WLAN Quick Guide

WLAN Architecture
IEEE 802.11g Speed:54Mbps Range:<110 Meters Band:2.4GHz Wi-Fi Client with wireless NIC WLAN Access Point WLAN Controller RADIUS Authentication Server Wi-Fi Client with wireless NIC Ethernet Switch IEEE 802.11n Speed:108Mbps ~ 600Mbps Range:<200 Meters Band:2.4GHz and 5GHz Wi-Fi Client with wireless NIC

WLAN Access Point

LAN

Ethernet Switch

Wi-Fi Client with wireless NIC

IEEE 802.11b Speed:11Mbps Range:<110 Meters Band:2.4GHz

WLAN Access Point

Large network: Centralized architecture with WLAN controller to manage all APs and clients Small network: Peer-to-peer autonomous architecture with intelligent APs to manage clients

WLAN Access Point

IEEE 802.11a Speed:54Mbps Range:<100 Meters Band:5GHz

IEEE 802.11 WLAN Protocols
RADIUS TCP/IP IPX AppleTalk Upper Layers IP/ARP Encapsulation IEEE 802.1H Bridge-Tunnel Encapsulation IEEE 802.2 Logical link Control IEEE 802.1 Bridging IEEE 802.11 Media Access Sub-layer WEP WPA(TKIP/MIC/PSK) WPA2(AES-CCMP/PSK) Data Link Layer

802.1X EAP EAP over LAN EAP-MD5 EAP-TLS PEAP MS-CHAP

FHSS 802.11 (2M bps)

DSSS 802.11 (2M bps)

HR/DSSS 802.11b (11M bps)

HR/DSSS 802.11g (11M bps)

OFDM 802.11g (54M bps)

MIMO 802.11n (108M bps)

OFDM 802.11a (54M bps)

