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to accompany
Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
Third Edition
John D. Anderson, Jr.
Curator of Aerodynamics
National Air and Space Museum
and
Professor Emeritus
University of Maryland
Boston Burr Ridge, U Dubuque, lA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St Louis
Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapo:re Sydney Taipei Toronto
CHAPTERl
1.1 ( )
P 1.9 x 10
4
i 31
a =  = = 0.326 k 1m,
p RT (287)(203) 1 g t
(b) T = l = 1058 = ismoRl
pR (1.23 x 10
3
)(1716)
J
TE
1.2 N' =  (pu cos e + 1:" sin e) ds
u
LE
+ S: (P i cos e  r [ sin e) ds f (1.7)
ds cos e= dx
ds sin e = dy
Hence,
N' =  f TE (Pu  P e) dx + J TE (Ttl + "C r) dy
LE LE·
Divide by q", S = qoo c(1)
~ = _.!. f TE [(Pu  Poo) _ (p t  P"')]dX +.!. J TE ( ~ + 2 ) dy
q",c c LE qoo q", C LE q",. qoO
,C
n
= '!'fc (c c ) dx+.!. JIT (cr .. +c
r
,.) dy
coP' p, C LE "
Tills is Eq. (1. 15).
J
TE
A' = (Pu sinH + 1:
u
cose) ds
u
LE
f
TE
+ LE (P;, sine + 't 1 cose) ds f.
C
a
= ! fIT (c  C ) dy + f C (c  c ) dx
O
f. fe '
C LE P. Pc C
This is Eq. (1.16).
M'LE = J IT [CPu cose + 'tu sin8)x  (Pu sine  'Cu cos8)y] dsu
LE
J
TE
+ [p t cose + 1: t sine)x + (p e sine + 't ecose)y] ds e
LE
+ J IT [Pu  P r] y dy + f IT ("u + 1: e) Y dx
LE LE
(1.8)
[(
Pup"')_(Pt p",)] xdx ; s:
qo> q"" c. qoo q",
2
+2 fTE [(pupoo)_(pepo»] ydy+_l ITE ( ~ + ~ ) Y d X
r3 LE qoo qo> c
2
LE qo> qoo
1 Ie JTE
em =2 [ (Cp  CpJ x dx  (C
f
+Cr,) x dy
tc;. c 0 u, LE U ~
This is Eq. (1.17).
1.3
M..a>/
.>
3
_ M'li [{p, p,lf]
Xcp , =
N (p, Pu) c
1 . ~ For a fl.at plate, e = 0 in Eqs. (i. 7)  (1.11). Hence,
L' = Nt coset  A' sina = 1.12 x 10
5
cos 100 1274 sin 10°
= 11.105 x 10Sij
D' =N' sina + AT cosa = 1.12 x 10
5
sin 10° + 1274 coso.
M'd4 = M'LE + L' (cf4) = 5.78 x 10
4
+ 1)05 X 10
5
(0.25)
=13.02 x 104N/IDJ
M'
xcp =  rl;E =
(5.78 X 1 ~ 4 ) = 10.516 ID!
1.12 x 10'
4
1.5
C = en cQsa  c
a
sma.
= (1.2) cos 12° :: (0.3) sma. = 11.18\
Cd = c
n
sina + C
a
COSet
=(1_2) sin 12° + (0.3) COSet = !0.279[
1.6 C
n
= t l COSet + Cd sino;
Also, using the more accurate NT rather than L' in Eq. (1.22), we have
2.0
o
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
0.0498
0.25
0.44
0.639
0.846
1.07
1.243
1.402
152
5
1.09
0.41
0.336
0.306
0.293
0.284
0.277
0.271
0.266 .__._ .. _ _ ...  _.  _ ..  . __ .
x· .
co
'
·C
0 .. 8
__ ._
2;0
r '
:  ::,
Zo
1 .
.•  _. ..:. __ . _ __ :..:.. .......... • ._ 1
:
.1' ;
i
 , t·· , f
. .
______ ..: __•.. .......,:. _ __ ____ ;.
. : i i = .  !
, I  • •
. . . . . ... . I"" 1
. 
/4l0' . . , . . i
. . ; " ,':;: r:  ;',
' i;1
Note that xcp moves forward as ex is increased, and that it closely approaches the quarter
chOTd point in the range of IT of 10° to 14
0
• At higher anglesofattack, beyond the stall (ex >
16), xcp will reverse its movement and move rearward as a continues to increase. Compare
the above variation'with the centerofpressure measurements of the Wright Brothers on one
of their airfoils, shown in Fig. 1.28.
1.7 K = 3 (mass, length, and time)
fJ (D, p"" V"" c, g) = 0
HenceN= 5
We can write this expression in terms ofN  K = 5  3 = 2 dimensionless Pi products:
where
6
mass: a + 1 = 0
a =1
length: 3a + b + c + 1 = 0
b=2
time: b  2 = 0
c=2
Hence:
D D
D,= ~ , or Il1 = 
P
V c
2
1 V 2 2
'" ro p C
2 ro '"
Let Il2 =p,,} V'" cD gd
1 = (m r
3
)a U t
1
) fb (f t
2
)d = 0
mass: a= 0
a=O
length: 3 a + 1 + b + d = 0
d = 1/2
time: 1  2d = 0
b = 1/2
Hence:
Thus:
or:
K = 4 (mass, length, time, degrees)
7
Hence, N = 7. This can be written as a function ofN  K = 7  4 = 3 pi products:
where:
The dimensions of c
p
and Cv are
[c
p
] = energy = (force)( dis tan ce) = (mft ~ 2 )( .e)
mass(O) mass(O) m(O)
lV j k nDI1
p"" cr:J c Cp  I
mass: i + 1 = 0
i =1
length: 3i + j + k + 2n + 1 = 0
n=O
time: j  2n .2 = 0
j =2
degrees: Ii = 0
k=2
Hence:
ForTh
8
Hence:
Hence:
Hence,
Thus,
or,
mass: i = 0
i=O
length: 3i + 1 + j + 2k + n = 0
k=O
time: 1 2kn = 0
n=l
degrees: k=O
]=0
11
 j V j k n
3 ~ poo 00 C C
p
C
v
mass: i = 0
i=O
length: 3i + j + k + 2n + 2 = 0
n= 1
time: j  2n ~ 2 = 0
j=O
degrees:  n ~ 1 =0
k=O
C
IT3 = .:!..... We can take the reciprocal, and still have a dimensionless product.
c
p
9
1.9
Hence, the Mach numbers of the two flows are the same.
The Reynold's numbers are different. Hence, the two flows are not dynamically similar.
1.10 Denote free flight by subscript 1, and the wind tunnel by subscript 2. For the lift and
drag coefficients to be the same in both cases, the flows must be dynamically similar. Hence
and
For Mach number:
Since a a Jf, we have
(1)
pVc P2
V
2
C
For Reynolds number: 1 1 1 = 
PI P"2
Assume, as before, that f.L a If. Hence
10
or,
. or,
P2 V
2
=34.65
jf;
(2)
Finally, from the equation of state:
7T = ~  L01 X 10
5
=351.9
P 2 R  287
(3)
Eqs. (1)  (3) represent three equations for the three unknowns, P2, V
1
, and T
2
, They are
summarized below:
V
z
= 1.67
jf;
P2
V
Z = 34.65
jf;
From Eq. (3):
Subst. (4) into (2):
3519 ( V
2
) = 34.65 (5)
T2 . K
SUbSL (1) into (5):
Hence,
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
J1
T2 = (351.9)(16.7) = 1169.6
0
Kj
(34.65)
From Eq. (1); V, 16.7 .JT, 16.7 .J169.6 \2175 m \
sec
. 351.9 351.9
FromEq. (3): P2= ==2.07
3
T2 169.6 ill
= L01 X 10
5
 (1.36 x 10
4
)(9.8)(0.2)
Pb=17A3 x 10
4
Nfmj
1.12 Weight = Buoyancy force + lift
w =
B +L
B = (15,000) (1.1117) (9.8)
y
volume air density acceleration
(m
3
) at 1000i:n of gravity
(kg/m
3
) (m/sec)
L = q"" S C
L
= (500)(153.9)(0.05) = 3487 N
Hence:
w = 1.634 x 10
5
+ 3847 = 11.67 x
1.634 x
1.13 Let liS use the formalism surrounding Eq. (1.16) :in the text. In this case, Cd = ca, and
from Eq. (1. 16), neglecting skin friction
12
From Eq. (1.13) in the text
o
Eq. (1) above can be v{ritten as
Draw a picture:
Following our sign
convention, note
that 8 is drawn
counterclocbvise
in this sketch, hence
it is a negative
angle, 8.
From the geometry:
8=n:$
9
Voe
Helice, sin (8) =  sin 8 = sin (n:8) = cos ~
(1)
(2)
Substitute this into Eq. (2), noting also that ds = r d ~ and the chord c is twice the radius, C =
2r. From Eq. (2), .
1 f TE __ 1 f TE
Cd = 2 LE Cpo cos <j> d ~ 2 LE Cp, cos ~ d <j>
(3)
Consider the limits of integration for the above integrals. Tbe first integral is evaluated from
the leading edge to the trailing edge along the upper surface. Hence, ~ = 0 at LE and n: at TE.
13
The second integral is evaluated from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the bottom
surface. Hence, = 2n at LE and n at the TE. Thus, Eq. (3) becomes
1 J tr
 C cos d
2 2,, \"
In Eg. (4),
C =0
p,
C =0
Pc
for 0 :::;; $ 5, nl2
3;r
for  :::;; $ 5, 2n
2
Thus, Eq. (4) becomes
J
tr!2 3 ,h d ,h f 3,,;2 cos
3
,h d .h
cd = cos 't' 't'  't' 't'
o 2tr
Since cos
3
d $ = <\> + 2), Eq. (5) becomes
:)
1. 2 ] :r(1 [( 1 . .h)( 2,1, 2J 3tr
l
2
Cd = [("3 <\> + 2) 0   "3 SlD't' cos 't' + . itr
1 1
Cd = ()(1)(2) ()(1)(2)
3 3
1.14
14
(4)
FLuID
Bopy
SUBIfE£6E.f)
dAr
I I I 1
I I I I
df}, ~
~ I I f I
. Q)1..1
I I I I
I I
I
I
hI
:t
x
J
h:z
Consider the arbitrary body sketched above. Consider also the vertical cylinder element
inside the body which intercepts the surface area dA] near the top of the body, and dA2 near
the bottom of the body. The pressures on dA] and dA2 are PJ and P2 respectively, and makes
angles 8] and 8
2
respectively with respect to the vertical line through the middle of dA, ahd
dA
2
• The net pressure force in the· ydirection on this cylinder is:
(1)
Let dAy be the projection of dAl and dA
2
on a plane perpendicular to the y axis.
Thus, Eq. (1) becomes
(2)
From the hydrostatic equation
f
h,
P2  PI = . P g dy
. hI
(3)
Combining Eqs. (2) and (3),
f
h,
dFy = h P g dy dAy
I
(4)
However, dy dAy = dV = element of volume of the body. Thus, the total force in the y
direction
o
Fyo is given by Eq. (4) integrated over the volume of the body
J5
ill pgdV
~
Force on body Weight of fluid displaced by body ..
L15 From Eq. (1.45)
C
L
= _L_ = 2W "" 2(2950)
q",S p"Y",2S (0.002377)V",
2
(174)
(1)
Also,
Tabulate Eqs_ (1) and (2) versus velocity.
v ~ (ftlsec)
70 2.911 0.483
90
1.761 0.192
110 1.179 0.100
130 0.844 0.063
150 0.634 0.047
170
0.494 0.038
190 0.395 0.033
210 0.323 0.031
230 0.270 0.029
250 0.228 0.028
These results are plotted on the next page.
16
6.03
9.17
11.79
13.40
13.49
13.0
11.97
10.42
9.31
8.14
~
;.a.
L
o
/ ~ ~ J4
0.12
0 .. /0
O,S 8
0.08"
0.0(;;'
o . o ~ '
0.2 :2
o 0
70 W 110 /30 /50 /70 /Yo 2/0 230 2SQ
FL/t;IJT, l/EL,OC/TY, k:,; cFT/S.Ec.)
Examining this graph, we note, for steady, level flight:
I. The lift coefficient decreases as V", increases.
2. At lower velocity range, the drag coefficient decreases even faster than the lift
coefficient with velocity. (Note that on the graph the scale for CD is onetenth
that for Cd
3. As a result, the lifttodrag ratio first increases, goes through a maximum, and
then gradually decreases as velocity increases.
It can be shown that the maximum veiocity for this airplane is about 265 ftlsec at sea leveL
As seen in the graph, the maximum value of LID occurs around V ro = 140 ft/sec, which is
much lower than the maximmn velocity, However, at higher velocity the value of LID
decreases only gradually as V co increases. This has the practical implication that at higher
speeds, even though the value of LID is less than its maximum, it is still a reasonably high
value. The range of the aircraft is proportional to LID (see for example, Anderson, Aircraft
Performance and Desim, McGrawHill, 1999, or Anderson, Introduction to Flight, 4th ed.,
17
McGrawHill,2000). To obtain maximum range, the airplane should fly at the velocity for
maximum LID, which for this case is 140 ftJsec. However, one reason to fly in an airplane is
to get from one place to another in a reasonably short time. By flying at the low velocity of
V <Xl = 140 ft/sec, the flight time may be unacceptably long. By cruising at a higher speed, say
200 ft/sec, the flight time will be cut by 30%, with only an 18% decrease in LID.
18
CHAPTER 2
21
If p = constant = p",
However, the integral ofthe surface vector over a closed surface is zero, i.e.,
Hence, combining Eqs. (1) and (2), we have
22
/
V??i!r
/r:L L L L
fa...
!
Wrtl/
/ /
I
I
I
I
[
7 7
I
e C...,   ~ ~ __ ' _ c ~
1
 ,c' 7
I
I
hJ
/ 7 7 7 7€ 7 7 7 /
L O U I ~ ~ Wall f...t. ()c)
19
L
X
Denote the pressure distributions on the upper and lower walls by pu(x) and p e (x) respectively.
The walls are close enough to the ffiDdel such that pu and p f. are not necessarily equal to P<>:r
Assume that faces ai and bh are far enough upstream and downstream of the model such that
p= poo and v= 0 and ai and bh.
Take the ycomponent ofEq. (2.66)
L =  # (p V . dS) v  H (p dS)y
S .bhi
.... +
The fIrst integral = 0 overall surfaces, either because V' ds = 0 or because v = O. Hence
..... b h
L' =  Sf (p dS)y =  [J pu dx  J P l dx]
""'" · c. . . .
Mmus SIgn because ycomponent lS In downward
Direction.
Note: In the above, the integrals over ia and bh cancel because p = p"" on both faces. Hence
h b
L' = f P t dx  f pu dx
2.3
dy
=
dx u
cY/(X2 +y2) Y
== =
cx/ (X2 +l) x
dy dx
y x
The streamlines are straight lines emanating from the origin. (This is the velocity field and
streamline pattern for a source, to be discussed in Chapter 3.)
2.4
dy v
== ==
x
dx u y
Y dy=x dx
20
l = 2 + const
x
2
+ l = const.
The streamlines are concentric with their centers at the origin. (This is the velocity field and
streamline pattern for a vortex, to be discussed in Chapter 3.)
2.5 From inspection, since there is no radial component of velocity, the streamlines must be
circular, with centers at the origin. To show this more precisely,
u =  Ve sin =  cr r =  cy
r
x
v = VEl cos 8 = cr  = cx
r
dy v x
dx u Y
~ 2 + Xl = const.1
This is the equation of a circle with the center at the origin. (This velocity field corresponds to
solid body rotation_)
dy v y
dx u x
dy dx
y x
.en y = x .en x + CJ
y=cix
The streamlines are hyperbolas.
21
_ > 1 0 1 8V(}
In polar coordinates: V V =  (r V ) + 
ra: r roe
Transformation: x =rcos 8
y=rsin8
Vr = U cos e + v sin 8
Ve =  u sin 8 + v cos 8
22
ex er eosB e case
u= =
(2 "
" x +y)
y
y
ey ey
sinB e sine
y=
(Xl +y2)
r2
r
e 2 c. 2 C
Vr =  cos 8 +  sm 8 = 
r r r
Ve =  ~ cosO sinS + ~ case sine = 0
r r
..... 1 0 1 0(0)
V' V = : (c) +  =0
r a r 061
(b) From Eq. (2.23)
V' x V = e
z
[0 + 0  OJ = !Ql
The flowneld is irrotational.
cy cr sinB c sine
2.8 u= = =
(X
2
+y2)
r2
r
'cx cr cosB c case
y= = 
(x" + y")
r2
r
Vr = ~ eO,s8 sine  ~ case sin8 = 0
r r
C .2 C 2 C
Va =   3m 8   cos S =  
r r r
(a)
V'. V = . . ! . ~ (0) + ..!. 0( c / r) = 0 + 0 = lQ!
r a r 8B r    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~  ~ ~  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~   ~    
(b)
2.9
\Ix V = e> [O(C/r)  ~  . ! . O(O)J
z a. r2 r 8e
\I x V = IQl except at the origin, where I = O. The flowfield is singular at the origin.
Vr=O. Vs=cr
\Ix V= e> [O(C/I) + cr _2. O(O)J
Z it r r oe
> >
= e
z
(c + C  0) = 2c e
z
The vorticity is finite. The flow is not irrotatibnal; it is rotationaL
2.10
c
b
24
Mass flow between streamlines = ~ !jr
/:"0 =pV ~ n
Let cd approach ab
Also, since V = If (r,e), from calculus
 o If o r ~ r
dt" =  dr+ _'I' de
. 'f' it 38
Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2)
and
or:
2.11
P
rV = Olf
r iJ8
~ = ex = orr : \tf ;0= exy + f(x)
OJ
v =  cy =  CJry : \jJ = cxy + f(y)
ex
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
25
Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2), f(x) and fey) = constant
!\jf = c x y + const. I
v =  cy = 3!f : =  cl + f(x)
t3;
Comparing Eqs. (4) and (5), fCy) =  cl and fex) = cx
2
Differentiating Eq. (3) with respect to x, holding 'v = const.
or,
0= cx dy +cy
dx
(d
Y
) = _ y/x
dx
Differentiating Eq. (6) with respect to x, holding = const.
or,
. dy
O=2cx2cy
dx
(d
Y
) = x/v
dx '
Comparing Eqs. (7) and (8), we see that
1
Hence, lines of constant \II are perpendicular to lines of constant
26
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
2.12. The geometry of the pipe is shown below.
L{ ::::: /oC> h7' /Y"'c f
.. ,
As the flow goes through the Ushape bend and is turned, it exerts a net force R on the internal
surface of the pipe. From the symmetric geometry, R is in the horizontal direction, as shown,
acting t6 the right. The equal and opposite force, R, exerted by the pipe on the flow is the
mechanism that reverses the flow velocity. The crosssectional area of the pipe inlet is nd
2
/4
where d is the inside pipe diameter. Hence, A = nd
2
/4 = n(0.si/4 = O.l96m
2
. The mass flow
entering the pipe is
•
m = PI A VI = (1.23)(0.196)(100) = 24.11 kg/sec.
Applying the momentum equation, Eq. (2.64) to this geometry, we obtain a result similar to Eq.
(2,75), namely
R= # (pV'dS)V (1)
Where the pressure term in Eq. (2.75) is zero because the pressure at the inlet and exit are the
same values. In Eq. (1), the product (p V' dS) is negative at the inlet (V and dS are in opposite
directions), and is positive at the exit (V and dS) are in the same direction). The magnitude of p
•
V . dS is simply the mass flow, ffi. Finally, at the inlet VI is to the right, hence it is in the
positive xdirection. At the exit, V
2
is to the left, hence it is in the negative xdirection. Thus,
V 2 =  V I. With this, Eq. (1) is written as
. ., 
R =  [ m V I + m V 2] = m (V I  V 2)
• •
= ill [VI  (V])] = m (2V])
R = (24.11)(2)(100) = @822 Nj
27
CHAPTER 3
3 _1 Consider steady, inviscid flow.
xmomentum:
& & &q:,
pu+pv+pw=
ex OJ & &.
ymomentum:
8v Ov Ov q:,
pu +pv  +pw =
&. iY Oz OJ
zmomentum:
8w Ow & q:,
pu+pv+pw=
ex OJ Oz Oz
Multiply (1), (2), and (3) by dx. dy, and dz respectively:
&. &. & lcp
udx+v dx+w dx=  dx
ex OJ & pOx
IN i3v i3v 1 q,
u dy+v dy+w  dy=  dy
&. cy & pO:!
iW Ow m. liP
u  dz+v  dz+w  dz=   dz
0;: 0r & P OJ
Add (4) + (5) + (6):
(
& Ov 8w) (& i3v iW)
u dx+dy+dz +v dx+dy+dz
ex ex & q OJ ry
(
& i3v Ow) 1 (iP q:, iP)
+w dx+dy+dz =  dx+dy+dz
& & _ &  p &. OJ Oz
For irrotational flow (see Eq. (2.119»: V x V "'" 0
Hence:
8w& 8.1&i3v&
Z;;= Oz; Oz =""&"; &. = 8y
Subt. Eqs. (8) into (7):
I
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
u CU dy+dz +v dx+ OV dv+ OV dz
(
& & J (81 J
ex OJ t3z 0;: 0'  Oz
(
Ow Ow Ow) 1 rep CP 0J J
+w dx+dy+dz =  dx+;:dy+dz
Oz 8z & p ,Oz; oy Oz
1
u du + v dv + W dw =  dp
P
1 2 2.2 1 2 1
 d (u + v + w ) :=  d CV ) = V dV =   dp
2 2 P
dp =  p v dV which integrates to
1 2
P +  p V = const.
2
for incompressible flow.
3.2
3.4
(2)(PI  P2)
)
2(2116: = 1154.7ft1seCj
(0002377{ (OlJ 1]
2 w 11
29
3.5
w = Pmg = (L36 X 10
4
) (9.8 m 2 ) = 1.33 X 105 N/m
2
sec
3 A2 1
= 10 em = O.1m; p = 1.23 kg/m. =
Al 12
2(1.33 x 10
5
)(0.1) = 1147
(L23{ I
. 5 4 2
PI P2 = W = (1.33 x 10 )(0.1) = 1.33 x 10 N/m
1 1
po = P2 + "2 P V; = 8.77 X 10
4
+ 2 (1.23)(147i = 11.01 x 10) N/mj
Note: It makes sense that the total pressure in the test section would equal one atmosphere,
because the flow in the tunnel is drawn directly from the open ambient surroundings, and for
an inviscid flow, we have no losses between the inlet and the teSt section.
3.6
1 2
Po=P",+  pV",
2
 1.01) x 1 0
5
= 98.8
123 sec
3.7
( )
2 )"
V 130  .
Cp =l  =1( =tQB
98.8
..
t t
3.8
V=V", i V'" = u = constant
V""
30
It is a physically possible incompressible flow.
1 J
+ + + 0.10 + at 0
k = i (00)  j (0  $) + k (0  J;)
\l xV =
+ +
.. 0 0
Ull
\l x V = 0 I The flow is irrotationaI.
3.9 For a source flow,
+ + A+
V=Ve=e
'r 2m r
In polar coordinates:
+ 13 lOV
\1 V = (rV
r
)+ __ 0
rit r Of}
 + l ~  o.
\1' V =   ) + O = ~
r· 2;r
Hence, the flow is a physical possible inoompressible flow, except at the origin where r = 0,
What happens at the origin? Visualize a cylinder of
radius r wrapped around the line source per unit depth
perpendicular to the page. The volume flow across this
cylindrical surface is
31
# v <is
(1)
s
Since we are considering a unit depth, then we have the volume flow per llllit depth. This is
precisely the defmition of source strength, A. Hence, from (l),
/\ = constant = # v· ill;
s
From the divergence theorem:
s v
Combining Eqs. (2) and (3)
m (\7. V) d V = A = constant
v
(2)
(3)
(4)
Shrink the volume to an infinitesimal value, t.V, around the origin. Eq. (4) becomes
,
(V· V) t.V= A
Taking the limit as tJ.V + 0
+ . A
(V·V)= hm  = cO.
tJ.V
.....
Hence V V = CD at origin
+
To show that the flow is irrotational, calculate \7 xV 
..... + + +
e
r
rell e
z
e
r
+ 1
8 8 8 1 8
V xV=
 
'r a m & r it
Vr rVe V
z
A
2m
+
ree
8
8B
0
o 000
+
......
~  ~ ) + ~ ~  ~ ) ~ ! l
V xV = r ee
32
>
e
z
8
8z
0
Hence,
! \l x V = 0 everywhere"
3.10
,!,=V X·
'Y "'"
O¢ = 0
OJ
Hence, Laplaces equation:
0
2
¢ .0
2
¢ 0 0 O· 'd '11 ' fi d
2 + 2 = + = IS 1 entlca y sahs Ie .
& OJ
Similarly, for \If = V y; Olf' = 0 02lf = 0
't' ex' &2
Hence, Laplaces equation:
3.11
lilj/ 021j/ 0 0 0' 'd 'all ' fi d
2 +  = + = IS 1 entlc y sahs Ie .
&. Oj2
Hence, Laplace's equation
. 0
~ ~ (r ;}¢) + ~ 0
2
¢ = ~ 0 r ~ 0 = 0
r iT a. r2 oe
2
~ J +
is identically satisfied,
33
A
If/==e
2
8!f!
=0.
a
Hence, Laplaces equation
1 0 (Olf/) 1 021f 1 0 1 _
 r +=(0)+(0)0
r a a r2 i3f}2 r a r2
is identically satisfied.
3.12 The stagnation point is a distance A!2nV", upstream of the source. Hence,
A
 = 1 , or A=2nV",
2nV",
The shape of the body is given by
\.V = V J sin e + !!:... e = A
2tr 2
or,
. e A e A
rsm +  =
2JfV", 2 V""
or,
2trV", 2JfV",
rsin8+B=
2JfV 2V.;o
or,
k sin El;!' e = 1! I
Equation ofthesemi..:infinite body_
tre
r='
sine
34
eCrad) ;[ x = r cose y = t sine
n 1 1 0
3 1.0033 0.990 0.1416
2.8 1.02 0.961 0.3416
2.5 1.072 0.859 0.6416
2.0 1.255 0.522 1.142
nl2 1.57 0 1.57
1.3 1.91 0.511 1.84
1.0 2.54 1.372 2.14
0.75 3.509 2.57 2.39
0.5 5.51 4.84 2.64
Cartesian Coordinates of Body
To plot the pressure coefficient:
or,
A 2n;V V
Vr = V co cos 8 +  = V co cos 8 + "' = V co cos 8 + ~
Ve = V co sin e
Vr 1
 =cos8+
V", r
V
_Il =_ sin e
V",
2 ~ 2m r
.( J2 ( )2 ( )2
V V V 2 1. 2 1
 = ' + ~ =cosB+cosB+
2
+sm
2
B=1+cosB+
2
V", V", V"" r r r I
35
_ .. _ 
eCrad)
!: .GQ
7t 1 1.0
3 LOO 0.98
2.8 L02 0.886
2.5 1.072 0.624
2.0 1.255 0.0283
nl2 1.57 0.4057
1.3 1.91 0.554
1.0 2.54 0.580
0.75 3.509 0.4982
0.5 5.51 0.352
3,0
V ~ ;
~
 ..
2.0
Sh'fif?E1
I ..
·1
/01
~  ' .
t
i
, I
,
/'0
0 /.CJ
2,0
3,:0' ";,0
S:Q
36
O,g
0,4
0.:2
o r  ~ r    ~       ~       4        4        4  ~ ~ ~ i
.S:O
~ o /.0 20
o
X
0,2
0.4
3.13
IA
./(
1 b
b
, A .. F
"""
...
® •
x
•
VoO
( Source 0
SIi7k
. ~
./1.
5 fa 'In<:tfu:m
pdlnf
37
At point A: Velocity due to freestream = V OX)
Velocity due to source =
A
2;r(r+ b)
(note that it is in the negative xdirection)
Velocity due to sink =
(+A)
2:Jr(r + b)
(Note that it is in the positive xdirection)
Total velocity at Point A:
A 1 A I

