at the start of this topic, the aircraft can experience a movement around three axes (called balance lines) which pass through the centre of gravity.
Normal axis Centre of gravity (CG) Lateral axis

Lonitudinal axis

Figure 3.52 Three balance lines of an aircraft

In order to control this turning moment about the axes, the pilot has to control and balance his aircraft by the use of various controls.

Elevators
The elevator is the moveable surface at the rear of the plane. It is the hinged rear section of the horizontal stabilizer as part of the tailplane. The tailplane may be fixed with a hinged elevator, or the whole tailplane may pivot. This is called a stabilator or all moving tail.

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Elevator

Tailplane

Figure 3.53 Hinged elevator

Stabilator Figure 3.54 Stabilator or all moving tail

The elevators cause the aircraft to pitch, that is, a nose up or a nose down motion. This tendency to turn about the lateral axis is known as the pitching moment. The direct result of moving the elevators is a change in the angle of attack and the attitude of the plane relative to the airflow.
Up elevator Control column back

Nose up Downward aerodynamic force Upward aerodynamic force

Control column forward

Down elevator Figure 3.55 Elevators control the pitching moment

Nose down

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Aeronautical engineering

Ailerons
When a change of direction, or cornering is required on a bicycle, this is achieved by leaning the bike over. It is also common for the bends of the road to be banked to aid with cornering. This is not possible through the air. An aircraft achieves a turn by varying the component of the wings lifting force. To achieve a tilt, the rear outer section of each wing is hinged. These surfaces are known as ailerons. By moving the ailerons in different directions. (one up and the other down) the aircraft can roll into a turn. Ailerons cause motion about the longitudinal axis. This turning moment is known as the rolling moment.
L L

Left wing Figure 3.56 Ailerons allow the aircraft to turn or roll

Right wing

When the ailerons are deflected they cause a rolling moment. The deflected surface also causes a change in the drag on that wing. The downward aileron is in a high pressure area and so has more drag than the upward aileron. This results in a yawing moment opposite to the desired direction of roll and needs to be corrected by the rudder. Different amounts of lift are also generated.

Rudder
The rudder causes a yawing moment (about the normal axis). The yawing moment also causes one wing to advance and one to retard. This causes a change in lift and induces a rolling moment. The rudder can also be used to balance uneven airflow or engine forces. It is also used to change the heading or to align the aircraft with the airflow.

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Bending Stress airframes


The normal structure of the aircraft (the airframe) includes the cockpit and cabin, the wings, the tail assembly, the engine compartments and the fuselage which joins them all together. The purpose of the structure is to transfer the lift from the wings to support the weight of the structure and its payload (passengers and freight). As well as the forces caused by the lift (both lifting and twisting), it has to have additional strength for turbulence, wind gusts and thermals (air currents). It also has to carry the thrust from the propellor to pull the aircraft through the air. The tail surfaces are attached to provide stability when changing the flight path of the aircraft. The control surfaces allow the pilot to override the stability when changing the flight path of the aircraft. On the ground the airframe is supported by the undercarriage. The airframe has to provide both strength and stiffness. The primary requirement of the aircraft has to be considered when designing the airframe. The key point in the design is to carry maximum load at minimum cost. The total take off load varies with each aircraft. The following table shows a breakdown of loads making up the total take off load.
Vimy Commercial 1920 Vickers Viscount Modern Short Range Subsonic Modern Subsonic Long range 747-400 15 40 13 Concord Supersonic

Payload Fuel Systems, crew etc Power plant Structure

17 25 11

14 23 25

24 18 18

9 48 10

18 29

12 26

11 29

6 26

10 23

Figure 3.57 Percentages of total take-off weight

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Aeronautical engineering

The structural form of an aircraft is a system of individual members arranged in frames. The simplest structures used in aeronautics are readily recognized as frames, but more advanced varieties lose their simplicity as members are made to do more than one job. Parts are made up of tensile, compressive and shear stressed members that behave as beams, struts, ties and thin-walled tubes. Larger planes rely heavily upon thin-walled shell forms whereas light aeroplanes exhibit greater variety. Aerostructures are never perfect in the sense of having only just enough members to keep them stable and in equilibrium under any system of forces. When a structure has too few members it is said to be deficient. If it has too many, it is redundant. Aerostructures feature a great many redundancies in the pursuit of safety and lightness. This introduces difficulties when calculating stresses in individual members. The basic triangulated truss and the thin-walled tube are used in one form or another in almost every aircraft. The truss is the easiest and cheapest to repair, but is not as failsafe as the thin-walled tube. Composite structures are likely to satisfy most of the needs of light aeroplane designers in the future. They are not the absolute answer at present because it is impossible to prove their integrity under all required service conditions.
Construction Tube and fabric All metal All wood Composite Structural form Triangulated truss Mainly thin-walled tube Mixed Thin-walled tube with foam stabilized skin Percentage present 48 29 14 8

Figure 3.58 Percentage of structural arrangements of amateur built aircraft in the USA in the 1980s

The following structural forms are common in aeronautical engineering.

Frames
Frames can either be pin jointed or welded joints. Frames make up a triangulated truss within the aircraft.

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Pin jointed

Welded

Triangulated truss

Frames Figure 3.59 Structural form frames

Beams
Beams exist in various forms; simply supported beams with bending and shear, cantilevers with tension and compression bending stresses, cantilevers with uniformly distributed loads.

Simply supported

Bending and shear


Tension Compression

Combination of simply supported and cantilever beams

Cantilever Beams

Neutral axis in bending

Figure 3.60 Structural forms beams

Thin-walled tubes
Thin-walled tubes will experience torsion, as well as tensile and hoop stresses in the skin.

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Aeronautical engineering

Torsional member Thin walled tube in torsion

Complementary shear Wrinkling across tension field Skin in tension f Hoop stress Thin walled tubes 2 K = 2.5 = 3.5 = 1.05 2
n

Torsional axis
sio

n Te

2f Skin in shear (related to torsion)

K = Maximum stress in skin Hoop stress Figure 3.61 Structural form thin-walled tube

Pressurised cabin with cuts-out

Operational phases
Aircraft experience four distinct operational phases: ground take-off cruise/operational (civil/military) landing.

The aircraft must be designed to resist all the forces associated with each of these phases. The wings, fuselage, landing gear and control surfaces all experience significant forces during the different operational phases.

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Wings
The fuel on many planes is stored within the wings. This is called a wet wing. The static load created by the fuel will cause the wing to deflect downwards. In flight, the wing will flex upwards, putting the upper surface in compression. Important properties include E and r , where: E = Youngs modulus and is a measure of the stiffness. It depends on the geometry of the wing; and r = density. Because part of the wing is in compression during flight, the engineer also calculates the ratio of sYS(comp) and r , where:

sYS(comp) = yield compressive stress


A very important aspect of wing design is the wings resistance to stress corrosion cracking. This is known as the fracture toughness and is given the symbol KISCC. The higher the number, the more resistance there is to stress corrosion cracking. In flight, the lower surface of the wings will be in tension, because the wing flexes, or bends, upwards. Important properties again include E and r and sYS(tension) , where: E = Youngs modulus and is a measure of the stiffness; and r = density and

sYS(tension) = yield tensile stress. Yield stress in tension and compression are the same in metals, but not in polymers.
The wings experience much cyclic loading, so calculations for fatigue stress ( sFS ) are necessary. Corrosion resistance and fracture toughness are once again important properties.

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Aeronautical engineering

Fuselage
The fuselage is loaded in bending as well as being pushed outwards due to pressurization. Most of the fuselage will be in tension. In addition to E, r and sYS , and corrosion resistance, the fatigue stress (sFS) is low cycle. The fatigue problem in the fuselage is due to the pressurization, but this only occurs once per flight. The fuselage also experiences a tensile hoop stress. Square windows tend to crack and fail, so they need to be designed with no sharp corners included in their shape.

Spars, frames and ribs


Spars, frames and ribs are loaded in bending. Important properties include E, r , sYS , sFS and KISCC.

Landing gear
If landing gear is retractable, it takes up a lot of space in the aeroplane. On light aircraft, the landing gear is generally permanently out. This eliminates many control systems to withdraw it within the fuselage, but does increase the drag significantly, and burns much more fuel. Important properties include E, sYS and KISCC.

Control surfaces
Control surfaces need to have structural stiffness and be lightweight. The control surfaces are often referred to as the features, and must not bend. Carbon fibre and composites are commonly used for the vertical fin and horizontal tail.

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Cowl Spinner

Cockpit/cabin Prop

Leading edge

Wing tip

Trailing e

dge
Aileron Flaps Fuselage

Tailplane

Trim tab

Elevator Fin and rudder

Figure 3.62 Control surfaces on an aeroplane

Worked example 8 A 3 tonne aeroplane is at rest on its landing gear as shown. Draw the shear force diagram Determine the maximum bending moment and its position.

3000 kg 9 kN/m 9 kN/m

1500 3250 3000 3250

Figure 3.63 Distributed load acting on a plane.

You will need to recall work from Civil structures on shear force and bending moments.

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Aeronautical engineering

The mass of the plane must be converted to a weight W = mg 3000 x10 30 kN Load on one wing will equal 9 kN x 4 = 36 kN Now find the reactions at each wheel. Because of the symmetrical loading, the reactions will be equal to half of the total load. The reaction at each wheel will be (36 + 36 + 30) / 2 = 51 kN You will recall that the shear force diagram for a uniform distributed load (UDL) will be a sloping line of gradient 9 kN / m, and will be a constant where there is no load, and then change at a concentrated load, in the same direction as the concentrated load. Follow the shear in Fig 3.72 as you work through these calculations: UDL from end of wing to wheel = -9 x 3.25 = -29.25 kN

Reaction at wheel = 51 kN

Shear force at wheel = -29.25 + 51 = + 21.75 kN Shear force where wing attaches to fueslage = 21.75 (9 x 0.75) = 15 kN No load for 0.75, then weight force of 30 kN Shear to right of centre = 15 30 = 15 kN Now follow through with your own calculations until you get to the other wing tip.

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29.25 21.75 15

15 21.75 29.25 Figure 3.64 Shear force diagram

Maximum bending moment will occur when the shear force = 0, that is, the position of the wheel. You will also recall that bending moment can also be calculated by finding the area under the shear force diagram. BMwheel = 1 3.25 29.25 2 = 47.53 kNm

Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.6.

Worked example 9 A certain manoeuvre produces the loads on the aluminium tubing truss of an aircraft as shown in the diagram. What is the load in the pairs of member EG. (There are two trusses in the aircraft)

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Aeronautical engineering

Stabiliser reaction Wing reaction

K L
132 kg

M N
75 kg

800 500 0

100

B
792 kg

D
255 kg

147 kg 282 kg 152 kg

450 0

1050 1610

2650

3400 4150

4900

6000

Fuselage stations (mm) Figure 3.65 Loading on an aircraft fuselage frame

Solution To find EG, use the method of sections. You will recall that for this method, you must put a section plane through three members, and then consider one side of the truss to solve for the member EG. Consider the right hand side of the section, so the stabilizer reaction must be found first. Mwing = 0 (7920 x 2.06) + (2550 x 0.56) + (R x 4.39) (2820 x 1.04) = 0 (1520 x 1.79) (1470 x 2.540 (1320 x 3.29) (750 x 4.39) 4.39 R = -720 R = -164 N 164 N To find EG
M F = 0

(EG x 0.80) (1520 x 0.75) (1470 x 1.50) (1320 x 2.25) = 0 (750 x 335) (164 x 3.35) 0.80 EG = 9376.90 EG = 11721 N EG = 11.7 kN

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Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.7.

Worked example 10 A tension test on a duralumin sample showed that the proportional limit was reached with a load of 45 kN. This load produced a 0.16 mm extension at the proportional limit. If the test piece has an original gauge length of 50 mm and a cross sectional area (CSA) of 160 mm2, calculate the value of Youngs Modulus for duralumin. Using this data, determine the maximum load that an aircraft frame member can support if it is not to exceed 0.08 mm extension. The frame member is 3.5 metres long and has a CSA of 400 mm2. Stress, s = = = L/A 45000 / 160 281.25 MPa

Strain, e

e/1 0.16 / 50 0.0032

Young's Modulus, E =
= = =

s /e
281.25 / 0.0032 87890 MPa 87.9 GPa

E = Force, F = = =

F1 / eA EeA/1 87890 x 0.08 x 400 / 3500 803.6 N

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Now turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 3.8.

Propulsion
The first aircraft to be built used propellers to push them along. A propeller draws air in the front and throws it backwards. This thrusts the propeller and aircraft forwards. The jet of air thrown back by the propellers does not travel very fast, so propellers cannot move aircraft faster than about 725 km/h. To achieve a greater speed, aircraft now use either turboprop or turbojet engines instead of propellers.

Turboprops
The turboprop engine drives the propeller by a gas turbine engine. Compressors compress or squash the incoming air, fuel is sprayed in behind the compressor, and the hot gas drives the turbine, which then turns the propeller. A reduction gear slows the propeller down so that it moves about ten times more slowly. Propellers waste power and make too much noise if they spin too fast. A turboprop weighing 350 kg produces about 2 000 horsepower. Airliners designed to carry 50 to 70 passengers are often powered by two turboprops.