Physical Layer

2.4GHz ISM Band

5GHz UNII Band

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javvin.A release of the standard that includes 802.6 Ghz 802.11p .11b .11g 2003 2.1Mbps ZigBee 802.15.11j .11a .11a 1999 5.Interworking with non-802 networks (for example.11i .15. DQPSK 248Mbps Dozens MIMO 3Mbps Dozens FHSS 55Mbps1Gbps Dozens DS-UWB.14Mbps WM AN WiMAX UWB 802.16d) 802. PPM.3 Mbps GSM/UMTS 115Kbps . PAM. DBPSK. IEEE 802.Enhancement to 802.International (country-to-country) roaming extensions (2001) IEEE 802.4GHz ) Wireless Landscape Rates and Range 100Mbps- Wi-Fi Standards IEEE 802.11d .11 amendments a.Protected Management Frames IEEE 802. QPSK.11a (backwards compatible with b) (2003) IEEE 802.Enhanced security (2004) IEEE 802.4-2006 (802. BPSK.1 to 10.3a .1 (Bluetooth) 2002 2. OOK. DBPSK.11y .3 (UWB) 2003 3.11u .5 and 11 Mbit/s (1999) IEEE 802.11w . CCK 54Mbps Dozens OFDM BPSK.b.11b and 802.1 . MIMOSOFDMA ~100 meters ~100 meters ~110 meters ~200 meters ~10meters ~10meters ~10meters 54Mbps Dozens OFDM BPSK.Bridge operation procedures.20Kbps Cellular CDMA/cdma2000 144Kbps .11a .11g . h. IEEE 802.16e) * 2.test methods and metrics recommendation IEEE 802.11m . QPSK. (2007) IEEE 802. 2PSK. 915 MHz.54Mbps 802. DQSP.11n 2008 2.216Mbps WPAN Bluetooth 802. i & j.Inter-Access Point Protocol (2003) Withdrawn February 2006 IEEE 802.11h .1D standard (2001) IEEE 802.4GHz ~70 meters 2Mbps Dozens DSSS.8GHz 802.Enhancements to 802.54Mbps 802. 16-QAM. including packet bursting (2005) IEEE 802.15.11n .11a (5 GHz) for European compatibility (2004) IEEE 802.11-2007 .Enhancements: QOS.4-2003 802. Bi-Phase 110Mbps1Gbps Dozens MB-OFDM Modulation Method DPSK.11z .4GHz 802. g. DQPSK BPSK.4GHz 802.ESS Extended Service Set Mesh Networking IEEE 802.S.Radio resource measurement enhancements IEEE 802. QAM OPSK (2.11f .11 to support 5.11a.16-2005 (WiMedia) 802.11r .134 Mbps Javvin Technologies. QPSK.4GHz 2003 and 2006 868 MHz.3650-3700 Operation in the U. 16-QAM.8GHz 802. OFDM OPSK.Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP) .15.11Mbps 802.3a ZigBee (802.11e .Fi 802.The original WLAN standard (1997) IEEE 802.Key Parameters of WLAN and Other Wi rel ess Technol ogi es Technology WLAN (IEEE) WPAN (IEEE) WMAN WiMax (IEEE) Standard Release year Frequency Band Maximum Range Maximum data rate Number of users Access Method 802.Enhancement to 802.g with Higher throughput improvements using MIMO IEEE 802.4Ghz 802.Extensions for Japan (2004) IEEE 802.15.55Mbps WiMedia 802.11b .15.11b 1999 2. www. 64-QAM 11Mbps Dozens DSSS.110Mbps 802.11c .Maintenance of the standard. odds and ends.com .Spectrum Managed 802. DQPSK 802.15. 64-QAM and DBPSK.11 . BPSK.15. DCM BPSK (868/928MHz) QPSK. 64-QAM GFSK.4-5. d. 2.11n .Fast roaming IEEE 802.11v .Enhancement to 802. FHSS GFSK.16 50 .5km 15km 30km 50km WLA N Wi. cellular) IEEE 802. e.Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (such as ambulances and passenger cars) IEEE 802.Inc.11g .11t . b. All rights reserved.Extensions to Direct Link Setup (DLS) WLAN (Wi-Fi) 10Mbps- WPAN WMAN (WiMAX) 1Mbps- Distance 3m 30m 200m 1.WAVE .16-2004 802.4 .11s .3 . 16-QAM. included in the IEEE 802.11 Legacy 1997 2.15.11 with 54 Mbit/s at 5 GHz (1999) IEEE 802.4 GHz ~100 meters 250 Kbps Dozens DSSS 2004 and 2005 2-66GHz ~50 km 134 Mbps Thousands OFDM.Wireless network management IEEE 802.11k . 8PSK QPSK.

-1) (157.com . 1) (64.11n Regulatory Domains Channel F requency Identifier (in M hz) Americas EM EA Japan Rest of World (36. 1) (104. 1) (40. All rights reserved.65 .-1) (149.3. -1) (100.Inc. 1) (48. 1) (136.11b/g/n UNII Bands 5.-1) (52. -1) (108.11 ISM 2.11a/n ISM:Industrial.Science &Medical UNII:Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure TV FM Radio 3KHz 3.javvin. -1) (116. www.Wi-Fi Frequency Bands and Channels Frequency Band ISM 900MHz 802.1-5.-1) (60. 1) (128. Some example channels for 802.11y ����� ���������� Space Exploration 300GHz Channels for IEEE 802. -1) (124.7GHz in US 802. 1) (161.-1) 5190 5230 5270 5310 5510 5550 5590 5630 5670 5755 5795 Javvin Technologies.11a Regulatory Domains Channel Frequency Identifier (in MHz) Americas EMEA Japan Rest of World 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 52 56 60 64 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 149 153 157 161 5170 5180 5190 5200 5210 5220 5230 5240 5260 5280 5300 5320 5500 5520 5540 5560 5580 5600 5620 5640 5660 5680 5700 5745 5765 5785 5805 Channels for IEEE 802. 1) (120. 1) (56. 1) (153. 1) (112.5 GHz 802.4G and 5G spectrums.-1) (44.11n at the 5G spectrum with channel bonding (each channel with 40 MHz) are shown below: C hannels for 802.-1) (132.11n operates at both the 2.8GHz 802.0-2.11b/g Channel Frequency Identifier (in Mhz) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2412 2417 2422 2427 2432 2437 2442 2447 2452 2457 2462 2467 2472 2484 Regulatory Domains Americas EMEA Japan Rest of World 802.