2:Jr (r  b) 2:Jr (r + b)
From point A to be a stagnation point, VA = O.
A 1 I
o = V 0() + [ + (r _ b) 1
2:Jr (r + b)
o=V + [rbCr+b)] =V + (2 b)
co 2:Jr· (r + b)(r b) "" 2:Jr r2  b
2
2 2 A Ab
Y,,(r b)=  (2b) = 
27t 7r
3.14
k sine
For a doublet:\fI = 
27r r
Olf/ = _ case
08 27r r
38
(1)
(2)
Substitute (2) into (1)
O'¢ _ 1 ( K cos e) _ K cose
  
a r 2ff r 2J[ r2
Integrating with respect to r
or,
3.15
1 err ( R2)
V
r
= = (Vmcos8) 1
,
rOB r
2 2 2_ R 2 2 'R .2.
(
')2 '( ")2
V = Vr + Va  1 r2 Vcr] cos e + 1 + 7 V 00 sm e
At the surface, r = R
3.16 From Eq. (3.93):
v ( R2)
_r = 1 cosEl
V"" r2
39
From Eq. (3.94):
At any given point (r,6), Vr and Ve are both directly proportional to V roo Hence, the direction
+
of the resultant, V, is the same, no matter what the value of V co may be. Thus, the shape of
the streamlines remains the same.
3.17 From Eq. (3.119):
V ( R
2
J _._r = cos6
V", c
From Eq. (3.94):
Vo ( R2). r
= 1+
V;., r2 , 2nrV",
Note that V oN ro is itself a function of V ro via tbe second term. Hence, as V <0 changes, the
direction of the resultant velocity at a given point will also change. The shape of the
streamlines changes when V co changes.
3.18 L' = Pox:> Vro r
L'
p",V",
6 m
2
/sec I
(1.23)(30)
40
3.19 At standard sea level conditions,
Also:
p"" = 0.002377 s l ~ g
ft"
f1<c = 3.737 X 10
7
slug
(ft)(sec)
(
88) ft
V = 120 mph = 120  ft/sec= 176 
60 sec
goo ~ ~ p", V, .. }· = ~ (0.002377) (176)2 = 36.8 Ib/ft2
For the struts: D = 2 in = 0.167 ft.
Re = pVD "= (0.002377)(187.7)(0.167) = 199382
J.l 3.737 x 10
7
'
From Fig. 3.39, CD = 1. The total frontal surface area of the struts is (25) (0.167) = 4.175 ft?
Hence,
Drag due to struts:
Ds = qoo S Co = (36.8)(4.175)(1) = 153 Ib
For the bracing \\.'ires: D = ~ in = 0.0078 ft
32
Re = 199382 (0.0078) = 9312
0.167
From Fig. 3.39, CD = L The total frontal surface area of the wires is (80) (0.0078) = 0.624
2' .
ft. Hence,
Drag due to wires:
Dw = qoo S CD = (36.8)(0.624)(1) = 23 lb
Total drag due to struts and wires = Ds + Dw =
153 +23 =11761
41
The total zerolift drag for the airplane is (including struts and wires)
. CD = q", S CD = (36.8)(230)(0.036) =
. .
Note that. for tms example, the drag due to the struts and wires is = 0.58 of the total

drag  i.e., 58 percent of the total drag. This clearly points out the drag reduction that was
achieved in the early 1930's when airplane designers started using internally braced wings
with one or more central spars, thus eliminating struts and wires completely.
3.20 The flow over the airfoil in Figure 3.37 can be syntheized by a proper distribution of
singularities, i.e., point sources and vortices. The strength of the vortices, added together,
gives the total circulation, r, arOlllld the airfoiL ills value ofr is the same along all closed
curves around the airfoil, even if the closed curve is drawn a very large distance away from
the airfoil. In this case, the airfoil becomes a speck on the page, and the distributed point
vortices appear as one stronger point vortex with strength r. This is exactly equivalent to the
single point vortex in Figure 3.27 for the circular cylinder, and the lift on the airfoil where
the circulation is taken as the total r is the same as for a circular cylinder, namely Eq.
(3.140),
L' = pro v""r
f1
 /
'......c.:h'si,,,U') c
/
r
I
"JvCl'j

 (
r /' ')
\
O/:dr/&deJ
(
<;;)"
>
# Vc!.rle.,c;
,
\
/
I
' /' \

/
"
'
/


42
CHAPTER 4
c, = 0.64 and c = 0.036
, m,c!.l
L' = q"O S c[ = (2.97)(2)(1)(0.64) = 13.80 Ib per unit s p ~
M' ci4 = qoo S C crne!> = (2.97)(2)(1)(2)(0.36) = to.428 ftllb per unit spaIlj
4.2 q"O = .!. p"" V ro
2
= 1. (1.23)(50i = 1538 Nlnl
2 2
c = ~ = 1353 =0.44
t q",S (1538)(2)
From Fig. 4.5,
4.3
...,. .....
V'ds
c
7
DDt
r
=1 DV ..... 1 7 .....
~ . ds + V· ds
Dt
e c
7
Dds = dV
Dt
Hence, the second term in Eq. (1) becomes
..... , (V2)
J V'dV=1 d 2 =0
c c
From the momentum equation,
43
+
D V = 2. Vp (neglecting body forces)
Dt p
Hence, the first term in Eq. (1) becomes
+
1 DDVt' dS 1 2. vp· dS 1 dp
c c PcP
When p = const, or p = p(p), then
f dp = O. Hence, from Eq. (3)
c P
..,.
J DV ..,.
'j ' ds=O
Dt
Substituting Eqs. (2) and (4) into (1), we obtain
(4)
I Dr I
Note: See Karamcheti, IdealFluid Aerodynamics. for more
Dt
details (pp. 239242).
J
K C C
=  p"" V ro  (1  case) e (y) sine de
o 2 2
C
Z
=  p"" V a)  2 a V <10 J (1  de
4 0
=  pm V ro  a  =  ( : p", V co ) C 
c Z [ 7rJ 1 2 2 lta
2 2 2 2
="_ q""c
2
It; This is Eq. (4.36).
4.5 c I. = 2 1t a where a is in radians. Hence
44
(
1.5) [QJB
c =2n = .164
( 57.3
c . =  c IT = FO.0411
f:
4.6 (a)
X
For 0 S;; S 0.4:
c
For OA S '::'s 1: (dZ) = 0.0888 _ 0.2222 (x)
c dx 2 C
Since x = ..:. ( 1  cose), then
2
(
dZ) .
 = 0.05 + 0.25 cose, for 0 S e s 1.3694
dx I
( dz) = 0.0223 + 0.1111 cose, for 1.3694 S 8 S 11:
ciX
2
1 f;r dz
UL=(} =    (cose 1) de
1[ 0 dx
1 J 0
1
.3694
;r
(0.05 + 0.25 cos8)(cos8  1) de  J.. J:r
;r 1.3694
. (0.0223 + 0.1111 cose)( cose  1) de
: J 01.3694 2
/_ (0.05  0.3 cose + 0.25 cos 8) de
1 J'" (0;0223  0.13334 cos9 + 0.1111 cos
2
e) de
;r 1.3694
=  J.. [0.059  0.3 sin9 + 0.25 (B +...!. sin28)
1[ 2 4
45
4.7
(b)
 [0.0223 El  0.1334 sine + 0.111 + sin2e)
1 1
=   [0.06847  0.2939 + 0.1712 + 0.0245]   [0.0701 + 0.1745]
n
+ ..!.. [0.0305 0.1307 + 0.0761 + 0.0109]
= 0.2281 = 0.0726 rad = 4.164
C f = 2 7t (ex + fXL=O) where a is in radians
c/ = 57.3 [3 ' (4.16)] =
dz
 cose de
dx
2 f 1.3694
 " (0.05 + 0.25 cose) cose de
2 f;r
+ n J 1.3694 (0.0223 + 0.1111 cose) cose de
2 f 13694 . 2
=  (0.05 cosEl + 0.25 cos 8) de +
7C "
2 J" (0.0223 cosEl + 0.1111 casle) dEl
1.3694
= 2· [0.05 sine + 0.25 (B +..!. sin28)
2 4
+ [(0.0233)sin8+0.1111 +; sin28)K3694
46
= ~ [0.04899 + 0.25 (0.6847 + 0.09800) + 0.1745
J[
+ 0.02185  0.1111 (0.6847 + 0.09800)J
_ 2
Al = (0.2:>61)  := 0.1630
1r
J
" dz .
 cos2e de
.) dx
~ f ~ 3 6 9 4
2 f Jr
(0.05 + 0.25 cose) cos 28de + 
1r 1.3694
+ 0.111] case) cosEl de
(0.0223
2 1 . sine sin39 "
+ J[ ["2 (0.0223) sm 28 + 0.1111 (2 + 6)JI·.3694
= ~ [0.009800 + 025 (0.4899  0.1372) + 0.004371
1r
 0.1111 (0.4899  O.1372)J
2
= (0.0436)   0.0277
1r
X c ~ = ~ [1 + ~ (Al  A
2
)J = ~ [1 + ~ (0.1630  0.0277)] = 10.3861
c 4 c
f
4·· 0.782
47
4.8
CLL=O
c
t
c
m ~ / ' "
C
; = "2 (l  cos8)
dS = .s. slne de
2
Experiment (Ref. II) Theory
_3.9° 4.16
0
0.76 0.782
0.095 0.1063
[
(1 + case) ~ . ]
y(8)=2 Veo At) . + L.. An smne
sme 0=1
With the above, Eq. (1) becomes
% Difference
6.25%
2.8%
10.6%
(1)
C
m
.! .. =  J: Ao (1 ~ cosle) de  f s: An (l  cosS) sine sin ne de (2)
n=)
Note the following definite integrals:
J
:fC 2 . 7r
cos e dEl = 
o 2
J
t= 2 7r
sin e de =
o 2
J: cose sinle de = 0
48
So
Ir:
sine sin ne de = 0
S
r. ff
cose sine sin 2e de = 
o 4
J: cose sine sin ne de = 0
Hence, Eq. (2) becomes:
7r A2
c =(A +A
1
)
mle 2 0 2
4.10 The slope of the lift curve is
forn=2, 3, ...
forn= 3,4, ...
0104 d
ao = =. per egree
4  (6)
The slope of the moment coefficient curVe is
0.037  (0:045) 8 04 d
mo = = x 1 per egree
4  (6)
From Eq. (4.71),
 m
Xac = __ 0 + 025=
a
o
8 X 104
+ 0.25 = 10.2421
0.104
49
5.1
...... >
+ r
V=J
4n
de x r r J 2m<
\7\3 = 4Jr 0

5.2
d1
+ .....
CHAPTER 5
...... + .....
df x T = (R df) e
......
where e is a unit vector
perpendicular to the plane of
the loop, directed into the page.
clv
Since df and r are always perpendicular (by inspection of the figure),
r d1!
By symmetry, the resultant velocity due to the entire loop must be along the xaxis. Hence,
r 1
 , 2 (2nR) cos9 =
4Jr (A  +R )
50
5.3
a
O
a = =
a
l+o(1+T)
nAR
where <lo = 0.1080 per degree = 6.] 88 per radian
From Fig. 5.18: 8 = .. = 0.054.
5.4
6.188
a= 6 =4.91 perrad .
.188 ( 00
1+ 1+ . 54)
n(8)
= 0.0857 per degree
CL = a (a  lXL=O) = 0.0857 [7  (1.3) = 10.7121
C = C ~ (1 + 8) = (0.712)2 0.054) '" 10.02121
Di ;raR. n(8)
b
2
(32)2
AR= ==6.02
S 170
At standard sea level, poo = 0.002377 slug/ft
3
(
88 ftl sec]
V co = 120 mph = 176 ftlsec
60mph
qoo = .! p", V
2
", = .! (0.002377) (176i = 36.8 Ib/ft2
2 2
3.0 = 0.1033 pet degree
= 5.92 per rad
,C
L
= ~ = ~ = 2450 = 0.3916
q",S q",S (36.8)(170)
51
5.5
a o 5.92 '"'8 d
a = .:.. = = 4.J per ra
5.92 a
o
1+·(1+r)
7lAR
1+ (1+0.12)
Jr(6.02)
CI = C
L
+ CIL=O = 0.3916  3° = [ill
a 0.0764
c = = (0.3916)2 = 0.01267
D, ;reAR ;;r(.64)(6.02)
= 0.0764 per deg
D;= q", S CD, = (36.8)(170)(0.01267) = 179.3 lij
5.6 To be consistent, we will lise Helmbold's equations for both the straight and swept
wmgs.
and
(a) 30 = 0.1 per degree = 0.1 (57.3) = 5.73 per radian
= 5.73 = 0.304
nAR ;;r(6)
From Helmbold's equation for a straight wing, Eq. (5.81),
5.73 5.73 G 247 d·an!"
C!. " perra 1_
1349
(b) From Helmbold's equationfor a swept wing, Eq_ (5.82), where
30 cos A = 5.73 cos 45° = 4.05 perradian"
a o cosA = 4.05 = 0.215
mill ;;r(6)
We have
52
a
o
cos A
a = ;=========
cosA/(nAR)f +a
o
cosA/(nAR)
4.05 4.05 I 7
= ;=====::::: ==3.2 per ra Idllj
+0.215 1.23785
Comparing the results of parts (a) and (b), we readily conclude that the effect of wing sweep
is to reduce the lift slope. Moreover, the reduction is substantial.
5.7 Again, we use Helmbold's equations.
(a) ilo = 5.73 perradian
= 5.73 = 0.608
JrAR Jr(3)
J
=
5.73 5.73 I d· _I
;===== = =3.222 per ra lauj
+ (0.608i + 0.608 1.778
(b) ilo cos A = 4.05
a o cos A = 4.05 = 0.43
ffAR Jr(3)
a
o
cosA
cosA/(JrAR)]2 +a
o
cosA/(nAR)
4.05 = 4.05 =
+0.43 1.5185 ... ,
j"n Problem 5.6, with an aspect ratio of 6, we had
a swept = 327 = 0.77
aStr:l.;ght 4.247
53
The lift slope for the swept ,,,,ing is only 77% of that for the straight wing when the aspect
ratio of both vvings is 6.
In Problem 5), with aspect ratio 3, we have
a swept ::= 2.667 = 0.83
aSlTaighl 3.222
The lift slope for the swept wing is 83% of that for the straight wing.
Conclusion: Wing sweep decreases the lift slope. Moreover, wing sweep affects the
lift slope to a greater degree for higher aspect ratio wings than for lower aspect ratio wings.
This makes some sense, because the lift slope for low aspect ratio wings is already
considerably reduced just due to the aspect ratio effect.
54
CHAPTER 6
6.1
>
,
>
e
T
re
e
(r sine) e
p
>
1 i3 i3 0
'Yx V=

r2 sina a 88 o¢
c
r2
0 0
= 1 {O  0 + O} = IQl
r2 a
Flow is irrotationaL
6.2
> 1 i3 2 C 1 8 1 0(0)
'Y V =  [r ()]+ (0)+
r 2 a r 2 r sin a oa r sin a o¢
. > 1 ct
\7' V = +0+0=0+0+0= fA!
2 l:j
r cr
The flow is a physIcal possible flow.
6.3
For the sphere:
55
For the cylinder:
At the top of the sphere: e = n/2, hence
(Cp)sphere =  5/4 = 1.25
For no manometer deflection, (Cp)sphere = (Cp)cyL
1.25 = 1  4 sin
2
e
sin
2
e = 0.5625
sine = 0.75
Hence:
The pressure tap on the cylinder must be located at an angular position 48.6° above or below
the stagnation point.
56
CHAPTER 7
7.1 p=pRT
= ~ = (7.8)(2116) ;=;; p.Ol03 siu IftJj
p RT (1716)(934) g
7.2 (a)
_;R (1.4)(1716)
Cp;=;;
r1 0.4 .
6006 ft Ib
slug 0 R
R 1716 ft Ib
C v = ~  =   4290
r 1 0.4 slug 0 R
ft Ib
e = C
v
T = 4290 (934) ;=;; 4.007 x 10
6

slug
6
·) 6 ft lb
h= CpT = 006 (934 = 5.610 x 10 
slug
(b) For a calorically perfect gas, c
p
and Cv are constants, independent of temperature.
Hence, we have again
Cp = 6006 ft Ib
slug DR
c
v
= 4290 ft Ib
slug OR
Also, at standard sea level, R = 519°R. Hence
ft Ib
E = 4290 (519) = 2.227 x 10
6
''
slug
h=6006(519)= 3.117xl0
6
ft Ib
slug
57
,......_._ 
7.3 Cp = := (1.4)(287) = 1004.5 joule
r } 0.4 kg °K
7.4
7.6
Cv = 287 = 717.5 joule
rl OA kg OK
5 joule
h2 hl C
p
(T2  Tt) = (1004.5)(690288) = 4_038 x 10 
kg
_ _ _ . 5 joule
e2  el  C
V
(T2  T
1
)  (718.5)(690288)  2.884 x 10 
kg
S2  SI = c
p
.en_
TI
 R .en
P2
"" (1004.5) .en_
69
_
O
 (287) .en 8.656:= 258.2.....o:j_ou_le_
T) PI 288 kg oK
p "" 4.35 x 10
4
0 6 86 k! 3
pm = RT", = (287)(245) = , 1  g m
p"" p",
P = p"" L = 0.6186 3.6 x 10
4
'" 0.5404 kg
(
J
I/r ( ) 1/114
Poo 4.35 X 10
4
m
J
0
T=To  =50
Po 10
= p. = 1.01 X 10
5
= 11.359 k Im
3
1
p RT (287)(259) g
RT
pv=RT, hencev=
P
58
1 1 4.. <; m
2
'tT "" P "" (0.2)(1.01 x 105) "" .95 x 10' N
For a ~ isentropic process: h = (!!J...) 7 = ( ~ 1) 7
P2 P2 \; I·
_ (C
1
)1/7
v 
p
(
iN) _ 1 ( ) 1/7 ( )(1/7 )1 _ 1 ( r )117 ( ) (Jy)ir _ 1 I
   C
1
P    pv p    v p
cp s y r r
't
s
= 1 = 3.536 X 105 m
2
(1A)(0.2)(1.01 x 10
5
) N
7.7 c
p
= rR = (1.4)(1716) = 6006 ft lb
 r 1 (OA) slug 0 R
VI VI (1300)1 ft 1b
·ho=h+  =c T+  =(6006)(480)+ =3.728 x 10
6