3 The compressed air is heated with burning fuel

1 Air is forced in

2 The air is compressed by two compressors and forced into the combustion chamber Figure 3.66 Turboprop engine

4 The turbine (which turns the propellers) is driven by hot gas

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Turbojets
The turbojet is another gas turbine engine which was first run in 1937. Aircraft driven by turbojet engines do not have propellers. They are propelled by a backward jet of hot gas. These engines, usually in the form of turbofans, propel all the fastest aircraft. The compressors ensure that all the air entering a turbojet is compressed and forced into a combustion chamber. The compressed air is heated with burning fuel, the jet of hot gas drives the plane forwards.
3 The compressed air is heated with burning fuel

1 Air is forced in

2 The air is compressed and forced into the combustion chamber Figure 3.67 Turbojet engine

4 The jet of hot gas drives the aircraft forwards

The jet engine drives an aircraft forward with enormous force. Air is sucked in at the front, compressed by blades, and heated with flames of burning fuel in the combustion chamber. The air is then expelled at a high speed from the back. This stream of hot air is known as a jet. It causes a thrust in the opposite direction, propelling the aircraft forwards. Most big airliners today are powered by turbo fan engines, which are quieter and cooler than other jet engines. Air is drawn in by a huge fan spinning at the front. Some of the air passes through the engine, while most flows around the outside, to thrust the aircraft forward. The fan and compressor blades are themselves turned by the stream of hot air rushing out through the back of the engine. Jet engines work on the principle of jet propulsion. An aircraft is thrust forwards because of the reaction to high-speed air traveling backwards. The same effect can be seen when you release the neck of a blown-up balloon. When the neck of the balloon is held tightly shut, the air pressure inside the balloon is the same in all directions, (Pascals principle), so the balloon remains still. Because the air is compressed inside the balloon, when you release the neck of the balloon, the air will rush out at high speed.

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The air pressure at the opposite end to the neck is no longer counterbalanced, so the balloon flies forward.

Figure 3.68 Balloon moves by jet propulsion

Most modern aircraft like the Boeing 747s have powerful electrical and hydraulic systems to help them fly. The four engines that weigh about 5 tonnes each burn fuel to drive electric generators. These generators produce about 100 horsepower each. Each engine also drives a hydraulic pump by the use of highpressure air. These four hydraulic systems pump special liquid to move the landing gear, flaps, flight controls, brakes and other items on the plane. In the belly of the plane are cabin pressurization and airconditioning systems. When aircraft fly at high altitudes, the air outside is too cold and too thin to breathe, so the air in the cabin must be pressurized and kept warm. Most modern passenger aircraft also have an APU (auxiliary power unit). On the 747 it is at the tip of the tail-end of the fuselage. It is a small gas turbine engine, driving two electric generators. It also supplies compressed air for starting the main engines and for air-conditioning the cabin.

Fluid mechanics
Hydraulic applications to aircraft components Most aeroplanes have several hydraulically operated systems incorporated into their design. Systems are used to operate the undercarriage and the flaps as well as the hydraulic brake system. A basic hydraulic system includes a pump, regulator, reservoir, relief valve, filters, plumbing, oil, and various control valves , actuators, and an accumulator. To operate the hydraulic system, the pilot moves a control valve that directs hydraulic fluid to an actuator. The pressure exerted by the hydraulic fluid then moves an actuator, which mechanically operates the service.

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Wing flap Actuator (operating cylinder)

Figure 3.69 Actuator operating mechanical linkage to wing flap

Wheel brakes
The wheel brakes are usually disc brakes. These are hydraulically operated by toe pedals which are situated on top of the rudder pedals. Pressing the left toe brake pedal will slow the left main wheel, and similarly the right pedal for the right side main wheel. By using them separately, the pilot can use differential braking which is useful in manoeuvring on the ground. Straight line braking is provided when they are used simultaneously. A typical system involves a master cylinder containing hydraulic brake fluid for each brake system. As the individual toe brake is applied, the pressure is transmitted through the brake fluid to a slave cylinder which the causes calipers to clamp the brake pads onto the disc. The brake disc is part of the wheel assembly , so when the pads clamp onto the disc and slow it down, the wheel rotation is also slowed down.

Hydrostatic and dynamic pressure


Hydrostatic pressure In the atmosphere at any point, static pressure is exerted equally in all directions. It is the result of weight of all the molecules of air above that point pressing down due to gravity.

Figure 3.70 Static pressure acts equally in all directions

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Static pressure decreases with altitude and is exerted on all points on an aircraft, inside and outside, except when the aircraft is specially sealed.
s Low

tatic pressure at altitud e

g Hi

tat hs

ssure at mean ic pre sea

l ev

el

Figure 3.71 Static pressure at different levels

As the name implies, static pressure does not involve relative motion of the air. Static pressure is sampled on the surface of an aircraft by a static vent. This is then connected to a barometer type device to be measured.
Static pressure

Static vent

Partially evacuated capsule Figure 3.72 Static pressure measured by a barometer

Dynamic pressure
If you hold your hand up in a strong wind or out of the window of a moving car, then an extra wind pressure is felt due to the air hitting your hand. This extra pressure, which is always present and above static pressure is known as dynamic pressure. It is pressure created by relative movement.

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It is felt by a body which is moving relative to the air. It can be moving through the air or the air could be flowing past it. Dynamic pressure depends on two factors: the speed of the body relative to the air. The faster the body moves or the stronger the wind blows, then the stronger the dynamic pressure that will be felt. This is because of the greater number of molecules that impact on it per second. the density of the air. In outer space, no matter how fast you travel, you will not feel this dynamic pressure as there are practically no air molecules to impact on you. The atmosphere is the most dense at sea level, so your hand will be struck by more molecules than in the upper levels of the atmosphere. So if you are travelling at the same speed, you will experience a much lower dynamic pressure at the higher, less dense altitudes.
IAS 100 = True airspeed

6000 5000 Altitude (m) 4000 3000 2000 1000 Mean sea level

IAS 100 = TAS 137 IAS 100 = TAS 128 IAS 100 = TAS 121 IAS 100 = TAS 114 IAS 100 = TAS 109 IAS 100 = TAS 104 IAS 100 = TAS 100

+36% +28% +21% +14% +9% +4%

Figure 3.73 Relationship between indicated and true airspeed due to dynamic pressure at different altitudes

Total pressure/Pitot pressure


Static pressure is always exerted, but for dynamic pressure to be present, there must also be motion of the body relative to the air. Total pressure consists of static pressure plus dynamic pressure. Total pressure is also known as pitot pressure. The airspeed indicator (ASI) which will be discussed shortly, senses dynamic pressure; that is, the difference between total pressure and static pressure. Its scale is calibrated to read in units of speed, usually knots.

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Pitot tube

Static pressure Airflow

Total pressure (pitot) (dynamic and static pressure Flexible diagphragm Static vent Figure 3.74 Total pressure

Application to aircraft instruments


Aeroplane flight instruments fall into three basic categories: pressure instruments which use variations in atmospheric air pressure gyroscopic instruments using the properties of gyroscopes compass systems that sense the earths magnetic field.

The basic flight instruments informing the pilot of airspeed (airspeed indicator), altitude (altimeter) and the rate of change of altitude (vertical speed indicator) are pressure instruments.

Altimeter
The altimeter is the instrument that indicates the height of the aircraft above a pre-selected surface level. The atmospheric pressure, known as the static pressure, is fed into the instrument from an aperture set into the fuselage side so that it is at right angles to any airflow.

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10 000 ft pointer

Atmospheric pressure admitted from static vent

1000 ft pointer

9 8 7

1
1020

Pressure window

2
1025

1030

3 6 5 4
Static vent on outside of aircraft

Striped setor visible when below 10 000 ft

Subscale knob for setting pressure datum

100 ft pointer

Fixed amount of air in expandable capsule

Gearing mechanism

Figure 3.75 Altimeter

Pressure altimeters resemble aneroid barometers. They determine how high an aircraft is above sea level by measuring the pressure of the earths atmosphere. The pressure of the earths atmosphere decreases as the altitude increases. The upper atmosphere has less pressure than the air near the earth, simply because there is less air pressing down from above. When you travel up a tall building in a fast lift, you will feel the air pressure changing. The pressure of the air inside the lift decreases, but the pressure inside your ears remains the same. This difference in pressure causes your eardrums to bulge outward slightly until some air finally forces its way out. You will feel your ears pop.
Altitude (metres) 15000 12000 9000 6000 3000 Sea level Pressure (kg/cm2) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 Pressure (kPa) 12.1 19.4 30.8 47.2 70.1 101.3

Figure 3.76 Air pressure decreases with altitude

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Airspeed Indicator
The Airspeed Indicator (ASI), as it is usually called, does as the name implies measures the speed through the air but not over the ground. Oncoming air in flight enters a forward-facing aperture on the aircraft known as a pitot tube. It is carried through a line to the capsule in the instrument which can expand or contract. The pressure this air exerts on the capsule is a combination of static pressure (already there) and the additional pressure attributed to the moving air, known as dynamic pressure There is a need to ensure that the capsule, and thereby the reading, is only influenced by the dynamic pressure the moving air. To achieve this, a static pressure line is also introduced into this instrument which exerts itself on the outside of the capsule. This nullifies the static pressure part of the total pressure. The net effect is that only the required dynamic pressure is linked to the dial where it is registered in terms of kilometers per hour.
Airspeed
Knots

200 180 160 140 120

0 20

Pitot tube
40 60 100 80

Airflow

Appropriate gearing system

Static pressure

Flexible diagphragm Static vent

Figure 3.77 Airspeed indicator (ASI)

Pitot tube
A Pitot tube is a simple and versatile instrument for measuring the flow velocity. It is also used to measure the speed of aircraft by measuring the flow velocity of the air past them. It has two tubes: an outer tube, with holes perpendicular to the direction of flow, which senses static pressure only an inner tube, which faces into the direction of flow and senses static pressure plus the pressure increase due to fluid striking the tube opening (dynamic pressure).

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The dynamic pressure is greater than the static pressure and the pressure difference is proportional to the velocity. A differential manometer as shown is often used with this instrument.

Figure 3.78 Pitot tube with a differential manometer

The difference in height of the indicating fluid in the manometer may be used to calculate the velocity and hence the flow rate by multiplying the velocity by the cross sectional area. Icing can be a problem when super-cooled liquid drops are ingested and freeze. Because the pitot tube faces directly into the airflow it can ingest water in flight which can freeze if icing conditions exist. This problem is solved on many aeroplanes by fitting a heated pitot head around the tube.

Vertical Speed Indicator


The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) indicates the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending. Once again we have a capsule capable of expansion/contraction in the operation of this instrument; this time it is related to the speed at which the pressure decreases or increases on climb or descent. In this case static pressure has instant entry/exit to the capsule but its entry/exit to the area surrounding the capsule is only gradual due to the other aperture being restricted to deliberately delay movement either way.

1
.5
UP

CLIMB

4 6

0
DOWN

.5

Figure 3.79 Vertical speed indicator (VSI)

In level flight the pressure both inside and outside the capsule will be the same so the instrument will show a zero reading.

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Exercises

Exercise 3.1 The rocket engine of a missile ejects 210 kg of exhaust gases per second at the speed of 950 m/s relative to the engine. Calculate the thrust of the rocket engine.

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Exercise 3.2 The engine of a jet fighter plane traveling at 900 km/h is consuming fuel at the rate of 2 kg per second and air at the rate of 120 kg per second. Calculate the thrust of the engine if the velocity of the exhaust gas is 1000 m/s relative to the aircraft.

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Exercise 3.3 A helicopter, of mass 4 tonne, is subjected to the forces as illustrated.


T

60 30 D

W Figure 3.80 Helicopter

Determine the thrust force ( acting at 60 to the horizontal) that would be necessary to ensure that the helicopter would maintain a horizontal flight path at constant velocity. What is the magnitude of the resultant force?

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Exercise 3.4 Water flows through a 45 mm diameter pipe with a velocity of 5 m/s. The pipe reduces to 30 mm diameter. Determine the velocity of the water in the pipe downstream of the reducer.

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Exercise 3.5 a State Bernoullis principle. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain how this principle is applied to flight. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Explain how a sailboat can move against the wind as a result of the Bernoulli effect _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Explain why an airfoil is placed on the back section of high performance cars. How does this effect the performance of the car? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Exercise 3.6 A light aircraft, mass 3200 kg, has a wing span of 15 metres. The aeroplane is maintaining horizontal flight. The wing is continuous above the aeroplane, and assuming that the distributed load created by the lift is uniform, draw a shear force and bending moment diagram for the wing. Hint: The lift force must balance the weight of the plane.
uniform lift

= = =

mg 3200 x 10 32 kN

Figure 3.81 Front view of a light plane with wing across top

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Exercise 3.7 A certain manoeuvre produces the loads on the aluminium tubing truss of an aircraft as shown in the diagram. What is the load in the pairs of member AC. (There are two trusses in the aircraft) if: i ii member AD is removed member BC is removed.

Calculate the main wing reaction.


Stabiliser reaction Wing reaction

K L
132 kg

M N
75 kg

800 500 0

100

B
792 kg

D
255 kg

147 kg 282 kg 152 kg

450 0

1050 1610

2650

3400 4150

4900

6000

Fuselage stations (mm) Figure 3.82 Loads in aircraft fuselage frame

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Exercise 3.8 A tension test on a duralumin sample showed that the proportional limit was reached with a load of 50 kN. This load produced a 0.18 mm extension at the proportional limit. If the test piece has an original gauge length of 50 mm and a cross sectional area of 160 mm2, calculate the value of Youngs Modulus for duralumin. Using this data, determine the maximum load that an aircraft frame member can support if it is not to exceed 0.07 mm extension. The frame member is 3.3 metres long and has a CSA of 400 mm2.

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Exercise 3.9 Select the alternative A, B, C or D that best answers the question. Circle the letter. 1 A pitching moment is: a b c d 2 waiting for thrust for take-off a twisting force trying to raise or lower the nose of a plane uneven flight due to air turbulence a rolling of the plane which occurs on a change of direction.

The riggers angle of incidence is: a b c d the number of accidents caused by mechanical faults the angle of the leading edge of a wing the angle at which the wing is set to the fuselage a ratio of the span of the wing to the depth of the chord.

Parasite drag is: a b c d common in planes with wooden frames that have been attacked by insects corrosion of the aluminium skin of the aircraft increased when ice forms on the wings at high altitudes a by-product of the production of lift and related to the angle of attack.

Angle of attack is: a b c d the angle of the wing relative to the airflow used by military aircraft to meet the enemy from behind how much the wings are swept back constant irrespective of airspeed.

Bernoullis principle states: a b c d where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low an increase in velocity will increase the pressure on an airfoil pressure is distributed evenly throughout a fluid buoyant force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced.

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6 a b c d 7

Lift force: is generated by the engine to allow an aeroplane to take off balances the weight of the aeroplane is a constant ratio to the drag; this is known as the l/d ratio. decreases with the airspeed of the aircraft.

