SYNONYM AND ANTONYM

SYNONYMS Synonyms are different words or phrases in the same language that have a similar meaning. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. ETYMOLOGY From Middle English sinonyme, from Latin synōnymum < Ancient Greek EXAMPLE * noun o "student" and "pupil" o "petty crime" and "misdemeanor" * verb o "buy" and "purchase" * adjective o "sick" and "ill" * adverb o "quickly" and "speedily" * preposition o "on" and "upon" ANTONYMS An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. EXAMPLES

fortunate / unfortunate Antonyms made by adding the prefix nonentity / nonentity conformist / nonconformist Antonyms made by adding the prefix intolerant / intolerant discreet / indiscreet decent / indecent DERIVED TERM 1. autoantonym - A word that has two opposing meanings. Left: a word that can mean "to have departed from" or "to have remained". Dust: means "to remove dust from" or "to spray or cover something with fine powder".

Importance of synonyms and antonyms ~.Synonyms and antonyms can make writing more powerful and bring words to life. It is a way of bolstering sentences by using strong verbs and adjectives. ~.increases vocabulary level

Antonyms made by adding the prefix unlikely / unlikely able / unable ~ using synonyms and antonyms correctly enhances writing and makes writing sound better.

they may be included as well. the recipient's contact information. The introduction briefly states the specific position desired. • Body.g. The final part of the header is a salutation (e. an application letter should be send with your resume. A closing sums up the letter. It is used to show your intent on applying for a certain job/position. Following that is an optional reference section (e. If there are any special things to note such as availability date. FORMAT • Header. "RE: Internship Opportunity at Global Corporation") and an optional transmission note (e. • Introduction. the abbreviation "ENCL" may be used to indicate that there are enclosures. qualifications. Optionally. and indicates the next step the applicant expects to take. After the closing is a valediction ("Sincerely"). although many favor the more indirect approach of simply saying that the applicant will look forward to hearing from or speaking with the employer. and the date sent after either the sender's or the recipient's address. When applying for a job. matters discussed typically include skills. . Also. A cover letter is a letter of introduction attached to. and should be designed to catch the employer's immediate interest. • Closing. and then a signature line.g.g. and past experience. with the sender's address and other information.net"). Cover letters use standard business letter style.. or accompanying another document such as a résumé or curriculum vitae. It may indicate that the applicant intends to contact the employer.APPLICATION LETTER An application letter is submitted together with your curriculum vitae/resume to the company/person you want to work for. "Via Email to jobs@example. "Dear Hiring Managers"). The body highlights or amplifies on material in the resume or job application. and explains why the job seeker is interested in the job and would be of value to the employer.

everyone. Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and viceversa. Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome everyone and everybody certainly feel like more than one person and. They are always singular. depending on the meaning. 12. 9. the other singular. but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb. • Some indefinite pronouns — such as all. the verb should agree with the positive subject. singular subjects (he. none. Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs. Verbs in the present tense for third-person. plural subjects need plural verbs. The expression "more than one" takes a singular verb. 10. she. there is one indefinite pronoun. to two things. . someone. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word.SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs. but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do). Other verbs do not add s-endings. therefore. thus confusing the verb choice. no one. 7. 1. On the other hand. The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring. 3. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. the proximity determines the number. too. in a sense. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't matter. some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb. it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. 5. it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number. as well as. that can be either singular or plural. Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb. some — are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. 4. Phrases such as together with. Each. The words there and here are never subjects. If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural. Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word. • On the other hand. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns. neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. a part of. • In informal writing. and along with are not the same as and. though. 11. a percentage of. 2. therefore. nobody are always singular and. a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural. require singular verbs. is always singular and requires a singular verb. The indefinite pronouns anyone. students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. This is particularly true of interrogative constructions. 8. 6. Fractional expressions such as half of.

A preposition is always used with a word or group of words that are called its object. beyond. off. phrases or clauses. on. Example: Both Pasig and Marikina were flooded. both… and. beside. out. They are usually followed by an exclamation point. Alas! . as long as. They introduce the subordinate clause and link it to the main clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions are the following: after. whether…or. CONJUNCTION – just like preposition. for. through. near Direction To. in. after. across. aside from Examples: 1. often an expression of emotion. or. into. These conjunctions are and.) Correlative Conjunction – is like the coordinating conjunction. neither…nor. Ah! . a conjunction connects words. down. in front of. during.) Subordinating Conjunction – this is the word used to introduce adverb clauses. 2. The most common interjections are Ouch! . as though. Oh! . The 3 Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunction –is used to connect things of the same kind or order. because of. except. INTERJECTIONS . while etc. but. if. beneath. with.Preposition PREPOSITION-is a part of speech that combines with a noun. before. whatever. so that. until. Example: The President marched briskly down the street. unless. because. instead of. (Geometry and Physics are both nouns w/c is connected by the conjunction “and”. Hurrah! . Congratulations! Example: Oh! There’s something inside the box! . although. The rocket hurtled through space at fantastic speed. as. pronoun or a noun phrase to form a prepositional phrase. against. like Certain two-syllable words that act as prepositions are: about. within Compound Prepositions: According to. from. Kinds of Prepositions These are the kinds of prepositions based on their uses: Location at.An exclamation or filled pause. it is a word or phrase with no particular grammatical relation to a sentence. as if. (Pasig and Marikina are both nouns which are connected by the conjunction both…and. With accuracy it sped toward the moon. whenever. as to. Great! . but the only difference is that they are paired conjunctions such as either…or. up Association Of. since. Example: I am taking Geometry and Physics. by. past.