2
P 2 2 I
sug
7.8 Let (ho)res = total enthalpy of the reservoir = c
p
(TQ)res
59
(ho)e = total enthalpy at the exit = Cp Ie + V;
For an adiabatic flow, 110 = constant. Hence
7.9
(
J
(7ll/Y ()CYI)i
r
02857
T P . _ P _ 0.5'_
=  , T Teo  262.1 (. ) 247.6 ex
Tao p", Poo 0.61
Since the flow is isentropic, it is also adiabatic. Hence, hQ = constant
7.10
V= cp(T",,T)+V;
=1345
V
2
. V
Z
2 2
V= 2(p", p)+V 2 = 2(1.01 x +(300.)2 =342.2 m/sec
p '" 0..819
'(3453422)
% error = x 100 = Q80(
345
60
v = 214) + (300)1 = 432 mJsec
7.12 V= 2(1.01 x 10
5
)(0.6103) +(300)2 =408mJsec
0.819
% error = x 100 =
(
432  408.7)
432
7.13 From Eq. (7.53)
V2
h +  = constant
2
From Eqs. (7 .6b) and (7.9);
)RT
h=cpT= 
r
1
From the equation of state,
RT=p/p
Combining Eqs. (1) and (2),
h=.L(Pl
r 1 p)
Hence, Eq. (7.53) can be written as
· (p) + V2 = constant
1'1 p 2
In the limit ofy + co, Eq. (4) becomes
61
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
 . ; ~ ?
P v
 +  = constant
p 2
or,
p + '12 P V2 = constant
which is Bernoulli's equation. Hence, the energy equation for compressible flow can be
reduced to Bernoulli's equation for the case ofy 700. Hence, the ratio of specific heats for
incompressible flow is infinite, which of course does not exist in nature. This is just another
example of the special inconsistencies associated with the assumption of incompressible
flow, i.e., constant density flow, which of course does not exist in nature. This is why we
have stated earlier in this book that incompressible flow is a m:yth.
As to the question whether Bernoulli's equation is a statement of New10n's second
law or an energy equation, we now see that it is both. For an incompressible flow, the
application of the fundamental principles of Newton's second law and the conservation of
energy are redundant, both leading to the same equation, namely Bernoulli's equation.
However, philosophically this author feels strongly that Bernoulli's equation is
fundamentally a statement of Newton's second law  it is a mechanical equation. This is
how we derived Bernoulli's equation in a very straightforward manner in Chapter 3. For the
study of inviscid incompressible flow, we need only to apply the fundamental principles of
mass conservation and Newton's second law. The principle of conservation of energy is
redundant and is not needed.
62
CHAPTERS
81 a = JJRT =J(1.4)(287)(230) = ill/sec]
8.2
V2 (138'1)2
Te = T  _C = 519   = 359.3 oR
° 2c p 2( 6006)
a
e
= JJRTe = J (1.4)(1716)(3593) = 929.1
8.3 a = J;RTe = J(1.4)(287)(300) = 347.2 mlsec
M = V = 250 = 0.72
a 347.2
T p
From Tables: _0 = 1.104 and _0 = 1.412
T P
To = 1.1 04 T = 1.104 (300) = oK!
po = 1.412 P = 1.412 (1.2) = 11.694 atmj
p* = p* = (0.528)(1.412) = 0.7455
P Po P
p* = 0.7455 P = 0.455 (1.2) = atml
T* T* T .
. _ =  _0 = 0.8333 (1.104) = 0.92
T To T
T* = 0.92 (300) = oK!
a* = J;RT = J(1.4)(287)(276) = 333 ill/sec
63
M* = 250 =r.
75
1
a * 333
8.4 a= = 1297 ftlsec
M = v = 2983 = 2.3
a 1297
From Tables: To = 2.058 and = 125
T P
To = 2.058 T = 2.058 (700) = 11441 oR!
Po = 12.5 P = 12.5 (1.6) = atIll!
T* T* T .
 =  _0 = (0.8333) (2.058) = 1.715
T To T
T* = 1.715 T = 1.715 (700) = 11200 DR)
'" * P
.L = L _0 = (0.528)(12.5) = 6.6
P Po P
p* = 6.6 P = 6.6 (1.6) = 110.56 atIIi\
a* = .J;RT* =.J0.4)(1716)(1200) = 1698 ftlsec
M* = = 2983 = 11.7571
a * 1698
8.5 From Tables: = 7.824 and ..1. = 1:S"
P T
Hence, for the test section flow,
Po = 7.824 P = 7.824 (1) = 7.824 attn
To = 1.8 T = 1.8 (230) = 414 oK
64
Since the flow is isentropic, both po and To are constant throughout the flow. Also, in the
reservoir, M ~ 0_ Hence, the reservoir pressure and temperature are
Po = 7.824 atm
8.6 From the Standard Altitude Tables, at 10,000 ft.,
Poo = 1455.61b/fe and T <>0 = 483.04 OR
From Table Al: For M"O == 0_82; Po = 1.555, ~ = 1.134
Po;> T",
p T
ForM= 1: _0 = 1.893, _0 = 12
. P T
Since the flow is isentropic, Po == constant and To = constant
8.7
Hence,
p= L ~ p o o = ~ (L555)(1455.6) =11196 Ib/ft11
Po Poo L89.)
T = ~ ~ T =_1 (1.134)(483.04)= @56.5°Rj
To Too '" L2
From Table A.2: h = 7.72, !!..2.. = 3.449, T2 =) )38
Pl PI It _. ,
Po, =9.181, ttvh=0_50391, Po, =0.4601
PI Po,
p..
P2 = _2 pJ = 7.72 (1) = 17.72 atill)
Pl
T2 = T} It = L238 (288) == 1644.5°Kj
TI
65
8.8
Thus,
1 = ~ = (1)(1.01 x 10
5
) = 1.222 kg/m
3
P RTI (287)(288)
P2 = !!..2.. PI = 3.449 (1.222) = &.21 kg/m
3
1
PI
Po, . joule
S2 = s} = ~ R en  = (287) en 0.4601 = 222.8 
Po, kg OK
P , T p
~ = 1033. From Table A.2, M1 = 3 . ~ , _2 = 2.679, ~ = 12,06
p] T} PI
T
From Table AJ, for M1 = 3.0, _0_, == 2.8
T]
T
T02 = To, = ;' Tl = 2.8 (518.9) = 11453°Rj
I
po? = Po! PI = (12.06) (1) = 112.06 atIl1l
 PI
8.9 Po, =·e·(S2
s
J)lR=e{J99.5)1287=0.499
Pc,
From Table A2: 1M! = 2.51
66
8.10
Hence,
T2
From Table A2:  = 2.799 and M2 = 0.469)
T]
T,
T2 =  T1 = 2.799 (480) =
TI
a2 = .Je1.4)(1716)e13435) = 1796.6 ftfsec
V2 = M2 a2 = (0.4695)(1796.6) = \843.5 ft/secl
T
From Table AI, for M2 = OA695, = 1.044
T2
A/' = = .J(lA)(1716)(l169) = 1676 ft/sec
. V 84"'
M
•  2  .;J.) 10
2 )
a; 1676 .
. 8.11 Is the flow subsonic or supersonic? For sonic flow, = . _1_= 1.893, which is
. p
higher than 1.555. Hence, the flow is subsonic. From Table AI, for
Po _ .  _
  1.55), M  0.82.
P
a = .jyRT = .J(1.4)(287)(288) = 340.2 mlsec
v = Ma = (0.82)(340.2) = 278.9 mfsec
8.12 The ratio 7712.8 = 3.645 is larger thart 1.893. Hence
o
the flow is supersonic. This
2116
means that a normal shock wave exists in front of the nose of the Pi tot tube. From Table A.2,
for
67
7712.8 = 3.645M = 1.56
2116 ' I
al = )JRT
1
=.1(1.4)(1716)(519) = 1116.6 ftlsec
VI = MJ al = (1.56)(1116.6) = /1742 ftlsecl
8.13
(a) = L = 1.01 x lOs = 1.22 k fro
3
p RT (287)(288) g
v 2(p"  p) 2(1.555 1.0)(1.01 x 10') 303 mlsec INCORRECT
P 1.22
0/  303  278.9  690/
/0 error   . I(
278.9 .
P 2116 .
(b) p =  = = 0.002376 slug/fe
RT (1716)(519)
v P(p" p) 2(7712.821I6) 21705 ftfsec INCORRECT
. p Q002376
0/  2170.51742 
/0 error   .;t(
1742
8.14 P
2
== 1+ 2y 1)= r+l+2r 2r = lr+2r (1)
PI r+l r+l r+l
(2)
M2 =
2 • r (rl)/2)
Working with the expression inside the parenthesis ofEq. (2):
68
vI r 1
1+ _'_M2 =1 +
=1+(y1)
2 2 2
r (r 1)/2 2r M; (rl)
1 ( ) [ 2+(r
1
) ] _ 4r 2(r
1
)+2(r1)+(r
1
)2M;
 + y  1 
4r 2(yl) 4y 2 (r1)
_ 4y +(r
2
2r+l) M; = (1
2
+2r+1) M;
4y (y1) 4r (r1)
(y
(4)
4y Mi  2 (r 1)
Combining Eqs. (4), (2), and (1), we have:
7
P P P [ Cy+l)2M2 ])'1[1 Y+2r M2]
= .l. = . 2 I. J which is Eq. (8.80)
PI Pz PI 4y My 2 (yl) y+l
8.15 At 80,000 fi_, T",= 389.99°R
(
88)
V", = 2112 60 = 3097.6 ftlsec
a", = .JiRT = ,/(1.4)(1716)(389.99) = 967.9 ftlsec
M", = 3097.6 = 3.2
967.9
From Appendix A:
T
ForM", = 3.2, _0 =3.048
To;;
To = 3.048 T '" = 3.048 (389.99) = 1188.7 oR
69
From Appendix B, Moo = [2J
8.17 The temperature at the stagnation point is the total temperature in the freestream,
because the total temperature is constant across the normal shock. From Eq. (8.40),
Since T co = 300 K, we have
To = (260.2)(300) = i78,060Ig
This is an ungodly high temperature. It is also incorrect, because long before the air would
reach this temperature, it would chemically dissociate and ionize. In such a chemically
reacting gas, the specific heats are not constant, which means that Eq. (8.40) is not valid for
such a chemically reacting flow. In reality, the temperature at the stagnation point on the
Apollo was close to 11,000 K, much lower than our estimate above, but still plenty high. Air
at 11,000 K is a partially ionized plasma. For the analysis of high temperature, chemically
reacting flows, techniques much different than those discussed in this book must be used.
. nd . . .
See for example Anderson, Modern CompressIble Flow, 2 ed., McGrawHIll, 1990, or
Anderson, Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics, McGrawHill, 1989, reprinted
by the American Institute of AerOnautics and Astronautics, 2000.
8.18 Use Eq. (8.40)
For To = 11,000 K, T co = 300 K, and Mro = 36, this equation becomes:
11,000 = 1+ r
1
(36i
300 2
35.67 = 648 Y  648
70
or,
683.7
y= ~  = IL0551
648
In order to use Eq. (8.40) to estimate a reasonably valid stagnation temperature for the
Apollo, we have to use an "effective gamma" of 1.055. To double check this, return to Eq.
(8AO), insert y = 1.055, and calculate To.
or,
To=36.64 L,=36.64 (300)= Ill,OOOKj
71
9.1
SS9 Ff
CHAPTER 9
~ = Sin
l
( ~ ) = 41.8
0
15
h = 559 Tan ~ = 559 Tan 41.8
0
h= 500 f1!
From Table A.2, for Mn = 2: P2 = 4.5; T2 =1.687, POi = 0.7209, Mn = 0.5774
'T. 1
PI I Po,
P2 = 12. PI = (4.5) (2,65 x 10
4
) = 11.193 X 10
5
N / m ~
PI
From the 8I}M diagram: 8 = 17.70
_ MOl 05774_
M2  _ ..  =  fITil
sin(f3  e) sin(30 17.7)
From Table A.l, for Ml = 4: Po, = 151.8, To, = 4.2
Pi ~
Po, = Po, Po, PJ = (0.7209)(151.8)(2.65' X 10
4
) = \2.9 x 10
6
N/m4
Po, PI
72
93 Consider an oblique shock. For such a case,
(:o:J
/ A ____ ""
Depends on actual Mach
number behind the shock
M2, not MOl
x
r    ~     " "
Depends on normal
Mach number upstream
of the shock, M .
n,
(1)
In the derivation ofEq, (8.80), we related M2 directly to M, through Eq. (8.78). This holds
only for a nOIII1& shock. Ifwe wish to use Eq. (8.78) for an oblique shock; then both M2
and M, in Eg. (8.78) are replaced by M" and Mn . However, in Eg. (1) above, Po I P2
2 , 2
Depends on M
2
, not M
n2
• Because Eq. (8.78) does not relate M2 to M, for an oblique shock
(it relates Mn to Mn ), then Eg. (8.78) cannot be used for the derivation of Po I PI for an
2 , i
oblique shock. Therefore, the derivation ofEg. (8.80) holds only for a nonnal shock. It can
not be used for an oblique shock, even with MJ replaced by M
n
,. On the other hand,
where P2/Pl and T
2
/T, for an oblique shock depend onlv on M
n
,. Since Po, = e(S2
s
1)1R then
. Po,
clearly Po, depends only on Mn. For these reasons, when using Table A.2 to determine
1
Po,
changes across an obligue shock, using M
n
, ' the total pressure ratio Po, is a valid column,
Po,
but the column giving P O
2
is not valid.
P1
9.4 To CORRECTLY calculate Po, :
Mnl = Ml sii1 ~ = 3 sin 36.8T = 1.8
73
From Table A2, for M = 1.8:
n,
Po, = 0.8127
Po,
From Table A.I, for MI = 3:
Po! =36.73
PI
Po, Po, ~ PI = (0.8127)(36.73)(1) = 129.85 atIlll
 Po, Pl
(b) The INCORRECT calculation of P would be as follows:
0,
From Table A.2, for Mn = 1.8:
I
Po" =4.67
PI
Po Po, PJ = 4.67 (1 atm) = 4.67 atm. Totally VV"RONG
2 Pl .
0,' 29.85  4.67 3· 9),' b 1
(0 error = x 100 = 5 ~ o  a terri ly arge error.
4.67
9.5
From the e ~ ~  M diagram: I ~ = 461
From Table A:2,for M . = 1.8, P2 = 3.613, T2 = 1.532, Mn = 0.6165
n, 1[, "l
PI I
P2 = 1'1.. PI = 3.613 (1 ann) = 13.613 atn1!
PI
74
M2 = Mn, = 0_6165 = 1 1 . 5 4 ~
Sin(p  8) Sine 46  22.5)
9.6 From the El[3M diagram, shock detachment occurs when a> 28_]<,,_ 'W'hen a = El =
28.7°, [3 = 64.5°_
From Table A.2, for Mn = 2.17: E.L = 5.327
, PI
pmax = l2.. PI = 5.327 (1 atm) = 15.327 atlTIl
PI
and the maximum pressure occurs when a = 128.7°1
From the ElI3M diagram: [3 = 48°
M = MJ sin [3 = 3.5 sin 48° = 2.60
n,
From Table A.2: P0
2
= 0.4601: M
n
, = 0.5039,
P o ~
75
M2 = Mn> = 0.5039 = 1.648
Sin(j3  B) Sine 48  30.2)
From Table A.2·, for M2 = 1.648; Po, = 0.876
Po
z
From Table AJ, for M = 3.5: P o ~ = 76.27
Po:>
Po, = Po, Po, Po .. P""' = (0.876)(0.4601)(76.27)(0.5) = 115.37 atIDI
Po, P o ~ Po:>
9.8 From Table AJ, for Ml = 4, POI = 151.8
PI
Hence, Po = Po, PI = 151.8 (1 atm) = 151.8 atm.
I PI
From Table A.2, for Ml = 4: Po, = 0.1388
Po,
P0
2
Po =0.1388(15L8)=2L07atm
I
POI
Loss in total pressure = Po,  P0
2
= 151.8 21.07 = 1130.7 atmj
b)
76
From the 813M diagram,
Mn = MJ sin 13 = 4 sin 38.]0 =2.5
,
From Table A2, for M = 2S Po, = 0.499, Mn = 0.513
", ,
Po,
M2 = M
n
, = 0.513 = 2.21
sin(j3  e) sin(3 8.7  25.3)
From Table A.2, for M2 = 2.21: Po; = 0.6236
Po,
Po, Po Po 99)(
Pc> = ' ' _1 Pl = (0.6236)(0.4 151.8)(1 atm) = 47.24 atm
,
Po, Po, PI '
Loss in total pressure = P<>l  Po, = 151.847.24= il04.6atm!
c)
M,=4
From part (b) above, M2 = 2.21, Po, = 0.499.
. Po,
From the 138M diagram: 132 = 47.3°
77
For the second shock: Mn = M2 sin [32 = 2.21 sin 47.3° = 1.624
1
From Table A.2, for M == 1.624: Po, = 0.8877, M = 0.6625
"z n)
Po,
0.6625
sin(47.3 20)
From Table A.2, for M3 = 1.444: Po"  0.947
Po,
po" = !'2 Po, Po, = (0.947)(0.8877)(0.499)(151.8)
Po .. Po, Po, PI
Po = 63.68 atm
•
Loss in total pressure = Po,  Po. = 151.863.68=188.1 aM
CONCLUSION: To decrease a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds via a shock system, a
series of oblique shocks followed by a nOlTIlal shock yields a smaller total pressure loss than
a nOlTIlal shock by itself. Hence, a system of oblique shocks, followed by a normal shock is a
more efficient means of slowing a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds than a single normal
shock itself.
9.9
0 1
/
! ! ( I
/
I
78
From the 813M diagram, 131 = 34.2°
= (3.2) sin 34.2° = 1.8
From Table A.2,· for M = 1.8: P2 = 3613 12 = 1.532.
n] ~ 'T '
p] .]
M, = 0.6165
'2
M 0.6165
M2 = "2:::: = 2.24
sinCS]  8]) sin(34.2  8.2)
For the Reflected Shock:
From the 813M diagram, for M2 = 2.24 and 8 = 18.2°: 132 = 44°
M == M2 sin r:t2 = 2.24 sin 44° = 1.56
1l.2 l'
From Table A.2Jor M
n
, = 1.56: PJ = 2.673, 13 = 1.361, M
n
, = 0.6809
P2 T1
M3 = M n, = 0.6809 = ~ Note: The fact that M3 and Mn! are
sin(/31  B) sin(44 18.2)
equal is just a coincidence.
<1>.= 132  e = 44 18.2 =\25.8°1
P3 = P3 Pl PI = (2.673)(3.613)(1 atm) = /9.66 atml
P2 PI
79
9.10
7; = G 30"R
/ I
From Table A.3: ForM
l
=2, VI =26.38°
V2 = e + Vj = 23.38° + 26.38° = 49.76°
Hence,
tf';Iz = 3.01
From Table A.l, for M, = 2: Po, = 7.824, To) = = 1.8
Pl Tr
However: P = P and T = T . Thus
01 0,2 0, o;!
pz = .!'..... PI = (7.824)(0.7) = 10.149 atllll
POl PI J6.73
T2 = l To) Ti = (.2.) (1.8)(630) = k05°Rj
T Ir 2.8
0,
= .ll.. = (0.149)(2116) = x 10=4 slug/fi
3
1
P2 Rl; (1716)(405)
Po, = Po, = POt PI = (7.824)(0.7) = 15.477 atilll
PI
80
T
To> = T<'I = ;' TJ = (1.8)(630) = 11134
0
Rj
)
From Table A.3: for MJ = 2, ~ l = 30°
For M2 = 3, /12 = 19.47
Referenced to the upstream direction:
Angle of forward Mach line = /11 = 130
0
1
Angle of rearward Mach line = ~ 2 8 = 19.47  23.3 8° = \3.91
0
1
Note: The rearward Mach line is below the upstream direction for this problem.
9.11 From Table A.1Jor M\ = 1.58: POI = 4.127
PI
Po, = ~ = ~ EL = (4.127) (_1 __ ) = 31.6
P2 P2 PI P2 0.1306
From Table A.1, for Po, = 31.6, M2 = 2.9
P2
From Table A.3, for MJ = 1.58; VI = 14.27, for M2 = 2.9: v2,= 47.79
e = V2  VJ = 47.79  14.27 = ~ 3 . 5 2 1
9.12
8]
From the diagram:
For M, = 3 and 8 = 30.6°. = 53.1 °
Mn =Mjsin
1
P2
T2 Po
From Table A.2, for Mn = 2.4:  = 6.553,  = 2.04, ' = 0.541, Mn = 0.531
IT"
p) 1) Po,
M
M
 n,
2
sin(fJ  8)
05231 =1.37
sin(53.l 30.6)
From Table A3: For M2 = 1.37, V2 = 8.128
V3 = 8.128 + 30.6 = 38.73°
From Table A3: For V3 = 38.73°, M3 =
. PD
From Table AI: For Mj = 3, ' = 36.73. _I = 2.8
PI . 1;
For M3 = 2.48,: Po, = 16.56, To, = 2.23
PJ T3
Clearly, P3 * Ph T3 * T\, and l'vh * M. Why? Because there is an entropy increase across the
shock wave, which permanently alters the thermodynamic state of the original flow, even
after it is brought back to its original direction.
. _J,....
82
9.13
,
/
(a) For MJ = 2.6 and 8 = 5°,13 = 26.5°
M", = Mt sin /3 = 2.6 sin 26.5° = 1.16
From Table A2: P
J
= 1.403
Pl
From Table AI, for MJ = 2.6: Po, = 19,95
PI
From Table A3, for MI = 2.6: VI = 41.4F
V2 = V1 + e = 41.41 + 5° = 46.41
0
+ M2 = 2.83
FromTableA1,forM
2
=2.83: POl =28.4
P2
pz = pz Po, POI = (0.0352)(1)(19.95) = 0.7022
PI Po, POI PI
83
. M2
r PI ,
2
2 ~ ..
c
t
= 2 (1.403  0.7022) cos 5° = ~
(1.4)(2.6)
2 (P3 P.,) . sin a sin 5° 10 9\
Cd = 7 ~  ~  sm a = c(  = 0.148  =.012
y Ml P2 PI cosa cos5°
M
n
, = MJ sin ~ = 2.6 sin 35.9° = 1.525
From Table A.2: P3 = 2.529
PI
From Table A.1, for MJ = 2.6: Po, = 19.95
PI
From Table A3, for MI = 2.6: VI = 41.41 °
From Table AI, for M2 = 337: Po, = 63.33
P2
P
2
= P2 P0
2
Po, = (_1_1 (1)(19.95)=0315
PI Po, Pt)l Pt 63.33)
2 (P3 P2) 2 (2.529 _ 0315) cos 150 = ~
c£ = y M ~ Pt Pt cos a. = (1.4)(2.6)2
sin a sinl5° ~
Cd = C,  = 0.452 = l':02!(
, cosa cos! So
M
o
, =" M
J
sin ~ = 2.6 sin 59.3° = 2.24
84
9.14
P
3
=5.687, Po, =19.95,vJ=4L41
0
PI PI
Po, = 275.25
P2
P2 = ~ POl PO, = ( 1 ) (1)(19.95) = 0.0725
PI Po, Po, PI 275.25
c  2 (P3 P2) cos ex  2 (5.687  0.0725) = m
l  Y M ~ ;;  (1.4)(2.6)2
85
Forregion 2:
Vl = VI + e = 49.76° + 5° = 54.76° + Ml = 327
ForM
t
=3: Po, =36.73:
Pl
For M2 = 3.27, POl = 54.76
P2
Forregion 3:
v}. = Vl + e = 54.76° + 20° = 74.76° 7 M3 = 4.78
FOT M3 = 4.78: Po} = 407.83
P3
Forregion 4:
Thus,
Mn =MJ sin ~ =3 sin 44 =2.08
1
P
4
=.4.881, M = 0.5643, and Po, = 0.6835
PI n, Po,
Mn 05643
M4 = ., =.. .. = 1.733.
sincp  8) sine 44  25)
Vs = 18.69, Po, = 5.165
P4
For region 5:
V5 = V4 + e = 18.69° + 20° = 38.69° 7 Ms = 2.48
86
Po, = 16_56
Ps
Pressure ratios
,
P2 = P2 Po, Po, = (_1_) (1)(36.73) = 0.6707
PI Po, Po, PI 54.76
P4 = 4.881
PI
Ps = Ps Po, Po, ~ = (_1_) (1)(0.6835)(36.73) = 1.516
Pl Po, Po. Po, PI 16.56
Let f = length of each face of the diamond wedge.
L' = P4 .e cos 25
0
+ ps .e cos 5°  P2 1! cos 50  P3 cos 25°
2 f.
c
e
=  [(4.881 0.09) cos 25
0
+ (1.516  0.6707) cos 5°]
(1.4)(3)2 C
jJ
Cf= 0.823 =.
c
However,
. c/2 = cos 100 !.. _ 1 = 0.5077
f c 2 cos 10
0
cr = (0.823)(0.5077) = 10.418!
87
D' = P4 .f sin 25° + ps .f sin 5°  P2 .€ sin 5°  P3 .f SiD 25°
Cd = 2 2!:... [(4.881 0.09) sin 25° + (1.516  0.6707) sin 5°]
(lA)(3) C
f
Cd = 0.333  = 0.333 (0.5077) =
c
9.15 The maximum expansion would correspond to M2 00. From Eq. (9A2) in the text,
=
tan
y 1
y 1 ( 2) }
1 tan 1
y + 11 2
jY+l 1C 1C Jr "0
=     (  1)  =2.277 rad = 1.J0.45
2 2 yl 2
Since, for Ml = 1, VI = 0, then
e = Vr VI = 130.45  0 = l13oA501
max
H,=I
.... ::\
U /30. "IS •
88
9.16 F or the cylinder, with Cd based on frontal area,
4
(D')cyl = q"" S Cd = qoo d(1 )/(4/3) = "3 (d) q",
For the dimensional wedge airfoil, referring to Figure 9.27.
Hence,
4
3(d) qoo
(P2 pJ t
However, t = d and q", = L PI MI2
2
Thus,
2 M2
(D')cyl 3 2,1
r I
.J
(D'L
(P2 _ P3)

PI PI
To calculate P2/P]' we have, for MJ = 5 and e = 5°,13 = 15.10.
Mn,l = Ml sin 13 = 5 sin (l5.P) = 1.303
From Appendix B, for Mn,l = 1.302, P2 = 1.805. Also,
PI
M
 MIt ,2
2
sin(p  B)
0.786 = 4.48.
sin(151 5)
To calculate P3 , the flow is expanded through an angle of1 0° .. Table C, for M2 =
PI
4.48, vi = 71.83 (nearest entry).
V3 = V2 + e = 71.83 + 10= 81.38
0
Hence, M3 = 5.6 (nearest entry)
89
From Appendix A: For Ml = 5, Po, = 529.1
PJ
For M3 = 5.6, Po, = 1037
PJ
F
Po
rom Appendix B: For M = 1.303, = 0.9794
n,
POI
Thus,
P3 = P3 Po, PO, = (_1_) (1)(0.9794)(529.1) = 0.5
PI Po, Po, Po, PI 1037
Hence,
2 2 2 2
(D') y Ml (L4)(5)
. ,cyt = 3 = 3 =
(D )w (P2 _ P3) (1.805  0.5)
PI Pl
Note: TIlls is why we try to avoid blunt leading edges on supersonic vehicles. (However, at
hypersonic speeds, blunt leading edges are necessary to reduce the aerodynamic heating.)
9.17 The supersonic flow over a flat plate at a given angle of attack in a freestream with a
given Mach number, Mao, is sketched below.
®
.r ..... •
·CL )!>o .!:¥
.  
90
b
The flow direction downstream of the leading edge is given by line abo The flow direction is
below the horizontal '(below the direction ofM",,) because lift is produced on the flat plate,
and due to overall momentum considerations, the downstream flow must be inc11ned slightly
downward. Also, line ab is a slip line; the entropy in region 4 is different than in region 5
because the flows over the top and bottom of the plate have gone through shock waves of
different strengths. The boundary condition that must hold across the slip line is constant
pressure, i.e., P4 = P5. It is tIus boundary condition that fixes the strengths of the expansion
wave and the shock wave at the trailing edge.
To calculate the trailing edge shock and expansion waves, and the flow direction
dov·mstream, Use the following iterative approach:
1. Assume a value for $_
2. Calculate the strength of the trailing edge shock for the local deflection angle (a
$). This gives, among other quantities, a value ofp4
3. Calculate the strength ofthe t ~ a i l i n g edge expansion wave for a local expansion
angle of (a$). This gives a value for P5.
4_ Compare P4 and ps from steps 3 and 4. If they are different, assume a new value
of$. '
5. Repeat steps 24 until P4 = P5. When this condition is satisfied, the iteration has
converged
c
and the ti:ailing edge flow is now determined.
91

CHAPTER 10
10.1 From Table A.l, for AJA* = 2.193, !Me = 2.31
Po, = 12.5, To. = 2.058.
Pe To
For isentropic flow, To = constant and po = constant.
P
=p = and T =T = 1520°81
Dc: 0 01:' 0
p" = po = (_1_) (5 atm) = 10.4 atrnj
Po. 125
pe = = (OA )(2116) = 10.00195 slug/fi31
RTe (1716)(252.7) 
ae = J;RTe = .J(1.4)(1716)(252.7) = 7792 ftlsee
Ue = Me a" = (2.3)(779.2) = 11792
102 Po = 1 = 3.182. From Table A.I, we see that !Me = 1.4t, and Ae/A* =11.1151.
Po 0.3143
10.3 Ahead oftbe nOIDlal shock in front of the Pitot
Po, = Po = 2.02 x 10
5
N/m
2
Po, = 8.92 X 10
4
= 0.4416
P
2.02 x lOS
0,
92
From Table A.2: Me = 2.65
From Table AI: AelA* =\3.0361
lOA
'" P (5)(2116) slug
m = p*u*A*' po= _0 = = 0.01186,
> RTo (1716)(520) ft'
*
p* = L po = (0.634)(0.01186) = 0.007519 slug/£f
Po
T*
T* =  To = (0.833)(520) = 433.2
D
R
To
u* = a* = .J(1.4)(1716)(4332) = 1020 ftlsec
• ( 4 ) slug
m=p*u*A*=(0.007519)(1020) _. =0.213
 144 sec
'"
105 m = p*u*A*
Hence,
. *
u* = .J;fZT* and p* = _P
RT*
• P* *A*
ill =  A * .J;fZT * = P 'r
RT* RT* "1/1
Since, M* = I, then
To = 1 + r  1 M*2 = r + 1
T* 2 . 2
. ( I)YJ(;>'1)
Po r+
= 
P* 2
Thus,
93
Of,
m= L
A
* Y
· * (+ 1)!(r+
1
)I2
C7
1)
R 2 Jf:
• _ PoA * r 2
m,I 
( )
(r·,!)/(rl)
K V
R
r+l
10.6 po = 5 atm = 5(2116) = 10580 Ib/ft2
A * = 41144 = 0.02778 fi
= (1.4) = 0.213 slug
J 520 (1716) 2.4 sec
10.7
94
which is the same as obtained in
Problem 10.4
First, check to see if the flow is sonic at the throat.
E£. = = 1.056
P
e
0.947
From Table A., for & = 1.056: Me = 0.28 and Ae/A* = 2.166
P.
Since Ae = 1.616 < A" = 2.166, then At > A *. The throat size is larger than that for sonic
At A*
flow, hence the throat Mach number, Mb is subsonic.
A A A 1
_t = _I _e = __ (2.166)= 1.34
A * A" A * 1.616
From Table AI, for At = 1.34; 1M! = 0.5b Po = 1.186
A* P
t
Pt = II P" = (_1_) (1.056)(0.947) = 10.843 atUlj
P" p" 1.186
1 0.8 Note: The equation for ill given:in Problem 10..5 can not be used here because the
flow is not choked, i.e., the throat Mach number is not sonic .
•
ill =PeAeu"
P . T.
From Table A.l, for _0 = 1.056: Me = 0.28, = 1.016
P
e
Te
Te = To/1.016 = 288/1.016 = 283..5°K
. = = (0.947)(1.01 X 10
5
) = 1.176 k 1m
3
pe RTe (287)(283.5) g
.,,... .
. 3.: = = ..J(1.4)(287)(283.5) = 337.5 m/sec
lie = Me a
e
:=0 (0.28)(337.5) = 94.5 m/sec
95
Ae = At (:J "" (0.3)(1.616) = 0.4848 m
2
; = PeAeue = (1.176)(0.4848)(945) = ~ 3 . 8 8 kg/seq
10.9 (a) Po = _1_ = L064.
P. 0.94
From Table AI: Me = 03 and AcfA* = 2.035. Al ~ A. ",0. (_1_) (2.035) = 1.33.
A * A. A * 153
Since At > A *, then the flow is completely subsonic. No shock wave exists. Hence, from
Table A.l,for Pc> = 1.064, If4 = 0.31.
Pe
(b) Po = _1_ = 1.129.
Pc 0.886
From Table AI, fOT Po = 1.129: Me=0,42 and Ae =1.539.
Pe A *
A A A (1)
_,I = _I _" = _ (1.529) = 0.999"" LO.
A * A" A * 1.53
Hence, At = A * , and the flow is precisely sonic at the throat It is subsonic everywhere else.
Hence, from the above IMe = 0.421.
(c) From the above results, clearly whenpe is reduced below 0.866 atm, some flow
will occur at the throat, and the nozzle will be choked. Since pe = 0.75 atm is far above the
supersonic exit pressure, we suspect that a normal shock wave exists within the nozzle. Note
that, if we run the same calculation as in parts (a) and (b) above, we find:
Po = (_1_) = 1.333.
Pe 0.75
From Table AI, for Po = 1.333, we have
Pe
Ae = 1.127
A*
96
At = At Ac = (_1_1 (1.127) = 0.7366. Since it is impossible for At < A *, then
A * Ae A * 153)
clearly the flow can not be completely isentropic. There must be a shock wave inside the
nozzle, with a consequent change in both po and A * across the shock. Hence, the above
calculation is meaningless. Instead, set up the following trialanderror process as follows:
Assume a normal shock exists inside the nozzle, say at a location where A
2
!A
t
=
1.024. Let:
Al * = sonic throat area for the flow ahead of the shock.
A2* = sonic thIoat area for the flow behind the shock.
P
= total pressure for the flow ahead of shock.
0,
Po = total pressure for the flow behind shock.
,
F/OUf
.,..
I
A..r
Shock
..
Flow w/if; F/6W will>
Note that POi < PDt
which comes from the shock wave theory discussed in the text.
Key equation:
97
To :frod the values of the ratios in Eq. (1):
From TableA.I for A2/AJ* = 1.204: MJ = 1.54
. Po
From Table A.2 for MJ = 154: M2 = 0.6874, ' = 0.9166
Po,
FromTableA.l,forM
2
=0.6874: A2 =1.1018
A*
A ~ A" At Az ( 1 )
 =  =(1.53)  (1.1018)= 1.4
A
z
* A, A
z
A2 * 1204
F
A Po
rom Table A.I, for ~ = 1.4: Me = 0.47, ' = 1.163
A2 Pc
Retuming to Eq. (1):
pe = Pc Po, Po = ( _ 1 ~ ) (0.9166)(1 atm) = 0.788 atm.
POl Po, ' 1163
(1)
This is slightly higher than the given pe = 0.75. Hence, move the shock wave slightly
dOVvnstream.
From Table AI: Ml = 1.66
. Po
From Table A.I, for Ml = 1.66: _, = 0.872, M2 = 0.6512
Po,
A .. 
From Table AI, for M2 = 0.6512: _2_ = 1.1356
A *
2
From Table AI, for Ae = 1.335: Me = 0.50, Po, = 1.1862
A2 * Po
From Eq. (1):
pe = .EL Po, Po = (_1_) (0.872)(1 atm) = 0.735 atm.
Po, POI ' 1.1862
Interpolate: . A2 = 1.301 _ (1.301 _ 1.204) 0.75  0.735 = 1.274
A, 0.788 0.735
Thus, Assume A2/Ar = 1.274
From Table AI: MJ = 1.63
From Table A2: M2 = 0.6596, Po, = 0.8838
POI
A 
From Table AJ: ~ = 1.1265
A *
2
~ = Ae ~ A2 == 0.
53
)(_1_) (1.1265) = 1.353
A2 * At A2 A2 * 1.274
Po
From Table A 1: Me = 0.49, ' = 1.178
P.
P
Po ( 1 '\ 
pc = _e ' Po = I (0.8838)(1 atm) = 0.75 atm
Po,, Po, ' 1.178/
Hence, pe calculated agrees \vith pe given. Thus,
(d)
Po, = I atm = 6.49 .. 
P
e
0.154 atm
From Table AJ: A. = 1.53. which is precisely the given area ratio of the nozzle. Hence.
A* . .
for this case, we have a completely isentropic expansion, where,
99
10.10 From the diagram, for e = 20° and = 41.8°, we have M, = 2.6. From Table
A.I,
A*
. A
From TabJe A. I. for _e = 6.79, Me = 3.5
 A*
From Table for Me = 3.5: Po, = 0.2129
Po,
P
= P = l( 1.) (1.448) = 16.8 atIll/
0, Po 0, 0.2129
. .
Po To
10.12 From Table AJ, for Me = 2.8: " = 27.14, = 2.568
P
e
Te
At standard sea level: P = 2116 Ib/ft2, T = 519°R
p,,= Po.
Pc
= 57430 = 0.251 slu Ift3
po RTo (1716)(1333) g
p* = (0.6339)(0.0251) = 0.0159 slug!ft?
T* = 0.833 (1333) = 11] OaR
a* = .J;RT* = .J(1.4)(1716)(1110) = 1633 ftlsec=u*
]00
A * = 1 =\00385 fel
I P *u * (0.0159)(1633)
From Table AI: AJA * = 3.5
Ae = Ao A* = (3.5)(0.0385) = \0.1348 ft
2
1
A*
F E (10 38)
' At! = A2 * = Po,
rom q. . In text:
A" A] * PO
z
F T bi A 2
J:: M 2 8 Po, = 0.3895
rom a e .: lor e = . :
10.13 m = p*u*A*
Also,R=RlM = 8314 = 519.6
joule
16 kg K
(1)
*=_ = ____ 0 = _ ·0 =3319xIO
7
P
* (2 p ( 2) 0\ p
P Po Po r + 1 RTo 22 (519.6)(3600)' po
T* = T * T = (_2_) (3600) = 3273 K
T 0 +1
o y
u* = a* = = .j(l2)(519.6X3273) = 1428.6 m/sec
.
, . kg
Hence, from Eq. 0), wIth m = 287.2 ,
sec
287.2 = (3.319 x 10
7
Po)(1428.6)(0.2)
or,
101
or,
po = 3.029 x 1 ~ 6 = 130 atIlll
1.01 x 10
10.14 We assume the flow velocity is low at the diffuser exit; hence the total pressure at the
exit is 1 atm. From Appendix B, for M = 3, Poz = 0.3283.
11 D = PB I P" = 1.2
Po,/p",
Po,
PB = 1.2 p", = 1.2 (0.3283) = 0.394
P" Po,
po = .....EL = _1_ = 12.54 atIllj
0394 0.394
102
CHAPTER 11
11.1
,,
 140 2"'..J
1