When an aeroplane stalls, the: a b c d motor cuts out flaps are lowered to reduce the airspeed stall depends entirely on the angle of attack aeroplane reaches its maximum cruising speed with no extra power required from its engines.

As an aircraft increases its altitude: a b c d the pressure is registered by the pitot tube the pressure increases, and temperature decreases the pressure decreases, and temperature decreases true airspeed is shown on the airspeed indicator.

The stress in an airframe due to pressurization of the fuselage is: a b c d compressive stress tensile stress shear stress hoop stress.

10 Turbojet engines were developed to propel faster aeroplanes because: a b c d they were quieter than propellers; they reduced the risk of accidents of exposed propeller blades; propellers could not propel aeroplanes faster than 725 km/h planes were more manoeuvrable.

11 ASI stands for: a b c d aeronautical serious injury accident study & investigation australian standards international airspeed indicator.

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Progress check
In this part you have examined the principles of mechanics and hydraulics and how they are applied in the systems of aeronautical instruments and in flight. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.
Agree well done Disagree revise your work Uncertain contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree

I have learnt about engineering mechanics forces lift, drag, weight, thrust basic aerodynamics Bernoullis principle bending stress airframes propulsion systems (jet, turboprop) fluid mechanics hydrostatic and dynamic pressure, applications to aircraft components, application to aircraft instruments.

I have learnt to apply mathematical and graphical methods to solve flight-related problems outline Bernoullis principle as applied to flight investigate the nature and effect of bending stresses, applying appropriate mathematical methods apply mathematical methods to solve hydraulicsrelated problems.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.
Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part you will learn about the materials used in aeronautical engineering.

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Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 3.1 to 3.9

Name: _______________________________

Have you have completed the following exercises? Exercise 3.1 Exercise 3.2 Exercise 3.3 Exercise 3.4 Exercise 3.5 Exercise 3.6 Exercise 3.7 Exercise 3.8 Exercise 3.9 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

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Aeronautical engineering

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Part 4 contents

Introduction..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Testing of materials............................................................................3
Specialist testing of aircraft materials .......................................... 3 Non-destructive tests ................................................................. 6 Metals and alloys....................................................................... 7 Polymers .................................................................................15 Composites..............................................................................17 Fibres ......................................................................................19 Sandwich core materials ...........................................................27 Corrosion.................................................................................29

Exercises ...........................................................................................37 Progress check .................................................................................47 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................49

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Introduction

Engineers are interested in the development, properties and availability of materials and how this has affected the design of various forms of aircraft. In this, the first engineering focus module, you will be studying specific materials and investigating structure/property relationships and testing procedures as they relate to aeronautical engineering.

What will you learn?


You will learn about: specialised testing of aircraft materials aluminium and its alloys used in aircraft polymers [used for aircraft applications] composites [used for aircraft applications] corrosion [common in aircraft applications]

You will learn to: describe non-destructive tests used with aircraft materials and components analyse structure, properties, uses and appropriateness of materials in aeronautical engineering applications investigate the effects of heat treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloys select and justify materials and processes used in aeronautical engineering outline the mechanism of corrosion common to aircraft components.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Aeronautical engineering

Testing of materials

Specialist testing of aircraft materials


Mechanical testing of materials provides data and information that allows the most appropriate material to be selected for the many different applications on an aircraft. From the information provided in previous modules, identify tests that may be used to analyse materials used in aircraft and state the property that is being tested. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you identify tensile testing for tensile strength, elasticity, yield strength, resilience and toughness? What about hardness testing, ductility testing, fatigue testing and transverse beam testing?

The design of airframe structures involves exhaustive testing at all stages. Materials, assembled components and full-scale models are tested at all levels of the fabrication process.

Fatigue testing
Both environmental exposure and cyclic loadings can combine to cause fatigue failure in aircraft parts including airframes, rotating shafts, bearings, aircraft wings and engine connecting rods. Fatigue cracks have three different growth phases: Initiation many microscopic cracks form due to slip along shear planes. It is impossible to detect these micro-cracks.

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Stable Growth Visible cracks develop perpendicular to the local tensile stresses. Non-destructive testing techniques can detect these cracks. Unstable Growth As the crack grows, the structure remaining to carry the load decreases. When the crack reaches the critical length, it becomes unstable and grows approximately at the speed of sound leading to sudden failure.

Four conditions are necessary for cracks to develop and grow. 1 2 3 4 A material that is prone to stress cracking. Tensile stress must be present Stress, at least at the crack tip, must be in the plastic range of the material. Stress with cyclically varying intensity.

All materials are not equally vulnerable to fatigue cracking. Brittle materials like glass fracture suddenly, long before developing significant fatigue cracks while the fibres in composite structures tend to stop cracking before they develop to any significant length. During routine maintenance, cracks metres in length, have been found in the ductile aluminium alloy fuselage frames of Boeing 747 aircraft while 25mm cracks in high strength steel components have caused the crash of an F-111 after only 100 flight hours. Different manufacturing processes can have a direct influence over the fatigue life of a component part. Even machining or grinding marks on the surface or burrs on drilled holes can provide a stress raiser for fatigue cracking.
Processes that increase fatigue life Case hardening, nitriding Cold rolling and cold working Shot peening and grit blasting Good quality machining Processes that reduce fatigue life Cladding of aluminium Decarburising of steel Chrome plating Cadmium plating Galvanising

In aircraft, a design fatigue life of 30 000 hours is usual. Techniques such as laminating two components can be used so that if one fails the other is adequate to carry the load. A number of different testing devices are used to expose airframe parts to cyclic loads. In the case of military aircraft, accelerated testing to four to five lifetimes, under the worst environmental conditions, would simulate one lifetime of real-time testing. The final design requires a safety factor of four times so requires testing equivalent to at least sixteen lifetimes.

Aeronautical engineering

Damage tolerant design


Modern aircraft design allows for serious fatigue cracking, corrosion or accidental damage to occur and still have remaining strength to carry reasonable loads without failing. Damage tolerant design defines the critical components in the airframe and determines the critical fatigue crack allowed in each. Inspection schedules and methods are determined by the size of the crack that needs to be detected and the number of flight cycles for the crack to grow from the minimum detectable size to the critical size. The task of keeping the aircraft safe for flight then rests with the reliability of the inspection and maintenance program!

Aircraft structural integrity


Each constituent part of an aircraft must remain in an airworthy condition to maintain the structural integrity of the aircraft. Aircraft operators and manufacturers assess the life cycle of components using a number of different techniques. Full-scale fatigue tests are used under computer controlled, simulated operating conditions along with other analytical models. These models allow the development of specialised inspection procedures to identify any critical failure locations. The data from these full-scale tests is correlated with actual flight data provided by aircraft operators world wide, and also with data from computer generated models. This combined data provides excellent predictions of the life expectancy of each component part and allows for the development of a schedule of inspections and component replacements. These models and tests also allow for the development of techniques to extend the life of various components. The use of extra reinforcing, component replacement and specialised repairs can all extend the life of an aircraft. Innovations like composite repair kits that are used on all metal components have increased the life-cycles of many components with recent developments allowing their use on primary structural members. If you are interested in this area of aircraft design and inspection why not on the internet at sites like <http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au> and <http://www.faa.gov> or use any Search Engine to search for Testing Airframes (accessed 06/11/01). Turn to the exercise cover sheet and complete exercise 4.1.

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Non-destructive tests
There are many different non-destructive tests used in the aircraft industry. In the design phase, wind tunnels are used along with models of new aircraft designs with the results being used to predict in-flight performance. Flight simulators are also developed with each new aircraft so that by the time the test pilot makes the first flight, many hundreds of hours have been spent on simulated flight. Many other non-destructive testing processes are used as part of the routine maintenance that is essential to providing safety in the aeronautical industry.
Name Visual Inspection Description A magnifying glass is used to identify external flaws. Tubular structures may also be filled, under pressure, with hot oil. The hot oil will seep through cracks that are invisible to the eye. Useful only on irons and steels. The item is magnetised then flaws, cracks, voids and defects are observed when magnetic particles accumulate on the discontinuity. The particles can be applied dry or suspended in oil. May be used on magnetic or nonmagnetic materials with x-rays either projected onto photographic film (radiography) or onto a fluorescent screen (fluoroscopy). Application Structures that have been rewelded and repaired.

Magnetic Particle Inspection

Dry: Subsurface defects in heavy welds, forgings and castings. Wet: More complex shapes to allow better distribution of particles. Used for detecting subsurface cracks, blowholes and voids in cast aircraft parts. Not suitable for forgings!

X-ray

Fluorescent penetrant

The cleaned article is painted, sprayed or soaked in penetrant fluid and allowed around 30 minutes to soak in. Heat may be used to open up the cracks. Excess penetrant is then removed, a developing powder applied and the article exposed to ultra-violet (black) light. Cracks will show as luminous areas. This type of testing uses ultrasonic vibrations applied to one side of the component being tested. The vibrations reflect off the opposite side or off internal flaws. The time between the pulse and its return indicate if any flaws exist.

Used on metal, polymer and composite materials for exposing external opening cracks and flaws. These may be caused during manufacture or may be due to fatigue.

Ultrasonic flaw detection

This type of testing can locate extremely small cracks and flaws. All types of materials can be tested and the tester only needs access to one side of the article.

Aeronautical engineering

Newer tests like Holograph Interferometry are now being used for the early detention of flaws. This is a non-contact technique that uses a laser to generate fringe patterns on the object being tested. Changes in the predicted fringe patterns give an indication of a flaw that may exist below the surface of the component. A portable system has been developed for use in the field. If you have access to the Internet for more information on Holograph Interferometry testing or other Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI) techniques go to <http://maseg.adfa.edu.au> (accessed 06/11/01).

Metals and alloys


Modern aircraft are manufactured from many different types of metal alloys. Civilian aircraft are constructed primarily of heat-treated aluminium alloys while military aircraft are constructed primarily from titanium and stainless steel.

Aluminium and its alloys


Pure aluminium is unsuitable for aircraft structural members as it is too soft and lacks strength. However aluminiums very high corrosion resistance makes it suitable to be hot-rolled onto the surface of alloy sheet to provide a corrosion resistant layer. This alclad composite is commonly used for the skin on airframes. 1 Suggest methods that could be used to increase the hardness and strength of aluminium and aluminium alloys using your knowledge from previous modules. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 Suggest elements that can be alloyed with aluminium for use in aircraft. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
Did you answer? 1 Did you suggest work hardening, alloying and age hardening? These three processes are all used in aircraft and have been fully described in previous modules.

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Did you list copper, silicon, manganese, magnesium or zinc? Bismuth, lead, tin, beryllium, boron, chromium, zirconium, vanadium, nickel and titanium are also added at times.

The table shows the percentages of major alloying elements mixed with aluminium for use in the aircraft industry. The alloy is identified by the major alloying element.
Percentage of Alloying Elements Aluminium and normal impurities constitute the remainder Alloy 1100 3003 2011 2014 2017 2117 2018 2024 4032 6151 5052 7075 Copper 5.5 4.4 4.0 2.5 4.0 4.5 0.9 1.6 Silicon 0.3 12.5 1.0 Manganese 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 Magnesium 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.6 2.5 2.5 Zinc 5.6 Nickel 2.0 0.9 Chromium 0.25 0.25 0.3

Laboratories are constantly searching for improvements to the materials available for aircraft. If you have access to the Internet sites like <http://www.swri.org> outline some of these outstanding new materials (accessed 06/11/01). For example, a durable metal matrix composite material with the stiffness of titanium and the weight of aluminium alloy is now used for the ventral fins on the F-16 Fighting Falcon. This new material made of 6092 alloy reinforced with silicon carbide particulate, improves stiffness by 50% and offers 17 times the operating life of ordinary aluminium alloy fins.

Aeronautical engineering

Figure 4.1 shows how to read the alloy code.


A 2 0 24 T3

Alclad covering

Copper the main alloying ingredient

Modification of the alloy (0means no mod)

Alloy designator

Solution heat treated, aged and cold worked

Major alloying ingredients: 1XXX Pure aluminium 2XXX Copper 3XXX Manganese 4XXX Silicon 5XXX Magnesium 6XXX Magnesium-silicon 7XXX Zinc 8XXX Other elements

A modified alloy is assigned a number in place of the 0 such as in 2117T3. The one is defined by the manufacturer. The alloy designator, such as 17, 24, 51 or 75 contains the elements shown in the table above.

Figure 4.1 Reading aluminium alloy codes

Turn to the exercise cover sheet and complete exercise 4.2.

What effect do alloying elements have on the aluminium alloy?

Copper Aluminium is already a ductile and malleable material but the addition of copper enhances these properties. Copper also prevents stress cracks from forming and makes some alloys more shock resistant. The strength and hardness is also increased as these alloys harden with age. Manganese When manganese is mixed with aluminium, it provides a surface that is highly resistant to wear and corrosion and increases strength. Silicon Although silicon is a non-metal, it makes the aluminium alloy harder but not brittle. It reduces the melting point making the alloy easier to cast. Magnesium Weighing only two-thirds as much as aluminium, it can be used structurally when it is alloyed with aluminium, zinc or manganese.

Part 4: Aeronautical engineering materials

Tensile strength is increased as is corrosion resistance, hardness and weldability. It is often used in sheet form but aluminium-magnesium 5056 rivets are commonly used to hold skins to magnesium surfaces. Zinc Zinc in aluminium creates an alloy that is stiffer and more brittle that pure aluminium. When combined with a little magnesium, heat treatable alloys with very high strength result. These alloys can be divided into two general categories: non-heattreatable and heat-treatable.

Non-heat-treatable
All these alloys may be hardened by alloying or cold working. What cold working methods can be used to strain harden these alloys? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you suggest rolling, bending, drawing and pressing?

The letter H is used to indicate non-heat-treatable alloys that are work hardened and is linked with the numbers 1, 2 and 3 to provide more information. H1 stands for strain hardened, H2 for strain hardened and partially annealed and H3 strain hardened then stabilised. Overall hardness is indicated by the numbers 2 (quarter hard), 4 (half-hard), 6 (three-quarters hard) and 8 (fully hard). For example, the alloy 5065H38 is a magnesium alloy that is strain hardened and stabilised to the fullest degree of hardness. The following table lists some common wrought alloys and suggests some uses for each.