Yet she has a beautiful voice. Correlative Conjunctions. (Conjunctive Adverb) ~Many who stayed were disappointed .Subordination joins unequal but related ideas in clauses within a sentence. ~Doris hates to sing in public. or series of sentences between two parts of a piece of writing. while subordinating the less important ideas by putting them in dependent clauses. she carried herself in a queenly way. Transitional devices are bridges between parts of your paper. Thus/ As a result my father was unable to attend my brother’s graduation. sentence. Because fire trucks were delayed by traffic. Remember.looking woman. subordinating words are placed before the less important idea or the dependent clause. clause. Examples: ~An unexpected strike by air traffic controllers kept planes on the ground and caused long delays. the tickets ran out early. -Choose the word that best clarifies the connection in ideas with subordination. ^Coordinating Conjunctions. who lives on the West Coast. . some people gave up and left. therefore. phrase. (Semicolon only) * Using Subordination . Conjunctive Adverbs. *Using Transitions -Transitions are used to establish relationships among ideas and to clarify the order of ideas. and Semicolons (. Emphasize the main points by putting them in the main clauses. They are cues that help the reader to interpret ideas in the way that a writer wants them to understand. (Example) * Using Coordination -Coordination joins related and equal words. In particular. The children liked the mime as much as the actor. and clauses within a single sentence. It enables you to form Complex sentences. (Contrast) ~She was a regal. I wrote to my sister. Examples: As soon as I entered the room. (Cause and Effect). phrases. contributing to cohesion.TRANSITIONAL DEVICES The connection of a word. I smelled something burning. Adding sentence variety to prose can give it life and rhythm. It is especially useful in forming Compound sentences. the fire spread to an adjacent building.) Examples: ~Ticket holders were warned that seats might not be available to everyone .

introduced by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Importance Why is deconstruction important? It is because it solves conflicts between people by opposing binary oppositions. that the incompatibility of these interpretations is irreducible. It opposes the thinking that thought is worthless unless we think in terms of concepts or binary opposites. which rigorously pursues the meaning of a text to the point of exposing the contradictions and internal oppositions upon which it is apparently founded and showing that those foundations are irreducibly complex.A philosophical movement and theory of literary criticism that questions traditional assumptions about certainty. identity. ‘virtual texts’ constructed by readers in their search for meaning” (Rebecca Goldstein). Application By locating metaphor at the point of the origin of language. which they had already expressed by gestures and words. Their imaginations then represented nothing more to them than those same images. asserts that words can only refer to other words. that the text itself links these interpretations inextricably. the critic claims there is no meaning to be found in the actual text. which are at the center of their thinking. and thus that an interpretative reading cannot go beyond a certain point. and truth.Is an approach. and which from the very beginning had rendered language figurative and metaphorical. It opposes the thinking that is used by the powerful to construct inequalities among people.Deconstruction Definition Deconstruction is a way of thinking about thinking . . e8c053e096151f . we are able to conceive of the original style of language as poetical. that any text therefore has more than one interpretation. and attempts to demonstrate how statements about any text subvert their own meanings: “In deconstruction. but only in the various. because it began with depicting the most sensible images of our ideas. unstable or impossible. Deconstruction generally tries to demonstrate that any text is not a discrete whole but contains several irreconcilable and contradictory meanings. often mutually irreconcilable.