Javvin Technologies. such as IPSEC or other VPN solutions.11n Data Rate = Base 802.11a 802.5-65 Mbps With Channel Bonding 13.11a/b/g Data Rates Access/Modulation Method DSSS/DBPSK DSSS/DQPSK CCK/DQPSK OFDM/BPSK OFDM/QPSK OFDM/16-QAM OFDM/64-QAM 802. or using a high power signal generator to produce RF interference to block other radio NICs from accessing the medium.g. DHCP hurts security in a WLAN because it allows anyone to get a legitimate IP address in the network and access to the shared resources.1x. use SSH and TLS/HTTPS.11 and 802.11 if with shorter guard interval WLAN Security Security problems The spread spectrum modulation technique used in 802. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a very weak encryption to break.5-27 Mbps 40. Enable strict logging on all devices. e.com .11b 1 Mbps 2 Mbps 5. Use a proxy with access control for outgoing requests (web proxy. and others). Use encryption for all applications over the wireless network. Regularly test the security of wireless network. Use 802.5 Mbps 19.5-54 Mbps 81-108 Mbps 121. www..11n that have more advanced modulation methods.Inc. Security solutions Use the latest Wi-Fi technologies such as 802.11b is not secure because the code is open to the public.5 Mbps-11 Mbps 6-9 Mbps 12-18 Mbps 24-36 Mbps 48-54 Mbps 802. Use encryption technologies such as 802.11n Data Rate X Number of spatial streams X 2.javvin. TLS.11g 1 Mbps 2 Mbps 5.077 if with channel bonding X 1. Encrypt wireless traffic using a VPN (Virtual Private Network).11n data rates: 802.11n Data Rates (One Spatial Stream ) Access/Modulation Method MIMO/BPSK MIMO /QPSK MIMO /16-QAM MIMO /64-QAM Base Data Rate 6.11g and 802. to protect SSID and other user identities. All rights reserved. EAP. RADIUS.WiFi Data Rates 802.5-135 Mbps With Short Guard Interval 15-30 Mbps 45-60 Mbps 90-120 Mbps 135-150 Mbps Formula to calculate 802. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks: using a wireless client to insert bogus packets into the wireless LAN to cause access point malfunction. and check wireless log files regularly to see if security policy is still adequate.5-13.5 Mbps-11 Mbps 6-9 Mbps 12-18 Mbps 24-36 Mbps 48-54 Mbps 802. Service Set Identifier (SSID) is very easy to break because anyone with a sniffing tool can detect it.5-26 Mbps 39-52 Mbps 58.11i (WPA 2) with AES technologies for strong encryption. Man-in-the-middle attacks by using a wireless analyzer.