M
_y· (2 )
  1t e sm nx
ae = = .J(IA)(I716)(519) = 1116.6 ftlsec
M", = V", = 700 = 0.6269
aDO 1116.6
ThUs, at (x,y) = (0.2, 0.2)
u= 700 + 2.7r(70) e
2
'J(O.779)(02) cos [27[(.2)] = 765.6 ftlsec
0.779
v = 140 7t e
21t
(.779)(2} sin [27t(.2)] == 157.2 ftlsec
T
From Table A.I, for Moo = 0,6269, = 1.079
T""
To = 1.079 = 0.079 (519) = 560
0
R
ao = = .j(1A)(1716)(560) = 1160 ftlsec
a
2
= a; + y :1 (V2) = 1.345 x 10
6
' (.2)(781.6)2 = 1.223 x 10
6
( ft '12
2 ..
a = 1106 ftlsec
M= V = 781.6 =10.7067t
a 1106
103
From Table AI, for M = 0.6269: E£. = 1.3065, To = 1.079
p", To:>
For M = 0.7067 = Po = 1.400, T., = 1.101
P T
P = £ poo = (...!...) (1.3065)(1 atrn) = 10.933 at1l1l
Po p"" 1.4
11.2 The results of Fig. 4.5 are for lowspeed, incompressible flow. Hence, from Fig. 4.5,
at a=5°,ata=5°,
c = c'o = 0.75 = 10.9381
f
11.3
C 054
(b) C
p
= P. = ",.._=_'
. ( M2 J C 08 46 [ 0.3364
'1 M2 + "" . 1 + .
" '" 2 1+0.8146 2
C
p
= Fo.70631
054
C == .
p 0.8146+ [0.3364(1.067) /1.6292](054)
104

C
p
= 10.77631
Note the differences: There is a 17% discrepancy between the three compressibility
corrections. Of the three, experience has shown the KannanTsien rule to be more accurate.
11.4 For the pressure coefficient on the airfoil:
03 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.43 0.447 0.473 0513 0.574 0.683
105
1,0
" Pro/Jdll
0.4
0 .. 2
,
O.S O.fn 0.7
106
11.5 "When M = Mer, then p at the minimum pressure point is clearly
l 0=: Per = = (0.528)(1.524) = 10.8051
p", P", Po P""
.At r.A ,
Evaluated Evaluated
at M =1 at M = 0.8
11.6 From Appendix A;
F M 0 5 = 1.186 or ",= • ,
p.,
For M = 0.86, p" = 1.621
P
. 2 (p )
r M:, p", 1
L= p" Ip"" = L186 = 0.7316
p", p"/p 1.621
c = 2 =(0.73161)= IT531
p (1.4)(05)2
Check: Using Eq. (11.58)
(
r 1 l
l+M
2 2 '"
C = 1
p r I+Y;IM' j
= 2 1 + 02(05) _ 1 = 1.53
[(
2 )'·;5 ]
(L4)(0.5i 1 + 02(0.86i t:::D]
It checks!
107
11.7 First, calculate Cp,o at point A from the information in Figure 11.5(a). The actual
pressure coefficient is
where
PA = PA
p"" Po p",
From Appendix A (interpolating between entries for more accuracy for this problem);
Thus,
= 1.064
p",
ForMA = 0.435: .& = 1.139
PA
c = 2 (1.064 1) = _ 1.045
p,A (1.4)(0.3)2 1.139
From the PrandtlGlauert rule,
Cp,o=Cp,A =0.9969
For the case of part (c) where Moc,= 0.61, again using the PrandtIGlauert rule,
c  Cp,o = 0,9969 = _ 1.258
P.A  M:, (0.61/
To find the local Mach number, Ma, which corresponds to this value of Cp,A, note that
or,
108
~ = r M ~ C p , A + 1 = (1.4)(0.61)2(1.258) + 1 = 0.6723
p", 2 2
However,
Thus,
Hence,
PA = PA ~ where ~ forM"" = 0.61 is 1.286
p", Po p", p",
PA = PA (Poo == 0.6723 = 0523
Po Po (p", 1.286
~ = 1.912.
PA
. From Appendix A, for ~ = 1.912, MA = ILoll
PA
This is close enough. Hence, given the numbers in Figure 1 L5(a), the numbers in Figure
11.15( c) m·e consistent with the laws of physics"
11.8 There is a threedimensional relieving effect for the flow over a sphere. The flow over
a cylinder is twodimensional in order to get out of the way of the cylinder, the flow can
move only upwards or downwards. This means it must greatly accelerate to get out. of the
way of the cylinder. In contrast, the flow over a sphere is threedimensional it can move
not only upward or downward but also sideways. This extra degree of freedom means that
the flow does not have to speed up so much in flowing over the sphere. Hence, the
freestream Mach number of the sphere is higher in order to achieve sonic flow on the sphere
 i.e., the critical Mach number is higher.
109
CHAPTER 12
12.1 Consider a = 50 = 0.0873 rad.
c = 4a = 4(0.0873)= 10.14551
t 1 _} .
From exact theory (prob. 9.13): c{ = 0.148
0/  0.148  0.1455 100  1 6901'
/0 error  . x . /0
0.148
From exact theory (prob. 9.13): Cd = 0.0129
01'  0.0129  0.0127 100  1 5301
/0 error  x  _ /0
0.0129
(b) a = 15
0
= 0.2618 rad
4a
c
l
=
From exact theory (Prob. 9.13): c
f
= 0.452
OJ:  0.452  0.426 100  3 4701'
/0 error  . x . /0
0.452
Cd = c, a = (0.436)(0.2618) = 0.114
From exact theory (Prob, 9.13): Cd = 0.121
01' OJ 21 0.114 100  5 70/ 
/0 error x . 10
0.121
(c) a = 30
0
= 0.5236 rad
llO
c, = 4a = 4(0.5236) = &.8731
. 1 1
From exact theory (Prob. 9.13): c, = 1.19
0,1  1.19 0.873 100  267°/
/0 error  x . /0
1.19
Cd = c{ ex. = (0.873)(0.5236) = 10.457\
From exact theory (prob. 9.13): Cd = 0.687
% error = 0.687  0.457 33.5%
0.687
Conclusion: At low u, linear theory is reasonably accurate. However, its accuracy
deteriorates rapidly at high u. This is no surprise; we do not expect linear theory to hold for
large perturbations. It appears that linear theory is reasonable to at least 5°, and that it is
acceptable as high as 15°. At 30° it is unacceptable. Keep in mind that the above comments
pertain to the lift and wave drag coefficients only. They say nothing about the accuracy of
the pressure distributions themselves.
12.2
11]
or,
(a)
C = pp",
pp",
= 2 (ll)
p
r M:, p",
q"" r M2
"2
P
'" '"
l=
r M! C
p
+ 1
p", 2
C =+ 28
28 28
=+ =±
p 
 J (2.6)1 1
2.4
C
p
= ± 0.83339
l = r M:, C
p
+ 1 = ± (1.4)(2.6)2 (0.8333) + 1
2 2
L = ±3.9439 + 1
Po>
Hence: Examining the physical picture: recalling ex = 5° = 0.873 rad.
Q = (.0873) + 1 =
Po>
From exact theory (prbb. 9.13): P1 = 0.7022
p",
OJ'  0.7022 0.6558 100  6 60J'
/0 error  x . /0
0.7022
P3 + 3.9438 + 1 == 3.943 (.0873) + 1 = 11.3441
p",
p
From exact theory (Prob. 9.13): _J = 1.403
. 'p",
0/  1.403 1344 00  4 ">0/
/0 error  xl  .£/0
1.403
II2
(b) For a. = 15° = 0.2618 rad:
P2 = 3.9438 + 1 = 3.943 (.2618) + 1 = 0.0322 (physically impossible)
Poo
The result from exact theory (prob. 9.13) is P2 = 0.315
p",
l2.. = 3.9438 + 1 = 3.943 (.2618) + 1 = ~
p..,
From exact theory (prob. 9.13): P3 = 2.529
p",
0/  2529  2.032 100 ...:. 19 70/
/0 errOf x . /0
2529
(c) Fora.=30
o
=O.5236rad
P2 = 3.9438 + 1 = 3.943 (0.5236) + 1 = 1.064 (physically impossible)
Po>
The result from exact theory (prob. 9.13) is P2 = 0.0725
Pro
P3 = 3.9438 + 1 = 3.943 (0.5236) + 1 = ~ . 0 6 5 1
p",
From exact theory (Prob. 9.13): Ps 5.687
p",
0/ ~ 5.687  3.065 100  460/
/0 error ~ x ~ /0
5.687
. _r""'
Conclusions: (1) Pressures predicted by linear theory rapidly become inaccurate as Cf..
mcreases. (2) Pressures predicted by linear theory are reaSonable only at low values of a.,
say below 5°. (3) At each value of Cf.., the % error is much greater for pressure than for lift
and wave drag coefficients. (See Prob. 12.1). Hence, linear theory works better for c
t
and
Cd than it does for p. What happens. is that the inaccuracies in p on the top and bottom
surfaces tend to compensate, yielding a more accurate aerodynanric force coefficient.
113
12.3
p
C =+ 20 =±0.70718
p  ~ ( 3 ) 2 _ 1
l= ± (1.4)(3)2 (0.7071)0 + 1
p", 2
...E... = ± 4.4558 + 1
p",
M, =3
Surface 2: (1 = 50 = 0.08727 rad.
P2 = 4.455 (.08727) + 1 = 0.6112
p""
Surface 3: 8 = 25° = 0.4663 rad
P3 = 4.455 (.4363) + 1 = 0.9439
p",
SUrface 4: e ~ 2SO = 0.4363 fad
.h = 4.455 (.4363) + I = 2.944
p., .
114
Note: Although a negative pressure is
not physically possible, in order to
calculate the net force, we must carry
it as suth,
Surface 5: e = 5° = 0.08727 rad
P5 = 4.455 (.08727) + 1 =1.3888
p",
2 e
c
t
=  [(2.944 + 0.9439) cos 25° + (1.3888  0.6112) cos 5°]
(1.4)(3)2 C
l l
C
1
= 0.682 . However
7
 = 0.5077 (From Prob. 9.14)
c C
C
c
= (0_682)C5077) = 10.3461
2
Cd = (.5077) [(2.944 + 0.9439) sin 25° + (1.3888  0.6112) sin 5°]
(1.4)(3)2
Cd = 1 0 . 1 0 8 ~
Comparison
Exact (prob. 9.14) Linear Theory % Error
0.418 0.346 17.2%
0.169 0.1089
35.6%
115
CHAPTER 13
13.1
/
(°
1
0 .. 0"84)
/
/
........ /
"' , /
3"0·
f "
/ "
2 /
0)
At point 1:
al = /rRTJ =.J (1.4 )(287)(288) = 340 m/sec
e
 T 1 VI  T 1 (232.6)._ 200
1 an  an 
u
1
639
K =9+v=20+26.38=46.38°
At point 2:
a2 = .,JjRT
2
= .J(1.4)(287)(288) = 340 mlsec
V
2
= 680 mlsec
116
At point 3:
V3 ='12 + (K+)2) = Y2 (46_38 26.38) = 36.38°
To obtain the other flow variables at point 3, note that:
Po, =7.824 and Po, = 14.62
P3 = Po, Po, Pl = (_1_) (1)(7.824)(1 = 10.535 atml
Po, Po, Pl 14.62
a3 = = .J0.4)(287)(240.9) = 211.1 mlsec
V3 = M3a3.= 2.4 (31 L1) = 746.6 mlsec
U3 = V3 cos 8
3
= 746.6 coS 10° = 1735.3 mJseC]
V3 = V3 sin 8
3
= 746.6 sin 10° = 1129.6 mlseq
To locate point 3:
Along the C Characteristic:
117
~ ~ = Tan (eave + flave) = Tan (50 + 27.31
0
) = 0.6324
Thus:
y = 0.6324 X 0.00765 (1)
Along the C characteristic:
).lave = Y2 (flJ + ).l3) = 112 (30 + 24.62) = 27.31
0
dy
 = Tan (eave  !lave) = Tan (15
0
 27.31°) = 0.2182
dx
y = 0.2182 X + 0.0684
Point 3 lies at the intersection of Eqs. (1) and (2)
y = 0.6324 x 0.00765
y == 0.2182 x + 0.0684
Solving simultaneously: x = 0.0894
y=0.0489
Thus: kX3, Y3) = (0.0894, 0.0489j
118
(2)
CHAPTER 14
14.1
(a) Using straight Newtonian theory:
c = 2 sin
2
5° = 0.0152
p,
C =0
p,
C
f
= 0.0152 cos 5° = ©.01511
Cd = 0.0152 sin 5° = 10.001321
C
t
= 0.1340 cos 15° = r.1291
119
C
t
= 0.5 cos 30
0
= ©.4331
Cd = 05 sin 35
0
= 10251
(b) Using modified Newtonian:
C
Prnn;o;:
Fora=15°
For CL = 150
For a= 30
0
= pop", = 2 2 (Po 1)
r M2 r Moo p",
2 <oPa>
2
= (9.1811) = 1.729 .
(lA)(2.6}2
C
f
= 0.4323 cos 30
0
= i O . 3 7 ~
120
Comparison:
Mod.
Exact C
t
NeVvtonian NeVvionian
a; (prob.9.13)
% error C
c
% error
5° 0.148 90 0.0131 91
15° 0.452 0.129 71 0.1119 75.2
30° 1.19 0.433 63.6 0.374 68.6
Mod.
Exact Cd Newtonian Newtoniari
a; 9.13) c
t
% error
Cd
% error
5° 0.0129 0.00132 90 0.00114 91
15° 0.121 0.0347 71 0.03 75.2
30° 0.687 0.25 63.6 0.216 68.6
Conclusion: Newtonian theory gives terrible results for a flat plate a moderate a at low
Supersonic Mach numbers.
14.2
..
11, =20
From theory:
121
Cd = 0.234 sin a. = [QID
From shockexpansion theory:
On the top surface: V2 = v] + 9 = 116.2 + 20 = 136.20
TIlls is beyond the maximum expansion angle. Hence, a «void" exists on the top surface,
i.e., P2 = o.
On the bottom surface: From the 8  ~  M diagram,
Mn = Ml sin ~ = 20 sin 24.9
0
= 8.4
J
h =82.15
PI
From Prob. 9.13:
and
c, = 22 (_P_3 __ P_2) cos a.
. r Mao PI PI
sin a
cosa
2 . 0
c = . 2 (82.15  0) cos 20
0
= .2757
t (1.4)(20)
For c
f
: % error = 0.2757 0.220 = 20% ..
0.2757
% error = 0.1 00 0.08 = 20%
0.10
Note: Newtonian theory works much better for blunt bodies, i.e., for large values of S.
122
143
(a) Use Eq. (14.7) to estimate the pressure at point A. We first need to obtain
C
P3m
ax., which is a function ofpo,2/p",. From Appendix B for Mao = 20, Po,2/p", = 0.5155 x
10 . Hence,
2 (Po 2) 2
Cp,max = 2 ' 1 = 2 (5153 1) = 1.837
r Moo p"" . (1.4)(20)
From Eq. (14.7), at point A on the surface
Since
C  2 (PA 1)
p" Y M ~ Po>
then,
P A = y M! C
p
" + 1 = (1.4)(20)2 (0.2149) + 1 = 61.17
Po> 2 2
Hence,
PA = 6l.17 (3.06) = 1187.21b/ft'4
(b) The stagnation tempera tare is fotind from Eq. (8.40)
To = 1 + Y 1 M",2 = 1 + 0.2 (20l = 81
To> 2
Assuming an isentropic flow from the stagnation pomt to point A,
123
P A = "p,A,,I,p_«>_ = ( f'
Po,2 Po,2
/
p",
or,
yJ
TA = (61.17)r = (0.1187)0.2857 = 0.5439
To 5155
(please note. Relative to our discussion in Problems 8.1 7 and 8.18, we know this
estimate of T A to be too large because we are not taking into account the effect of
chemically reacting flow.)
(c) At point A, for an isentropic flow, pOoA = pO,2
MA2 = (1.8385 1) _2_ = (0.8385)(5) = 4.1925
!MA =2.051
(d) aA = = =7275 ft/sec
VA = aA MA = (7275)(2.05) = 11.49 x 1 0
4
Note: Once again, this estimate of V A is too high because T
A
, hence aA, is too high.
Also note: The purpose of this problem is to illustrate that, from the Newtonian sine
squared law for pressure variations, the other· flow field quantities can also be obtained.
124
CHAPTER 15
15.1
aC>
/ /
c.:: /,
rt.. rt.. ...
/ / /
f
U:: !Ae
I
,
!
I
7
)
IU=O
/' " x ./
,
7
,7
7
/ /
,
(a) Since the plates are infinite in length, u = u(y) only_ Also, v = 0, i.e., the flow is
in the xdirection only. The governing equation is Eq. (15.l8a), which reduces to the
following u = uCy), v = 0 and p = const.
d du
0=  (f.L)
dy dy
Integrating:
du
tL  =const=c}
dy
At y = 0, u = 0: C2 = 0
At Y = h, u = Ue: tLUe = c1h
Thus:
jiUe
c}=
h
':'
The velocity variation is linear between the plates.
(b) du ==
dy h
125
du _ U
e
'(=1111
dy h
~ = ( ~ ) 3 / 2 T.,+1l0 =( 320 )312 288.16+110 =1.084
fio To T+ll0 288.16 320+110
11 = 1.084 )lo = 1.084 (1.7894 x 10
5
) = 1.94 x 10
5
'( = (1.94 x 10
5
) ( 30 ) = 15.82 x 10
2
N/m"j
0.01
kg
ill sec
The shear stress is constant, and hence is the same on the top and bottom walls.
15.2
u= uCy), v = 0, p = p(x)
Jl du = _ (d
P
) Y + c)
dy dx
At Y = 0, U = o. Thus C2 = 0
126
At y = h, u = O. Thus,
0= (d
P
) h
2
+ 2 h
dx 2j1 f1
1 (d
P
) 2
u=  (hyy)
2j.l dx
du _ (dP) y (dPI h
dy   dx j1 + dxJ 2f1
du
On the bottom plate, y = 0: 1: =)l dy
The velocity profile is parabolic.
1: = [_(d
P
) + (d
P
) J)l = h (d
P
)
dx j.l dx 2Jl 2 dx
On the top plate, y = h: "[ =)l ( du) since dy is negative, i.e., the distance away the top
dy
plate is in the downward (negative clirection)
(
d
P
) h (d
P
) h
T=)l[+  ]
dx f1 dx 2j.l
For both the top and bottom waIls,
Shear s1;ress varies linearly with the magnitude of the pressure gradient.
Note: Due to the of chapters 16, 17, and 18, no hOfnework problems are
required.
127
~                                                   .
CHAPTER 19
19.1 1 milhr= 0.4471 mlsec
v = (141 mi)(0.4471 m/ sec] = 63.04 m/sec
'" hr 1 uri/hr
R
= p." V",c _ (1.23)(63.04)(1.6) = 6 9'" 106
e
c
 _ . .;) x
jl"" 1.7894 x 1 O  ~
(a) Cf = 1.328 = 1.328. = 5.04 x 10.
4
)Re
c
..)6.93 x 10
6
.
Noting that drag exists on both the bottom and top smfaces, we have
D
f
= 2 q", S Cf= 2(Y2)(1.23)(63.04i(9.75)(1.6)(5.04 X 104) = 138.4 NJ
(b) C
f
= 0.074 ' 0.074 = 3.17 x 10
3
Re
c
1/5  (6.93x1 0
6
) li5
Note that tmbulent skin friction is 6.28 times larger than the laminar value.
19.2
19.3
(a) = 5.0x = (5.0)(1.6) = 3.04 x 10
3
m = ©.304 clDl
.JRe" .J 6.93 x 10
6
(b) = 0.37x = (0.37)(1.6) = 2.54 x 10
2
m = 12.54 cIDI
Rex 1/5 (6.93xl0
6
)l!S  
128
gao = V2 0.23)(63.04 i = 2444 N/m
2
Re
c
= 5 x 10
5
P '" V", (X I  X 0 )
Pc>
(x ~ X ) = 5 X 10
5
j1", = (5xIOS)(1.7894 X 10
5
) = 0.1154 m
lOp "" V", (1.23)( 63.04)
Laminar drag on (x)  Xo):
C
r
= 1.328 = 1.878 x 10
3
.J5 X 10"
Dr= goc S Cr= (2444)(0.1154)(9.75)(1.878 x 10
3
) = 5.16 N
Turbulent drag on (XI  xo):
0.074 3
Cf = 5 1'5 = 5.36 x 10
(5 X 10 ) "
D
f
= ( 5.36 X 10
3
) 5.16 = 14.73 N
1.878 x 10
3
"From Prob. 19.1, the turbulent drag on (Xl  xo) was 2415 N. Hence,
Turbulent drag on (X2  Xl) = 241.5 14.73 = 226.8 N
Total skin friction drag = [Laminar drag on (Xl  xo)] + [Turbulent drag on (X2  Xl)]
= 5,16 + 226.8 = ~ 3 2 Nt
19.4 At standard sea level: p", = 0.002377 slug/ft
,ax, = .j}RT = .j (1.4 )(1716)(519) = 1117 ftlsec
v"" = M"" aoc = 4 (117) = 4468 ftlsec
129
.
Re,,= p", V""c = (.002377)(4468)(5112) = L18x 10
7
j.1", 3.7373 X 10
7
. 1328 1328 4
IncompressIble C
f
;; C
f
= rn: = = 3.866 x 10
• \JRe
c
JU8 x 10
7
From Fig. 18.8:
CIC
f
• "'" 0.85; Cf= 3.286 x 104
Df= q"" S C
f
= (112)(.002377)(4468)2(5112)(3.286 X 10
4
)
D
f
= P.248 rbj on one side of the plate.
19.5 For incompressible flow:
From Fig. 19.1: Cf"'" L6x 10
3
(The effect of Mach number is to reduce Cf by about 44% in this case.)
_ • _ • 4
From Prob. 19.4, the lammar value ofD[ls 3.248 for a value ofCr= 3.286 x 10 .
Hence, the turbulent value is
D = (2.85 x 10
3
) (3.248) = ~ 8 . 2 rbj
f 3286 x 104
19.6 From Eq. (18.32):
& & 8 ( &)
pu  + pv = J1;::
&. iYiY OJ
(1)
From Eq. (18.41) Vvith Pr = 1:
(2)
Eqs. (1) and (2) are identical. Hence
130
ho = C1 + C2 u, where c} and C2 are constants.
At the wall, U = 0 and ho = h = hw. Hence,
0"
hw = Cl + 0, or Cl = hw
At the boundary layer edge:
Thus:
Since
ho h..
C2 = "'
u
e
h = c
p
T, then
To=Tw+ (To, T",):
e
19.7 From Eq. (18.70),
qw = 0.763 PrO.
65
(h
aw
 hw)
dx
where, from Eq. (18.82), the velocity gradient is given by
dUe 1 2(Pe Pa»
=
dx R P
e
(1) .
(2)
The subscript e denotes properties at the· outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer,
i.e., pe and pe are the inviscid stagnation point values of pressure and density_The speed of
sound iiI the ambient atmosphere is
a.., = = .J(1.4)(287)(246.1) ""= 314.5 mlsec
(a) For V"" = 1500 m/sec, We have
131
:Mc.o = v'" = 1500 = 4.77
a", 3145
From Appendjx B (nearest entry),
Po.2 =29.52
p",
and from Appendix A (nearest entry),
Hence,
To = 5.512
To:>
Po.2 =: pe = (29.52)(583.59) = 1.723 X 104 N/m2
To == Te = (5.512)(246.1) = 1357 K
1.723 X 10
4
= 0.044 k 1m
3
(287)(1357) g
From Southerland's law, Eq. (15.3), using the standard sea level value of 110 = 1.7894 x 10
5
kg/(m)(sec) at To = 288K, we have
Pe = (Tc) 312 To +110 = (1357) 3!2( 288+110) =2.77
f.Lo To Te+110 288 1357+110
/le = (2.77)(1.789 x 10
5
) = 4.957 x 10
c5
kg/(m)(sec)
From Eq. (2) above
1 2(1.723 x 10
4
 58359) 3 42 104/
 ,  ~       . . . . : : . . . =. x sec
dx R P
e
(0.0254) 0,044
Assuming a recovery factor r = 1, then haw = ho.
V",2 V",2. . (1500)2
h = k = It" +  = c To<, +  = (1008)(246.1) + .
awJ.k> 2 p 2 2
132
The "rhomu" product is
(kg)
2
pe).le = (1.044)(4.957 x 10
6
'4:":""""
rn sec
From Eq. (1) above
.  0.65 ffUc
qw  0.763 Pr (PeJ1e)  (hawhw)
dx
= 0.763 (0.72)"°·65 (2.18 x 10
6
)(3.42 x 104)'h (13.73  4.032) x 10
5
= 369.3 joules = 369.3 watt
sec(m2) m
2
(b) For V", = 4500 m/sec, we have
M",= V", = 4500 = 14.31
a", 3145
From Appendix B (interpolated)
Po,2 = 264.0
Poo
From Appendix A (interpolated)
Thus:
To = 41.94
T",
pe "'" (264)(583.59) = 1.54 x 10
5
N/m2
Te = 41.94 (246.1) = 10,321 K
5 .. 
= 154 x 10 =0.052k 1m3
PI' RTc (187)(10,321) g
J1e = (Te)3!2 To + 110 = (10321)3!2( 288 + 110 ) = 8.186
J1" To Tc+110 28& 10321+110
133
= (8.186)(1.7894 x 10.
5
) = 1.465 x 104 kg/(m)(sec)
FromEq. (2)
dUe 1
2(Pe p.,) = 1 2(154 X 10
5
58359) = 9.56 x l04/sec
dx R
Po
(0.0254) 0.052
h
= h V",2 =248 105 (4500)2 1 7 07 1 Ik
aw .Llco+  . X + = .03 xl joues 'g
2 2
. 4 6 (kg)2
= (0.052)(1.465 X 10 ) = 7.62 X 10
m sec
. _ 6 0.65 '
q w  0.7 3 Pr (PeJle)  (haw  hw)
dx
= 2.218 X 10
4
watts
m
2
Comparing the results from parts (a) and (b), we note
(qw) 2218 X 10
4
=
(. ) 3693
qw
60
When the velocity increased from 1500 mlsec to 4500 m/sec, a factor of3, the heat transfer
increased by a factor of 60. This illustrates the rapid growth of the importance of
aerodynamic heating as vehicles fly faster, well into the hypersonic flight regime. A simple,
approximate analysis for aerodynamic heating which assumes very higb Mach numbers (so
that haw» hw) indicates that aerodynamic heating is proportional to V"",3. (See for example,
Anderson, Introduction Of Flight, 4th ed.) McGrawHill, 2000, page 570.) For the present
example, in going from a relatively low, not quite hypersonic condition (M", = 4.77) to a
relatively high Mach number ofM"" = 1431, the increase waS even faster.
134
CHAPTERl
1.1
(a)
p
= 
P RT
=
1.9 x 10 31 = 0.326 k 1m, (287)(203) 1 g
i
t
4
(b) T = l pR
=
1058 = (1.23 x 103 )(1716)
ismoRl
1.2
N' = 
J
TE
LE
(pu cos
e + 1:" sin e) dsu
(1.7)
+
S:
(P i cos e r [ sin e) ds f
ds cos
e= dx
ds sin e = dy Hence, N'
=
f
TE
LE
(Pu  P e) dx +
J
TE
(Ttl
LE·
+ "C r) dy
Divide by q", S = qoo c(1)
~ = _.!.
q",c
c
n
f [(Pu qooPoo) _(p q",P"')]dX +.!. J (~+2) dy q",. qoO
TE LE
t 
C
TE LE
,C = '!'fc (c
Tills is Eq. (1. 15).
coP'
c p, )
dx+.!. JIT C LE
(cr.." +c r,.) dy
A' =
J
TE
LE
(Pu sinH + 1: u cose) dsu
+
f
TE
LE
(P;, sine + 't 1 cose) ds f.
(1.8)
Ca
=
!C fIT LE
(c
P.