tall/short. year/month. show/reveal. skunk/smelly. table/furniture. marshmallow/soft. phrases and clauses. apple/fruit. elephant/big. desert/dry. wolf/pack object and related object---plant/sprout.. small/tiny. fire/fireplace. lunch/meal.. wave/tsunami.g. Type of Analogy---Examples things that go together---bat/ball. All infinitive. mother/baby.. butterfly/caterpillar. 3/odd number. dark/light. itch/scratch.excited about and interested in. Types of Parallelism: Single Word Parallel Structure . artist/paint. fire/burn. trip/fall. knife/cut. bird/flock.have to wash the clothes.Parallelism Parallelism . laugh/cry.phrases are parallel e. cold/freezing. fork/knife opposites ---big/small. it is also known as Parallel Structure or Parallel COnstruction. eraser/pencil object and part of the whole---hand/fingers. thin/slim. *Review of Prepositions. and have to hang them. tired/sleep degrees of a characteristic---big/enormous.. All gerunds. wide/narrow. early/late. bow/arrow. kitten/litter. pants/clothing. (simple terms) to be in-line. stop/go. sad/unhappy. Phrases Parallel Structure . cow/herd. shovel/dig.g. sponge/porous. stop/halt. graceful/clumsy. lion/pride. dog/puppy object and a characteristic---grass/green. foot/toes. bread/butter. hot/burning. rabbit/mammal. win/won. turtle/shell object and function---pen/write. broken/repair. hot/cold. book/read performer and action---teacher/teach. sandal/shoe.) If not possible. use the appropriate words. ants/insect. All singular.balance of two or more similar words. thirsy/drink. fish/swim. buy/bought cause and effect---plant/grow.. bird/fly verb tenses---eat/ate.. fireplace/bricks. sharp/dull synonyms---big/large. small/miniscule . lion/zoo.words are parallel e. cold/icy. hide/conceal. spring/season object and group---whale/pod. stove/kitchen. All starts with the same words (. movie star/act. uncle/relative. ball/round object and location---car/garage. book/pages. salt/pepper. tub/bathroom. hint/clue object and classification---green/color. (. cat/kitten. gold/shiny. spin/dizzy problem and solution---hungry/eat. party/happy.) *Usage of Comma is very important.

a writer will make a comparison that allows one to know the meaning of an unfamiliar word . be) or he can explain it by restating it in other words.have soft unsegmentes bodies and live in aquatic or damp habitats. : Many favor documenting events on paper since writing. is zoology. that is. Appositives such as commas. wheareas. consequently. Signal words like but. as if the sun is never going to shine again. Ex. however. that cause and effect may be directly stated through phrases and words like because. Example There are also times that a writer will give one or more examples to show the meaning of a word. Signalling examples are such as. IV. therefore. Ex.slugs. though. . Cause and Effect The meanings of unfamiliar words may be inferred according to a cause-and-effect logic.due to. was caused by. were. :Buliding the Pyramids proved to be an onerous task. a writer sets the unfamiliar words against its opposite. unlike. I. was. especially. Ex. hence. There are times. or. Comparison At times. Ex. Ex. parenthesis or dashes may signal their definition. V.snails. and as opposed to are examples of such clues. although. since. in order to.in the other hand. is are. the scientific study of living organisms. and for instance. to put in another way and this means often signal direct definiton or restatements. like. as though. like.: He had an air of despondency about him. many were employed to see their completion. and as a result.: One of the areas of biology. Definition A writer may give the direct definition of the new word using a form of BE (am. Words like in other words. similar and the way. thus. particularly. on the contrary. that is.CONTEXT CLUES Context clues is the process of getting the meaning of an unfamiliar word through the context. and octopuses . unlike the spoken form which is ethereal is lasting. Hence. as if. for example. like. such. III.: All molusks . the study of animals II. Contrast This time. Words that may signalcomparisons include as. There are five ways on how to use context clues.

invite others to join them on an expedition to Troy to recover Helen. Agamemnon agrees to give the girl back but demands another woman as compensation. Book 2: Agamemnon’s Dream and the Catalogue of Ships Zeus sends a false prophetic dream to Agamemnon. Zeus agrees. This was a serious breach of the laws of hospitality. the goddess Thetis. he prays to his mother. Achilles is enraged. he can capture the city that very night. a daughter of Zeus and Leda. At a gathering of the whole army. Each of the three goddesses offers Paris a bribe if he will name her the fairest: Hera promises to make him lord of Europe and Asia. and pulls his whole army out of the war. and engage in skirmishes and plundering raids on nearby regions. seemingly with her active cooperation. and takes Briseis. by refusing to ransom back his daughter. and Aphrodite promises that he will have the most beautiful woman in the world for his wife. Instead. Athena promises to make him a great military leader and let him rampage all over Greece. though not without angering his wife. where the Achaeans fight for years to take the city. indicating that if he will rouse the army and march on Troy. to beg Zeus to avenge his dishonor by supporting the Trojans against the Achaean forces. Helen’s adoptive father Tyndareus had required all the men who wanted to marry her swear a solemn oath that they would all come to the assistance of Helen’s eventual husband should he ever need their help. Priam had sent the prince away from Troy because of a prophecy that Paris would one day bring doom to the city. Agamemnon calls another assembly and suggests instead that . In particular. Helen is already married—to Menelaus. where the handsome youth Paris was tending his father’s flocks. Athena. Apollo sends a plague on the Achaeans in retribution. his brother Agamemnon. the king of Sparta. Menelaus. They asked Zeus to make the final decision. which held that guests and hosts owed very specific obligations to each other. but the choice came down to three—Aphrodite. Paris also takes a large part of Menelaus’ fortune. As a test. In addition. Hera. but he wisely refused. An armada of some 1. Paris visits Menelaus in Sparta and abducts Helen. All the goddesses present claimed it for themselves. Achilles’ concubine. the male guest was obligated to respect the property and wife of his host as he would his own. Paris picks Aphrodite. taking her back to Troy with him. and all the rest of Helen’s original suitors. the priest of Apollo. and against the Trojans in general. so in revenge she threw a golden apple inscribed “for the fairest” into the banquet hall. Zeus sent them to Mount Ida. knowing it would cause trouble.200 ships eventually sails to Troy. Book 1: The Wrath of Achilles Agamemnon offends Chryses.Iliad | Summary The Background of the Story The goddess Eris (Discord) was not invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis (Achilles’ parents). From then on both Hera and Athena are dead-set against him. The most beautiful woman in the world at the time is Helen. and Hera. The story opens in the tenth year of the war.