1 = additional frames buffered for the destination address(address x). UNII(U-NII)--Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure. WML--Wireless Markup Language WPA--Wireless Markup Language WPA2--Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 as defined in IEEE 802. Receiving station address(destination wireless station) Duration ID Address 1 Address 2 Address 3 Sequence Control Address 4 Frame Body FCS 15 .javvin.roaming and other services.12 11 .1 = active mode. Power Mgt.2. Javvin Technologies. Type Subtype To DS.0 Frame Check Sequence (32 bit CRC). ZigBee--The technology used in the low data rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) as defined in IEEE 802.Inc.0 47 .com . WPAN--Wireless Personal Area Network. Source address(6 bytes).312 4 Bits:2 Protocol Version 2 Type 4 Sub Type 1 To DS 1 From DS 1 More Frag 1 Retry 1 Pwr Mgt 1 More Data 1 1 WEP Rsvd Frame Control Field Field Frame Control Bits 15 . 0 .Encryption-based security using a preshared key.14 13 .2312 octets(bytes). War Driving--The process of traveling around looking for wireless access point signals that can be used to get network access.802. Order.0 47 .For Control Frames the associated identity of the transmitting station. For data frames = duration of frame.4.0 = no WEP.11 products. Wireless Network Card--A card that has drivers and utilities to set specific parameters and sends and receives information over the air.1 = frames must be strictly ordered. integrity-protected negotiation and key exchange between.8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Notes/Description Protocol version. More Data. War Chalking--To marking buildings or sidewalks with chalk to show others where it’s possible to access an exposed wireless network. All rights reserved.11.0 47 .16-2004 and 802. WLAN Array--A device that connects wireless devices/users to another network. WEP.11 Frame Format Frame Control Duration ID Address1 (source) Address2 (destination) Address3 (rx node) Sequence Control Address4 (tx node) Data FCS 2 bytes 2 6 6 6 2 6 0 .defined in P802.1 = data processed with WEP algorithm. Transmit Power--The power usually expressed in mW or db that the wireless device transmits at. WiFi(Wi-Fi)--Wireless Fidelity refers to WLAN standard based on IEEE 802.a protocol for mutual authentication. WLAN Glossary (continued) TLS--Transport Level Security. Wi-Fi Alliance--Organization that certifies 802. provides channel selection. From DS.It usually contains a switch or a router.1= exit from the Distribution System. WLAN(W-LAN)--Wireless Local Area Network (LAN).0 Transmitting wireless station. More Frag.1 = station in power save mode. WMAN--Wireless Metropolitan Area Network.1 = to the distribution system.They are installed or imbedded into client devices such as laptops. www. WiMAX--A wireless MAN technology defined in IEEE 802. WLAN Controller--A device that manages thin AP.11i. 31 .1 = this is a re-transmission.1 = more fragment frames to follow(last or unfragmented frame = 0) Retry.0 47 . Destination address(6 bytes).15.and a WLAN AP controller. UWB--Ultra-Wide-Band.0 15 .11 and its amendments. WECA--The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance.16-2005 WiMedia--A not-for-profit association to promote UWB. WEP--Wired Equivalent Privacy.