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Alloy 1100

Uses Small diameter low pressure tubing, rivets, reciprocating engine baffles. Wing tips and propeller spinners. Low pressure tubing, storage tanks for hydraulic fluids, fuel and oil. Rivet stock for magnesium control surface skins.

3003 5052 5056

Heat-treatable
Heat-treated aluminium alloys have many applications in aircraft structures. Commonly these alloys harden by the process of precipitation hardening. Discuss the process used to harden alloys by precipitation hardening using your knowledge from previous modules. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you mention that the alloy is heated, soaked, quenched then either naturally or artificially hardened?

The process of heating and soaking the material then quenching it to hold it in a softened state, is known as solution treatment. Care must be taken when quenching cast components due to the different cooling rates in the differing cross-sectional shapes. For this reason, hot water is usually used though oil or air is used in some circumstances. Solution treated components may be kept in the refrigerator for up to five days. Storage of sheet, strip and rivets at between 6 and -10C, will prevent age hardening occurring.

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Natural aging In alloys that are naturally aged, the component is kept at room temperature for 16 to 24 hours to allow time for age hardening. The designation for these alloys ranges from F (fabricated) to T4 (heat-treated and age hardened). If the component is further hardened through cold working the designation is shown as T3. The following table provides details of commonly use age hardened alloys.
Alloy Alloying Elements 4% Cu, 0.5% Mn, 0.5% Mg 2017T4 2.5% Cu, 0.3% Mn 2024T3 4.5% Cu, 0.6% Mn, 1.5% Mg Used in some form since 1925, this alloy is used for rivets and skins and is relatively crack-free. Used in Boeing 757 and 737 series aircraft. Used widely for skin coverings and internal structure of all types of aircraft. It has excellent fatigue resistance, is highly resistant to cracking, and retains high strength after damage. Application

2117T4

Commonly used rivet stock and is fitted as received from the manufacturer.

Note that copper is the predominant alloying element in each of these natural age hardening alloys. In these alloys submicroscopic particles of the compound CuAl2 precipitate or move around inside the structure. This causes internal stress inside the material and increases the hardness and strength of the component. Artificial aging This process is also known as precipitation hardening. Instead of leaving the component at room temp, as in natural aging, it is soaked in an oven between 100-200C for between 4 and 24 hours, depending on the alloy. This process locks together the particles in the grains of the metal increasing strength, stability and corrosion resistance while reducing malleability and ductility. Aluminium alloys containing zinc, 7000 series, are most commonly used for artificial age hardening applications. The label T6 is used to indicate

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alloys that have been solution heat-treated then artificially aged. The table below indicates some of the common alloys and their applications.
Alloy 7075T6 Application Often used in sheet form where great strength is needed as it has high impact resistance. These alloys are excellent for making large heavy forgings. Two applications are the heavy channels that carry landing gear and flaps on large aircraft. This alloy is used where high compressive strength is required such as the superstructure of wide-bodied jets. Used primarily for solid-shank rivets, it is the highest strength alloy used for rivets and also has excellent corrosion resistance.

7079T6

7178T6

7050T73

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 4.3.

Other heat treatment processes


Stabilising Often components contain residual stresses that have been induced by the forming process. These stresses must be relieved or the component may distort when it is machined or when it is exposed to elevated temperatures. Components like instrument casings are soaked at 250C for up to five hours then slowly cooled. This will relieve internal stresses while retaining the majority of the items strength and hardness. Annealing Alloys that have been cold worked can be annealed by soaking at 360C for an hour then cooling in air. Slower cooling can be used to further soften the alloy but air-cooling is generally suitable for most conditions. Too rapid cooling of some alloys may produce conditions that will lead to age hardening. Care must be taken when annealing aluminium clad materials, as soaking for too long will allow some of the alloying elements to diffuse into the pure aluminium and consequently reduce the corrosion resistance.

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Localised annealing can be used on work hardened materials. This only affects, the area that needs to be annealed and is most simply performed with a gas torch. As aluminium doesnt change in appearance as it heats, special crayon indicator should be used. This is rubbed onto the surface to be heated and melts when the appropriate temperature is reached. Re-heat treatment Generally, aluminium alloys can be re-heat treated. If they were solution treated at too low a temperature, precipitation treated at too high a temperature or for too long a period of time they can be solution treated again to attain full desired properties. Remember, clad materials should not be re-heat treated. Other metals used in aircraft The following table outlines other metals that are used in aircraft, describes common alloys and gives some common applications.
Alloy Alloying Elements 6% Aluminium, 4% Vanadium Application

Titanium

This alloy has a higher MP than steel and is 56% less dense. Tensile strength is equal to steel and twice that of aluminium. Its properties, especially at high temperatures makes it suitable for high-speed aircraft particularly around hot sections. Has high strength and corrosion resistance and is used for the construction of chains and sprockets for some landing gears and in the manufacture of some specialised fasteners. Highly corrosion resistant due to the chromium oxide formed on the surface, it is commonly cold rolled to increase its strength. Can be used for fire-walls, skins, structural parts and fasteners. This alloy is highly resistant to shock and corrosion and is used to construct engine mounts and shock struts.

Monel

68% Nickel 29% Copper Mn, Fe & others

Stainless steel 18/8 Chromemolybdenum steel Magnesium alloys

74% Steel 18% Chromium 8% Nickel Plain steel Chromium Molybdenum Manganese with Aluminium & zinc

Castings used for landing wheels, gas-turbine air intakes, engine support plates and frames. Sheet alloy, forgings and pressings are used for airframes, welded petrol and oil tanks and for parts of the fuselage and wings.

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With the movement away from metals to composites for many of the components of planes, the metal manufacturers have been forced to develop new alloys that mirror or improve on the properties of the composites. Titanium alloys, new aluminium/composite structures and special nickel-based, cobalt based and titanium-based superalloys have all found favour with the aircraft manufacturers. An internet search for superalloys will reveal a number of sites that describe the specific compositions and properties of a range of specialised alloys. If you have access to the Internet try <http://www.timet.com/tialloysframe.html> for details about aerospace applications of titanium alloys. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 4.4a.

Polymers
Most of the polymers used in the aircraft industry replace materials in an attempt to reduce the weight of the component. An example would be windows that could be made from glass but are more commonly manufactured from sheet perspex or polycarbonate. The following table lists some common thermoplastic polymers and gives some applications for each.
Thermoplastic Polyethylene Properties excellent electrical insulator easily formed by extrusion or injection moulding Polymethyl Methacrylate Nylon also known as acrylic or Perspex, can be transparent good strength, good heat and wear resistance, low co-efficient of friction very low co-efficient of friction and chemically inert Applications coating on electrical wiring ventilation fans

windows

gears and bushes in instruments

Teflon

used in the wing bearing of variable sweep aircraft and for the inner hose on hydraulic lines insulation, filler in sandwich construction, moulded cuffs on propellers

Polyurethane

foamed polymer that can be either flexible or rigid

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Outline why materials such as glass, perspex and polycarbonate can all be maunfactured in a transparent state using your knowledge from previous modules. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Of course the fact that these materials are amorphous in structure means that light passes through them easily. Crystalline materials can never be transparent due to their regular repeating structure.

Polymers are also used for much of the internal fittings and fixings in aircraft. Window surrounds, storage lockers and tray/tables are all made from light-weight thermoplastics. 1 List some of the moulding processes used to mass-produce polymers. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 Outline why these mass production processes are not often used for polymer components used in aeroplanes. _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________ ______________
Did you answer? 1 Did you mention injection moulding, blow moulding, extrusion, casting, compression moulding and transfer moulding? Did you suggest that due to the small number of components being made that the expense of two-part moulds is not warranted?

Moulds are often only one-sided and the polymer part is cast or laid-up into the mould. The reinforcing is laid into the mould and the semiliquid matrix is sprayed or pumped into place. One newer method of forming composite/polymer materials is pultrusion which is a combination of pulling and extrusion.

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One of the most common uses for polymers in modern aircraft production is to provide the matrix in composite materials. The polymer binds the reinforcing fibres together and transfers the load to and between the fibres. This polymer matrix also keeps the reinforcing fibres in the correct orientation , distributes the load evenly amongst the fibres, provides resistance to crack propagation and provides all the interlaminar shear strength. The polymer matrix determines the overall shape of the object, the overall service temperature limitations and may also control the corrosion resistance. Both thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices are used and some are listed in the following table.
Thermoset Epoxy Polyester Phenolics Polyimides Thermoplastic Polyethylene Polystyrene Polypropylene Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Polyetherimide (PEI)

If you have access to the Internet a number of sites will give details about polymers. Try <http://www.psrc.usm.edu> (accessed 06/11/01). Turn to the exercise sheet and complete the rest of exercise 4.4.

Composites
From early days, composites have been used extensively in aircraft construction. Plywood was used in early aircraft for propellers and airframes. The Mosquito, designed and built by De Havilland in 1940, was the last significant aircraft to use timber construction. The fuselage and wings were made from two layers of thin plywood bonded to a core of balsa. It was used in the tropics during the Second World War and had initial problems caused by the glues disintegrating in the heat and humidity. Once this problem was overcome many hundreds were built in Australia.

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Define composite materials using your knowledge from previous modules ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you mention two or more materials that when joined together produce a material with properties different from those of the original materials?

Boeing slowly integrated fibreglass into their civilian aircraft starting in 1958 when fibreglass skins were used to cover aluminium honeycomb cores on a few secondary control surfaces. This amounted to 2% of the external surface area wetted by the airstream, of the aircraft. With each newer design so the total area of fibreglass increased: 1962 1966 1969 1982 Boeing 727 Boeing 737 Boeing 747 Boeing 757 & 767 5% of wetted area 15% of wetted area 28% of wetted area 30% of wetted area

New filament fibres such as boron and carbon, embedded in an epoxy resin matrix, were introduced in the early 1960s. These new fibres are very small in diameter, only 6-10 microns, and all have high strength and stiffness. Newer materials such as the organic fibre material, Kevlar, and new matrix materials like polyimides, thermoplastics and even metals like aluminium, titanium and nickel have all been introduced since that time. The remarkable properties of these composite materials have allowed for up to a 30% reduction in mass. Composite materials were initially only used for secondary parts but today they are used for heavily loaded primary parts like wings and have been used for the structure of entire planes. Due to the higher costs of these new raw materials, designers have simplified structures reducing the number of component parts and other costly design features. The performance of a composite depends on: the composition, direction, length and shape of the fibres the properties of the matrix material the bond between the fibres and the matrix.

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Fibres
The role of the fibre reinforcement is to: carry the load in the composite provide the tensile strength, flexural strength and stiffness determine electrical and thermal properties.

Almost all the fibres used in airframe structures have a circular crosssectional shape. Developments are currently underway in this area with testing of hexagonal, rectangular, hollow and irregular shapes with possibilities of improved fibre strength. Hollow fibres, for example, increase the compressive strength of composites.

Organic fibres commonly used in aircraft design


Fibre Glass Properties Relatively low cost, light weight, high strength, non-metallic characteristics. E grade is good for general use with excellent chemical, corrosion and environmental resistance. S grade has 40% greater tensile strength and is more costly Kevlar (aramid) Combines extremely high toughness, tensile strength and stiffness with low density. Low compressive strength is one major weakness but hybrids of Kevlar and carbon overcome this problem. Kevlar has good fatigue properties, chemical resistance and high temperature strength. While its toughness makes it good for ballistic protection, as in bulletproof vests, the poor compressive strength has prevented its use in primary aircraft structures. Kevlar/phenolic skins are used on the lower surfaces of some military aircraft to provide damage resistance. The weapons bay door on the B1 bomber is one example! It is difficult to combine with a matrix and is still in the developmental and experimental stage. Applications Used for aircraft parts that dont carry heavy loads. Common in fuselage interiors, wing fairings and trailing edge panels on larger aircraft but is used extensively in primary structures of small aircraft along with helicopter rotor blades.

Polyethylene

It resists impact better than glass or carbon fibres and is stronger than Kevlar. Melts at a low temperature (110C) and absorbs very little moisture

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Fibre Carbon or Graphite

Properties Careful placement of these fibres can produce composites that are stronger and stiffer than equivalent steel parts at half the weight. Carbon fibre composites have fatigue limits far in excess of aluminium or steel along with very low thermal expansion. It has the best balance of properties and cost.

Applications This is the most widely used of fibres and has applications throughout commercial and military aircraft in both primary and secondary structures. Ribs, struts and skins in stabilizers, vertical fin boxes, rudders, winglets, elevators, ailerons and sections of fuselages are all made from carbon fibre composite materials. The upper cargo doors of the space shuttle are fabricated from carbon/epoxy materials.

Ceramic fibres used in aircraft design


Ceramics are the fibre of choice when a metal or ceramic matrix is used. These composites can be used under extremely high temperatures.
Fibre Quartz Properties Can be used up to 1040C which is around 540C higher than for glass fibres. Quartz is the strongest of the high temp. fibres and also has good strength to weight ratio and, like glass, good radar transparency. Silicon carbide fibres have high strength, heat resistance to 1200C, low conductivity, corrosion resistance, chemical stability and good combination with both polymer and metal matrices. While pure alumina is a brittle material, it is very suitable for reinforcing aluminium matrices and still allows high temperature operation.

Silicon carbide (SiC) Alumina

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Boron Graphite Kevlar 49

S-glass

Stress (tensile)

E-glass

Aluminium 7075T6

Strain (tensile) Figure 4.2 Stress/strain curves for fibre/epoxy composites

Boron fibres
Fibre Boron Properties The boron gas vapour is deposited onto a tungsten filament. The resulting fibre is stronger than carbon and much stiffer and can be combined with polymer and metal matrices to form very strong light weight structures. The fibre cost, larger diameter and handling difficulties are all major design drawbacks. Applications The introduction of boron fibres allowed composites to be used in primary, load-bearing airframe components. Composites with these fibres have many uses in military aircraft including stabilizers, rudders, struts, reinforcements and even the fuselage of the space shuttle. Boron/epoxy is commonly used as a patch in aircraft repairs.