General fighting breaks out again. when he tries to rally the Trojan forces. Hector has gone back to Troy to urge his mother to offer a sacrifice to Athena in an attempt to win back her favor for the Trojans. Book 7: The Greeks Build a Wall Hector and Paris return to the fighting. a truce is called so that Menelaus and Paris can meet in single combat. to be ready for battle first thing the following morning. This turns out to be a very bad idea. Book 9: The Embassy to Achilles . the winner to take Helen and all her treasures home with him. the Achaeans fortify their camp. Book 4: The Truce is Broken Hera schemes with some of the other gods and goddesses to break the truce. and a catalogue of the Achaean and Trojan forces involved in the fight follows. Diomedes meets Glaucus. During this truce. He even wounds the goddess Aphrodite when she tries to rescue her son Aeneas. and Hector challenges one of the Achaeans to a duel. and they retire behind their new fortifications for the night. The army is eventually mobilized for war. Ajax is chosen. Book 3: The Duel between Paris and Menelaus In what is most likely a flashback episode. wounding him slightly. Diomedes sweeps across the battlefield. Things go very badly for the Achaeans all day. Just as Menelaus is on the point of killing Paris. while the Trojans camp out on the plain before them. Solemn oaths are sworn by both sides to abide by the outcome of the duel. arrangements are made for a truce to allow the dead on both sides to be collected and buried. Helen watches the fight with King Priam from the walls of Troy. He then meets his wife and baby son on the wall of Troy before getting Paris and taking him back to the battle. (Note: “aristeia” is a Greek word which means “excellence” and here refers to an episode in which a particular character demonstrates exceptional valor or merit. but the outcome of the fight is indecisive. Athena tricks Pandarus. an ally of the Trojans. and the war god Ares. into shooting an arrow at Menelaus. Zeus forbids the other gods to interfere any further in the course of the war. Book 8: The Trojans Gain the Upper Hand When the fighting resumes after the burial truce. and points out the chief leaders of the opposing forces.) Book 6: Hector Returns to Troy While hacking his way through the Trojans. As night falls. the goddess Aphrodite takes him safely out of the battle and back to his bedroom in Troy. the grandson of a man his own grandfather had hosted—which makes them “guest-friends” who cannot harm or fight against each other. The troops rush away to get ready for the voyage home and their leaders have a very hard time restoring them to order. He himself begins actively assisting the Trojans. killing and wounding Trojans by the dozen. his protector.the whole army pull up its tents and sail back home. Book 5: The Aristeia Helped by Athena. Meanwhile.

Book 11: The Aristeia of Agamemnon When fighting resumes the following morning. As Patroclus is . manages to halt Hector’s advance. Agamemnon gets his day of glory. and Poseidon covertly assists the Achaeans. Achilles refuses to consider the offer. to borrow Achilles’ armor himself and masquerade as his friend in an attempt to trick the Trojans into giving the Achaeans some breathing room. Book 10: A Night Raid Agamemnon spends a restless night. who once more drive their opponents back to the ships and try to set fire to them. intending to burn them and so prevent the Achaeans from returning home. he forces Poseidon out of the fighting. She entices her husand into making love on the top of Mount Ida. Book 15: The Achaeans at Bay When Zeus wakes up and discovers what has been going on. the Trojans break through the fortification wall and head for the beached ships. and the Achaeans are barely able to keep the Trojans away from their ships. Ajax stuns Hector but does not quite kill him. failing that. not to pursue Hector or to get too close to the city itself. with Poseidon’s help. They capture a Trojan spy sent to reconnoiter their own camp and. As the two of them sleep after their lovemaking. This swings the balance back toward the Trojans. who drive the Trojans back from the ships. In the fighting. Since Agamemnon has not apologized for taking Briseis. Book 14: Hera Distracts Zeus Hera schemes to distract Zeus while Poseidon helps the Achaean forces. Book 13: The Battle for the Ships The fighting rages up and down the beach. and eventually decides to send a spy into the Trojan camp to see what can be learned. Book 16: Patroclus Fights and Dies Patroclus finally gets back to Achilles. based on information they get from him. and urges him to get Achilles to come back to the fighting or. Nestor meets Patroclus on this errand. The Trojans push their opponents back to the wall of the camp. but eventually is wounded (as are many of the other leading fighters in his army). however. the two men kill the newly arrived Thracian king Rhesus with some of his men and make off with a team of horses. and instead vows to sail home with his army the next morning. Diomedes and Odysseus are chosen from among the volunteers. Zeus leaves Mount Ida temporarily. Poseidon continues to help the Achaeans.At the urging of several of his advisers. and promises greater rewards to come when Troy is finally conquered. who lets his friend borrow his distinctive armor and his troops against the Trojans. Agamemnon sends an embassy to Achilles and offers to give Briseis back. Ajax. and Achilles sends his friend Patroclus to find out what is happening. Book 12: The Trojans Break Through Before Patroclus can get back to Achilles’s tent. Achilles warns him.