C Pc
)
dy +
~ f C
C
O
(c f.  c fe ) dx '
This is Eq. (1.16).
M'LE =
J
+
LE
IT
[CPu cose + 'tu sin8)x  (Pu sine  'C u cos8)y] dsu
TE
J
LE
[p t cose + 1: t sine)x + (p e sine + 't ecose )y] ds e
+
J
IT
LE
[Pu  P r] y dy +
f
IT
LE
("u + 1: e) Y dx
[( Pup"')_(Pt p",)]
qo> q""
2
xdx ;
c . qoo
s: (~+2)XdY
q",
JTE LE (C f +Cr.CpJ x dx u .+2 fTE r3 LE [(pupoo)_(pepo»] ydy+_l ITE (~+~)YdX qoo qo> c2 LE qo> qoo em =2 [ tc. 1 c Ie 0 (C p ..) x dy U ~ This is Eq. 1.a>/ .17). (1..> 3 .3 M.
7) .78 X 1~4) 1.~ For a fl. Hence. (i.78 x 104 + 1)05 X 105 (0. M'd4 = M'LE + L' (cf4) = 5.12 x 10' = 10. p.516 ID! 4 . Pu) c Xcp. e= 0 in Eqs.25) =13.02 x 104N/IDJ xcp = M' rl.12 x 105 sin 10° + 1274 coso..11).lf] (p.A' sina = 1.E = (5..at plate..12 x 10 5 cos 100 1274 sin 10° = 11. L' = Nt coset ._ M'li N [{p.(1.105 x 10Sij D' =N' sina + AT cosa = 1. = 1.
271 0. Also.44 0.0498 0.293 0.3) COSet = !0.0 8.0 6.41 0.277 0.0 4.6 Cn = t l COSet + Cd sino.279[ 1.09 0.3) sma.0 o 2.0 10. we have 2.25 0. using the more accurate NT rather than L' in Eq.0 12.(0.306 0.336 0.266 5 .5 C = en cQsa .ca sma.284 0.0 14.0 0.243 1. = (1. (1.22).402 152 1.07 1.18\ Cd = cn sina + Ca COSet =(1_2) sin 12° + (0. = 11.2) cos 12° ::.1.639 0.846 1.
• .:r .. ~~4_.. 1.':.T ' i....x· .28. 1. ._:_~ .'.t·· . length.. shown in Fig. and time) fJ (D..r: . r~~·~·:~.1' i . ..0 r ' Zo ..~~ . ~ .  ~~ ~ /4l0' ..7 K = 3 (mass. 1 . __ .~. p"" V"" c.. Compare the above variation'with the centerofpressure measurements of the Wright Brothers on one of their airfoils.. . __ _ ..•.... ....~ ____ . _ ~ __ :. ... I"" ! 1 :_:~r  ::. beyond the stall (ex > 16). and that it closely approaches the quarterchOTd point in the range of IT of 10° to 140 • At higher anglesofattack. ~. ... xcp will reverse its movement and move rearward as a continues to increase._. . •~r ~r_!':' .~o : . ...~ _. . g) = 0 HenceN= 5 We can write this expression in terms ofN .:. co ' /..... .8 _~.. 2.:.2~'~~~ ·C 0 .. • ~ ~=::. ~.1 Note that xcp moves forward as ex is increased.3 = 2 dimensionless Pi products: where 6 .(j ." . .._ 1 . I :i i  ~ =. ..i ~l :~ ·~'j:'.:..~.: __ •.K = 5 . _ __ ~.:.f______ . ..
= D P '" Vro c ~.} V'" 1 = (m cD gd fb r 3 )a U t. time.1) (f t2)d = 0 mass: a= 0 length: 3 a + 1 + b + d = 0 time: Hence: a=O d = 1/2 1 .2d = 0 b = 1/2 Thus: or: K = 4 (mass. degrees) 7 . length.mass: a + 1 = 0 length: 3a + b + c + 1 = 0 time: Hence: b ..2 = 0 a =1 b=2 c=2 D. 2 or Il1 =  D 1 p V 2 C 2 2 ro '" Let Il2 =p.
N = 7.2n . This can be written as a function ofN .e) p mass(O) mass(O) m(O) p""lVcr:Jj ck CpnDI1 I  mass: i + 1= 0 i =1 length: 3i + j + k + 2n + 1 = 0 time: j .Hence.K = 7 .2 = 0 n=O j =2 degrees: Ii = 0 Hence: k=2 ForTh 8 .4 = 3 pi products: where: The dimensions of cp and Cv are [c ] = energy = (force)( dis tan ce) = (mft ~2 )( .
cp We can take the reciprocal. or.. C .. 9 .mass: i = 0 i=O length: 3i + 1 + j + 2k + n = 0 time: 1 2kn = 0 k=O n=l degrees: k=O Hence: ]=0 113 ~ pooj V j 00 C k Cp n C v mass: i =0 i=O n= 1 length: 3i + j + k + 2n + 2 = 0 time: degrees: Hence: j .:!.. Thus.2n ~ 2 = 0 n~ j=O 1 =0 k=O IT3 = Hence. and still have a dimensionless product..
The Reynold's numbers are different.9 Hence. 1. the flows must be dynamically similar. Hence. the Mach numbers of the two flows are the same. the two flows are not dynamically similar. as before. Hence 10 .L a If. that f. and the wind tunnel by subscript 2.1.10 Denote free flight by subscript 1. we have (1) For Reynolds number: pVc 1 1 1 PI = P"2 P2 V 2 C Assume. Hence and For Mach number: Since a a Jf. For the lift and drag coefficients to be the same in both cases.
or. . P2 V2 =34. (2) Finally.65 jf. and T 2 .65 (5) SUbSL (1) into (5): Hence.67 (1) jf. jf.9 (3) V 1. from the equation of state: 7T P. (4) into (2): 3519 ( V2 T2 .2 = ~R  5 L01 287 X 10 =351. or. Z = 34.(3) represent three equations for the three unknowns. P2 V Vz = 1. (3): (4) Subst. K ) = 34. J1 . summarized below: P2.65 (2) (3) From Eq. They are Eqs. (1) .
634 x 105 + 3847 = 11.6 ill = L01 X 105 .13 Let liS use the formalism surrounding Eq.000) ~ volume (m3) (1.60 Kj (34. and 12 . (3): P2= ==2.9)(16. In this case. V.16) :in the text.JT.9 ~g FromEq.9 351.7) = 1169.(1.8)(0.65) From Eq.67 x 1O=Nj'~' 1.1117) ~ air density at 1000i:n (kg/m3) y (9.36 x 104 )(9. 16). (1. neglecting skin friction Cd = ca . ~ 16.7 . from Eq. (1.6 ~ \2175 m \ sec .T2 = (351.8) 1. ~ 16.12 Weight = Buoyancy force + lift w = B +L B = (15.J169. (1).634 x 10~ acceleration of gravity (m/sec) L = q"" S CL = (500)(153.05) = 3487 N Hence: w= 1.2) 4 Pb=17A3 x 10 Nfmj 1.9)(0.7 . 351.073 T2 169.
From Eq. note that 8 is drawn counterclocbvise in this sketch. (1. . (2). (2). cos ~ d <j> (3) Consider the limits of integration for the above integrals. ~ = 0 at LE and n: at TE.(1) From Eq. Tbe first integral is evaluated from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the upper surface. 13 . Cd = 1 2 f TE LE Cpo cos <j> d~ __ 1 2 f TE LE C p. sin (8) =  sin 8 = sin (n:8) = cos ~ C = Substitute this into Eq. Voe From the geometry: 8=n:$ Helice. (1) above can be v{ritten as (2) Draw a picture: 9 Following our sign convention. noting also that ds = rd~ and the chord c is twice the radius.13) in the texto Eq. Hence. 2r. 8. hence it is a negative angle.
Hence.The second integral is evaluated from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the bottom surface.)(1)(2) 1.2 cos3 . $ 5.h 't' Since cos3 ~ d $ = (~ sin~)(COS2 <\> + 2). Eq. Thus.:::.. (3) becomes 1  2 J tr 2.r for . (5) becomes :) Cd 1.h 2tr 't' d .(. .14 14 .h)( "3 SlD't' cos2. C \" cos ~ d ~ (4) In Eg. $ 5. =0 3. (4)..1. 2n 2 C Pc =0 Thus. Eq. (4) becomes cd = J o tr!2 cos3 . + 2J .h 't'  f 3. = [("3 S1l1~)(cos2 <\> + 2)] 1 3 1 3 :r(1 0  [( 1 .h 't' d . itr 't' 3tr l2 Cd = (.. for 0 :::.)(1)(2). ~ = 2n at LE and n at the TE. Eq... nl2 C p.
ahd dA2 • The net pressure force in the· ydirection on this cylinder is: (1) Let dAy be the projection of dAl and dA2 on a plane perpendicular to the y axis. hI h. h. Q)1. dFy = f h I P g dy dAy (4) However. The pressures on dA] and dA2 are PJ and P2 respectively.PI = f. (2) and (3). (4) integrated over the volume of the body J5 . Consider also the vertical cylinder element inside the body which intercepts the surface area dA] near the top of the body. Thus. Eq. P g dy (3) Combining Eqs. . the total force in the y directiono Fyo is given by Eq. (1) becomes (2) From the hydrostatic equation P2 .FLuID dAr hI I I I 1 Bopy SUBIfE£6E. I I I :t x J ~II ~ f I I I I I I I . and makes angles 8] and 82 respectively with respect to the vertical line through the middle of dA.. and dA2 near the bottom of the body. Thus.f) I df}. dy dAy = dV = element of volume of the body.1 h:z I I Consider the arbitrary body sketched above.
0 11.047 0. (174) (1) Also.228 0.002377)V".45) C L = _L_ = q".395 0.179 0.270 0.063 0.761 1.100 0.17 11.634 0.494 0. v ~ (ftlsec) 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 2.79 13.911 1.97 10.033 0.42 9. Tabulate Eqs_ (1) and (2) versus velocity.029 0.192 0. (1.2 S (0.31 8.031 0.03 9.49 13.~ ill pgdV Force on body Weight of fluid displaced by body . L15 From Eq.S 2W "" 2(2950) 2 p"Y".844 0.40 13.483 0.14 These results are plotted on the next page. 16 .323 0.038 0.028 6.
4th ed. we note. Aircraft Performance and Desim.0(. The lift coefficient decreases as V". (Note that on the graph the scale for CD is onetenth that for Cd 3.IJT. The range of the aircraft is proportional to LID (see for example. At lower velocity range. It can be shown that the maximum veiocity for this airplane is about 265 ftlsec at sea leveL As seen in the graph.. the maximum value of LID occurs around V ro = 140 ft/sec.) Examining this graph. at higher velocity the value of LID decreases only gradually as Vco increases.a. As a result. cFT/S. k:. and then gradually decreases as velocity increases.Ec.. 17 . 2.~ . for steady.. Introduction to Flight. However.12 0 . even though the value of LID is less than its maximum.. the drag coefficient decreases even faster than the lift coefficient with velocity.OC/TY.08" 0. l/EL. /0 O. which is much lower than the maximmn velocity. Anderson.2 :2 o 0 70 W 110 /30 /50 /70 /Yo 2/0 230 2SQ FL/t. it is still a reasonably high value.. 1999.' o. level flight: I. /~~ L o J4 0. goes through a maximum.o~ ' 0. increases. McGrawHill. or Anderson.S 8 0. the lifttodrag ratio first increases. This has the practical implication that at higher speeds.
However. with only an 18% decrease in LID. one reason to fly in an airplane is to get from one place to another in a reasonably short time. say 200 ft/sec. which for this case is 140 ftJsec. By cruising at a higher speed.2000). the airplane should fly at the velocity for maximum LID.McGrawHill. 18 . the flight time may be unacceptably long. By flying at the low velocity of V <Xl = 140 ft/sec. the flight time will be cut by 30%. To obtain maximum range.
. we have 22 V??i!r Wrtl/ /r:L L L L fa. (1) and (2).t.._c~ __' 1 . / / ! I I I I [ / e C.. i... . the integral ofthe surface vector over a closed surface is zero. combining Eqs..c' I 7 I hJ 7 L X I 7 / LOUI~~ Wall 7 7 7 7€ f.e. Hence. 7 ()c) 7 7 / 19 ..CHAPTER 2 21 If p = constant = p"..~~ ... However.
to be discussed in Chapter 3.bhi . .3 dy dx dy = cY/(X2 +y2) u cx/ (X2 +l) x y dx x The streamlines are straight lines emanating from the origin. lS In downward Note: In the above. dS) v .) (This is the velocity field and 2. are not necessarily equal to P<>:rAssume that faces ai and bh are far enough upstream and downstream of the model such that p= poo and v= 0 and ai and bh. Hence h L' = fP == b t dx  f pu dx =Y 2. the integrals over ia and bh cancel because p = p"" on both faces. . Hence L' =  " '" Sf .4 dy dx == v u == x y Y dy=x dx 20 .H(p dS)y S . + The fIrst integral = 0 overall surfaces..Denote the pressure distributions on the upper and lower walls by pu(x) and p e (x) respectively. (2. l b h dx] Mmus SIgn because ycomponent Direction. The walls are close enough to the ffiDdel such that pu and p f.66) L = # (p V....J P · c.. streamline pattern for a source. Take the ycomponent ofEq.. either because V' ds = 0 or because v = O. (p dS)y = [J pu dx ...
(This is the velocity field and streamline pattern for a vortex.1 This is the equation of a circle with the center at the origin. the streamlines must be circular.cy x v = VEl cos 8 = cr .5 From inspection.cr r r r = . The streamlines are concentric with their centers at the origin. since there is no radial component of velocity. with centers at the origin. to be discussed in Chapter 3.Ve sin = .) 2. (This velocity field corresponds to solid body rotation_) dy dx dy y v u dx y x x . To show this more precisely.en x + CJ y=cix The streamlines are hyperbolas. 21 .l = 2 + const x2 + l = const.en y = x .= cx dy dx ~2 v u x Y + Xl = const. u = .
.. ra: r roe Transformation: x =rcos 8 y=rsin8 Vr = U cos e + v sin 8 Ve = ._ > 10 1 8V(} In polar coordinates: V V = .u sin 8 + v cos 8 22 .(r V ) + .
2. 2 C Vr = . 10 1 0(0) V' V = :.u= ex (2 +y) " x = er eosB y" e case y y= ey (Xl +y2) ey sinB r2 e sine r e 2 c.(c) + .=0 r ar 061 (b) From Eq.2 r 8 ..~ cosO sinS + ~ case sine = 0 r r .OJ = !Ql The flowneld is irrotational..sm 8 = r r r Ve = .!..23) V' x V = ez [0 + 0 .cos S = r C 2 .....~ case sin8 = 0 r r Va = .. (2.~ (0) + . V= . C r = 0+0= (a) V'.s8 sine .8 u= cy (X 2 +y2) 'cx = cr sinB r2 cr cosB = c sine r y= = (x" + y") r2  c case r Vr = ~ eO. C 3m .cos 8 + .!. 0(c / r) r a lQ! r 8B .
!.10 c b 24 . 2.9 Vr=O.[O(C/I) + cr _2.0) = 2c e z The vorticity is finite. ~. where Vs=cr I = O. O(O)J r2 r 8e \I x V= IQl except at the origin. it is rotationaL > > 2. \Ix V= e>. The flow is not irrotatibnal. O(O)J Z it r r oe = e z (c + C . The flowfield is singular at the origin.(b) \Ix V= e> z [O(C/r) a.
Mass flow between streamlines = ~ !jr
/:"0
=pV ~n
Let cd approach ab (1) Also, since
V= If (r,e), from calculus
it
dr+
or~r
_'I'
dt"
. 'f'
 = oIf
38
de
(2)
Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2)
and
P
rV =
r
OlfiJ8
or:
2.11
~ = ex = orr : \tf
OJ
v =  cy =  CJry :
;0=
exy + f(x)
(1)
ex
\jJ
= cxy + f(y)
(2)
25
Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2), f(x) and fey) = constant
!\jf = c x y + const.
I
(3) (4)
v =  cy =
3!f : ~ =  cl + f(x)
t3;
= 
(5)
2
Comparing Eqs. (4) and (5), fCy)
cl and fex) = cx
(6)
Differentiating Eq. (3) with respect to x, holding 'v = const. 0= cx dy +cy dx or,
(dY )
dx V'~comt
= _y/x
(7)
Differentiating Eq. (6) with respect to x, holding ~ = const. . dy O=2cx2cydx or,
) (dY¢~const = x/v dx
'
(8)
Comparing Eqs. (7) and (8), we see that
1
Hence, lines of constant \II are perpendicular to lines of constant ~.
26
2.12.
The geometry of the pipe is shown below.
L{ ::::: /oC>
h7' /Y"'c
..
,
f
As the flow goes through the Ushape bend and is turned, it exerts a net force R on the internal surface of the pipe. From the symmetric geometry, R is in the horizontal direction, as shown, acting t6 the right. The equal and opposite force, R, exerted by the pipe on the flow is the mechanism that reverses the flow velocity. The crosssectional area of the pipe inlet is nd2/4 where d is the inside pipe diameter. Hence, A = nd2 /4 = n(0.si/4 = O.l96m2 . The mass flow entering the pipe is
• m = PI A VI
=
(1.23)(0.196)(100) = 24.11 kg/sec.
Applying the momentum equation, Eq. (2.64) to this geometry, we obtain a result similar to Eq. (2,75), namely
R=
# (pV'dS)V
(1)
Where the pressure term in Eq. (2.75) is zero because the pressure at the inlet and exit are the same values. In Eq. (1), the product (p V' dS) is negative at the inlet (V and dS are in opposite directions), and is positive at the exit (V and dS) are in the same direction). The magnitude of p V . dS is simply the mass flow, ffi. Finally, at the inlet VI is to the right, hence it is in the positive xdirection. At the exit, V 2 is to the left, hence it is in the negative xdirection. Thus, V2 =  V I. With this, Eq. (1) is written as
R =  [ m V I + m V 2] = m (V I
=
ill
•
.
.,