Matrix material Boron filament Tungsten core

Figure 4.3 Typical boron fibres

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 4.5.

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Fibre material form


Fibres are available in a variety of continuous and chopped forms. They are either available in dry forms that need to be mixed with the matrix during the forming process or preimpregnated (prepeg) where the desired matrix is already mixed with the fibres. These prepegs are kept under controlled conditions, possibly refrigerated, until they are moulded. In a prepeg, the partly cured matrix holds the fibres in the correct orientation until the finished component is cured. Prepegs are available in continuous, unidirectional fibre tapes, around 0.2mm thick, and available in rolls of various widths. Discontinuous fibre tapes are also available, mainly for use with thermoplastic matrices. These discontinuous fibres are up to 150 mm in length and typically Kevlar, carbon and glass fibres are used. Short chopped fibres or whiskers are also used in non-structural components. Two-dimensional woven fabrics are often used in place of unidirectional tapes for a number of reasons: the product is tougher and less likely to delaminate fewer layers of fabric are required thus allowing the component to be thinner lay-up time is much shorter as each layer of fabric is equivalent to two layers of tape fabrics can be woven from a mixture of fibres to provide a blending of properties.

Figure 4.4 Twodirectional fabric

Stronger two-dimensional fabrics are also manufactured by knitting. This process allows all the fibres to remain uncrimped which provides more efficient transfer of the stresses from the matrix to the fibres. Continuous fibres can also be braided around a mandrel. This process is commonly used for forming tubular shapes in a seamless sock of reinforcing fibre.

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Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 4.6a and b.

Matrices
Any matrix within a composite: binds the fibres together transfers the load between the fibres and keeps them in the correct orientation protects the fibres from abrasion and oxidation/corrosion provides the overall dimensions of the component determines the service temperature and the compressive strength.

Organic matrices
The most common matrices for general use are organic polymers. Both thermosets and thermoplastics are used for different applications. Discuss the major characteristics of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers using your knowledge from previous modules ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you mention that thermosets undergo a chemical change when curing in a process that cant be reversed and that they are typically harder and more brittle than thermoplastics? What about the thermoplastics? They are softened by heat and solidify when cooled. The scrap can be reused and they are tougher than thermosets.

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Thermosets These dominate the composite industry as they can be used to form complex shapes, easily bond to different fibres and, when cured, provide a high strength and stiff structure. An autoclave, large enough to hold the completed component, is used to cure the thermosetting matrix. The following table below summarises the characteristics and uses of some common thermosetting matrices.
Resin Polyester Characteristics Used in secondary structures, cabin interiors normally with glass fibres. It has a low cost, processes easily but is not very tough or strong. Is the most widely used matrix and is the principal resin used in carbon fibre structures. It has excellent mechanical properties, good toughness and a fairly low cost. Also used in secondary structures, often with glass fibres, it is good for cabin interiors for low smoke generation in case of a fire. It has poor toughness, fair mechanical properties but fairly low cost. Is used in military applications where dimensional stability at high pressures and temperatures is required. Is used for higher temperature applications, often above 320C. It has fair toughness, good mechanical properties and is stable at high temperatures but is high in cost.

Epoxy

Phenolics

Polyimide

Thermoplastics Thermoplastic matrices have been used more extensively in recent years. They have excellent strain capabilities, high moisture resistance, greater resistance to solvents and unlimited shelf life. The major advantages over thermosets are the shorter fabrication cycle, ability to weld and ease of machining and drilling. Thermoplastic matrices are available in two different structures: Amorphous Polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyetherimide (PEI), polyethersulphone (PES) and polyarylenesulphide.

Semi-crystalline Polyphenylene Sulfide and polyetheretherkeytone (PEEK).

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Military aircraft structures are one of the major catalysts in the development of thermoplastic matrices. Three major requirements of these matrices are: high temperature capabilities under severe hot/wet conditions better damage control in structural members easy mass production to reduce costs.

Metal matrices
Most work has centred on aluminium but titanium, copper and magnesium have also been tried. These metal matrices offer greater strength and stiffness than polymers, they have superior fracture toughness and have a greater stiffness to weight ratio. The following table lists the characteristics of the common metal matrix materials.
Metal Aluminium Characteristics This is the principal metal matrix and has improved properties when reinforced. It is light and easily processed. It is light and has good resistance to high temperatures but is difficult to reinforce and is quite expensive. It bonds well with the reinforcing and is light but has poor corrosion resistance. Copper has improved shear strength over aluminium at elevated temperatures but is denser than aluminium.

Titanium

Magnesium

Copper

An aluminium matrix, reinforced with carbon, is used for the structures of satellites, missiles and helicopters. Boron fibres are used in compressor blades and structural supports while silicon carbide fibres, in an aluminium matrix, are used in various high-temperature structures. A magnesium matrix, reinforced with carbon, is used in space and satellite structures. Boron fibres, in a magnesium matrix, are used in antenna structures while alumina fibres are used for helicopter transmission structures. A titanium matrix, reinforced with boron fibres, is used in jet engine fan blades. Silicon carbide fibres, in a titanium matrix, are used for high temperature structures.

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Special superalloy matrices reinforced with moybdenum or tungsten are used for high-temperature engine components.

Carbon matrices
Carbon matrices often with carbon fibre reinforcing are another area of current research. These composites have many of the properties of other composites such as excellent strength to weight ratio and high stiffness but they also have outstanding high temperature capabilities. In applications such as the leading edges of the noses of aerospace vehicles, temperatures may be as high as 1900C. Due to their unique properties, Carbon/carbon composites are quickly becoming the preferred material for high-speed spacecraft, re-entry vehicles, rocket nozzles, rocket nose cones and jet engine turbine wheels. Aircraft brakes are a common current application of C/C composites. The friction involved in the rapid deceleration of the aircraft generates a large amount of heat. Compared to steel brake parts, the composites outwear steel up to twice as long, have a high heat absorption rate so act as a heat sink and they maintain consistent performance with no reduction in stopping ability.

Ceramic matrices
List the major properties of ceramics using your knowledge from previous modules. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Did you mention that ceramics typically are hard and brittle, have high melting points, high compressive strength, good property retention at elevated temperatures and excellent resistance to corrosion?

Ceramics have already been used in the braking systems of both commercial and military aircraft. Experimental parts of aircraft engines, missile parts and fuselage skins have also been produced. Before largescale production of ceramic composites can be undertaken, greater developments must be made in designing for these materials. It is virtually impossible to machine these materials or to join them with conventional fasteners so large furnaces are needed to allow components to be made in one piece.

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Composites such as Carbon/Silicon Carbide are used on spacecraft due to their great heat resistance and have been tested to 1800C. The fibre/ceramic nose cone on the Patriot Missile is both heat resistant and has lower radar detectability than other composites. Those working with these composites are trying to retain the high temperature properties while improving the toughness and impact strength of the composites. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete the rest of exercise 4.6.

Sandwich core materials


Sandwich structures have been used under various names for many years. Most of the doors in your house have a plywood skin and an internal filling of cardboard in a honeycomb pattern. This type of structure is suitable in aircraft as the thin surface skins separated by the core combines light-weight with strength. Honeycomb cored sandwich structures have been used in aircraft since the 1940s and the hexagonally-shaped cells are now often made from composites including kevlar, fibreglass and carbon fibre materials. The outer skins can also be made from composites or from metals. Developments in adhesives have allowed the combination of a variety of different materials. Honeycomb sandwich structures are rigid and show low deflection even when very light in weight. Aeroplane nose cones, wing leading and trailing edge panels and fuselage floor panels are all applications of this form of sandwich material.

Precured thin laminate

Adhesive

Honeycomb core

Figure 4.5 Honeycomb sandwich construction

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Syntactic cores, that combine microspheres with a resin matrix, are also used as the filler in sandwich structures. Unlike honeycomb cores, syntactic cores will fit to contoured shapes and are also available in mouldable forms. As syntactics are denser than honeycomb cores, they are normally used on thinner panels up to 6.5 mm thick. Compared to honeycomb cored sandwich materials, syntactic cores offer: greater strength no problems with wrinking of the face material continuous support of the face material little problems with moisture getting into the core.

Composite laminate SynCore Composite laminate

Thermosetting resin matrix Microspheres (approx 70 micron) Figure 4.6 Syntactic core sandwich construction

Another form of composite structure is found in the flexible hydraulic lines that are found throughout aircraft. These were once neoprene but now have a teflon inner tube with stainless steel braided fibre external reinforcing. In some teflon inner tubes, a controlled amount of carbon is added. This prevents the build up of electrostatic charges as the carbon allows easy conduction of the charge to the metal fittings on the hose. The outer skin of the reinforced hose is usually a polymer, like neoprene, that may be coloured to indicate the type of fluid that is passing through the line.
Polymer outer Braided fibre Wire braid Teflon inner tube

Figure 4.7 High pressure hose

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Corrosion
As a component comes in contact with materials in the environment, chemical action may cause break-down and disintegration of the component. As you have learned in previous modules, there are two general forms of corrosion: direct chemical corrosion electro-chemical corrosion.

In aircraft design, electro-chemical corrosion is more likely to occur. Explain the process of electro-chemical or wet corrosion using your knowledge from previous modules. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? For this type of corrosion to occur, the metal must be in contact with a liquid or even in a moist atmosphere. The active metal starts to dissolve by discharging positively charged ions into the solution. The section of the metal where corrosion occurs is known as the anode. The remaining metal is left with a negative charge and the greater the negative charge the more likely the metal is to corrode.

The following table lists metals commonly used in aircraft. The higher the material on the table, the more likely it is to corrode.

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Material (anodic) Magnesium alloys Alclad 7000 series alloys 5000 series aluminium alloys 7000 series aluminium alloys Pure aluminium Cadmium 2000 series aluminium alloys Steel and iron Brass and bronze alloys Stainless steels Titanium Nickel and nickel alloys Graphite composites (cathodic) As indicated by the table, carbon composites are the least likely to corrode of the common aircraft materials. This can create problems when these composites are coupled with metals as part of an aircraft structure. A metal rivet used to hold composite skins to airframes is one example! If aluminium or magnesium alloy rivets are used, it should be expected that the rivet will corrode fairly rapidly. State a metal that would be more suitable for these rivets and briefly explain why you have suggested this metal. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Titanium or nickel alloy rivets would be more suitable as they are very close to the composites on the activity series table.

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This form of metal to composite corrosion can also be reduced by: excluding moisture from the structure using a layer of inert cloth (kevlar or fibreglass) as an insulator between the materials anodising aluminium parts finish external surfaces of both the aluminium and composite with epoxy or polyurethane paint.

During routine maintenance inspections of aircraft, it is important that corrosion is identified early before costly replacements or repairs are needed. Some materials and corrosion evidence are listed in the following table.
Material Aluminium alloys Evidence of corrosion whitish powdery deposits with a dulling of the surface of unpainted parts. Deposits can also form at breaks in the paintwork or cause blistering or flaking under the paint red dust deposits on the surface and some pitting of the affected area black pits or a uniform reddish-brown surface

Alloy & plain steels Stainless steels

Some common corrosion prone areas in aircraft include:


Bases of bulkheads Bilge areas External hinges Landing gear Water entrapment areas Battery compartments Cooling air vents Galleys Lavatories Wheel wells Battery vent openings Engine exhaust areas Joints in external skins Loose rivets & bolts Wing fuel tanks

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Forms of corrosion found in aircraft


Pitting
Unprotected metal surfaces are prone to this type of corrosion that occurs when acids, alkalis or saline solutions chemically react with the metal. Small holes or pits form in the material causing losses in both ductility and strength. The surface should be kept clean and any surface coating kept in good condition to minimise pitting.

Uniform etch
This is the common term used to describe the frosty appearance resulting from general corrosion over the entire surface of a component.

Fretting corrosion
This is a rapid form of corrosion known to attack ferrous metals including stainless steel. It occurs at the junction between two highly loaded components that are subject to vibration. Generous lubrication can be used to reduce fretting in these situations.

Intergranular corrosion
Explain briefly why corrosion is likely to occur first at grain boundaries. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? If you mentioned that the grain boundary regions are rich in impurities and odd alloying elements, then you are on the right track. Did you also explain that as the centre of each grain is a relatively pure metal the difference between the grain centre and the grain boundary establishes a potential difference? Given the right moist environment, electrolytic corrosion will take place.

The material starts to corrode at the grain boundaries and eventually the grains themselves are eaten away. The resulting loss of strength and

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ductility is proportional to the amount of metal corroded. Plating or cladding is often used to minimise the risk of intergranular corrosion. Alclad is the common name for composite sheet, plate, tube and wire onto which a thin layer of almost pure aluminium has been metallurgically bonded. As this is a pure metal, there is no difference between the grain boundaries and the grain centre and intergranular corrosion will not occur. This protective layer is often applied to 2000 series (Al/Cu) and 7000 series (Al/Zn) aluminium alloys. The coating is anodic relative to the core and so provides both electrolytic protection as well as being a physical barrier.

Exfoliation
This is a form of intergranular corrosion that often occurs at the edge of a metal component that has been cold worked. Along an edge many of the flattened grains are exposed and can collect moisture and contaminants. A hole with a loose rivet is a prime site for this type of corrosion as the corrosion can eat into the material along the grains, inside the component, virtually undetected. Eventually the component will swell and corroded sections will leaf out (hence the name). By this stage, it will be necessary to replace the component. Routine inspection can be used to detect this type of corrosion though ultrasound or x-ray tests need to be used. Sealing the hidden edges of holes along with cleaning and drying are all common measures to reduce the occurrence of this form of corrosion.

Conditions causing corrosion


Dissimilar metals
Contact of dissimilar metals and even similar metals with different heat treatment conditions occurs on many parts of an aircraft. These circumstances are always likely to cause an electrochemical reaction. Such reactions may be prevented by the use of an insulating layer between the surfaces. Some examples of dissimilar metals in contact are: steel bolts through aluminium alloy spars and structural members steel brake parts on magnesium alloy wheels copper and steel hydraulic lines attached to aluminium alloy members aluminium alloy skins riveted to extruded aluminium alloy members ferrous levers, shafts and gears in light-weight alloy casings.