killing many Trojans. . Still enraged. Achilles goes on a rampage against the Trojans. Book 17: The Aristeia of Menelaus Hector strips Achilles’s armor from Patroclus’s body. He tries to take the body as well. His mother tells him that if he kills Hector. There he is confronted by Apollo. and only direct divine intervention saves anyone who is unlucky enough to turn up in his path. Apollo withdraws his protection from Hector. Athena. taking the form of one of Hector’s brothers. tricks him into fighting Achilles. Book 20: The Gods Themselves Go to Battle Zeus gives the gods permission to interfere in the fighting again. Book 21: Achilles and the River Scamander Achilles continues to hack his way through the Trojan ranks. Achilles approaches and begins to chase him around the city walls. Book 19: Achilles is Reconciled with Agamemnon Prodded by Odysseus. his own death will follow shortly. Achilles eventually crosses the river and moves on toward Troy. Patroclus ignores Achilles’s advice and pursues Hector and the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy. Eventually he kills so many that the river Scamander is clogged with corpses. Book 18: The Shield of Achilles Achilles hears the news of Patroclus’s death. but is balked by Hephaestus. The Trojan Euphorbus wounds Patroclus. As he ponders. Patroclus’ body is recovered as Hephaestus makes a beautiful new suit of armor. who kills him. but not before Patroclus prophesies Hector’s own impending death. Achilles agrees to a formal reconciliation with Agamemnon and accepts the gifts he is offered in recompense for Agamemnon’s slight. led by Menelaus. a son of Zeus himself. but the Achaeans fight him off. Hector sets fire to the first of the ships. including a richly worked shield. and Hector finishes him off. and his immortal horse Xanthus foretells his coming death. including Sarpedon. the Trojans fall back and Patroclus has his aristeia. which they do with great enthusiasm. After the third circuit of the city. but Achilles insists he will have revenge. where he is diverted by Apollo just long enough to allow the Trojans (except for Hector) to pull back behind the city walls. debating whether to stand and fight Achilles or to retreat within the city himself. Helped by Ajax. The river god attempts to drown Achilles. for Achilles. When Patroclus and the Myrmidons enter the battle. but vows not to eat or drink until he has revenged Patroclus’s death by killing Hector. as Hector’s family watches in horror from the walls of Troy. She asks the god Hephaestus to forge new armor for her son. Achilles ties Hector’s body to his chariot and drags it back to the Achaean camp. Book 22: The Death of Hector Hector stands outside the gates. Menelaus distinguishes himself in the fighting against Hector and Aeneas.putting on Achilles’s armor. who stuns and disarms him. and vows to revenge himself on Hector for the injury. He puts on his new armor.

who oppose him in the assembly so that he does not receive the aid he sought. the Trojan War is over and the Achaeans head for home—with varying results. at which Achilles presides. on the other hand. complete with memorial games. Heartened by her words. a full 20 years since Odysseus first left his home and wife Penelope to sail off for Troy with the rest of the Achaean forces. Telemachus announces his intention to sail to the mainland. which he relates to Telemachus. After making secret preparations. The Odyssey | Summary The Background to the Story After ten years. Still others. to find Nestor and his family offering sacrifice to Poseidon. Athena goes to Ithaca in disguise and inspires Odysseus's son Telemachus to go in search of news of his father. Telemachus introduces himself to Nestor and explains his purpose in coming. Athena asks her father Zeus why Odysseus is still stuck on Calypso's island ten years after the end of the war. Priam makes his way to Achilles’s camp at night to ransom back the body of his son. Odysseus. like Nestor. Zeus gives Athena permission to begin arrangements for Odysseus's return. After joining in the ritual. Some. accompanied by . As the story opens. we find ourselves in the tenth year since the end of the war. like Menelaus. wander for a time but eventually return home safely and little the worse for wear. has been having no end of trouble getting home.Book 23: The Funeral of Patroclus Patroclus’s ghost comes to Achilles at night and asks him for a speedy burial. but has had no news of Odysseus since all of the Achaeans left Troy ten years previously. Book 3: Nestor Tells What He Knows Telemachus and Athena arrive in Pylos. arrive home to find things considerably changed. Achilles is moved to pity the old man and makes him comfortable after agreeing to accept the ransom he offers for Hector’s body. Zeus responds that Poseidon is angry at Odysseus for having blinded his son. Book 1: Athena Inspires Telemachus In a council of the gods. come home quickly to find things pretty much as they left them. Achilles guarantees the Trojans a suitable amount of time to prepare for and conduct Hector’s funeral. Book 24: Hector’s Body is Recovered and Buried On the orders of Zeus and with the protection of Hermes. Nestor sends Telemachus. Nestor has heard news of the returns of both Menelaus and Agamemnon. Others. Polyphemus. His independent attitude does not sit well with his mother Penelope's suitors. Telemachus and the disguised Athena depart for Pylos that same evening. But since Poseidon is temporarily absent. like Agamemnon. Book 2: Telemachus Sails to Pylos Telemachus calls an assembly and asks for assistance in getting to the mainland. his friend gives him a magnificent funeral. The next day.