V 2)
•
• [VI  (V])] = m (2V])
R = (24.11)(2)(100) = @822 Nj
27
(1) ymomentum: 8v Ov Ov pu +pv .dx ex OJ & pOxIN i3v i3v 1 q.liP dz m.. 0. u dy+v dy+w . & lcp udx+v. (2). and (3) by dx.I CHAPTER 3 3 _1 Consider steady. 8w& 8.: (6) 0r & P OJ Add (4) + (5) + (6): Ov 8w) i3v & u ( dx+dy+dz +v dx+dy+dz ex ex & (& q OJ iW) ry & i3v +w ( dx+dy+dz =. (2..119»: V x V "'" 0 Hence: Z. and dz respectively: &..= Oz. &. dx+.dy=.1 & & _ & p Ow) (iP q:. iY Oz = q:.. xmomentum: & & &q:.dy+dz &.dx=. pu+pv+pw=ex OJ & &. Eqs.+pw&. = 8y (8) Subt. OJ Oz iP) (7) For irrotational flow (see Eq.dx+w..dz=. (8) into (7): . cy & pO:! (4) (5) u iW dz+v Ow dz+w .1&i3v& Oz =""&". dy. inviscid flow. pu+pv+pw=ex OJ Oz Oz (3) Multiply (1). OJ (2) zmomentum: 8w Ow & q:. &.dy &.
2 (2)(PI .: 0'  OV Oz 1 CP 0J Ow +w ( dx+dy+dz = .p V = const. 2 for incompressible flow.& u ( ~dx+ ex ~ dy+dz & OJ t3z CU J+v (81 ~ dv+ ~ dzJ dx+ OV 0.P2) 1(~:r ) = 1154. oy Oz u du + v dv + W dw = ~ Ow Ow) dp rep J 1 P .210~) (0002377{(OlJ 1] 3. 3.d (u + v + w ) 2 1 2 2.2 :=  1 d 2 CV2) = 1 V dV = .~ dx+..Oz.7ft1seCj 2(2116:.pv dV which integrates to 2 1 P + .:dy+dz Oz 8z & p .4 2 w 11 29 .dp P dp = .
33 x 10 N/m 5 4 2 po = P2 + 1 "2 1 4 P V.01) x 1 0 123 5 = 98. = 8.pV".23 kg/m.6 Po=P". sec 3.7 Cp =l.33 X 105 N/m 2 ~h = 3 A2 1 10 em = O. because the flow in the tunnel is drawn directly from the open ambient surroundings.5 .77 X 10 + 2 (1.8 130)"  =tQB .(  V ) 2 V~ =1(98. t t .1) 5 (L23{ IC~r] 3.w = Pmg = (L36 X 104 ) (9. and for an inviscid flow. i V'" = u = constant V"" 30 . 3.1m.+ .8 m2 sec ) = 1.8 ~ ~.23)(147i = 11.. we have no losses between the inlet and the teSt section.01 x 10) N/mj Note: It makes sense that the total pressure in the test section would equal one atmosphere. 1 2 2 '~ 2(1~07  1. .1) = 1.33 x 10 )(0.33 x 10 )(0. = 1147 m/se~ PI ~ P2 = W ~h = (1. p = 1.= Al 12 2(1.8 V=V". 3.
+ + A+ V=Ve=e 'r 2m r In polar coordinates: + \1. The volume flow across this cylindrical surface is 31 .10 + (0  J. except at the origin where r = 0.V = (rV r)+ _ _ 0 rit r Of} 13 lOV \1' V +l~o . Ull 0 0 \l x V= 0 I The flow is irrotationaI.r Hence. )+O=~ =  r· 2.j (0  $) + k 0. \l xV = + 1 + J + + + k = i (00) .9 For a source flow.) at 0 . the flow is a physical possible inoompressible flow. 3.It is a physically possible incompressible flow. What happens at the origin? Visualize a cylinder of radius r wrapped around the line source per unit depth perpendicular to the page.
This is precisely the defmition of source strength. A. Hence.V= A Taking the limit as tJ.. Eq. cO.# v<is s (1) Since we are considering a unit depth. (2) and (3) m v (\7.. calculate \7 xV . /\ = constant = # v· s ill. V) dV = A = constant (4) Shrink the volume to an infinitesimal value. Hence V V = CD at origin + To show that the flow is irrotational.V + 0 (V·V)= hm = tJ.V. A .... around the origin. (2) From the divergence theorem: (3) s v Combining Eqs... from (l). t.. ~~)+~~~) ~!l 32 000 .... er + + + + + > rell ez er ree ez V xV='r 1 8 8 aVr m rVe  8 & Vz r 1 8 it A 8 8B 8 8z 0 0 2m o V xV = r ee + ... (V· V) t.V + . then we have the volume flow per llllit depth. (4) becomes .
Laplace's equation .¢ 2 OJ '11 ' Ie = 0 + 0 = O· 1 entlca y sahsfi d .= 0 + 0 = 0' 1 entlc y sahsfiIed . 't' Olf' = 0 ex' 02lf &2 =0 Hence. 33 .10 \l x V= 0 everywhere" . ! 3. Laplaces equation: lilj/ 2 021j/ 'all ' + .0 2 . Laplaces equation: 0 ¢ 2 2 & + .11 Hence.r2 ~J+ 2 0 0= 0 = 2 is identically satisfied. IS 'd Similarly. for \If = V y.}¢) + ~ oe¢ ~ 0 r ~ 0 r iT a.=V X· 'Y "'" O¢ = 0 OJ Hence. Oj2 3. ~ ~ (r ..!.. IS 'd &.Hence.
2trV". e = 2tr A 2 or... upstream of the source. or A=2nV".. 2JfV". a Hence. 2V"" or..V = V J sin e + !!:.= A 2nV". e ksin El.!' e = I 1! Equation ofthesemi. A A rsm e + .o or. 1 .2JfV".= . Laplaces equation . rsin8+B=2JfV 2V. The shape of the body is given by \.12 The stagnation point is a distance A!2nV".r .. Hence. .:infinite body_ r=' sine tre 34 .If/==e 2 A 8!f! =0. 3..+=(0)+(0)0 r r2 i3f}2 r r2 1 0 (Olf/) a a 1 021f 10 a 1 _ is identically satisfied. .
75 0.(.859 0.0 1 1.509 5. V"" r r 2 2 35 .84 nl2 1.522 0 0.39 2.54 3.0 0.51 0 0.57 4.eCrad) .372 2.57 1. V V 2 1.5 1.3416 0.142 0.1416 0.[ x = r cose 1 0.V V co cos 8 + "'2m = V co cos 8 + ~ V r or.')2 + (~)2 =cosB+cosB+.255 1.84 2.511 1.0033 1.02 1.3 1.5 2.6416 1.64 Cartesian Coordinates of Body To plot the pressure coefficient: Vr = Vco cos 8 + Ve = Vco sin e A = 2~ 2n. Vr 1 =cos8+V".91 2.961 0. r V _Il =_ sin e 2 1 B=1+cosB+2 r I V".V J2 = (.8 2.990 y = t sine n 3 2.57 1. . V".+sm V".14 2.072 1.
0283 0.5 3.3 1.:0' ". .0 V~ 2.554 0.57 1.75 0.5 2.4057 0. ..0 ~  .352 1 LOO L02 1.0 3. /01 t /'0 ~' .eCrad) 7t !: .0 0.0 S:Q 36 .4982 0. Sh'fif?E1 I ·1 .580 0.624 0.8 2. 0 /..255 1.072 1. I i .91 2.51 3 2..0 0.GQ 1.CJ 2.886 0.509 5.98 0.0 nl2 1.54 3.
:2 o 0./( • .O. A b 1 .S:O ~o 20 /.0 o X 0.13 VoO .2 r~r~~444~~~i . x 0 F b """ Source ~ SIi7k • . .4 0.g 0.4 3. ® ( IA pdlnf ../1.. 5 fa 'In<:tfu:m 37 .
b) ~ (2 b)2 2:Jr r2  b Y.b) 2:Jr (r + b)  I From point A to be a stagnation point.~ +~ A 1 A 2:Jr (r .r(r+ b) (note that it is in the negative xdirection) (+A) 2:Jr(r + b) (Note that it is in the positive xdirection) Velocity due to sink = Total velocity at Point A: VA=V". VA = O.(r b)=  2 A 27t Ab (2b) = 7r 3.14 k sine r (1) For a doublet:\fI =  ~~ 27r Olf/ = _ ~ case 08 27r r (2) 38 .. A 1 I o=V + ~ [ + (r _ b) 1 2:Jr (r + b) 0() o=V + co ~ 2 [rbCr+b)] =V + "" 2:Jr· (r + b)(r..At point A: Velocity due to freestream = V OX) Velocity due to source = A 2.
3._ K. r = R 3.cos e)  a r 2ff r 2J[ r2 Integrating with respect to r or. e At the surface..2....R')2 Vcr] 2 cos 2 ' e +'(R .15 1 err V r = ..cose ..93): _r v = (1 .Substitute (2) into (1) O'¢ _ 1 .K .cosEl R2) r2 V"" 39 .V 1 + 7 ")2 00 sm .16 From Eq.( . rOB r R2) V = Vr + Va  2 2 2_ r2 (1. (3.= (Vmcos8) ( 1 .
<0 3. the direction of the resultant velocity at a given point will also change.94): = R2). as V changes. (3. 2 3._r V = ( 1~? cos6 R V".163 m2/sec I 40 . no matter what the value of V co may be. sm6~ r . V. (3.94): At any given point (r.From Eq. (3.119): _.18 L' = Pox:> Vro r~ r 6 (1. the shape of the streamlines remains the same. ~O. is the same. ( 1+r2 J From Eq.23)(30) L' p".V". Vr and Ve are both directly proportional to V roo Hence.. Hence.. c Vo V. Thus. 2nrV".6).17 From Eq. The shape of the streamlines changes when V co changes. Note that V oNro is itself a function of V ro via tbe second term. the direction + of the resultant.
Drag due to struts: Ds = qoo S Co = (36.39.737 x 107 From Fig. CD = 1.0078 ft 32 Re = 199382 (0.167 ft. CD = L The total frontal surface area of the wires is (80) (0. p"" = 0.737 X 107 Also: V = 120 mph = 120 ( 88) ft/sec= 176 . 3.39.624 2' . Drag due to wires: Dw = qoo S CD = (36. V.175 Hence.0078) = 9312 0.624)(1) = 23 lb Total drag due to struts and wires = Ds + Dw = 153 +23 =11761 41 . The total frontal surface area of the struts is (25) (0.ft 60 sec goo ~ ~ p".8)(4.7)(0. Hence.002377)(187.3. 3. Re = pVD J.175)(1) = 153 Ib For the bracing \\. ft..'ires: D = ft? ~ in = 0.}· = ~ (0.8)(0.167) = 4.l "= (0.8 Ib/ft2 For the struts: D = 2 in = 0.002377 sl~g ft" slug (ft)(sec) f1<c = 3.002377) (176)2 = 36.0078) = 0.167) = 199382 ' 3.19 At standard sea level conditions.167 From Fig.
.37 can be syntheized by a proper distribution of singularities. In this case. 58 percent of the total drag.:h'si. 3. and the lift on the airfoil where the circulation is taken as the total r is the same as for a circular cylinder. = (36.fe '.8)(230)(0. and the distributed point vortices appear as one stronger point vortex with strength r. This clearly points out the drag reduction that was achieved in the early 1930's when airplane designers started using internally braced wings with one or more central spars.f7~. The strength of the vortices.. the airfoil becomes a speck on the page.. namely Eq.The total zerolift drag for the airplane is (including struts and wires) . thus eliminating struts and wires completely.58 of the total 3M~ drag . # \ ..)" 1~ ~rt7. arOlllld the airfoiL ills value ofr is the same along all closed curves around the airfoil. added together. even if the closed curve is drawn a very large distance away from the airfoil.e4 > \ "' r ~R..036) = ~04.c.140). CD = q"..U') c ~ "JvCl'j ( ( \ ' ~~ ~ <.  / I /  /  42 . . i.27 for the circular cylinder.rle....20 The flow over the airfoil in Figure 3.81 Note that.niVc!.e. This is exactly equivalent to the single point vortex in Figure 3.c.i. the drag due to the struts and wires is ~ = 0. gives the total circulation.. point sources and vortices.. for tms example. L' = pro v""r / /'  r O/:dr/&deJ /' / I ')  f1 ~.e. (3. S CD .. r.
2 q"O = .428 ftllb per unit spaIlj 4. J V'dV=1 d (V2) =0 2 c c From the momentum equation. c Dds Dt = dV Hence. .l = 0. m.....97)(2)(1)(2)(0. ..S (1538)(2) From Fig. .64 and c . 43 ..23)(50i = 1538 Nlnl c = ~= 1353 =0.80 Ib per unit sp~ crne!> C = (2... ds + Dt 1 V· ds 7 ... 4. the second term in Eq.36) = to.c!. ..97)(2)(1)(0. = 0..CHAPTER 4 c.3 c . (1) becomes .5.44 t q"..64) = 13... 4. 2 (1..036 L' = q"O S c[ M' ci4 = qoo S = (2.!. V'ds r DDt 7 =1 e 7 DV ~. 2 p"" V ro2 = 1.
V co2) 2 2 2 .p"" V ro J  K C  o 2 (1 ...( :. then ~f c dp P = O. = . (2) and (4) into (1).+ DV = Dt ~ 2.case) C e (y). 'j .p"" V CZ a) 4 2a V <10 J 0 ~ (1 . = 2 1t a where a is in radians.5 c I. or p = p(p). J DV .p".36). the first term in Eq. 4.sine de 2 = .. (1) becomes 1 DDVt' dS =~ 1 2. Vp p (neglecting body forces) Hence. This is Eq.= . Hence.~ 7rJ 2 lta C  2 ="_ q""c2 It. (3) .pm V ro c Z a [ . (4.. we obtain I Dr Dt ~O I Note: See Karamcheti. Hence 44 . IdealFluid Aerodynamics. vp · dS =~ 1 dp c c + PcP When p = const.' ds=O (4) Dt Substituting Eqs... 239242).cos~e) de ~ 1 = . from Eq. for more details (pp.
 1 f.r 1 J'" 1.!.25 cose.3694 (ciX dz) = 0.  1.3694 .0223 .3694 (0.05 + 0.2222 (x) 2 C Since x = ...1111 cos2e) de =  J.5) .13334 cos9 + 0. [0.0888 _ 0..25 cos2 8) de .3694 45 . then 2 dZ) (dx  = I 0.3694 S 8 S 11: 2 UL=(} = .0.25 (B +..0223 + 0..3 sin9 +0. .059 .r J 0 1 . ( 1 .cose).1) de :J /_ 01.3 = [QJB ~ c f: IT = FO.1) de  J.c =2n ( c m\~C = .r 0  dz 1[ dx (cose 1) de 1 .3 cose + 0.0.0411 4.3694 (0.4: c For OA S '::'s 1: c (dZ) dx = 0.1111 cose. (0.:. 1[ 2 4 sin28) ]~.05 . for 1.25 cos8)(cos8 . e s 1. for 0 S .05 + 0. X ~S 0.r J:r 1.164 (57.1111 cose)(cose ..0.3694 (0.6 (a) For 0 S.0223 + 0.
25 cose) cose de ~ f 2 f.0...0.7 dz . sin28) ]~3694 2 4 + ~ [(0.0305 ~ 0.1111 cose) cose de 2 =7C f 13694 (0.!.2939 + 0.164 (b) Cf =2 7t (ex + fXL=O) where a is in radians ~ c/ = 57.cose de dx 2 1.25 (B +.[0.0109] ~ = 0.05 cosEl + 0.0761 + 0.0245] .0233)sin8+0.0223 El .25 cos 8) de + .0726 rad = ~ ~ 4.3694 . [0. 2 " 2 ~ J" (0." (0.!.0223 + 0.3 [3 '.3694 = 2· [0.0223 cosEl + 0.16)] = ~ 2~ 4.0701 + 0.05 + 0.1111 (~ +. ~ [0.r + n J 1. sin28)K3694 46 .111 (~ + ~ n sin2e) ]~3694 = .2281 = 0. 1 1 [0.1712 + 0.1745] ~ + .1111 casle) dEl 1...06847 .3694 (0.05 sine ~ + 0.1307 + 0.1334 sine + 0.(4.
0.+ 6)JI·.111] case) cosEl de + 2 J[ 1 .1372)J 2 .1111 (0.2:>61) 1r := 0.1111 (2.25 (0.3694 = ~ [0.O.6847 + 0.4899 1r 0.004371 = (0.0.782 47 .0. J.0277 1r Xc~ = ~ c 4 [1 + ~ cf (Al .02185 .25 cose) cos 28de + 2 f Jr 1r (0.1630 .3694 + 0.05 + 0.6847 + 0.09800) + 0.0277)] = 10. sine sin39 " ["2 (0.009800 + 025 (0.0223) sm 28 + 0.1372) + 0.04899 + 0.) dx cos2e de ~ f ~3694 (0.09800)J Al = _ 2 (0.1630 " dz .3861 4·· 0.1111 (0.1745 + 0.= ~ J[ [0.0436)  0.4899 .A2)J = ~ [1 + ~ (0.0223 1.
9° 0. J: 2 Ao (1 ~ cosle) de  f n=) s: An (l .4.76 6.095 (1) . (1) becomes =  C m .8 Experiment (Ref. = 7r 2 2 o J o t= sin 2 e de =7r  J: cose sinle de = 0 48 .1063 % Difference _3. An smne 0=1 ~ ...cos8) C dS = . slne de 2 (1 + case) y(8)=2 Veo [ At) . ] With the above. sme + L.!.s.782 0. Eq.25% 2.8% 10. II) CLL=O Theory 4.cosS) sine sin ne de (2) Note the following definite integrals: J :fC cos e dEl. = "2 (l .6% ct c m~/'" 0.160 0.
2421 0. .10 The slope of the lift curve is ao = 0~5(039) =0104 per degree .. 3.104 49 . 4 .4.25 = 10.. o cose sine sin 2e de = 4 cose sine sin ne de = 0 J: forn= 3. (4.71). (2) becomes: c mle =(A +A1 ..+ 0.) 2 0 2 7r A2 4.. Xac = __ + 025= 0 m ao 8 X 104 ~.(0:045) 8 04 d = x 1 per egree 4 . ff S r. Eq.(6) From Eq.037 ..Ir: So sine sin ne de = 0 forn=2. Hence. .(6) The slope of the moment coefficient curVe is mo = 0.
.1 df x = (R . V=J \7\3 4n + r de . + T 5... r d1! By symmetry. where e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of the loop. > x r r = 4Jr J 0 2m< 5.... 2 4Jr (A .+R ) (2nR) cos9 = 50 .. df) e .... + ....... directed into the page...  r 1 .. Hence. the resultant velocity due to the entire loop must be along the xaxis..CHAPTER 5 .2 d1 clv Since df and r are always perpendicular (by inspection of the figure)....
02 S 170 At standard sea level.002377) (176i = 36..3 aO a = =a l+o(1+T) nAR .712)2 0.3) = 10.054.0 = = 0.002377 slug/ft3 V co = 120 mph ( 88 ftl sec] 60mph = 176 ftlsec qoo = .0857 per degree 6..188 1 + .5.! p".7121 C Di = . n(8) = 0..3916 (36.(1.S q".92 per rad ..1033 pet degree 5.] 88 per radian From Fig. .188 CL = a (a  lXL=O) = 0.raR.! (0. = where <lo = 0.8)(170) 51 .4 b2 (32)2 AR= ==6.18: 8 = 0.=4.(1+ 00 54) ..8 Ib/ft2 2 2 3.1080 per degree = 6. 5. C~ (1 + 8) = (0.02121 n(8) 5.91 perrad .C L = ~=~= q".. poo = 0. a= .0857 [7 . = .. V 2".054) '" 10.6 .S 2450 = 0.
we will lise Helmbold's equations for both the straight and swept wmgs.3916 .304 5..0764 per deg CI = CL + CIL=O = 0.81).= .304)2+0.8)(170)(0.92.02) 7lAR = 0.r(. r====~== 5..J per rad 5.12) 1+·(1+r) 1+ Jr(6.304 From Helmbold's equation for a straight wing. where 30 cos A = 5.215 mill ..1 per degree = 0.73 ~1+(0.3 lij 5.73 per radian ~ = 5.r(6) We have 52 ..64)(6.92 ao (1+0. .73 nAR .05 = 0.1 (57.reAR = (0.r(6) = 0.= 4. S CD.5.6 To be consistent..3) = 5. " 1_ (b) From Helmbold's equationfor a swept wing.01267 D. Eq_ (5. (a) 30 = 0..01267) = 179.73 cos 45° = 4..:.'"'8 ao a = . (5.0764 [ill a 5.05 perradian" and a o cosA = 4.73 1349 G 247 perrad·an!" C!. (36.3916)2 . Eq.= q".3° = 0..5 c =~ = D.02) = 0.82).
. j"n Problem 5.05 = ~ 1.778 (b) ilo cos A = 4. J 5. the reduction is substantial. we readily conclude that the effect ofwing sweep is to reduce the lift slope.05 = .= .247 aStr:l. with an aspect ratio of 6.215 4..05 a o cos A = 4.7 Again.43 ffAR Jr(3) a=.77 4.43)2 +0. Moreover.73 5. (a) ilo = 5.73 JrAR Jr(3) = 0.608 = ..========~ a o cosA ~l+[ao cosA/(JrAR)]2 +a o cosA/(nAR) 4.73 perradian ~ = 5.a = .608 1..23785 Comparing the results of parts (a) and (b).43 = 4.6. we had a swept = 327 = 0.05 ~1+(0.215)2 +0.2 7 per rad·~I I Idllj 1.=3.608i + 0.=====.05 = 0..=====::::: ~1+(0. we use Helmbold's equations.ght 53 .05 ==3.========= a o cos A ~l+[ao cosA/(nAR)f +a o cosA/(nAR) 4.222 per ra lauj 5.5185.73 I d· _I ~1 + (0.
. we have a swept aSlTaighl ::= 2. Moreover.83 3. wing sweep affects the lift slope to a greater degree for higher aspect ratio wings than for lower aspect ratio wings. with aspect ratio 3.222 The lift slope for the swept wing is 83% of that for the straight wing. This makes some sense.The lift slope for the swept . Conclusion: Wing sweep decreases the lift slope..667 = 0. because the lift slope for low aspect ratio wings is already considerably reduced just due to the aspect ratio effect. In Problem 5).. 54 .ing is only 77% of that for the straight wing when the aspect ratio of both vvings is 6.
.+0+0=0+0+0= l:j fA! 2 ~ ..1 > eT > ..( 0 ) + . 6.[r ()]+ ....3 For the sphere: 55 . > 1 ct r cr The flow is a physIcal possible incompi. re e > (r sine) e p  'Yx V= 1 r2 sina i3 i3 88 0 ac r2 o¢ 0 0 = Flow is irrotationaL 1 {O .r2 a r2 r sin a oa r sin a o¢ \7' V = .2 > 1 i3 2 C 1 8 1 0(0) 'Y.0 + O} = IQl r2 s~n a 6.~sible flow.V = .CHAPTER 6 6.
5/4 = 1.25 For no manometer deflection.6° above or below the stagnation point. (Cp)sphere = (Cp)cyL 1.75 Hence: The pressure tap on the cylinder must be located at an angular position 48.25 = 1 .5625 sine = 0. hence (Cp)sphere = .4 sin2e sin2 e= 0. 56 .For the cylinder: At the top of the sphere: e = n/2.
_.4 6006 r1 ft Ib slug 0 R Cv=~= R r 1 ft Ib 4290slug 0 R ft Ib e = Cv T = 4290 (934) .=.117xl0 6 ft Ib slug 57 .=. Hence. independent of temperature. cp and Cv are constants.. we have again Cp = 6006 ft Ib slug DR ft Ib slug OR cv = 4290 Also.4 . p. 4..8)(2116) RT (1716)(934) .610 x 106 ..4)(1716) 0.227 x 106 '' ft Ib slug h=6006(519)= 3. R = 519°R.CHAPTER 7 7. 1716 0. at standard sea level.2 (a) Cp. Hence E = 4290 (519) = 2.slug (b) For a calorically perfect gas.R (1.Ol03 siu IftJj g 7.007 x 10 6  slug ·) ft lb h= CpT = 6006 (934 = 5.=.1 p=pRT p = ~ = (7.
2.. 4.kg _  _ e2 .3 Cp = ~ := r } (1.2..Tt) = (1004..4 p "" pm = RT".656:= 258.o:j_ou_le_ kg oK 7..6 pv=RT.el . x 10 .5)(690288) = 4_038 x 10 .T 1) (718.kg 5 joule S2 .359 k Im31 g 7.35 X 10 ) 1/114 '" 0. = 1.en__O .en PI 288 8.5 OA joule kg OK h2 hl ~ Cp 5 joule (T2 .6 x 10 4 4...5) .6186 ( 4 3. P = p"" (Poo J L I/r = 0.en_ T) R 69 P2 .(287) .en..5)(690288) ._  7..35 x 10 0 6 86 k! 3 = (287)(245) = . 1 .4)(287) = 1004.CV (T2 . hencev=P 58 RT .01 X 10 = (287)(259) 11.SI = cp TI ..5404 kg J m T=To  pJ~~1 [ Po =50 ~J 10 5 ~1Io.2857 =~ 0 = p RT p.g m 4 ~=[lJI/r p"" p"..4 kg ° K 287 Cv = ~= rl = 717.884 _ .5 joule 0._."" (1004..
4)(1716) = 6006 ft lb (OA) slug 0 R VI VI (1300)1 ft 1b ·ho=h+ =c T+ .. _ (C 1 )1/7 p iN) 1 (cp _y ( .P 2 2 I 2 sug 7.7 c = p rR = .01 x 105) "" .r 1 (1..95 x 10' 2 N For a~ isentropic process: h = P2 (!!J.8 Let (ho)res = total enthalpy of the reservoir = cp (TQ)res 59 . m 'tT "" P "" (0..=(6006)(480)+ =3.01 x 10 5 = ) 3.) 7= (~1) 7 P2 \.s C1 ) 1/7 ( P )(1/7 )1 _ . I · v.2)(1. <.728 x 106 .1 ( pv r  )117 ( ) (Jy)ir _ r p .1 v pI r 2 't s= 1 (1A)(0.2)(1. .536 X 105 m N 7.1 1 4 .
Hence.01 x 105)(0.10 p". =~2(l0045)(262.+p~=p+p V2 . T..61 02857 Since the flow is isentropic.T)+V. Hence 7.) 247. 110 = constant.2 m/sec 0. it is also adiabatic.h)+V. For an adiabatic flow..819 '(3453422) x 100 = ~ % error = Q80( 345 60 .)2 =342.(ho)e = total enthalpy at the exit = Cp Ie + V.9 ()CYI)i r T P = Tao p". p)+V 2 p '" = 2(1.1 (.Teo Poo _ 0. hQ = constant V= ~2(h".6 ex 0.61~05) +(300. ( J (7ll/Y .' =~2 cp(T". _ P .6)+(300)2 =1345 mJse~ 7.1247.5'_ 262. VZ 2 2 V= 2(p"..
408.53) V2 h+ = constant 2 From Eqs. RT=p/p Combining Eqs.1 (1) From the equation of state.53) can be written as (3) ·~ (p) 1'1 + V2 2 = constant (4) p In the limit ofy + co.55o/~ 432 5 % error = ( 7.6b) and (7. )RT h=cpT= .214) + (300)1 = 432 mJsec 2(1.1 p) Hence.12 V= ~2(1004. (2) h=. (4) becomes 61 .9).v= 7.L(Pl r. (7.5)(262J.01 x 10 )(0. Eq.6103) +(300)2 =408mJsec 0.r.819 432 .7) x 100 = 15.13 From Eq. Eq. (1) and (2). (7 . (7.
As to the question whether Bernoulli's equation is a statement of New10n's second law or an energy equation. the ratio of specific heats for incompressible flow is infinite. we now see that it is both.. constant density flow. i. Hence.e. The principle of conservation of energy is redundant and is not needed. This is why we have stated earlier in this book that incompressible flow is a m:yth. which of course does not exist in nature. namely Bernoulli's equation. For the study of inviscid incompressible flow. we need only to apply the fundamental principles of mass conservation and Newton's second law.. This is just another example of the special inconsistencies associated with the assumption of incompressible flow. Hence. both leading to the same equation.~? v = constant p + '12 P V2 = constant which is Bernoulli's equation. philosophically this author feels strongly that Bernoulli's equation is fundamentally a statement of Newton's second law . For an incompressible flow.+p 2 or. 62 . the energy equation for compressible flow can be reduced to Bernoulli's equation for the case ofy 700.. P . This is how we derived Bernoulli's equation in a very straightforward manner in Chapter 3.it is a mechanical equation. which of course does not exist in nature. the application of the fundamental principles of Newton's second law and the conservation of energy are redundant. However.
7455 P = 0.4)(1716)(3593) = 929.92 (300) = ~76 oK! a* = J.104 and p _0 = 1.2 mlsec M 250 = 0.3 a = J.2 = From Tables: T _0 1.8333 .7455 P Po P p* = 0.2 V2 _C Te = T  ° 2c p = 519  (138'1)2 = 359.4)(287)(230) = ~04 ill/sec] 8.412) = 0.2) = r.RTe = J(1.528)(1.RT = J(1.1 ~ 8.694 atmj p* = p* ~ = (0.4)(287)(300) =V a = = 347.1 04 T = 1.412 T P To = 1.92 = 0.104) = 0.412 P = 1.CHAPTERS 81 a= JJRT =J(1.455 (1.4)(287)(276) = 333 ill/sec 63 ._ = T To T T* = 0.2 oK! po = 1. (1.:~946 atml _0 T* T* T .412 (1.72 347.104 (300) = ~31.2) = 11.3 oR 2( 6006) ae = JJRTe = J (1.
824 attn To = 1.6 _0 P Po P p* = 6.715 .4)(l716)(700) = 1297 ftlsec M= v a = 2983 = 2.1.5 From Tables: ~ = 7. To T T* = 1.4)(1716)(1200) = 1698 ftlsec 11. Po = 7.J.56 atIIi\ a* = .. for the test section flow.058) = 1.7571 M* = ~ = 2983 a * 1698 = 8.528)(12.RT* =.6 (1.4 a= ~.8333) (2.6) = 110.824 and .6) = ~O atIll!  T* T =  T* T _0 = (0.6 P = 6.RT =~(l.M* = ~= 250 a * 333 =r.5 P = 12.5 (1.L = L * P = (0.058 T = 2.8 T = 1.715 T = 1.824 (1) = 7.824 P = 7.058 and T ~= P 125 To = 2.J0.058 (700) = 11441 oR! Po = 12.715 (700) = 11200 DR) '" .3 1297 From Tables: To = 2.5) = 6. 751 8.8 (230) = 414 oK 64 . = P T 1:S" Hence.
Since the flow is isentropic, both po and To are constant throughout the flow. Also, in the reservoir, M ~ 0_ Hence, the reservoir pressure and temperature are
Po = 7.824 atm
8.6
From the Standard Altitude Tables, at 10,000 ft.,
Poo = 1455.61b/fe and T = 483.04 OR
<>0
From Table Al:
For M"O == 0_82; Po = 1.555, ~= 1.134 Po;> T",
ForM= 1:
p
_0
. P
= 1.893,
T
_0
T
= 12
Since the flow is isentropic, Po == constant and To = constant
p=
L~poo =~
Po Poo L89.)
(L555)(1455.6) =11196 Ib/ft11
T=~~T
=_1 (1.134)(483.04)= @56.5°Rj
To Too '"
L2
8.7
From Table A.2:
h
Pl
= 7.72,
!!..2..
PI
= 3.449,
T2
It
=)
_.
)38
,
Po, =9.181, ttvh=0_50391, Po, =0.4601 PI Po,
Hence,
P2 =
_2
p .. pJ = 7.72 (1) = 17.72 atill)
Pl
T2 = T} It = L238 (288) == 1644.5°Kj TI
65
1
=
~
RTI
5
= (1)(1.01 x 10
)
= 1.222 kg/m3
P
(287)(288)
P2
=
!!..2..
PI
PI
= 3.449 (1.222) = &.21 kg/m31
S2
= s} =
~
R
Po, en Po,
= (287)
.
joule en 0.4601 = 222.8  
kg OK
8.8
P ~
p]
= 1033. From Table A.2,
M1, = 3.~,
T
_2
T}
= 2.679, ~ = 12,06
PI
p
Thus,
From Table AJ, for M1
= 3.0, _0_, == 2.8
T]
T
T02 = To, = ; ' Tl = 2.8 (518.9) = 11453°Rj
I
T
po? = Po! PI = (12.06) (1) = 112.06 atIl1l PI
8.9
Po, Pc,
=·e·(S2sJ)lR=e{J99.5)1287=0.499
From Table A2:
1M! = 2.51
66
8.10
T2 From Table A2: T]
=
2.799 and M2
=
0.469)
~
Hence,
T2 =  T1 = 2.799 (480) =
TI
a2 = .Je1.4)(1716)e13435)
T,
1343.5~
=
1796.6 ftfsec
V 2 = M2 a2 = (0.4695)(1796.6) = \843.5 ft/secl From Table AI, for M2 = OA695, ~ = 1.044 T2
T
A/' =
~yRT; = .J(lA)(1716)(l169)
= 1676 ft/sec
. V 84"'2 .;J.) 10 ) ~031 ~M2• 1676 .
a;
. 8.11
Is the flow subsonic or supersonic? For sonic flow, ~ = ._1_= 1.893, which is . p ~28 higher than 1.555. Hence, the flow is subsonic. From Table AI, for 
Po _
P
 1.55), M  0.82.
. 
_
a = .jyRT = .J(1.4)(287)(288) = 340.2 mlsec
v = Ma =
8.12
(0.82)(340.2)
=
278.9 mfsec
The ratio 7712.8 = 3.645 is larger thart 1.893. Hence o the flow is supersonic. This 2116 means that a normal shock wave exists in front of the nose of the Pi tot tube. From Table A.2, for
67
01 x lOs = 1..51742 .1(1.278.56)(1116.56 2116 ' I al = )JRT1 al =.~8 /0 .13 (a) p = L RT = 1.002376 slug/fe (b) p =  = = RT v~ .6 ftlsec VI = MJ = (1.555.821I6) Q002376 ~ 21705 ftfsec INCORRECT /0 error .303 .6) = /1742 ftlsecl 8.t( 1742 8.1.2170. 0/ P(p" p) p ~ 2(7712.~4 .22 k fro3 g (287)(288) v ~ ~ 2(p" P p) ~ 2(1. 0.4)(1716)(519) = 1116. P 2116 (1716)(519) .0)(1.9 . (2): 68 .01 x 10') 1.14 P 2 == 1+ 2y PI r+l (M~ 1)= r+l+2r M~ 2r = lr+2r M~ (1) r+l r+l (2) M2 2 = • 1+[(rl)/2]M~ r M~ (rl)/2) Working with the expression inside the parenthesis ofEq.645M = 1. 690/ I( 278.60~ .8 = 3.22 ~ 303 mlsec INCORRECT 0/ error .9 .7712.
= 3. (8. Cy+l)2M2 2 I.6 ftlsec a".2.99°R V".1)+2(r1)+(r. (rl) 1 + (y .15 At 80.99) = 967. = 2112 60 (88) = 3097.1) [ 2+(r.048 (389.7 oR 69 . = P P P [ . 4r M~2 (r1) 2 4y M~2 (y1) (y +lfM~ 4y Mi .80) J PI Pz PI 4y My 2 (yl) 8. 2 = (1 +2r+1) M.1 1+ _'_M2 =1 + .9 ftlsec M".9 From Appendix A: ForM".99) = 1188.1)/2 1+(r~I) M~ =1+(y1) 2r M. 4r M~ 2(yl) 4y M~ 2 (r1) _ 4y M~ +(r 2r+l) M.048 T'" = 3.6 = 3. ])'1[1Y+2r y+l 7 M2] which is Eq. (4). =3. T _0 To. = .1) M~ ] . (2).048 To = 3.JiRT = .2 (r 1) Combining Eqs.2 2 2 l+(r~l) M~ r M~ (r. we have: (4) ~ = ~ .vI r.= 389. T".l.':"''~ _ 4r M~ 2(r. and (1)./(1.2 967.1)2M.000 fi_..4)(1716)(389. = 3097.
000 K. but still plenty high. In such a chemically reacting gas. or Anderson.000 K is a partially ionized plasma. 2 ed. In reality. because long before the air would reach this temperature. 1989.1 (36i 300 2 35.18 Use Eq.40) is not valid for such a chemically reacting flow. which means that Eq.17 The temperature at the stagnation point is the total temperature in the freestream. the temperature at the stagnation point on the Apollo was close to 11. Moo = [2J 8. this equation becomes: 11. See for example Anderson. .2)(300) = i78.40) For To = 11. nd . because the total temperature is constant across the normal shock.000 K.40).648 70 . Air at 11.060Ig This is an ungodly high temperature. we have To = (260.000 = 1+ r. Since T co = 300 K. 2000. (8. the specific heats are not constant. (8. T co = 300 K.From Appendix B. much lower than our estimate above. and Mro = 36. . reprinted by the American Institute of AerOnautics and Astronautics. . From Eq. McGrawHill. it would chemically dissociate and ionize. techniques much different than those discussed in this book must be used.67 = 648 Y . 8.. (8. It is also incorrect. Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics. McGrawHIll. 1990. Modern CompressIble Flow. For the analysis of high temperature. chemically reacting flows.
or. return to Eq. insert y = 1. To=36.7 y= ~= IL0551 648 In order to use Eq. (8. and calculate To.055. 683.OOOKj 71 .64 L.=36.055. To double check this. or.40) to estimate a reasonably valid stagnation temperature for the Apollo. (8AO).64 (300)= Ill. we have to use an "effective gamma" of 1.
_. Po.70 _ MOl 05774_ M2 . = Po.. Mn = 0. T2 =1..2.e) sin(30 17. for Ml = 4: Po.8 0 h = 559 Tan ~ = 559 Tan 41.7209.65 x 104) = 11. for Mn = 2: P2 = 4.8.65' X 104 ) = \2.7) fITil From Table A..193 X PI From the 8I}M diagram: 8 = 17.687. PJ = (0. POi 'T. PI I Po.1 ~ = Sinl ( ~) 15 = 41.= sin(f3 .5) (2. = 151. = 4. PI 6 72 .9 x 10 N/m4 Po. PI = (4.2 Pi ~ Po. To.7209)(151.CHAPTER 9 9.8 0 h= 500 f1! SS9 Ff From Table A.5774 1 P2 = 12.8)(2.l. 10 N/m~ 5 = 0.5.
80) holds only for a nonnal shock. then Eg. depends only on Mn. .80). (8. (8.78) are replaced by M" 2 and Mn . using M n . (8. through Eq. changes across an For these reasons. P1 9. ' the total pressure ratio Po.4 To CORRECTLY calculate Po. Po.78) does not relate M2 to M.93 Consider an oblique shock. M n. (8. . in Eg.78) for an oblique shock. then both M2 and M. not M n2 • Because Eq. For such a case. not MOl r~"" In the derivation ofEq. ). (1) above.78). Since Po. Po 2 I P2 Depends on M 2 . (:o:J / A ____ "" x Depends on normal Mach number upstream of the shock. Therefore.8 73 . : Mnl = Ml sii1 ~ = 3 sin 36. (8. for an oblique shock depend onlv on M n . Po. It can not be used for an oblique shock. the derivation ofEg. This holds only for a nOIII1& shock.2 to determine obligue shock. in Eg. clearly Po.78) cannot be used for the derivation of Po i I PI for an oblique shock. we related M2 directly to M. However. even with MJ replaced by M n. (8.8T = 1. is a valid column. when using Table A. (1) Depends on actual Mach number behind the shock M 2 . = e(S2s1)1R then . but the column giving P O2 is not valid. (8.1 Po. for an oblique shock (it relates Mn 2 to Mn . . Ifwe wish to use Eq. where P2/Pl and T2/T. . On the other hand.
= 1. ~o 4.67 9.2. 0.8127)(36.73)(1) = 129.85 . for M n.I.613 (1 ann) = 13. Pl atIlll (b) The INCORRECT calculation of P 0.8: Po.6165 1[. Mn l = 0.8. PJ = 4.for M n.' (0 error = 29. Po! =36.a terri b ly 1arge error. Po.532. would be as follows: From Table A. P2 = 3.67 (1 atm) = 4.5 From the e~~M diagram: I~ = 461 From Table A:2. = 1.85 .4.67 atm. PI PI = 3.8: Po" =4.613 atn1! 74 .' . 2 Totally VV"RONG Pl . ~ PI = (0. for Mn I = 1.73 PI From Table A.Po.67 PI Po Po. T2 = 1. = 0... for MI = 3: Po. " PI I P2 = 1'1.From Table A2.613.67 x 100 = 53· 9).8127 Po.
L .54~ 9.6 From the El[3M diagram. 2 = 0.5) 11.2.60 From Table A.7°.327 pmax = l2. PI PI = 5.4601: M n .5°_ From Table A.327 (1 atm) = 15. for Mn = 2.7°1 From the ElI3M diagram: [3 M n.22.M2 = Mn.17: E. Sin(p .2: P0 = 0. = = 48° = MJ sin [3 = 3.. PI = 5.8) = 0_6165 = Sine 46 .5039.327 atlTIl and the maximum pressure occurs when a = 128.5 sin 48° 2. shock detachment occurs when a> 28_]<.. [3 = 64. Po~ 75 ._ 'W'hen a = El = 28.
Po~ Po:> 9.8 (1 atm) = 151.2.37 atIDI Po.27 Po. PI From Table A. POI = 151.2) From Table A. Po. for M2 = 1.7 atmj b) 76 . = Po. PI I = 151.648 Sin(j3 .8 21.30. Po.876 Poz From Table AJ.5) = 115.8 From Table AJ.5: Po~ Po:> = 76.876)(0. . for Ml = 4.27)(0.648..2·.P0 2 = 151.4601)(76.8 atm.B) Sine48 . P0 2 Po =0.5039 = 1. for M = 3. Po . for Ml = 4: Po. = 0. P""' = (0.07 = 1130.M2 = Mn> = 0. = 0. Po = Po.8 PI Hence.1388 Po.1388(15L8)=2L07atm POI I Loss in total pressure = Po.
for M ". c) = 151.3° 77 .6236 Po.21: Po. for M2 = 2.3) = 2.24= il04. From the 138M diagram: 132 = 47. Po.24 atm Po. Po Po Pc>. = 2S Po.21 From Table A.e) sin(3 8.847. M2 = 2.513 M2 = M n.7 .]0 =2.Po. = 0. = 0.6236)(0. Po. .499.From the 813M diagram. Po.8)(1 atm) = 47. Po.21. = 0. = . = 0. Po.' _ 1 Pl = (0. = 0.=4 From part (b) above.5 From Table A2.25.' . PI ' Loss in total pressure = P<>l . = MJ sin 13 = 4 sin 38.6atm! M.2.4 99)( 151.513 sin(j3 . Mn . Mn .499.