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Heat treatment
Incorrect heat treatment may lower a materials resistance to corrosion. For example, if a high-strength aluminium alloy is quenched too slowly it is more susceptible to intergranular corrosion. Care must be taken with any heating process as even the bonding of two metal components with a thermosetting polymer and the application of heat and pressure may alter the corrosion resistance of a component.

Welding
After welding, the heated strip around the join is anodic and will corrode in preference to the surrounding metal. Some stainless steels are particularly susceptible to intergranular corrosion in the welded region but this can be reduced if the part is annealed after welding. Fluxes used in welding are highly corrosive and must be thoroughly cleaned off metal surfaces after welding.

Fretting
This occurs when parts that are tightly bolted together still slip slightly as the aircraft flexes and moves. The heating caused by the localised friction promotes oxidation of the steel and greatly reduces the fatigue strength of the metal. To overcome this problem, structural assembly bolts should be protected by plating with cadmium or some other suitable non-ferrous metal. These bolts should then be assembled as tightly as the torque limits allow. The use of lubricating grease, in this situation, is also common.

Stress
Metals under stress generally corrode more readily than unstressed metals. Stresses can also crack protective coatings. Corrosion in parts that are subjected to ongoing stresses moves very rapidly and can quickly lead to the failure of the part.

High temperatures
Parts like brake drums and exhaust pipes that are heated in service tend to oxidise more quickly than unheated parts. This effect can be minimised by the use of alloys containing nickel or chromium in these situations.

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Electrical equipment
The insulation on electrical wiring should be kept in good condition as leakage of current may lead to the corrosion of both the electrical equipment and the surrounding metal parts.

Damaged protective coatings


Special coatings protect many metallic surfaces in aircraft. Scratching and abrasion occurs during normal aircraft operation and may becoming starting points for corrosion. Care must be taken when surfaces come in contact with certain fluids though careful testing will reveal the most suitable coating for each situation. Explain briefly why, in a corrosive environment: 1 when chomium is scratched by steel, the steel will start to corrode _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 when the surface of alclad is scratched, the component does not corrode _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
Did you answer? 1 Steel is more likely to corrode than chromium and so the steel becomes the anode in this situation and the chromium is protected. 2 In the second case, the pure aluminium surface on alclad still provides anodic protection preventing the aluminium alloy core from corroding.

Surface defects
Any foreign particle embedded in the surface of a component may initiate corrosion. Particular care must be taken to ensure that the particles involved in sandblasting and grinding are completely removed. Scratches on polished surfaces may also initiate corrosion.

Crevice corrosion
In crevices and inaccessible corners in metal parts, there are often low oxygen levels. These places will become anodic compared to the

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surrounding areas and corrosion will occur at these points. (This is why the bottoms of car doors always corrode first.) All enclosed areas in aircraft should be vented to prevent oxygen deprivation and drained to remove the electrolyte necessary for corrosion to proceed.

Microbiological fuel corrosion


Micro-organisms grow in the moisture found in kerosene based fuels. These organisms feed on the lining of aluminium alloy fuel tanks allowing elctrolytic corrosion to occur. Careful filtration of the fuel is essential but inspection of the filters and tank residues must be part of the ongoing maintenance program.

Prevention and control of corrosion


Many methods of reducing both the likelihood of corrosion occurring and the effects of corrosion have been outlined in the previous section. One of the simplest and most effective methods of reducing corrosion, not previously mentioned, is careful cleaning of all parts of an aircraft. Atmospheric dirt, mud splashed up from the runway, urine on lavatory floors, battery acids and exhaust residuals should all be thoroughly cleaned off as each of these can be a catalyst for corrosion. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 4.7 and 4.8.

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Exercises

Exercise 4.1 a List the names of some destructive tests that may be used to identify mechanical properties of materials and assess their suitability for use in aircraft. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Briefly explain the three different phases in fatigue cracks. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Identify four conditions that are necessary for fatigue cracks to develop and grow. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Briefly explain why certain surface defects can promote fatigue cracking. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Exercise 4.2 a Discuss the methods used to ensure aircraft structural integrity. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Complete the table below by inserting applications in the aircraft industry for each non-destructive testing procedure listed.
Name Magnetic Particle Inspection X -ray Ulrasonic flaw detection Applications

Discuss the suitability of pure aluminium for use in the aircraft industry. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

With the aid of a sketch, briefly explain how the aluminium alloy identification code is used.

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Exercise 4.3 a Outline the effects of alloying elements on aluminium alloys. Copper _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Magnesium______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Zinc ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ b Complete the table below by providing details of aluminium alloys used in aircraft.
Alloy Alloying Elements Applications

2024 3003 5052 7075

Explain the major differences between natural aging and artificial aging and provide some examples where each may be used. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Natural

Artificial ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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Exercise 4.4 a Complete the table below by suggesting some aeronautical applications for the metals listed.
Alloy Titanium Stainless steel 18/8 Magnesium alloys Applications

Suggest a clear polymer that may be used for windows of aircraft. Explain how the structure of this polymer makes it clear and suggest a manufacturing method for these windows. Polymer ________________________________________________ Manufacturing method ____________________________________ Structure _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Suggest two polymers that have good wear resistance and would be suitable for bearings or bushes. _______________________________________________________

Explain why one-piece moulds are often used when making aircraft components. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Complete the table below by listing three thermosoftening polymers and three thermosetting polymers commonly used as matrices in composite materials.
Thermosoftening polymers Thermosetting polymers

_________________________

i _________________________ ii _________________________ iii _________________________

ii _________________________ iii _________________________

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Exercise 4.5 a Composite materials have been around for years in the aircraft industry. Discuss the different composites that have been used from early days till the current materials being developed. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Complete the table below by indicating the properties and applications of the fibres listed.
Fibre Glass Properties Applications

Kevlar

Graphite

Boron

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Exercise 4.6 a Explain what is meant by the term prepeg as it relates to composite materials. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Suggest reasons for using two-dimensional reinforcing fabrics. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c State the role of the matrix in a composite material _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Complete the table below by listing some characteristics of the matrices.
Matrix Characteristics

Polyester

Epoxy

Aluminium

Magnesium

Carbon

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Exercise 4.7 a How might areas of corrosion be identified in aluminium alloys? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain why pure aluminium is sometimes bonded to the surface of some aluminium alloys. Include the alloys normally clad and the way that the aluminium skin works. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c On the table below list some conditions that cause corrosion and briefly explain why corrosion occurs in each case.
Condition causing corrosion Explanation of reason for corrosion

Discuss some simple yet effective methods of minimising the risk of corrosion on aircraft components. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Exercise 4.8 Select the alternative a, b, c or d that best answers the question or best completes the statement. Circle the letter. 1 On a stress/strain graph, toughness is indicated by the: a b c d 2 area under the total graph area under the straight line section of the graph length of the straight line section of the graph the downturn in the graph after the UTS.

Strain can be calculated by: a b c d dividing the load by the extension multiplying the load by the cross-sectional area dividing the extension by the original length multiplying the cross-sectional area by the original length.

In compression tests, barrelling occurs a b c d after brittle materials have failed as ductile material is squashed when the deforming load is removed only on cylindrical specimens.

The indentor used in the Vickers hardness test is: a b c d a combination of spherical and diamond point indentors two different sizes of hardened steel spheres a diamond cone a diamond pyramid.

The main reason for normalising is to: a b c d produce a uniform structure throughout the component increase the surface hardness of the component make the material softer so it can be cold worked change the grain structure to large, equiaxed grains.

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Hardenability of a material is: a b c d the amount it hardens under cold working the depth to which a material hardens when quenched the surface hardness after quenching the degree of hardness induced by any form of hardening.

Martempering and Austempering: a b c d are production methods for softening steel are used to prevent heat scale forming on the surface allow large masses to be cooled without developing quench cracks can be used in place of normalising.

Grainflow occurs in: a b c d hot forging sand casting machining injection moulding.

Permanent metal moulds are used in: a b c d die casting shell moulding and investment casting die casting and investment casting shell moulding.

10 The 'skin' on a cast component is normally: a b c d softer than the 'core' of the component identical to the 'core' of the component harder than the 'core' of the component made up of large equiaxed grains.

11 Powder forming is commonly used: a b c d as it is cheaper than other types of forming because the materials don't need to be melted to form hard materials that are too difficult to machine on raw materials normally found in powder form.

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Progress check
In this part you have learnt about the materials that are used for aircraft components and the properties that make them suitable. You have also learnt about several new materials that have been developed. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.
Agree well done Disagree revise your work Uncertain contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree

I have learnt about specialised testing of aircraft materials aluminium and its alloys used in aircraft polymers [used for aircraft applications] composites [used for aircraft applications] corrosion [common in aircraft] ...

I have learnt to describe non-destructive tests used with aircraft materials and components analyse structure, properties, uses and appropriateness of materials in aeronautical engineering applications investigate the effects of heat treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloys select and justify materials and processes used in aeronautical engineering outline the mechanism of corrosion common to aircraft components.

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

In the next part, you will learn about drawing for aeronautical parts.

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Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 4.1 to 4.7

Name: _______________________________

Have you have completed the following exercises? Exercise 4.1 Exercise 4.2 Exercise 4.3 Exercise 4.4 Exercise 4.5 Exercise 4.6 Exercise 4.7 Exercise 4.8 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

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Aeronautical engineering

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Part 5 contents

Introduction..........................................................................................2
What will you learn?................................................................... 2

Orthogonal projection, As 1100 standards.....................................3


Selection of appropriate scale for a drawing ................................ 3 Selection of views...................................................................... 4 Exercise information .................................................................. 8

Exercises ...........................................................................................21 Progress check .................................................................................41 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................43 Bibiolography ....................................................................................45 Module evaluation ............................................................................49

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Introduction
In this module of work you will learn to produce orthogonal drawings associated with aeronautical engineering, involving the use of AS 1100 standards, and again be introduced to some new AS 1100 standards. You will consolidate the standards covered in previous modules from both the Preliminary Course and the HSC Course and will further develop your freehand sketching by designing solutions to orthogonal drawing problems and in completing some of the exercises. The AS 1100 standards that will be introduced apply to the drawing of aeronautical parts, and include selection of scales to be used and of views to be drawn; partial and auxiliary views and views of symmetrical parts. As there is only a small amount of new work to read and learn, the majority of your time will be used in completing exercises. You will therefore be required to complete eight exercises in this unit.

What will you learn?


You will learn about: freehand and technical drawing pictorial and orthogonal projections Australian Standard AS1100 graphical mechanics graphical solution to basic aerodynamic problems computer graphics, computer assisted drawing (CAD)

You will learn to: produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate Australian Standard (AS 1100) construct quality graphical solutions

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Aeronautical engineering

Orthogonal projection, AS 1100 standards

Much of the aeronautical work done in Australia is completed by Hawker de Havilland at Bankstown. Some of their work involves components for the Airbus, a British Aerospace project. Many of the drawings are completed using First Angle Projection. Care must be taken when reading these drawings to check the method of projection used for the drawing. As you are aware, the first angle or third angle projection logogram is drawn either in or adjacent to the title block.

Selection of appropriate scale for a drawing


The aeronautical industry utilizes components ranging from very small to extremely large in size. These components have to be designed and then drawn to scale. The drawings could involve an enlargement scale for very small components, a reduction scale for very large components, or a full scale. The Australian Standard, AS 1100 1992 Part 101 lists the recommended scales for use in engineering drawing. The aeronautical engineer must select an appropriate scale from this list that will result in a drawing of the component that is clear and easy to read.

Recommended enlargement scales


2:1 5:1 10:1 20:1 50:1

Recommended reduction scales


1:2 1:1000 1:5 1:10 1:2000 1:20 1:50 1:5000 1:100 1:200 1:10 000 1:500

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Special application scales


Where a component is of such a size that the recommended scales would not produce a drawing that is clear and easy to read, the recommended range of scales may be extended.

Selection of views
In the previous modules of work you completed detail drawings of components. You were required to select the number of views to draw that would give a full shape description of the component being drawn. The AS 1100 standards formalizes the principles to be followed when selecting the views to be drawn. The views shall be selected to: reduce the number of views required to give a full shape description avoid repetition of detail or views avoid hidden outline.

The selection of views should be sufficient to give a full shape description without the possibility of misinterpretation. In the preliminary module, Braking Systems, you were shown that some detail drawings required only one view, while others required two or three views to give a full shape description. You should review this work before proceeding. It should also be remembered that the preferred method of projection is third angle projection, so you should use this method when completing drawings.

Partial views
Partial views are used where full views do not give a good shape description of the component. They apply where a component has an inclined face as shown in figure 5.1 below, and are quite often used in conjunction with an auxiliary view to give a full shape description. The partial view is terminated using a thin, dark, continuous freehand line, a Type C line, similar to a short break line. Alternatively, for a long break, a thin dark straight line with zig-zags, a Type D line, may be used.

Aeronautical engineering

AUXILIARY VIEW

PARTIAL FRONT VIEW Figure 5.1 Examples of partial views

RIGHT SIDE VIEW

Auxiliary views
You have used auxiliary views in previous modules of work. However, in this module, auxiliary views will be used in conjunction with partial views to show the true shape of inclined faces. Where a component has an inclined face, an auxiliary view is usually required to give a complete shape description of the component. The auxiliary view is obtained by looking at right angles to the inclined face and drawing the resulting true shape view. Auxiliary views must always be drawn using third angle projection, even if the remainder of the drawing is in first angle projection.

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

AUXILIARY VIEW

PARTIAL FRONT VIEW Figure 5.2 Using an auxiliary view

RIGHT SIDE VIEW

Views of symmetrical parts


In Civil structures you were able to save time and space when completing the development of a sheetmetal object by drawing only half of the pattern and indicating that the pattern was symmetrical by using the correct AS 1100 standard. This AS 1100 standard also applies to orthogonal views of symmetrical parts. A symmetrical component may be drawn showing only half or even a quarter of the object, provided that the correct standard symmetrical line is used to indicate that only part of the symmetrical object has been drawn. Care must be taken to ensure that the views give a full shape description and that there is no possibility of misinterpretation. There are two standard methods that may be used to indicate a symmetrical view.