and Alcinous asks Odysseus who he is and why stories about Troy make him cry. they manage to get the giant drunk and blind him. Calypso is unhappy. and athletic events. Odysseus builds a raft with tools and materials she provides. Pisistratus. After a similar breakfast. song. one-eyed giants who are sons of the sea god Poseidon. Odysseus unwisely reveals his true name. Meanwhile. Odysseus asks Nausicaa for help. and eventually reaches the island of the Cyclopes. She offers Odysseus a chance to become immortal and to live with her forever. Odysseus and the crew of his ship go to investigate this island and end up imprisoned in Polyphemus's cave.one of his own sons. Odysseus speaks highly of Demodocus's skill and offers him a prime cut of his own portion. Book 4: In the Home of Menelaus and Helen Telemachus and Pisistratus arrive at Menelaus's home during a celebration. He gives an edited version of his "adventures" to date. is blown off course to the land of the Lotus-Eaters. Alcinous cuts the banquet short. to visit Menelaus in Sparta. The giant finds the intruders and eats several of them for dinner. Odysseus begins crying again. She gives him some clothing to wear and sends him into town to find the palace of her father. At dinner that evening. leaving Odysseus and his remaining men penned in the cave. but obeys the order. Alcinous. and sails off. with the help of a sea goddess. Book 9: Odysseus Tells His Story-Polyphemus and the Cyclopes Odysseus reveals his identity and tells his story. and are warmly entertained by Menelaus and Helen. Odysseus. He deftly turns aside Alcinous's suggestion that he should remain in Phaeacia and marry Nausicaa. Poseidon comes back from feasting with the Ethiopians and wrecks the raft in a storm. When Odysseus begins weeping during Demodocus's tale of the Trojan War. Book 6: Nausicaa Encounters a Stranger The Phaeacian Princess Nausicaa finds the shipwrecked Odysseus asleep behind a bush. When Demodocus sings the story of the Trojan Horse. The next day they escape from his cave hiding under the bellies of his sheep and goats. and Polyphemus asks his father . is washed safely ashore in the land of the Phaeacians. Menelaus tells a long story of his adventures on the way home from Troy. Book 5: Odysseus Sets Sail for Home— and is Shipwrecked At another council of the gods. which he declines. Upon Polyphemus's return. including news that he got from Proteus in Egypt that Odysseus was alive on Calypso's island. Zeus orders Hermes to go to Calypso and tell her to let Odysseus leave for Ithaca. the suitors learn of Telemachus's secret departure and are not pleased. back in Ithaca. They plot to ambush and kill him on his way home. but does not disclose his identity. Book 8: The Phaeacians Entertain Odysseus The Phaeacians treat Odysseus to a day of feasting. Penelope also learns of her son's departure. he takes his flocks of sheep and goats to graze. beginning with his departure from Troy with 12 ships. Book 7: Odysseus and the King of Phaeacia Odysseus arrives at the palace and begs the assistance of King Alcinous and Queen Arete. He sacks Ismarus in Thrace.