6625 sin(47. 63.947)(0. M n) Po.6625 ~~~=lA44 From Table A.3 20) = 0.Po.~C! 0 1 I / ':>:r~)>'::)"~'.3° = 1. a series of oblique shocks followed by a nOlTIlal shock yields a smaller total pressure loss than a nOlTIlal shock by itself. = 0.For the second shock: Mn = M2 sin [32 = 2. a system of oblique shocks. 9. = 151. for M "z == 1. Po.9 / ! ! ( I !. Hence.8877.947 Po.68=188.0.21 sin 47.8) Po • = Loss in total pressure = Po. for M3 = 1.624 1 From Table A.624: Po. Po . po" = !'2 Po.68 atm Po.1 aM CONCLUSION: To decrease a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds via a shock system. 0.'f 78 .2.863. ~PI Po.444: Po" . PI = (0. .8877)(0.499)(151.2. followed by a normal shock is a more efficient means of slowing a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds than a single normal shock itself.
673)(3. P2 T1 = 0.· for M n] = 1. for M2 = 2.6165 sin(34.2) = 2. 131 = 34. <1>.613)(1 atm) = /9.673.8°1 P3 = P3 Pl PI P2 PI = (2.8]) For the Reflected Shock: From the 813M diagram.2° = (3.e = 44 18.66 atml 79 .24 sinCS] .361. ' M.2) = ~ Note: The fact that M3 and Mn! are equal is just a coincidence.532.56: PJ = 2.2 == M2 sin r:t2 l' = 2.] 12 = 1.2) sin 34.'2 = 0.2. sin(/31 .24 sin 44° = 1. 13 = 1.6165 M2 = M "2:::: 0.2° = 1.8: P2 p] = 3613 ~ 'T .2 . = 1.8.2Jor M n .B) = 0.6809 M3 = M n.From the 813M diagram.24 and 8 = 18.8 From Table A.2°: 132 = 44° M 1l.56 From Table A. M n .= 132 .2 =\25.6809 sin(44 18.
= Po.8)(630) = k05°Rj 2.8 Tr However: P01 = P0. Pl = 7.2. tf'.!'.2 and T0.824)(0.7) = 15.3: ForM l =2.38° + 26. Thus o.149)(2116) = ~.38° = e + Vj = 23. Ir = (.76° Hence.01 From Table A. for M.9. = T .477 atilll PI 80 ...38° = 49.73 (7.Iz = 3.824)(0.) (1.l.. To) = = 1.10 ~ ~O.! pz = .7olm 7.ll.. =.537 x (1716)(405) Po. = Rl..8 10=4 slug/fi31 = .149 atllll T2 = l To) Ti T0. V2 VI =26.7) = 10.G 30"R / I From Table A. ~ POl PI PI = (~) J6. = 2: Po.824. = POt PI = (7. P2 (0.
for M2 = 2. 9.11 From Table A.23.8)(630) = 11134 ~l 0 Rj From Table A. for MJ = 1.58.12 14.9 = 31.1.1306 2.47 .= 47.3 8° = \3.9: v2.3. M2 = P2 From Table A.47 Referenced to the upstream direction: Angle of forward Mach line = /11 = 130 0 1 Angle of rearward Mach line = ~2 8 = 19.27 = ~3.To> = T<'I T = . VI = 14.127 Po.91 0 1 Note: The rearward Mach line is below the upstream direction for this problem.521 8] . for Po.6.58: POI PI = 4.79 e = V2 . = 31. /12 = 19. = 30° For M2 = 3.1Jor M\ = 1. P2 = ~ P2 = ~ EL = PI P2 (4.VJ = 47.27.' ) TJ = (1.127) (_1__) 0.79 9.6 From Table A.3: for MJ = 2.
Why? Because there is an entropy increase across the shock wave.' = 36.73°.1=2. PD = 2. . .04.6 = 38..: Po. p) 1) Po.2.30.= 6.541. V2 = 8. P3 *.73.4 T2 Po P2 From Table A. To. .4: . Mn 1 =Mjsin = 53.128 V3 = 8. .1 ° ~=3sin53. = 16.. _ I PI .. for MnI T " = 2.128 + 30.6) From Table A3: For M2 = 1.23 PJ T3 Clearly.6°. Mn = 0. = 2..From the e~M diagram: ~ For M.48. _J. and l'vh *.37. 1. = 3 and 8 = 30. M3 ~.8) 05231 =1. sin(fJ .553.481 ~ From Table AI: For M j = 3.37 sin(53.M.' = 0.8 For M3 = 2.Ph T3 T\.531 = 2.73° = From Table A3: For V3 = 38.56. even after it is brought back to its original direction. M2M n. * 82 . which permanently alters the thermodynamic state of the original flow.l.
13 . POI PI .41 + 5° = 46. PI = 19.4F + e = 41.6 and 8 = 5°. for MI = 2. / (a) For MJ = 2.16 From Table A2: PJ = 1. for MJ = 2. 2 83 .41 0 + M2 = 2.5° = 1.9.0352)(1)(19.forM2 =2.403 Pl From Table AI. = M t sin /3 = 2. POI = (0.95 From Table A3.6 sin 26.83 POl FromTableA1.6: Po.7022 Po.95) = 0.83: =28.5° M". r PI M2 .4 P2 pz PI = pz Po.6: V2 = V1 VI = 41.13 = 26.
.6: Po. = MJ sin ~ = 2. for M2 = 337: Po.148 . PI Po.) ~~P2 PI y Ml ..24 84 .4)(2. for MJ = 2.33 P2 P2 = P2 P02 Po.95 PI From Table A3. for MI = 2.6 sin 59.=.6)2 ~ ~ Cd = C. sin a sin 5° sm a = c( .0.95)=0315 63. =" M J sin ~= 2. Pt P2) 2 (2. . cosa cos! So = l':02!( M o.403 .529 PI From Table A.012 10 9\ cosa cos5° M n .452 .6) 2 (1.. ~ Cd = 7 (P3 P. = 63..2: P3 = 2.= 0.ct = 2 2 (1.529 _ 0315) cos 150 = (1.6: VI = 41. sin a sinl5° = 0.33) = c£ = (P3 Pt cos a. Pt)l Pt 2 y M~ = (_1_1 (1)(19.9° = 1.41 ° From Table AI. = 19.525 From Table A.1.7022) cos 5° = ~ .4)(2.6 sin 35.3° = 2.
25 c l  Y M~ 2 (P3 P2) cos ex . = ( 1 ) (1)(19. Po.95) = 0.vJ=4L41 0 PI PI Po.4)(2.687 . PI 275.0. =19.0725 PI Po. 2 (5.25 P2 P2 = ~ POl PO.P3 =5.687.. Po.0725) = (1.14 85 .95. = 275.6)2 m 9.
76° + 20° = 74.733.78: Po} = 407.4.08 1 P 4 =..83 P3 FOT Forregion 4: Mn =MJ sin ~ =3 sin 44 =2. = 0. = 0.73: Pl For M2 = 3. . = 5.Forregion 2: Vl = VI + e = 49.25) = 1.69° 7 Ms = 2.76° 7 M3 = 4. and Po.165 P4 For region 5: V5 = V4 + e = 18.78 M3 = 4. POl = 54. = Vl + e = 54. Thus. =.27.76° + Ml = 327 ForM t =3: Po.69.6835 Po. sincp . . M PI n. M4 = Mn 05643 . . Po. =36.76° + 5° = 54.5643.76 P2 Forregion 3: v}.8) sine44 . Vs = 18.48 86 .69° + 20° = 38.881.
~ (_1_) (1)(0.516 .73) = 0. Po. c jJ .6835)(36. = (_1_) (1)(36. c/2 = cos 100 f !. ..4)(3)2 C Cf= 0.56 Let f = length of each face of the diamond wedge. Po.P3 cos 25° ce = 2 f.881 PI Ps Ps Po. = 16_56 Ps Pressure ratios P2 PI = P2 Po. Po.0.73) = = = 1. =. Po. _ c 1 = 0.418! 87 .0.881.e cos 25 0 + ps .P2 1! cos 50 . PI 16.823 However.5077) = 10..823)(0. PI 54.e cos 5° . Po.76 P4 = 4.[(4.516 Pl Po.6707 Po.5077 2 cos 10 0 cr = (0.6707) cos 5°] (1. Po.09) cos 25 0 + (1. L' = P4 .
f SiD 25° Cd = 2 2!:.I~''(U .6707) sin 5°] (lA)(3) C Cd f ~ = 0. ::\ /30...= 0. VI = 0.0.P2 . then 130. "IS • 88 .45 ~rl 2 2 yl 2 Since.5077) = ~ c 9.€ sin 5° .J0.09) sin 25° + (1.881. (9A2) in the text.333 (0.516 ..277 rad = 1.333 .0 = e= max V r VI = l13oA501 H..f sin 5° . From Eq.45 .P3 .0. = +l lim{~ y 1 tan ~l y 1 ( ~·M y + 11 2 ) tan ~I 1 2 ~M2 1 } 1C "0 = jY+l 1C .f sin 25° + ps . [(4.D' = P4 .15 The maximum expansion would correspond to M2 ~ 00.. for Ml = 1.=I ~/"..( ~Y+1 1) Jr =2.
1 (P2 _ P3) PI PI ~ .. M3 = 5. with Cd based on frontal area.J 2 r M2 I (~: .6 (nearest entry) 89 . PI Also. Mn. M2 M .786 sin(151. for MJ = 5 and e = 5°.9. V3 = V2 + e = 71.805.303 From Appendix B.±(r~M~ 3 2. referring to Figure 9.~~) To calculate P2/P]' we have. (D')cyl = q"" S Cd = qoo d(1 )/(4/3) = 4 "3 (d) q".l = Ml sin 13 = 5 sin (l5.2 sin(p It B) 0.16 F or the cylinder. the flow is expanded through an angle of1 0° . for Mn. for M2 = PI 4.27. t Thus.48.10.38 0 Hence.l = 1. t = d and q". Hence.13 = 15. P2 = 1. vi = 71.P) = 1.83 + 10= 81.302.83 (nearest entry). To calculate P3 . 3(d) qoo 4 (P2 pJ However. F~o~ Table C.5) = 4. = L PI MI2 2 (D')cyl (D'L . For the dimensional wedge airfoil.48.
at hypersonic speeds. Po. = 1.17 The supersonic flow over a flat plate at a given angle of attack in a freestream with a given Mach number. PO. Thus. p~.cyt = (D )w (P2 _P3) PI Pl y Ml 3 2 2 = 3 = 117. ® . PJ = 529. PJ From Appendix B: For M n..From Appendix A: For Ml = 5.5 PI Po. Mao.. )!>o ~ . Po. = (_1_) (1)(0.5) (L4)(5) 2 2 Note: TIlls is why we try to avoid blunt leading edges on supersonic vehicles.~ (1. is sketched below. blunt leading edges are necessary to reduce the aerodynamic heating.1 For M3 = 5. • L~~·CL . PI 1037 Hence.9794)(529.) 9.1) = 0. Po.0. r .9794 POI P3 = P3 Po.6.. (D') . (However. .805 ..!:¥   b 90 . Po.303. = 1037 ~2 Po = 0.
line ab is a slip line. Use the following iterative approach: 1. To calculate the trailing edge shock and expansion waves. and the flow direction dov·mstream. P4 = P5. It is tIus boundary condition that fixes the strengths of the expansion wave and the shock wave at the trailing edge. Calculate the strength ofthe t~ailing edge expansion wave for a local expansion angle of (a$).e. Repeat steps 24 until P4 = P5.This gives. i.. the entropy in region 4 is different than in region 5 because the flows over the top and bottom of the plate have gone through shock waves of different strengths. When this condition is satisfied. If they are different. The boundary condition that must hold across the slip line is constant pressure. ' 5. This gives a value for P5. and due to overall momentum considerations.. among other quantities.The flow direction downstream of the leading edge is given by line abo The flow direction is below the horizontal '(below the direction ofM". the iteration has convergedc and the ti:ailing edge flow is now determined. Also. Calculate the strength of the trailing edge shock for the local deflection angle (a$).. 91 . a value ofp43. Assume a value for $_ 2.) because lift is produced on the flat plate. the downstream flow must be inc11ned slightly downward. assume a new value of$. 4_ Compare P4 and ps from steps 3 and 4.
4t.5. From Table A.3 Ahead oftbe nOIDlal shock in front of the Pitot tube~ Po. 4 92 .7) = 7792 ftlsee Me a" = (2.02 x 10 N/m 5 2 Po.00195 slug/fi31 RTe (1716)(252. !Me = 2.31 Po. CHAPTER 10 10. 10. To.4)(1716)(252.02 x lOS P 0.J(1. Pe To For isentropic flow. = 2.l.RTe Ue = = . (_1_) (5 atm) = 10.3)(779. = 8. = Po = 2.92 X 10 = 0. = 12.182. we see that !Me = 1. for AJA* = 2. To = constant and po = constant.7)  ae = J. and Ae/A* =11.2) = 11792 ftlse~ 102 Po Po = 1 0.193.1 From Table A.1151.4 atrnj 125 pe = ~ = (OA )(2116) = 10.3143 = 3.4416 2.I. Hence~ PDc: =p0 = ~ and T =T0 = 1520°81 ~~ 01:' p" = ~ po = Po.058.
2 R D To u* = a* = .J.2: Me = 2. .fZT* and p* = _PRT* Hence. * • ill =  P* A * .From Table A.J(1.007519 slug/£f T* =  T* To = (0.1 M*2 = r + 1 T* . r+ I)YJ(. Po ( 2 .007519)(1020) _ .4)(1716)(4332) = 1020 ftlsec • ( 4 ) slug m=p*u*A*=(0. 93 . then To = 1 + r . M* = I.634)(0. =0.0361 lOA '" P (5)(2116) m = p*u*A*' po= _ 0 = > RTo (1716)(520) = 0. ft' slug p* = L* Po po = (0.J.>'1) 2 P* Thus. 2 = .fZT * RT* = P *A* 'r RT* "1/1 Since.01186.01186) = 0.213144 sec '" 105 m = p*u*A* u* = .65 From Table AI: AelA* =\3.833)(520) = 433.
4 10.213 slug (1716) 2. r m.4 sec which is the same as obtained in Problem 10.4) J520 (~)6 = 0.(1_0_5_80_9~)(~0=.!)/(rl) ( K ) VR r+l  2 10.6 po = 5 atm = 5(2116) = 10580 Ib/ft2 A * = 41144 = 0..I (r·.m= ·* L R • _ PoA * A* (+ 1)!(r+ Y2 1 C7 )I2 1) ~ Jf: Of.7 94 .8):.02778 fi ~ = .O_27_7. (1..
5) = 337. A* 1M! = 0..: = ~fRTe .01 X 10 5 ) pe (287)(283.016 = 283.947 = 1.5b Po Pt = 1.. Since Ae = 1. hence the throat Mach number.016 Te Te = To/1. 1.4)(287)(283.5) = = 1.8 Note: The equation for ill given:in Problem 10. The throat size is larger than that for sonic A* At flow.016 = 288/1. _t A A = _I A * = _1 (2.= ~ RTe = (0.28)(337.947)(1.34 _ A" A * 1.056)(0. then At > A *. for At = 1. the throat Mach number is not sonic.5 m/sec lie = Me a e :=0 (0..5) = 94.3.176 k 1m3 g .186 10.947) = 1.First.166)= 1.28.056: Me = 0. for P _0 = Pe .843 atUlj 10.056: Me = 0. = ~1_..616 < A" = 2.5 m/sec 95 .056 From Table A..166...J(1. i.. T. ~ = 1.34.l. for & = 1. • ill =PeAeu" From Table A.166 P.. Mb is subsonic.5°K .e. .616 _e A From Table AI.. Pe 0.28 and Ae/A* = 2..5 can not be used here because the flow is not choked.186 Pt = II P" p" ~ P" = (_1_) (1. E£. check to see if the flow is sonic at the throat.
75 = 1. A * 153 Since At > A *. (_1_) (2. ".999"" LO.94 Al ~ A. _1_ = 1. At = A *.129. some flow will occur at the throat. then the flow is completely subsonic. for Po Pe Ae = 1. from From Table AI: Me = 03 and AcfA* = 2. if we run the same calculation as in parts (a) and (b) above. and the flow is precisely sonic at the throat It is subsonic everywhere else.9 (a) Po P.333. Since pe = 0. Pe A* _. clearly whenpe is reduced below 0. 1.0.4848)(945) = ~3. 0. Hence. = PeAeue = (1.Ae = At (:J " = (0. _1_ = L064. 0.129: Me=0. Pe (b) Po Pc = If4 = 0. (c) From the above results.3)(1.42 and Ae =1.176)(0.75 atm is far above the supersonic exit pressure.866 atm.I A A A (1) (1. we suspect that a normal shock wave exists within the nozzle. fOT Po = 1. from the above IMe = 0.529) = _I _" A * A" A * = _ = 0.064.53 Hence. Table A.886 From Table AI. we find: Po Pe = (_1_) 0. and the nozzle will be choked.33. Note that.035.4848 m 2 . From Table AI.for Pc> = 1. Hence.421. No shock wave exists.539.31. we have = 1.88 kg/seq 10.333.l.035) = 1.127 A* 96 .616) = 0. A * A.
with a consequent change in both po and A * across the shock. R'.J. There must be a shock wave inside the nozzle. A2* = sonic thIoat area for the flow behind the shock.. . the abovecalculation is meaningless..o:~· F/6W will> 17~=A. P 0. then A* Ae A * 153) clearly the flow can not be completely isentropic.At = At Ac = (1.. Instead. Since it is impossible for At < A *.* Note that POi < PDt which comes from the shock wave theory discussed in the text. = total pressure for the flow ahead of shock.7366. Key equation: 97 .024..{. F/OUf Shock . set up the following trialanderror process as follows: Assume a normal shock exists inside the nozzle.. say at a location where A 2!At = 1. = total pressure for the flow behind shock. (_1_1 Po . I A.127) = 0.r ~~~~~/~ Flow w/if. Let: Al * = sonic throat area for the flow ahead of the shock. Hence.
53) ( 1 ) (1.l.1356 . move the shock wave slightly dOVvnstream.' = 0. for Retuming to Eq.I. = 0. A z A2 ~ * 1204 From Table A.(1) To :frod the values of the ratios in Eq.47.66 . for Ml = 1.A~ Az* At A z = A" . (1): A = 1.6874: A2 =1.2 for MJ Po 154: M2 = 0.9166)(1 atm) = 0..6512 Po. . A . From Table AI: Ml = 1.204: MJ = 1. .54 .1018)= 1.163 Pc Po pe = Pc Po.' = 1.1018 A* . Hence.66: _. Po = (_1~) (0. for M2 = 0.6512: _2_ A2 * = 1. (1): From TableA.6874.4: A2 Me = 0.=(1.  From Table AI. From Table A. M2 = 0.forM2 =0. ' 1163 This is slightly higher than the given pe = 0.. = FromTableA.788 atm.75. Po From Table A.4 A.I for A2/AJ* = 1.I.872. POl Po.9166 Po.
75 . = 1... POI ' = (_1_) (0. (d) Po.301 _ 1.204) 0.178 P.  From Table AJ: A.' = 1. Po Po.1862 Interpolate: .335: Me = 0. 0.8838)(1 atm) = 0.49.. (1): pe = .From Table AI.301 _ (1. Assume A2/Ar = 1.735 = 1.8838 POI A From Table AJ: ~ = 1. for this case.274 (1. 53 )(_1_) 1. = 1. = 0.872)(1 atm) = 0.EL Po. pe calculated agrees \vith pe given.1862 A2 * Po From Eq.154 atm = 6. we have a completely isentropic expansion. 1 '\ P Po pc = _e .0. .63 From Table A2: M2 = 0.353 Po From Table A 1: Me = 0.788.75 atm Po.0.735 atm.6596.' Po = ( I (0. Thus.274 A. ' 1. for Ae = 1. 1.53.49 .178/ Hence. Po.50. = I atm Pe 0.Po.1265) = 1. .274 From Table AI: MJ = 1. Hence. which is precisely the given area ratio of the nozzle. where. Po.735 Thus.1265 A2 * ~= A2 * Ae ~ A2 == At A2 A2 * 0. 99 . A* . A2 = 1.
for A. 0. = 2.6339)(0.10.430Ib/fe=27.12 From Table AJ.8: .5 From Table A~2.) P = ~ P = l( 0.448) = 16. 1.14)(2116)=~7.RT* = .833 (1333) = 11] OaR = a* = . e = 20° and ~ = 41.5: Po. .J. = 2. From Table ~=~ A* ~ . T = 519°R p. A A* From TabJe A.0251) = 0. ~.2129 Po.0159 slug!ft?T* = 0.10 From the e~M diagram.J(1.79.14. for Me = 3.I.= Po.6. = 0. . we have M. Me = 3.4)(1716)(1110) 1633 ftlsec=u* ]00 .8 atIll/ Po 0.251 slu Ift3 (1716)(1333) g p* = (0.568 Pe Te At standard sea level: P = 2116 Ib/ft2.14atIll/ Pc = po ~= RTo 57430 = 0.2129 (1.. 10." = 27. for Me = 2. Po To Pe=(27. I.8°. for _e = 6.
6)(0.319 x 107 Po)(1428.R=RlM = 8314 = 519.5)(0.6X3273) . = 0.1348 ft 1 A* At! ' From E q. sec 287. A] * PO z 2 lor From T abie A .2) or.13 m = p*u*A* (1) Also. wIth m = 287.5 Ae = Ao A* = (3.j(l2)(519. 101 .6 16 joule kg K *=_ P* P = Po Po (2+ )r~l p r 1 ____ = 0 (_ RTo 22 2) 0\ · .6)(3600)' po p T* TT (_2_) (3600) * +1 T = = o 0 = 3273 K y u* = a* = ~iRT* = . 0).0 =3319xIO7 (519.~ = 1428.: J:: M e = 2 .0385) = \0.38) In text: A" = 2 A2 * = Po..2 = (3.6 m/sec .3895 10.A I * = ~= P *u * 1 =\00385 (0. 8: Po. (10 .0159)(1633) fel From Table AI: AJA * = 3. kg Hence.. from Eq.2 .
po = 3.54 atIllj 0394 0.394 102 .01 x 10 x = 130 atIlll 10.14 We assume the flow velocity is low at the diffuser exit.. PB P" po = = 1..2 (0. = 1. hence the total pressure at the exit is 1 atm.394 Po. for M = 3.. . Poz Po.2 Po.3283.3283) = 0.or./p".. 11 D = PB I P" = 1.029 1~6 1. = 0.EL = _1_ = 12.2 p". From Appendix B.
y) = (0.. ~o = 1.7r(70) e2'J(O.6 =10.6 ftlsec M".1   140 1t e2"'.779)(2} sin [27t(.223 x 106 ( ft '12 2 . ~ se~ a = 1106 ftlsec M= V = 781.M_ ysm (2nx) · .2.6269. + y :1 (V2) = 1. at (x.2 ftlsec From Table A.CHAPTER 11 11.(.6269 ThUs.779)(02) cos [27[(.j(1A)(1716)(560) = 1160 ftlsec a2 = a.079 T T"" To = 1..6)2 = 1.6 ftlsec 0. 0. aDO = 700 1116.2)] = 765.079 (519) = 560 0 R ao = ~JRTo = .J(IA)(I716)(519) = 1116. ae = ~.079 T~ = 0. = V".6 = 0. for Moo = 0.2) u= 700 + 2.RT = .779 v = 140 7t e21t(.7067t a 1106 103 .2)] == 157..I.2)(781.345 x 106 '.J 1.
....6292](054) .4 (.7067 = Po P = 1. incompressible flow. T.3 (b) Cp = C P. To To:> = 1.. from Fig.067) /1.933 at1l1l 11.75 = 10.M2 .ata=5°.. for M = 0.6269: E£. 054 104 ..054= .. p". = 1.) = 10.5 are for lowspeed.5.400..3065)(1 atrn) P = £ ~ poo = Po p"" 1. .+ ( "" ~ " '" l+~lM: 2 J = .079 For M = 0.70631 C == p 0. c = f ~1~M~ c'o = ~1(0.8146 2 Cp = Fo..8146+ [0. 4. Hence.From Table AI." . .6f 0..3364(1..9381 11. at a=5°._ ..2 The results of Fig. M2 C '1.101 (1..3065. 1+0..' _08 146 + [ 0.!. . T = 1.3364 J(~54) . 4.
683 105 . 11.574 0. Of the three.5 0.447 0.473 0513 0. C p = 10.43 0.6 0. experience has shown the KannanTsien rule to be more accurate.7 0.4 For the pressure coefficient on the airfoil: 03 0.8 0.77631 Note the differences: There is a 17% discrepancy between the three compressibility corrections.4 0.
G/Cli.fn 0.0 0.. 2 . O.J~r7' .1.S O.7 106 .4 " Pro/Jdll.0.
then p at the minimum pressure point is clearly P~r· l p".5 "When M = Mer. ".86.621 . • .4)(05)2 ~ Check: Using Eq. 1 r (p ) L= p". F or M 0 5 ~ = 1.58) C p = 2 r 1 l+M 2 '" 2}r~1 r M~ ( I+Y. 0=: Per = (P<f)(~) P".5i 02(05) 2)'·.7316 c p 2 =(0.621 = 0.186 p..= For M = 0.6 From Appendix A.8 11. Evaluated Evaluated at M =1 at M = 0.528)(1.86i _ 1 = t:::D] It checks! 107 .At r.11.8051 .53 [( 11++02(0. Po P"" . p" P = 1. 2 M:.IM' 1 lj = 2 (L4)(0.524) = 10. p" Ip"" = p"/p = L186 1.5 ] 1.73161)= IT531 (1.A = (0. p". (11.
Ma. Cp.9969 For the case of part (c) where Moc. = 1.045 From the PrandtlGlauert rule.(0.61. again using the PrandtIGlauert rule. note that or. which corresponds to this value of Cp.3)2 1.o at point A from the information in Figure 11.11.3)2 =0.258 To find the local Mach number. c P.M:.139 PA Thus. c = p.A  ~1.064 ForMA = 0.064 1) (1.o=Cp.A 2 (1.= 0.7 First.045)~1(0.A.o = 0. 108 .435: . The actual pressure coefficient is where PA p"" = PA ~ Po p".139 = _1. Cp. From Appendix A (interpolating between entries for more accuracy for this problem).61/ = _ 1.5(a).4)(0.A ~lM! =(1. calculate Cp.9969 ~1.& = 1. ~ p".
6723 2 However. for ~ = 1. From Appendix A. given the numbers in Figure 1 L5(a). p". PA . the flow can move only upwards or downwards. PA = PA (Poo == 0. the numbers in Figure 11. r M~Cp. of the way of the cylinder.4)(0. Thus..258) + 1 = 0. the freestream Mach number of the sphere is higher in order to achieve sonic flow on the sphere .e. 109 .61 is 1. PA = PA ~ where ~ forM"" = 0.i. Hence. Po p". MA = PA ILoll This is close enough.912.~= p". the critical Mach number is higher.it can move not only upward or downward but also sideways. 1.61)2(1. the flow over a sphere is threedimensional.286 p". This means it must greatly accelerate to get out. = 0523 ~ = 1.912.286 Hence.8 There is a threedimensional relieving effect for the flow over a sphere. In contrast. This extra degree of freedom means that the flow does not have to speed up so much in flowing over the sphere.6723 Po Po (p".15(c) m·e consistent with the laws of physics" 11. The flow over a cylinder is twodimensional.A + 1 = 2 (1.in order to get out of the way of the cylinder. Hence.
9. 0.121 01' error. 9.3 4701' 0.452 = c.0873)= 10..0. 0.148 .0. 1 ~(2. a Cd = (0.13): c{ 0/ /0 .0129 (b) a = 15 0 = 0.1_ /0 /0 .436)(0.0129 .0.6)2 _} = 4(0.0.13): c f = 0.2618 rad cl = 4a ~M~l =~ ~ From exact theory (Prob. = 4a ~M:.14551 ..0129 01' error .452 . 9.OJ 21. /0 error .121 (c) a = 30 0 = 0.0..148 From exact theory (prob.13): = 0. 0.114 Cd From exact theory (Prob. /0 error . 10 /0 0.1 Consider a c t = = 50 = 0.148 From exact theory (prob.0873 rad.1455 x 100 .452 OJ: /0 .5236 rad llO .2618) = 0.426 x 100 .5 70/ ~ .CHAPTER 12 12.0127 x 100 .5301 0. 9.1 6901' 0.13): Cd = 0.114 x 100 .
0. 9.267°/ error . /0 1. and that it is acceptable as high as 15°.13): c. = 4a = .687 33. It appears that linear theory is reasonable to at least 5°.19. its accuracy deteriorates rapidly at high u.5% Conclusion: At low u. = (0. ~M:' 1 4(0.19 0.19 Cd = c{ ex.2 11] . linear theory is reasonably accurate.c.687 % error = 0.13): Cd = 0. They say nothing about the accuracy of the pressure distributions themselves. 9. = 1. we do not expect linear theory to hold for large perturbations. At 30° it is unacceptable. 12. However.0.6)2 1 From exact theory (Prob.8731 ~(2.873)(0. Keep in mind that the above comments pertain to the lift and wave drag coefficients only.457 0.873 x 100 .5236) = &..1. This is no surprise.1 /0 .687 .5236) = 10.457\ From exact theory (prob.
4.7022 p".8333) + 1 2 2 L Po> = ±3. P3 + 3. 9.1.13): P1 = 0.403 II2 .3441 From exact theory (Prob.655~ From exact theory (prbb.83339 l P~ =r M:.6558 x 100 . p pp". /0 0.873 rad.403 0/ /0 error .4)(2. = 1. 2 (ll) p".943 (.0873) + 1 = ~.">0/ 1. l= r p".9438 + 1 == 3.4 28 or.7022. q"" "2 +1 rP = M2 '" '" r M:.. C p + 1 = ± (1.403 1344 xl 00 .7022 /0 p".(a) C = pp". C =+ p  M! C p 2 28 ~M~1 =+ 28 . Cp = ± 0.£/0 . OJ' error .943 (.0.9439 +1 Hence: Examining the physical picture: recalling ex = 5° = 0.6)2 (0.6)1 1 =±2.0873) + 1 = 11.6 60J' . _J p 'p". Q Po> = ~3.0. 9.13): .J (2.
2. = 15° = 0.943 (0.3...2529 .687 . yielding a more accurate aerodynanric force coefficient.1).13): Ps 5.0725 Pro p".315 l2.687 p".943 (0. 9. say below 5°.2618 rad: P2 Poo = 3.2618) + 1 = 0.9438 + 1 = 3..529 p".13): P3 = 2. 113 . linear theory works better for c t and Cd than it does for p.943 (.0322 (physically impossible) The result from exact theory (prob.065 x 100 ~ 460/ ~ /0 5. _r""' Conclusions: (1) Pressures predicted by linear theory rapidly become inaccurate as Cf. P3 = 3. .=30 o =O. = 0. 12..2618) + 1 = ~ p. From exact theory (prob. 0/ /0 error ~ 5. mcreases. (3) At each value of Cf.5236rad P2 = 3. (2) Pressures predicted by linear theory are reaSonable only at low values of a. 0/ /0 .032 x 100 19 70/ 2529 (c) Fora. 9.. (See Prob.5236) + 1 = ~. /0 errOf.9438 + 1 = 3. Hence.. What happens.943 (..5236) + 1 = 1. = 3.13) is P2 = 0. 9.064 (physically impossible) Po> The result from exact theory (prob. the % error is much greater for pressure than for lift and wave drag coefficients.. 9.:.13) is P2 p".9438 + 1 = 3.(b) For a.0651 From exact theory (Prob. is that the inaccuracies in p on the top and bottom surfaces tend to compensate.9438 + 1 = 3..687 .
114 .455 (.9439 SUrface 4: e ~ 2SO = 0. 2 = . P2 p"" = 4.70718 ~(3)2_1 (1.4363) + I = 2.944 p.4558 + 1 M.4363) + 1 = 0.6112 Surface 3: 8 = 25° = 0.. =3 Surface 2: (1 = 50 = 0.7071)0 + 1 l= ± p"...h = 4.4)(3)2 (0. p". ± 4.E.4363 fad Note: Although a negative pressure is not physically possible. we must carry it as suth.455 (. P3 = 4. ..12.455 (.08727 rad. in order to calculate the net force.3 p C =+ p  20 =±0..4663 rad p". .08727) + 1 = 0.
3888 .08727) + 1 =1.346 0.6% 115 .14) C c 7  Cc = (0_682)C5077) = 10.6112) cos 5°] C e C 1 = l l 0.4)(3)2 . 9.3461 Cd = 2 (.169 Linear Theory 0.[(2.4)(3)2 Cd = 10.5077 (From Prob. ct = 2 (1.9439) cos 25° + (1.3888 p".0.0.108~ Comparison Exact (prob.6112) sin 5°] (1.Surface 5: e= 5° = 0.14) 0.9439) sin 25° + (1. However = 0.944 + 0.418 0.682 .1089 % Error 17.08727 rad P5 = 4.455 (.5077) [(2.3888 . 9.2% 35.944 + 0.
.. 0"84) / / ..1 / (° 1 0 ._ 20 0  u1 639 K =9+v=20+26.JjRT2 = ..T an1 (232..38=46.OIZ/~ " ~~~~x 0) At point 1: al = /rRTJ =....4 )(287)(288) = 340 m/sec e1.38° At point 2: a2 = .J(1.4)(287)(288) = 340 mlsec V 2 = 680 mlsec 116 ..6).Tan1 VI . / 3"0· f " / 2 / (O. / "' ..CHAPTER 13 13.J (1.
824 and Po.38) = 36.6 coS 10° = 1735.9) = 211.62 P3 = ~ Po. note that: Po.6 mlsec U3 = V3 cos 8 3 = 746.3 mJseC] V3 = V3 sin 83 = 746. Pl = (_1_) (1)(7.1 mlsec V3 = M3a3.At point 3: V3 ='12 [K~I + (K+)2) = Y2 (46_38 26.824)(1 Po. Pl 14.6 mlseq To locate point 3: Along the C Characteristic: 117 .J0. Po.6 sin 10° = 1129.4 (31 L1) = 746. Po.535 atml a3 = ~iRT3 = . =7.62 a~) = 10.= 2.38° To obtain the other flow variables at point 3.4)(287)(240. = 14.
6324 X 0. (1) and (2) y = 0.2182 (2) y = 0.~~ Thus: = Tan (eave + flave) = Tan (50 + 27.2182 x + 0.0894.00765 Along the C characteristic: (1) ). Y3) = (0.l3) = 112 (30 + 24.0684 Solving simultaneously: x = 0.0684 Point 3 lies at the intersection of Eqs.0489 Thus: kX3.!lave) = Tan (15 0 .0894 y=0.62) = 27.27. 0.31 0 dy dx = Tan (eave .lave = Y2 (flJ  + ).00765 y == 0.2182 X + 0.6324 y = 0.31°) = 0.6324 x 0.31 0) = 0.0489j 118 .
1340 cos 15° = r.0152 cos 5° = ©. = 2 sin 5° 2 = 0.1291 119 . =0 Cf = 0.0152 C p.001321 Ct = 0.CHAPTER 14 14.0152 Cd sin 5° = 10.1 (a) Using straight Newtonian theory: c p.01511 = 0.
4331 = 05 sin 35 0 = Cd 10251 (b) Using modified Newtonian: = 2 2 r M2 pop". <oPa> = 2 2 r Moo (Po 1) p".o.: = .729 .37~ 120 .6}2 Fora=15° For CL = 150 For a= 30 0 Cf = 0..Ct = 0. (lA)(2.4323 cos 30 0 = iO.5 cos 30 0 = ©. C Prnn..(9.1811) = 1.
From Ne~16nian theory: 121 .2 68.1119 0. Newtoniari % error 90 71 63.13) 0.452 1.0131 0.Comparison: Mod.6 5° 15° 30° 0.00132 0. Exact Cd (Prob~ 9.2 68.0129 0. =20 .13) 0. Ct NeVvtonian C~ (prob. 14. NeVvionian % error 90 71 63.2 11.25 % error 91 75.433 a.19 % error 91 75.374 0.6 5° 15° 30° 0~0151 0.6 Cd ct 0.6 Cc Exact a.121 0.03 0.148 0.00114 0.9.216 Conclusion: Newtonian theory gives terrible results for a flat plate a moderate a at low Supersonic Mach numbers.687 Newtonian Mod.0347 0..129 0.
= . Mn J = Ml sin ~= 20 sin 24.08 = 20% 0.234 sin a. = [QID From shockexpansion theory: On the top surface: V2 = v] + 9 = 116.4 h PI =82.10 Note: Newtonian theory works much better for blunt bodies.e. 2 .13: c.2757 For c f : % error = 0.0. P_2) Mao PI PI and sin a cosa c = t (1.15 .0.15 From Prob.2757 = 20% . i.2757. P2 = o. r 22. Hence. On the bottom surface: From the 8~M diagram. (82.1 00..9 0 = 8.. 122 .(_P_3 __ cos a.Cd = 0.e.. a «void" exists on the top surface. % error = 0. i.2 + 20 = 136.0) cos 20 0 = 0. for large values of S.220 0. 9.20 TIlls is beyond the maximum expansion angle.4)(20) 2 .
(14.06) = 1187.max = r 2 (Po 2) 1 2 ' = 2 (1.5155 x 10 . PA = 6l.Y M~ (PA 1) 2 Po> p" then.2/p". 123 . (14.2149) + 1 = 61. Hence. which is a function ofpo. From Eq.2 = 1 + 0.7) to estimate the pressure at point A.4)(20) 2 Moo (5153 1) = 1.. P A = y M! C p " + 1 = (1. (8. = 0.17 (3.2 (20l = 81 To> 2 Assuming an isentropic flow from the stagnation pomt to point A. at point A on the surface Since C ..4)(20)2 (0.40) To = 1 + Y 1 M".837 p"" .17 Po> 2 2 Hence. From Appendix B for Mao = 20. We first need to obtain CP3max.21b/ft'4 (b) The stagnation temperatare is fotind from Eq. Cp.143 (a) Use Eq.7).2/p". Po.
Also note: The purpose of this problem is to illustrate that.5439 5155 (please note.RTA = ~(L4)(1716)(22.8385 1) _2_ r~l = (0.2 Po.A. yJ ~Ao f' or. Relative to our discussion in Problems 8.P A = "p..8385)(5) = 4.49 x 10 ftlse~ 4 VA = aA Note: Once again.p_«>_ = ( Po. is too high.1925 !MA =2.1187)0.18.I.05) = 11. this estimate of V A is too high because TA. we know this estimate of T A to be too large because we are not taking into account the effect of chemically reacting flow.028) =7275 ft/sec MA = (7275)(2. from the Newtonian sinesquared law for pressure variations. the other· flow field quantities can also be obtained.) (c) At point A.051 (d) aA = ~.2 MA2 = (1.17)r = (0.2857 = 0. TA = To (61.1 7 and 8.2 / p". for an isentropic flow. hence aA. 124 . pOoA = pO.
v = 0 and p = const.:: /.7 7 ~J . U:: !Ae rt. /' " x (a) Since the plates are infinite in length. . The governing equation is Eq... which reduces to the following u = uCy). / / / f I . u = u(y) only_ Also. i.. I 7 ) / ! .e.CHAPTER 15 15. d du 0= . / IU=O 7 . the flow is in the xdirection only.l8a).=const=c} dy At y = 0. u C2 = 0 = Ue: tLUe = c1h c}=h Thus: jiUe ~F ':' y.. rt. u = 0: At Y = h.+~u..L) dy dy Integrating: du tL . (15.1 aC> / / c. v = 0. (~I h The velocity variation is linear between the plates.(f./ . (b) du == ~ dy 125 .
and hence is the same on the top and bottom walls. v = 0.+1l0 =( 320 )312 288.du _ Ue '(=1111dy h ~=(~)3/2 fio To T.94 x 105) ( 30 ) = 15.7894 x 105) = 1. p = p(x) Jl du = _ dy (dP) Y+ c) dx At Y = 0.94 x 10 kg sec '( = (1.82 x 102 N/m"j 0. U = o. Thus C2 = 0 126 . 15.16 320+110 5 ill 11 = 1.16+110 =1.2 u= uCy).01 The shear stress is constant..084 T+ll0 288.084 )lo = 1.084 (1.
At y = h, u = O. Thus,
0= (dP) h
dx
2
+
2
f1
h
2j1
u=2j.l
) 1 (dP (hyy)
2
dx
The velocity profile is parabolic.
du _ (dP j1 + (dPI 2f1 ) y dxJ h dy dx
On the bottom plate, y = 0:
1: =)l
du dy
1:
=
) dx) [_(dP ~ + (dP ~ dx
j.l 2Jl
J)l =
2
) h(dP dx
fro~ the top
On the top plate, y = h: "[ =)l ( du) since dy is negative, i.e., the distance away dy plate is in the downward (negative clirection)
d h T = ) l [(+ )  dx
f1
P
(dP)h] dx 2j.l
For both the top and bottom waIls,
Shear s1;ress varies linearly with the magnitude of the pressure gradient.
Note: Due to the c~ntent of chapters 16, 17, and 18, no hOfnework problems are required.
127
~.
CHAPTER 19
19.1
1 milhr= 0.4471 mlsec
v
'"
= (141 mi)(0.4471 m/ sec] = 63.04 m/sec hr 1 uri/hr
=
_ R ec = p." V",c _ (1.23)(63.04)(1.6) jl"" 1.7894 x 1O~
6. 9'" x 106 .;)
(a) Cf = 1.328 = 1.328. )Re c ..)6.93 x 10 6
=
5.04 x 10.4
.
Noting that drag exists on both the bottom and top smfaces, we have Df = 2 q", S Cf= 2(Y2)(1.23)(63.04i(9.75)(1.6)(5.04 X 104) = 138.4 NJ
(b) Cf = 0.074  ' 0.074 = 3.17 x 103 Re 1/5  (6.93x1 0 6 ) li5
c
Note that tmbulent skin friction is 6.28 times larger than the laminar value.
19.2
(a) =
5.0x
=
.JRe"
(b) = 0.37x =
.J
(5.0)(1.6) = 3.04 x 103 m = ©.304 clDl 6 6.93 x 10
Rex 1/5
(0.37)(1.6) = 2.54 x 102 m = 12.54 cIDI (6.93xl0 6 )l!S 
19.3
128
gao = V2 0.23)(63.04
i = 2444 N/m