Aeronautical engineering

A thin chain line is used to show the position of the line of symmetry: two short, thin, dark, parallel lines are drawn at each end, at right angles to the symmetry line alternatively, the lines representing the object are extended a little beyond the symmetry line, and the short parallel lines are omitted.

Figure 5.3 Methods of indicating views of symmetrical parts

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Exercise information
Exercises 5.1 to 5.8 require you to complete a freehand design sketch of each of the drawings as part of the preparation and design prior to completing the drawings on the given drawing sheets. The freehand sketches should be drawn on your own paper, not on the drawing sheets. These freehand sketches should be returned to your teacher, along with the completed drawing sheets for each exercise. Please note that each of the drawing exercises should be numbered in the title block. An introduction will be given for each exercise, describing the function of each component as it is used in the aeronautical industry. Some exercises will also include a brief description of the method and approach needed to complete the exercise. You will need to revise your work from the previous modules to ensure that you are using the correct methods and, where applicable, the correct AS 1100 drawing standards. The drawings may be completed using drawing instruments or a CAD program. Information for Exercise 5.1 A front view and right side view of a Talurit Cable Ferrule are given in an orthogonal drawing, using a scale of 5:1. Taking sizes from the given drawing, you are to draw in isometric projection to a scale of 5:1, a freehand pictorial drawing of the ferrule. The centerlines are given along with an isometric grid to assist you in your drawing. Do not start your drawing yet. Continue reading and you will be given a method for completing this exercise.

Talurit cable ferrule


Talurit cable ferrules are used in the aeronautical industry to join wire cables used in the flying controls and other cable-operated control systems of many aircrafts. The ferrules are made from a soft, malleable, lightweight alloy, approved for aircraft use. To make a loop on the end of a cable, the end of the wire is inserted through the ferrule, then passed back through the ferrule. An alloy thimble is then fitted into the loop. The ferrule is then swaged either by a hand operated or hydraulically operated press.

Aeronautical engineering

Swaging is an operation which applies a compressive force to squeeze the ferrule, causing plastic deformation of the malleable metal around the cable. The first diagram below shows the cable being fitted through the talurit ferrule, prior to fitting the thimble, and prior to swaging. The second diagram shows the swaged cable.
Talurit ferrule End of cable to be inserted through ferrule

Ferrule after swaging Thimble Figure 5.4 Fitting and swaging a talurit ferrule

Revised work for this exercise This exercise requires you to draw, freehand, using isometric projection, a pictorial drawing of the talurit ferrule. You have been using freehand design sketches in previous exercises, but this is the first time that you have been required to draw a pictorial sketch in the HSC course. You must revise the pictorial drawing section from the Preliminary Module on Braking Systems. The work you should recall is listed below: interpreting shape from orthogonal drawings the angles used in isometric projection, 30, 90, 30. the box or crate method of commencing pictorial drawings the quadrant method of drawing isometric circles using two quadrants to construct a semicircle.

New work for this exercise The new work introduced in this exercise requires you to take the sizes for the ferrule from the given drawing. The given drawing is not dimensioned. The views are drawn to a scale of 5:1. The pictorial drawing must also use a scale of 5:1. Therefore, the method used is: measure the sizes from the given orthogonal drawing use these sizes on the pictorial drawing.

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Method used to complete this exercise


A method that may be used to complete this exercise is given below. Preliminary: look at the given drawing of the talurit ferrule in Figure 5.4 relate the shape to the given orthogonal views in Exercise 5.1 complete a design sketch in isometric projection of the ferrule.

Commencing the outline: note the given center-lines on the isometric grid note the size of the isometric grid, 5 mm spacing measure the radius of the outer semicircles on the orthogonal front view mark off these sizes on the isometric center-lines measure the length of the ferrule on the orthogonal right side view mark off the size on the isometric drawing lightly draw the isometric crate that will contain the drawing of the ferrule.

Completing the outline: draw the shape of the front face, taking care with the quadrants lightly draw the shape of the back face project the long profile edges from the front to the back face darken the visible outline of the ferrule.

Commencing the hole: measure the radii of the arcs of the hole on the orthogonal front view mark off these sizes on the isometric center-lines.

Completing the hole: draw the shape of the end arcs on the center-lines mark off the position of the centre and the ends of the side arcs sketch the side arcs from the end points through the centre position darken the visible outline of the hole.

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.1.

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Information for Exercise 5.2 Shape and size details of an aluminium alloy, turnbuckle eye-end screw are given in a pictorial drawing. Freehand sketches have been commenced of a front view and part-sectional top view, drawn to a scale of 2:1. An orthogonal grid has been provided to assist your freehand drawing. You are to complete using freehand methods, the front view and the partsectional top view. The top view may be cut through the 4 shaft, showing only a partial top view. You will then project from the front view a right side view.

Turnbuckle eye-end screw


Turnbuckles are used in the aeronautical industry to adjust wire cables used in the flying controls and other cable-operated control systems of many aircraft. A barrel type turnbuckle consists of three parts, a barrel and two end screws. One end screw is threaded with a right hand thread and the other end screw is threaded with a left hand thread. When drawing threads, unless otherwise stated on the drawing, the given thread is assumed to be a right hand thread. In Exercise 5.4 you will learn how to indicate a left hand thread. In barrel type turnbuckles the end screws may be either eye-end type, or fork-end type. Adjustment to the wire cables is made by rotating the barrel of the turnbuckle; the right hand and left hand threads at the alternate ends of the turnbuckle barrel allow the attached cable to be tightened or loosened as required. Revised work for this exercise This exercise requires you to complete freehand, a front view and a partsectional top view and to then project a right side view of the turnbuckle eye-end screw. You will need to revise some of the AS 1100 standards from the Preliminary Course and the HSC Course. The work you should recall is listed below: interpreting shape from a pictorial drawing interpreting sizes from a dimensioned pictorial drawing

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the meaning of and the method of drawing an M 5 x 0.5 thread the meaning of 4 6 x 90 a part-sectional view to show the 4 hole as visible outline the method of showing a break in the 4 shaft the method of projecting a right side view the method of drawing a right side view of the thread.

New work for this exercise The new work introduced in this exercise relates to a partial view of the turnbuckle eye-end screw. The top view and the front view of the 4 shaft and M 5 x 0.5 thread are the same in both views. It is therefore quicker to draw only a partial top view of the shaft, as the shaft and thread are fully represented in the front view. The new work you should use is listed below: draw a partial top view, showing the eye-end and a small part of the shaft use a standard break for the end of the 4 shaft.

Method used to complete this exercise


An approach that may be used to complete this exercise is given below. Preliminary: look at the given sizes and shape of the eye-end screw relate the shape to the given, incomplete, front and top views

Completing the front view: mark off the 20 mm and 17 mm for the shaft and thread, using scale 2:1 draw the outline of the M 5 x 0.5 thread, with 45 chamfers at each end use thick dark lines to outline the shaft and thread mark off the depth of the thread, 0.25 mm, using a scale of 2:1 use thin dark lines to represent the thread.

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Completing the partial top view: lightly project the 4 hole from the front view; it is a through hole lightly project the 6 chamfers from the front view draw the chamfers on both ends of the hole, using 45 lines use thick dark continuous lines to show the chamfered hole as visible outline use a thin dark freeform line to draw a part section line to the right of the hole use thin dark hatching lines at 45 to indicate the part sectioned area use thin dark lines to draw a standard break at the cut end of the 4 shaft draw a line to show the edge where the 4 shaft meets the conical eye-end.

Projecting the right side view: project the thread sizes from the front view use a thick dark continuous circle as outline of the M5 thread use a thin dark broken circle to represent the thread draw the thickness, 6 mm using a scale of 2:1 draw the 12 spherical shape to complete the right side view.

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.2.

Information for Exercise 5.3 Shape and size details of a fibre, bulkhead cable fairlead are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Draw, to a scale of 2:1, a front view and left side view of the fairlead. Hidden outline must be used on the left side view to show interior details. Fully dimension the three, slotted 4 holes, showing the size and position of the holes and slots. Starting positions for each view are given.

Bulkhead cable fairlead


Cable fairleads are used in the aeronautical industry to confine cables when the cables may contact other components, when the cables pass through a bulkhead, or when the cables have a small change of direction.

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If a cable changes direction by more than 15, it must pass around a pulley; a fairlead must not be used. The diagram below shows a bulkhead cable fairlead secured by two screws to a bulkhead bracket. Three wire cables pass through the fairlead and the bulkhead bracket.

Bulkhead

Bulkhead cable fairlead

Control cables

Bulkhead bracket

Figure 5.5 Wire cables passing through a bulkhead fairlead

Revised work for this exercise You will again need to revise some of the work from the Preliminary and HSC Courses, however, work that has been revised for the previous exercises in this module will not be listed. The work that you should now recall is listed below: projecting a left side view aligned dimensions using drawing instruments, particularly a circle template.

There is no new work in this exercise, just practice for your HSC. Be careful when dimensioning the slots and the slotted holes. You only have to dimension the position of the center-lines, that is 11,7,7 mm, one hole 4 mm and one slot 3 mm. You are only required to show these five dimensions to satisfy the question. Do not waste time in fully dimensioning the fairlead.

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Suggested procedure As there are no new techniques in this exercise a detailed method of completing the exercise will not be given. However, a suggested approach is to: commence the front view, marking the centre-line positions of the five holes lightly draw the outline then the position of the three slots using a circle template, draw the holes; use thick dark lines project the left side view, showing the outline and the slots complete the hidden outline for the holes dimension the position and sizes of the three, slotted 4 holes and the slots.

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.3.

Information for Exercise 5.4 Shape and size details of a tension rod turnbuckle fork-end, with a left hand thread are given in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Incomplete front view, left side view and a part-sectional top view are also given, drawn to a scale of 2:1. Complete the: front view showing only the visible outline, including the two flat surfaces left side view showing only the visible outline part-sectional top view showing the 4 hole, the L.H. M5 x 1 thread and the 5 and 1.5 holes as visible outline.

Tension rod turnbuckle


A tension rod turnbuckle consists of three parts, the tension rod and two ends; the ends may be either fork-end or eye-end. As with the barrel type of turnbuckle, the tension rod is threaded at each end, one end having a right hand thread and the other a left hand thread. Adjustment to the wire cables is made by rotating the tension rod.

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Revised work for this exercise This exercise requires you to complete three orthogonal views of the turnbuckle fork-end screw. Each of the three views has been commenced. You should note that you are only required to show visible outline in the front view and left side view; do not show any hidden outline. The part-sectional top view will require two part-sections, one to show the 4 hole, the L.H. M5 x 1 thread and the 1.5 hole as visible outline, and the other to show the 5 hole as visible outline. You will have to revise work from Personal and public transport involving the reading of dimensions and also the plotting of the shape and size of a flat surface. The work that you should recall is listed below: the meaning of the depth symbol for drilled holes the meaning of L.H. M5 x 1 thread the meaning of S15, a spherical diameter the method of drawing the L.H. M5 x 1 thread; the left side view and the part- sectional top view the method of plotting and representing a flat surface the method of indicating a part-section. the method of hatching the part-section

There are no new techniques involved in this exercise. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.4.

Information for Exercise 5.5 Shape and size details of a turnbuckle tension rod are given in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Draw, using a scale of 2:1, a detail drawing of the tension rod. The tension rod is manufactured from aluminium alloy.

Turnbuckle tension rod


As stated in Exercise 5.4, a tension rod turnbuckle consists of three parts, the tension rod and two ends. The turnbuckle tension rod is threaded at each end, one end having a right hand thread and the other a left hand thread.

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Aeronautical engineering

Revised work for this exercise This exercise requires you to draw a detail drawing of the tension rod. You will have to revise the work on Detail Drawing from Braking systems. You need to remember that a detail drawing is a drawing that gives a complete shape and size description of the component that would enable the component to be manufactured. You must also include in the drawing, the material for manufacture. You have to decide how many views are required to give a complete shape description; three views, two views or only one view. Your decision should also be influenced by the time factor in an HSC examination; the fewer the views, the quicker the drawing. You have to fully dimension the drawing, to enable the manufacture of the tension rod. The work that you should recall is listed below: detail drawing requires a full description of the component a full shape description can be given by a fully dimensioned single view drawing to a scale of 2:1 dimensioning a scaled drawing; show the actual or manufacturing sizes the depth of a thread is drawn to a size equal to half the pitch. In this case the pitch of the M5 x 1, is 1 mm, therefore the depth is 0.5 mm.

New work for this exercise The only new technique in this exercise is the dimensioning of the left hand thread. Most threads are right hand threads. When dimensioning a right hand thread, M5 x 1, the M indicates that it is a metric thread, the size is 5mm diameter and the pitch is 1 mm. It is not necessary to state that it is a right hand thread. A left hand thread has the letters L.H. preceding the thread dimensions. You must therefore dimension this left hand thread; L.H. M5 x 1. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.5.

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

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Information for Exercise 5.6 Shape and size details of an airframe fastener pin used for composite materials are given in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. The pin is made from titanium. Using a scale of 2:1, draw in orthogonal projection a top view and part sectioned front view of the fastener pin. You may draw a part top view, using AS 1100 standard methods to show a symmetrical view.

Airframe fastener pin


The fastener pin shown is used to secure composite components of aeronautical airframe structures. The head is larger than a fastener used to secure metal components. The larger head distributes the forces and prevents the fastener from crushing the matrix that binds the fibres of the composite. The pin is made from titanium, a lightweight metal suited to the aeronautical industry. Revised work for this exercise Again there is some work that must be revised from previous modules. This is good preparation for your HSC. Perhaps you have already made summaries of the previous work and you have only to refer to your summaries. Much of the work you have already revised in this module. You will now have to recall the following; the method of drawing a hexagon, given the length of one side the interpretation and method of drawing a 1 x 45 chamfer the method of drawing the S6 spherical curve for the run-in to the hexagonal hole the method of using an auxiliary view to plot the curves formed by the S6 spherical curve in the part-sectional front view.