turns their ship into a huge stone. visible to onlookers on shore and rooted to the sea-bottom. where most of them are promptly turned into pigs by this enchantress. She reveals her identity and tells him how much she cares for him. and above all. Only Odysseus survives. thinking the bag contains a hoard of gold. and he drifts to Calypso's island by hanging on to floating wreckage. After stowing Odysseus's treasure safely in a cave. Book 12: Odysseus Tells His Story— The Sun-God's Cattle Upon his return from the underworld. Cast upon Thrinacia by a fierce storm and out of provisions. and together they plot a stratagem for dealing with Penelope's suitors. . how to get past the monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis. Athena disguises Odysseus as an ancient beggar and sends him on his way. saying that they are obviously cursed by the gods. untie it and release the captive winds . Book 14: The Loyal Swineherd Odysseus makes his way to the dwelling of Eumaeus. Odysseus and his crew set sail once more and eventually reach the land of the Laestrygonians. They sail away and come close enough to Ithaca to see the watch-fires. angry that the Phaeacians have helped Odysseus get back to Ithaca. Odysseus. Book 11: Odysseus Tells His Story-In the House of the Dead Obeying Circe's instructions.Poseidon to avenge his injury. with a false story about himself. Poseidon. Athena. The survivors sail to Circe's island. still in disguise. Aeolus gives Odysseus a bag containing all the winds that would blow him off his homeward course. in disguise. When Tiresias retires. Book 10: Odysseus Tells His Story-At the Islands of Aeolus and Circe Odysseus and his surviving crewmen now sail to the island of Aeolus. not to harm the cattle of the sun-god on the island of Thrinacia. and consult Tiresias.which blow them right back to Aeolus's island. Odysseus receives sailing instructions from Circe: how to avoid the lure of the Sirens. entertains Eumaeus with some "lying tales" about himself. the shades of Odysseus's mother and several of his comrades at Troy appear. They remain with Circe for a year before Odysseus's men ask to leave. who destroy all but one of his ships. Aeolus refuses to help them again. forewarned by Hermes. where they make sacrifices to Hades and Persephone. Odysseus. king of the winds. when Odysseus falls asleep at the helm and his crew. including those of Achilles and Agamemnon. who destroys the ship with a thunderbolt. avoids Circe's trap and frees his men. Odysseus also witnesses the punishment of several notorious offenders against the gods. The sun god complains to Zeus. a swineherd who has remained loyal to his long-absent employer. meets Odysseus and he tries to trick her. Odysseus and his men sail to the underworld. Circe tells Odysseus that he must first visit the underworld and consult with the shade of the prophet Tiresias on how best to get home. without success. This ends Odysseus's story as told to the Phaeacians Book 13: Return to Ithaca and the Stone Ship The Phaeacians return Odysseus and all his treasures to his home of Ithaca while he himself is deep asleep. Odysseus's men disobey him and slaughter some of the cattle.

Most of the suitors treat Odysseus with at least grudging respect. an ally of the suitors. to come up with an alternative plan to get rid of him.Book 15: Telemachus Heads for Home Telemachus takes his leave of Helen and Menelaus. Odysseus is insulted by the maid Melantho and Eurymachus. who throws another footstool at him. Eumaeus brings Odysseus to the palace. The nurse recognizes Odysseus by a scar he received as a young man and is sworn to secrecy. who throws an ox-foot at him. much to the amusement of the suitors. Telemachus offers passage to the seer Theoclymenus. where Odysseus reveals himself to his son and impresses on him the need for secrecy and deception if they are to overcome the suitors. which Theoclymenus interprets as a sign that they are all marked for death. assisted by Athena. without success. The suitors all laugh at this. and Odysseus quickly subdues Irus. but orders bis old nurse. the ship the suitors had sent out to ambush Telemachus returns. Book 18: The Two Beggar-Kings Odysseus is insulted by Irus. Penelope details the trial of the bow. Book 21: The Great Bow of Odysseus Penelope fetches Odysseus's hunting bow and announces the test: she will marry the man who can string the bow and shoot an arrow through the rings on twelve axe-heads set in a line in the ground. On the way they encounter the goatherd Melanthius. Eurycleia. Book 16: Father and Son Reunited Telemachus goes to Eumaeus's hut. As Odysseus enters the palace. Book 19: Penelope Interrogates her Guest Odysseus and his son take all the weapons from the great hall. who is fleeing vengeance for a kinsman's death. a professional beggar whom the suitors favor. as he intends to visit Eumaeus in the country before returning to the palace and the suitors. but Antinous throws a footstool at him. The two men fight. Penelope speaks to her disguised husband. Penelope comes to the hall to extract presents from the suitors and to announce her intention of remarrying. Telemachus evades the suitors' ambush and sends Theoclymenus home with a friend. the loyal oxherd Philoetius arrives at the palace. an old hunting dog recognizes him and dies on the spot. Book 17: A Beggar at the Gate Telemachus returns to the palace and speaks with his mother. Ctesippus. where Odysseus is again insulted by one of the suitors. to wash him. She does not believe him. who insults Odysseus. Back in Ithaca. None of the suitors is . Meanwhile. one of the leading suitors. who claims to know Odysseus and tells her that he is nearby and will be home quickly. Odysseus reveals himself to his two loyal servants and enlists their help in getting revenge on the suitors. and the suitors try. On the next day. Book 20: Things Begin to Look Bad for the Suitors Odysseus lies awake plotting revenge until Athena puts him to sleep. by which she will choose her new husband on the following day. Eumaeus tells Odysseus the story of his life. Melantho again insults Odysseus. Penelope asks Eumaeus to arrange a meeting with her disguised husband.