but not from other nodes communicating with said hub. PLCP--Physical Layer Convergence Procedure.WLAN Glossary 16-QAM--Quadtrative Amplitude Modulation (QAW) with 16 different symbols. CAPWAP--Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Polnts. Receive Sensitivity--The minimum signal strength required to pick up a signal.scattering.(1999) 800. SWAP--Shared Wireless Access Protocol. Band--RF spectrum range available for certain communication.scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands. (Continued on previous page) Copyright 2008 Javvin Technologies. NDIS--Network Driver Interface Specification. GFSK--Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying. www.11n--IEEE Wi-Fi standard. Authentication server--Provide authentication services to users or other systems. CSMA/CA--Carrier Sense multiple Access/Collision Avoidance. Path Loss--The reduction in signal strength as it travels through the air or other media.In a WLAN network card. DCF--Distributed Coordination Function. IDEA--International Data Encryption Algorithm. IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.The number of decibels difference between the signal strength and background noise. Cell--An Access Point RF coverage area. AES:Advanced Encryption Standard. 800. PPM--Pulse Position Modulation. PCF--Point Coordination Function. Hidden node Problem--A node is visible from a wireless hub. PEAP--Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol. Spread Spectrum Transmission--A RF transmission technique that takes a narrow band signal and spreads it over a broader portion of the RF band. HiperMAN--The ETSI defined broadband wireless standard that is compatible with WiMAX(IEEE 802. Channel--A RF spectrum with certain bandwidth in a RF band to transmit information.a RADIUS Server which performs connection authentication and accounting for remote access. Client adaptor--See Wireless Network Card. ECP--Encryption Control Protocol. CSMA/CA is the medium access method used by IEEE 802. Polling--A technique for enabling multiple transmitters to share a medium when transmitters take turns in a defined sequence. RADIUS--Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. IBSS--Independent Basic Service Set.(2008) Access Point(AP)--Base starions for the WLAN to transmit and receive radio frequencies.personal digital assistants. Multipath distortion--When parts of the same radio wave arrive at a receiver at different times. All rights reserved. To order this guide: Javvin Technologies.11 WLANs. Spatial Multiplexing--Transmit two or more separate data streams on different antennas at the same time in the same. RADIUS server--A server using RADIUS technology to provide authentication and accounting services.11--IEEE original Wi-Fi standard.16).Inc.carrier off = 0 Attenuation--The decrease in intensity of electromagnetic radiation due to absorption or scattering of phptons. Channel bonding--Using two adjacent channels together as one to increase data rates. Roaming--The movement of a mobile device from one wireless network location to another without interruption in service or loss in connectivity. MAC--Medium Access Control. EAP--Extensible Authentication Protocol. EBSS--Extended basic service set. OFDM--Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing. Multipath--Multiple copies of the original transmitted signal due to reflections.Inc. Independent(fat)Access Point--A standalone AP that provides configuration and management for clients. MD5--Message-Digest Algorithm 5. PAM--Pulse Amplitude Modulation.the MAC is radio controller protocol. EHSS--Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum. Bi-Phase Modulation--Amodulation method using two opposite signal phases(0 and 180 degrees).15. IAS--Internet Authentication Service server.javvin. CCK--Complementary Code Keying. LCP--Link Control Protocol. BPSK--Binary Phase-Shift Keying.11a--IEEE Wi-Fi standard. SSID--Service Set Identifier . PSK--Phase shift keying. 64-QAM--Quadtrative Amplitude Modulation (QAW) with 64 different symbols. ASK--Amplitude shift keying:carrier on = 1. All rights reserved.11g--IEEE Wi-Fi standard. PHY--Physical Layer in the OSI Network Model. Interference--Distortion of the wireless signal be other RF waves.11b--IEEE Wi-Fi standard. Single Channel Access Point--A type of dependent thin Access Point. QPSK--Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.and desktops that are equipped with a wireless network interface.(1997) 800. Diversity antenna system--Incorporates multiple antenna elements at the base station to improve reception. Bluetooth--A short range wireless communication technology as defined in IEEE 802.1. PMD--Physical Medium Dependent. CHAP--Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Analog modulation--The modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal. ISM--The industrial.wireless network name. DQPSK--Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying. Digital modulation--An analog carrier signal is modulated by a digital bit stream of either equal length signals or varying length signals.(2003) 800. Clients--Any mobile or fixed devices such as laptops. OOK--On Off Keying. Dependent(thin)Access Point--A simple AP that relies on WLAN controller for RF management and configuration. LWAPP--Light Weight Access Point Protocol.(1999) 800. QAM--Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. BSS--Basic Service Set.com . SNR--Signal to Noise Ratio.11i--IEEE standard for Wi-Fi security.com help@javvin. Infrastructure Mode--A client setting providing connectivity to a central Access Point(AP).Inc.javvin.com 1-408-872-3881 Related Publications: 3G Wireless Quick Guide Ethernet Quick Guide TCP/IP Quick Guide VOIP Quick Guide WLAN Quick Guide Network Dictionary Network Protocols Handbook Network Protocol Map Network Security Map Nerwork Management Map Wireless Technology Map ISBN 978-1-60267-008-2 Javvin Technologies.etc. Modulation--The process of varying a periodic waveform. Ad-Hoc Mode--Peer-to-peer connectivity in a wireless LAN. 800. DBPSK--Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying. CCMP--Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol. DES--Data Encryption Standard. TKIP--Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. RSSI--Received Signal Strength Indicator. Antenna gain--The relative increase in radiation at the maximum point expressed as a value in dB above a standard. FSK--Frequency Shift Keying. RFID--Radio Frequency Identification. 13485 Old Oak Way Saratoga CA 95070 USA www. RSA Algorithm--Rivest-Shamir-Aldeman algorithm. RTS/CTS--Request-to-send/clear-to-send. MIMO--Multiple-Input Multiple-Output.or request-to-send(RTS) protocol. Hotspot--The venues that offer Wi-Fi access.

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