New work for this exercise The question states that you may draw a part top view, using AS 1100 standard methods to show a symmetrical view. Again this is a time saving standard that will assist you in your HSC where time is a premium.

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Aeronautical engineering

Instead of drawing the full top view, the top half of the view may be omitted provided that you use the correct AS 1100 standard. The preferred method is to draw half the view, the bottom half; then show the center-line as a symmetry line with thin dark parallel lines through the ends of the symmetry line. This will save you drawing time, but remember, if you do not use the correct standards then you may lose marks for an incorrect drawing. The new work to be used is: view of a symmetrical part the use of a part top view.

Note that the question does not require you to dimension the drawing. Too often students in the HSC examination will waste time dimensioning a drawing when the question did not require the dimensioning. Make sure you read the question carefully, interpret it correctly, and do not do work that is not required. Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.6.

Information for Exercise 5.7 Shape and size details of an angle bracket attachment for an airframe are given in a partly dimensioned pictorial drawing and in the given front view. The front view is drawn to a scale of 1:2. Project from the front view, using third angle projection: a part top view to show the true shape of the horizontal surface an auxiliary view to show the true shape of the sloping surface.

Angle bracket attachment


The angle bracket attachment is manufactured from aluminium alloy and is used to secure structural components to the airframe. Revised work for this exercise This exercise presents you with an angle bracket attachment that has six 10 holes in the horizontal surface and seven 14 holes in the sloping surface. It is very time consuming to draw all thirteen holes. You should remember, or revise, the work on representation of repeated features from Lifting devices.

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

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Again it is very important to remember and use the AS 1100 drawing standards, especially the ones that will save you time in the HSC examination. But you must use the correct standards, incorrect standards will not gain you any marks, and as with Exercise 5.6 and 5.7 will cause you to lose marks if incorrectly used. The work you should recall is listed below: representation of repeated features one of the holes may be shown in full outline, and the position of the remainder by centre-line the number and size of the holes must be indicated using a note and leader line; if this notation is not done you will lose many marks.

You should use this standard representation, not only to save time but also to simplify the drawing. New work for this exercise The new work introduced in this module that should be used in this exercise is listed below: the use of a reducing scale of 1:2; the sizes must he halved the use of a part top view to show the true shape of the horizontal surface the use of a thin, continuous, freeform line to terminate the part view the use of an auxiliary view to show the true shape of the sloping surface.

Turn to the exercise sheet and complete exercise 5.7 then 5.8.

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Aeronautical engineering

Exercises

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

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Aeronautical engineering

A front view and a right side view of a Talurit Cable Ferrule are give below in an orthogonal drawing, using a scale of 5:1. Taking sizes from the drawing, draw in isometric projection to a scale of 5:1, a freehand pictorial drawing of the ferrule.

The centrelines are given along with an isometric grid to assist you in your drawing.

FRONT VIEW

RIGHT SIDE VIEW

TALURIT CABLE FERRULE SCALE 5:1

EX 5.1 A4 Page 23

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Shape and size details of an aluminium alloy, turnbuckle eye-end screw are given below in a pictorial drawing. Freehand sketches have been commenced of a front view and part-sectional top view. An orthogonal grid has been provided to assist your freehand drawing.

Complete using freehand methods, the front view and part-sectional top view. The top view may be cut through the 4 shaft, showing only a partial top view.

Project from the front view a right side view.

PART-SECTIONAL TOP VIEW

0
FRONT VIEW RIGHT SIDE VIEW

9 6x

20

x0 M5

12 S 90 6x .5 4

20 17

TURNBUCKLE EYE-END SCREW SCALE 2:1

EX 5.2 A4 Page 25

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Shape and size details of a fibre, bulkhead cable fairlead are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Draw, to a scale of 2:1, a front view and left side view of the fairlead. Hidden outline must be used on the left side view to show interior details. Fully dimension the three, slotted 4 holes, showing the size and position of the holes and slots. Starting positions for each view are given.

9 4x

10

10

4
LEFT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW

BULKHEAD CABLE FAIRLEAD SCALE 2:1

EX 5.3 A4 Page 27

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

4 5 4

Shape and size details of tension rod turnbuckle fork-end, with a left hand thread are given in the dimensioned pictorial drawing. Incomplete front view, left side view and a part-sectional top view are given, drawn to a scale of 2:1.

S
15

10

15 .5 R1
5

Complete the: front view showing only the visible outline, including the two flat surfaces left side view showing only the visible outline the part-sectional top view showing the 4 hole, the L.H. M 5 x 1 thread and the 5 and 1.5 holes as visible outline. 5 1

.5 R1
3
50

1.5

13

12

25 22

M .H.

4 1 5x

F
PART-SECTIONAL TOP VIEW

A 11

LEFT SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW TURNBUCKLE FORK-END LH SCREW SCALE 2:1 EX 5.4 A4 Page 29

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Shape and size details of a turnbuckle tension rod are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Draw, using a scale of 2:1, a detail drawing of the tension rod.

The tension rod is manufactured from aluminium alloy.

33

4
5 .M .H L x1

13

33 3

M5

x1

R2

10

TURNBUCKLE TENSION ROD SCALE 2:1

EX 5.5 A4 Page 31

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Shape and size details of an airframe fastener pin used for composite materials are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. The pin is made from titanium.

Using a scale of 2:1, draw in orthogonal projection a top view and part sectioned front view of the fastener pin. You may draw a part top view, using AS 1100 standard methods to show a symmetrical view.

6R

UN

-IN 3H EX 6

M
15 1 1 5 16 (38)

10

x1

4 1x

12

R2

25

AIRFRAME FASTENER PIN SCALE 2:1

EX 5.6 A4 Page 33

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Shape and size details of an angle attachment for an airframe are given below in a partly dimensioned pictorial drawing and in the given front view. The front view is drawn to a scale of 1:2.

Project from the front view, using third angle projection: a part top view to show the true shape of the horizontal surface an auxiliary view to show the true shape of the sloping surface.

15 15 34

35

34

34

34
16 28 28 28 00 (2 )

34

15

16

10

28

R8

28

28

7x

14

16

12

0
5

FRONT VIEW ANGLE BRACKET ATTACHMENT SCALE 1:2 EX 5.7 A4 Page 35

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Exercise 5.8 Shape and size details of a joint pin for an airframe are given on the drawing sheet 5.8 pictorial drawing and three dimensioned orthogonal views are given. Use this information to answer the following questions. The following statements refer to the drawings of the airframe joint pin. Select the alternative, A, B, C or D that best completes the statement or best answers the question. Circle the letter corresponding to your selection. 1 The given orthogonal views of the joint pin are a: a b c d 2 right side, left side and sectioned front view right side, front and left side view right side, top and front view right side, part front view and left side view

The number of 5 holes drilled through the threaded end is: a b c d one three two four.

One view could have been omitted as it provides little additional information. The dimensioning could have been placed on another view. The view that could have been omitted is the; a b c d front view pictorial drawing left side view right side view.

The reason that the top view has not been drawn is: a b c d there was no room for the drawing that it is identical to the front view it would provide no additional information there are too many views on the page.

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The pitch of the M22 thread is: a b c d half the depth of the thread two the same as the depth of the thread one.

The best method used to draw the 34 AF hexagon in the two views is to: a b c d use an auxiliary view method draw using the distance across the points of 1.8D draw using the distance across the points of 2D draw the left side view of the hexagon starting with a 17 circle.

The height of the hexagonal end is: a b c d 0.8D 0.7D 14 mm 16 mm.

The thickness of the flange is a b c d 4 mm 6 mm 2 x 45 R2.

When manufacturing the joint pin the sizes used would be: a b c d twice the sizes shown on the dimensioned drawing half the sizes shown on the dimensioned drawing the same sizes shown on the dimensioned drawing none of the above.

10 The three dimensioned orthogonal views are drawn: a b c d in third angle projection in first angle projection in isometric projection with a thumb nail dipped in tar.

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Aeronautical engineering

Shape and size details of a joint pin for an airframe are given below. A pictorial drawing and three dimensioned orthogonal views are given.

4 2 4 4 42 2 X 45

166 14

42

2 x 45

34 AF

R2

M 22 x 2 5

15 228

20 U. CUT

56 R2

R2

30

23 - 2 - 01

JOINT PIN DISTED STUDENT SCALE 1:2

EX 5.8 A4 Page 39

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

Progress check

In this part you produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate Australian Standard AS 1100. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.
Agree well done Disagree revise your work Uncertain contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree

I have learnt about freehand and technical drawing pictorial and orthogonal projections Australian Standard AS1100 graphical mechanics graphical solution to basic aerodynamic problems computer graphics, computer assisted drawing (CAD)

I have learnt to produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate Australian Standard (AS 1100) construct quality graphical solutions

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.

Congratulations! You have completed Aeronautical engineering.

Part 5: Aeronautical engineering communication

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Exercise cover sheet

Exercises 5.1 to 5.8

Name: _______________________________

Have you have completed the following exercises? Exercise 5.1 Exercise 5.2 Exercise 5.3 Exercise 5.4 Exercise 5.5 Exercise 5.6 Exercise 5.7 Exercise 5.8 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learners Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

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Bibliography

ADFA School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, <http://www.maseg.adfa.edu.au> Avner, S.A. 1974, Introduction to Physical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Board of Studies, 1999, Engineering Studies Stage 6 Examination, Assessment and Reporting, Board of Studies, Sydney. Board of Studies, 1999, Engineering Studies Stage 6 Specimen Paper, Board of Studies, Sydney. Board of Studies, 1999, Engineering Studies Stage 6 Syllabus, Board of Studies, Sydney. Boeing, <http://www.boeing.com> Bonds, R. 1997, The Story of Aviation, Greenhill Books, London. Composite Materials <http://www.science.org.au> Composite Materials and Systems <http://www.onera> Davis, Troxell & Wiskocil, 1964, The Testing and Inspection of Engineering Materials , McGraw-Hill, Tokyo. Department of Polymer Science, University of Southern Mississippi, <http://www.psrd.usm.edu/macrog>

Frontiers of Technology, 1983, World of flying-supermachines, Marshall Cavendish, London.


Guy, A. 1972, Introduction to Materials Science, McGraw-Hill, Tokyo. Hibbler, R. C. 1989, Engineering Mechanics Statics, Macmillan, London. Higgins R.A, 1987, Materials for the Engineering Technician, Edward Arnold, London. Holden, R. 1991, A Guide to Engineering Mechanics, Science Press, Marrickville. <http://www.geocities.com/aircraftpictures>

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<http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/2049> <http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Jungle/6748> <http://www.members.tripod.com/darwinaeroclub/aircraft> <http://www.qantas.com.au> <http://www.quest.arc.nasa.gov> Lambert, M. 1989, Aircraft Technology, Wayland, England. Manufacturing, <http://www.wichard-usa.com/manufacture.html> Megson, T. 1999, Aircraft Structures for engineering students, Edward Arnold, London. Mullins, R. K. 1983, Engineering Mechanics (SI Units) for Industrial Arts, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne. National Research Institute for Metals <http://wwwinaba.nrim.go.jp> Nickel and Titanium Superalloys <http://www.alleghenytechnologies.com> Niu, Michael C.Y, 1992, Composite Airframe Structures , Conmilit Press Ltd, Hong Kong. Non-destructive Testing Technology <http://www.martingal-research.com> Past HSC Examinations, Board of Studies PPG Expands Plastic Aircraft Window<http://www.ppg.com> Qantas, 1976, Apprentice Training Notes Electrical, Instrument and Radio Trades, Engineering & Maintenance Department, Sydney. Qantas, 1976, Apprentice Training Notes General Studies, Engineering & Maintenance Department, Sydney. Qantas, 1976, Apprentice Training Notes Sheet Metal Trades, Engineering & Maintenance Department, Sydney. Qantas, 1988, Reference Guide for Boeing 747/747-SP, 747-400 & 767-200, Operations Training, Sydney. Qantas, 1992, Apprentice Training Notes Aircraft Maintenance Practices General, Module 7145CC,Engineering & Maintenance Department, Sydney. Qantas, 1992, Apprentice Training Notes Aircraft Materials and Processes, Module 7145, Engineering & Maintenance Department, Sydney. Qantas, 1995, Apprentice Training Notes Introduction to Aviation, Module NAC01, National Aeroskills Trade Curriculum, Sydney. Robson, D. and Vea, l, H. 1999, Basic Aeronautical Knowledge for the student pilot, Aviation Theory Centre, South Melbourne.

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Rochford, J. 1999, Engineering Studies A Students Workbook, K.J.S. Publications, Gosford. Rochford, J. 2000, Engineering Studies Students Handbook, KJS Publications, Gosford. Safe Handling of Advanced Composite Materials, 1991, Suppliers of Advanced Materials Association, Arlington. Schlenker, B. and McKern, D. 1983, Introduction to Engineering Mechanics, Jacaranda Press, Sydney. Schlenker, B.R. 1974, Introduction to Materials Science, Wiley, Sydney. Stinton, D. 1987, The Design of the Aeroplane, BSP Professional Books, Oxford. Structures, Materials & Propulsion Laboratory <http://www.nrc.ca> Taylor, A. and Barry, O. 1975, Fundamentals of Engineering Mechanics, Cheshire, Melbourne. The World Book Encyclopaedia,1985, Volume 1, USA: World Book The World Book Encyclopaedia,1985, Volume 9, USA: World Book Thorn, T. 1989, Basic Aeronautical Knowledge Principles of Flight, Aeroplane Operation and Performance, Aviation Theory Centre, Williamstown, Vic. Titanium Metals Corporation Aerospace <http://www.timet.com/aerospace> United States Department of Transportation, 1988, Acceptable methods, techniques and practices Aircraft Inspection, Repair & Alterations; Federal Aviation Administration, Seattle, Washington. Wind Tunnel <http://www.britannica.com> Wolf, L. 1990, Statics and Strength of Materials, Maxwell Macmillan, New York. World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia,1998, [CD-ROM], USA: World Book.

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