When all the suitors are dead. The suitors' relatives arrive at that point. the disloyal maids are hanged and Melanthius is punished. When he answers her trick question about their marriage bed. sends his mother from the hall and gives the bow to Odysseus. she accepts him as her husband and they retire to bed after making plans to deal with the relatives of the suitors whom Odysseus has just killed. after telling him another "lying tale. and Eumaeus. Odysseus. by prearrangement with his father. Book 24: Peace at Last The shades of the suitors arrive in Hades. who strings it and shoots an arrow through the axes. Odysseus tells his wife his true story. Athena and Zeus intervene in the fighting that ensues and. Odysseus goes to meet his aged father Laertes in the country and. and tell Agamemnon and Achilles of Odysseus's triumphant revenge on them for their destruction of his estate. Athena makes peace." reveals himself to his father. Telemachus is on the point of succeeding when Odysseus stops him. The loyal servants begin to clean the palace after the slaughter. Book 23: The Reunion Old Eurycleia wakes Penelope with the news that her husband has returned and destroyed the suitors. . Before they sleep. seeking vengeance for the deaths of their kinsmen. Penelope refuses to believe it. Book 22: The Death of the Suitors With his next arrow.able to string the bow. Philoetius. after a few of the suitors' relatives are killed. Odysseus shoots Antinous and announces his true identity to the rest of the suitors. Telemachus. kill all the suitors. Telemachus. assisted by a disguised Athena.

to come up with an alternative plan to get rid of him. where Odysseus reveals himself to his son and impresses on him the need for secrecy and deception if they are to overcome the suitors. who claims to know Odysseus and tells her that he is nearby and will be home quickly. an ally of the suitors. The two men fight. the loyal oxherd Philoetius arrives at the palace. As Odysseus enters the palace. Eurycleia. the ship the suitors had sent out to ambush Telemachus returns. which Theoclymenus interprets as a sign that they are all marked for death. She does not believe him. Book 21: The Great Bow of Odysseus Penelope fetches Odysseus's hunting bow and announces the test: she will marry the man who can string the bow and shoot an arrow through the rings on twelve axe-heads set in a line in the ground. Most of the suitors treat Odysseus with at least grudging respect. who throws another footstool at him. without success. Penelope details the trial of the bow. Book 17: A Beggar at the Gate Telemachus returns to the palace and speaks with his mother. Penelope speaks to her disguised husband. as he intends to visit Eumaeus in the country before returning to the palace and the suitors. but Antinous throws a footstool at him. one of the leading suitors. Odysseus reveals himself to his two loyal servants and enlists their help in getting revenge on the suitors. by prearrangement . a professional beggar whom the suitors favor. by which she will choose her new husband on the following day. where Odysseus is again insulted by one of the suitors. None of the suitors is able to string the bow. Book 16: Father and Son Reunited Telemachus goes to Eumaeus's hut. The suitors all laugh at this. assisted by Athena. On the way they encounter the goatherd Melanthius. much to the amusement of the suitors. Book 19: Penelope Interrogates her Guest Odysseus and his son take all the weapons from the great hall. The nurse recognizes Odysseus by a scar he received as a young man and is sworn to secrecy. but orders bis old nurse. Telemachus. Telemachus is on the point of succeeding when Odysseus stops him. who insults Odysseus.Theoclymenus home with a friend. to wash him. an old hunting dog recognizes him and dies on the spot. Book 18: The Two Beggar-Kings Odysseus is insulted by Irus. Odysseus is insulted by the maid Melantho and Eurymachus. Ctesippus. Melantho again insults Odysseus. and Odysseus quickly subdues Irus. Meanwhile. Penelope comes to the hall to extract presents from the suitors and to announce her intention of remarrying. Penelope asks Eumaeus to arrange a meeting with her disguised husband. who throws an ox-foot at him. and the suitors try. On the next day. Book 20: Things Begin to Look Bad for the Suitors Odysseus lies awake plotting revenge until Athena puts him to sleep. Eumaeus brings Odysseus to the palace.

Odysseus shoots Antinous and announces his true identity to the rest of the suitors. assisted by a disguised Athena. The suitors' relatives arrive at that point. after a few of the suitors' relatives are killed. Book 23: The Reunion Old Eurycleia wakes Penelope with the news that her husband has returned and destroyed the suitors. When he answers her trick question about their marriage bed. Athena makes peace. Penelope refuses to believe it.with his father. and tell Agamemnon and Achilles of Odysseus's triumphant revenge on them for their destruction of his estate. kill all the suitors. Philoetius. Book 24: Peace at Last The shades of the suitors arrive in Hades. . sends his mother from the hall and gives the bow to Odysseus. the disloyal maids are hanged and Melanthius is punished. Before they sleep. Odysseus goes to meet his aged father Laertes in the country and. When all the suitors are dead." reveals himself to his father. Odysseus tells his wife his true story. Telemachus. The loyal servants begin to clean the palace after the slaughter. she accepts him as her husband and they retire to bed after making plans to deal with the relatives of the suitors whom Odysseus has just killed. seeking vengeance for the deaths of their kinsmen. Book 22: The Death of the Suitors With his next arrow. and Eumaeus. who strings it and shoots an arrow through the axes. Athena and Zeus intervene in the fighting that ensues and. Odysseus. after telling him another "lying tale.

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