2
Re c = 5 x 105 P '" V", (X I Pc>
(x
X0
)
10 j1", = (5xIOS)(1.7894 X 10l O p "" V", (1.23)( 63.04)
X
~X) = 5
5
5
)
= 0.1154 m
Laminar drag on (x)  Xo):
Cr =
.J5
1.328 X 10"
=
1.878 x 103
Dr= goc S Cr= (2444)(0.1154)(9.75)(1.878 x 103 ) = 5.16 N
Turbulent drag on (XI Cf =

xo): 5.36 x 10
3
0.074 5 1'5 (5 X 10 ) "
3
=
Df =
(
5.36 X 10 ) 5.16 = 14.73 N 1.878 x 103
"From Prob. 19.1, the turbulent drag on (Xl  xo) was 2415 N. Hence,
Turbulent drag on (X2  Xl) = 241.5 14.73 = 226.8 N Total skin friction drag = [Laminar drag on (Xl  xo)] + [Turbulent drag on (X2  Xl)]
=
5,16 + 226.8 = ~32 Nt
19.4
At standard sea level: p", = 0.002377 slug/ft
,ax, =
.j}RT = .j (1.4 )(1716)(519)
= 1117 ftlsec
v"" =
M"" aoc = 4 (117) = 4468 ftlsec
129
6 From Eq.8: CIC f • "'" 0.286 x 10 . (18.248 rbj on one side of the plate.= p". 3. iYiY OJ &) (1) From Eq.7373 X 10 . Re.4.::&.5 For incompressible flow: From Fig.248 for a value ofCr= 3..2 rbj 19.248) = f 3286 x 104 ~8. V""c = (.85 x 10. Hence 130 .1: Cf"'" L6x 10 3 (The effect of Mach number is to reduce Cf by about 44% in this case. 19.002377)(4468)(5112) = L18x 107 7 j.41) Vvith Pr = 1: (2) Eqs. C f = rn:.866 x 10 JU8 x 10 7 • \JRe c From Fig..002377)(4468)2(5112)(3.85.286 10 4 ) D f = P. 1328 1328 4 IncompressIble C f . 18.. Cf= 3. Hence. 19.= = 3. (18.1". (1) and (2) are identical.286 x 104X Df= q"" S Cf = (112)(.) (3.= 8 ( J1.) From Prob. the lammar value ofD[ls 3.32): & pu & + pv . the turbulent value is 3 _ • _ • 4 D = (2. 19.
.763 PrO.82). C1 + C2 u. 65 (Pe~e) ~dUe dx (haw . T". = 0 and ho = h 0" Cl U = hw.1) ""= 314. from Eq. Hence..70).ho = At the wall. (18. i. qw = 0.= "'ue Thus: Since h = cp T.hw) (1) . where. pe and pe are the inviscid stagnation point values of pressure and density_The speed of sound iiI the ambient atmosphere is a. hw = Cl + 0.): e 19. where c} and C2 are constants.e.J(1.7 From Eq. We have 131 .5 mlsec (a) For V"" = 1500 m/sec. the velocity gradient is given by = dUe 1 2(Pe Pa» dx R Pe (2) The subscript e denotes properties at the· outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer. or = hw At the boundary layer edge: C2 ho h.4)(287)(246.. = ~iRT"" = . (18. then To=Tw+ (To..
then haw = h o. (2) above 1 2(1.Lo To Te+110 5 ) 288 1357+110 /le = (2.512)(246.1) + V".723 10 = 0.3). Po. h awJ.044 4 dx R Pe Assuming a recovery factor r = 1.59) = 1. To = 5. 42 x 104/ sec (0. (1500)2 .2 V".723 x 10 ..0254) 0.1) = 1357 K 4 1.2 =: pe = (29.789 x 10 = 4.2. and from Appendix A (nearest entry).52)(583.77 3145 From Appendjx B (nearest entry).77)(1.2 = (1008)(246.. using the standard sea level value of 110 = 1. Po.:Mc.044 k 1m3 (287)(1357) g X 5 From Southerland's law.k> = It" + =k .723 X 104 N/m2 To == Te = (5.::.512 To:> Hence. Eq. . we have P e (Tc) 312 To +110 = (1357) 3!2( 288+110) =2. 2 132 ..957 x 10c5 kg/(m)(sec) From Eq...58359) 3 .~.77 = f..52 p". (15.o = v'" a". =..2 =29.7894 x 10kg/(m)(sec) at To = 288K. + .2 = cp To<.. = 1500 = 4.
2 = 264.18 x 106)(3. we have M".le (kg) 2 '4:":"""" rn sec From Eq. a".763 Pr = .  =0. = 4500 3145 = 14.= 0.0.42 x 104)'h (13.032) x 105 369.31 From Appendix B (interpolated) Po.65 (PeJ1e) ffU c dx (hawhw) 0.1) = 10.73 .044)(4.4.The "rhomu" product is = (1.0 Poo From Appendix A (interpolated) To T".72)"°·65 (2.54 x 105 N/m2 Te = 41. = 41.94 Thus: pe "'" (264)(583.186 154 x 10 (Te)3!2 To + 110 = (10321)3!2( 288 + 110 ) To Tc+110 28& 10321+110 J1" 133 .94 (246.763 (0.3 watt sec(m2) m2 (b) For V".= V".321) g = 8. = 4500 m/sec.957 x 10~=2.052k 1m3 (187)(10.18x 106 pe).3 joules = 369.59) = 1..321 K =~ PI' RTc J1 e = 5 . (1) above qw .
A simple.=248 X 105 + (4500)2 .5) = 1.  _ 0. approximate analysis for aerodynamic heating which assumes very higb Mach numbers (so that haw» hw) indicates that aerodynamic heating is proportional to V"".0254) 2(154 X 10 58359) 0.7 6 3 Pr0.Llco+ . in going from a relatively low. Anderson. 2000.~e = (8.hw) ' = 2. page 570. 4 6 (kg)2 10 ) = 7. ) qw v~)500 3693 When the velocity increased from 1500 mlsec to 4500 m/sec. we note (qw) v~4500 = . well into the hypersonic flight regime..186)(1. 4th ed. the heat transfer increased by a factor of 60. (See for example.) For the present example.2218 10 X 4 60 (. the increase waS even faster.7894 x 10...) = 1 (0. Introduction Of Flight. This illustrates the rapid growth of the importance of aerodynamic heating as vehicles fly faster..2 haw = h .65 (PeJle) ~dUe dx (haw .3.052)(1. (2) dUe 1 2(Pe p.77) to a relatively high Mach number ofM"" = 1431.465 X .03 7 xl 07 jouesIk 1 'g Pe~e = (0. = 4. 134 . 2 2 = 1. a factor of3.218 X 104 watts m2 Comparing the results from parts (a) and (b).62 X 10 ~4::':"m sec qw .) McGrawHill.052 5 = 9. not quite hypersonic condition (M"..465 x 104 kg/(m)(sec) FromEq.56 x l04/sec dx R Po V".
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